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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206685

RESUMO

Sediment pollution is a major issue in coastal areas, potentially endangering human health and the marine environments. We investigated the short-term sublethal effects of sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus for two months. Spiking occurred at concentrations below threshold limit values permitted by the law (TLVPAHs = 900 µg/L, TLVPCBs = 8 µg/L, Legislative Italian Decree 173/2016). A multi-endpoint approach was adopted, considering both adults (mortality, bioaccumulation and gonadal index) and embryos (embryotoxicity, genotoxicity and de novo transcriptome assembly). The slight concentrations of PAHs and PCBs added to the mesocosms were observed to readily compartmentalize in adults, resulting below the detection limits just one week after their addition. Reconstructed sediment and seawater, as negative controls, did not affect sea urchins. PAH- and PCB-spiked mesocosms were observed to impair P. lividus at various endpoints, including bioaccumulation and embryo development (mainly PAHs) and genotoxicity (PAHs and PCBs). In particular, genotoxicity tests revealed that PAHs and PCBs affected the development of P. lividus embryos deriving from exposed adults. Negative effects were also detected by generating a de novo transcriptome assembly and its annotation, as well as by real-time qPCR performed to identify genes differentially expressed in adults exposed to the two contaminants. The effects on sea urchins (both adults and embryos) at background concentrations of PAHs and PCBs below TLV suggest a need for further investigations on the impact of slight concentrations of such contaminants on marine biota.


Assuntos
Paracentrotus/efeitos dos fármacos , Paracentrotus/genética , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Água do Mar/química , Transcriptoma
3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(9): 1803-1813, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779718

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired social communication and stereotypic behaviors, affects 1%-2% of children. Although prenatal exposure to toxicants has been associated with autistic behaviors, most studies have been focused on shifts in mean behavior scores. We used Bayesian quantile regression to assess the associations between log2-transformed toxicant concentrations and autistic behaviors across the distribution of behaviors. We used data from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals study, a pan-Canadian cohort (2008-2011). We measured metal, pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl, phthalate, bisphenol-A, and triclosan concentrations in blood or urine samples collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. Using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), in which higher scores denote more autistic-like behaviors, autistic behaviors were assessed in 478 children aged 3-4 years old. Lead, cadmium, and most phthalate metabolites were associated with mild increases in SRS scores at the 90th percentile of the SRS distribution. Manganese and some pesticides were associated with mild decreases in SRS scores at the 90th percentile of the SRS distribution. We identified several monotonic trends in which associations increased in magnitude from the bottom to the top of the SRS distribution. These results suggest that quantile regression can reveal nuanced relationships and, thus, should be more widely used by epidemiologists.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Triclosan/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Surgery ; 169(1): 102-108, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism has increased 300% in the United States in the past 30 years, and secondary hyperparathyroidism is almost universal in patients with end-stage renal disease. We assessed the presence of environmental chemicals in human hyperplastic parathyroid tumors as possible contributing factors to this increase. METHODS: Cryopreserved hyperplastic parathyroid tumors and normal human parathyroids were analyzed by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and biostatistics. RESULTS: Detected environmental chemicals included polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane derivatives, and other insecticides. A total of 99% had p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene. More than 50% contained other environmental chemicals, and many classified as endocrine disruptors. Polychlorinated biphenyl-28 and polychlorinated biphenyl-49 levels correlated positively with parathyroid tumor mass. Polybrominated diphenyl ether-47 concentrations in tumors were inversely correlated with patients' serum calcium levels. Cellular metabolites in pathways of purine and pyrimidine synthesis and mitochondrial energy production were associated with tumor growth and with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in primary hyperparathyroidism tumors. In normal parathyroids, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene , polychlorinated biphenyl-28, polychlorinated biphenyl-74, and polychlorinated biphenyl-153, but not p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene or polychlorinated biphenyl-49, were detected. CONCLUSION: Environmental chemicals are present in human parathyroid tumors and warrant detailed epidemiologic and mechanistic studies to test for causal links to the growth of human parathyroid tumors.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/epidemiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/epidemiologia , Glândulas Paratireoides/química , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/epidemiologia , Causalidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/patologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/patologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/cirurgia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândulas Paratireoides/patologia , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/complicações , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/patologia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(2): 197-210, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children's prenatal exposure to multiple environmental chemicals may contribute to subsequent deficits in impulse control, predisposing them to risk-taking. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate associations between prenatal exposure mixtures and risk of teen birth, a manifestation of high-risk sexual activity, among 5865 girls (1st generation) born in southeast Massachusetts from 1992-1998. METHODS: Exposures included prenatal modeled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ρ,ρ'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). We fit adjusted generalized additive models with multivariable smooths of exposure mixtures, 1st generation infant's birth year, and maternal age at 1st generation birth. Predicted odds ratios (ORs) for teen birth were mapped as a function of joint exposures. We also conducted sensitivity analyses among 1st generation girls with measured exposure biomarkers (n = 371). RESULTS: The highest teen birth risk was associated with a mixture of high prenatal HCB, Hg, Pb, and PCB, but low DDE exposure, with similar associations in sensitivity analyses. The highest OR predicted for girls born in 1995 to mothers of median age (26 years) was at the 95th percentile of the HCB and PCB exposure distributions (OR = 3.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 32.4). Additionally, girls born earlier in the study period or to teen mothers were at increased risk of teen birth. SIGNIFICANCE: Prenatal environmental chemical exposures and sociodemographic characteristics may interact to substantially increase risk of teen births.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 409: 115301, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096110

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)126 and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are halogenated organic pollutants of high concern. Exposure to these chemicals is ubiquitous, and can lead to potential synergistic adverse effects in individuals exposed to both classes of chemicals. The present study was designed to identify interactions between PCB126 and PFOS that might promote acute changes in inflammatory pathways associated with cardiovascular disease and liver injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to vehicle, PCB126, PFOS, or a mixture of both pollutants. Plasma and liver samples were collected at 48 h after exposure. Changes in the expression of hepatic genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerosis were investigated. Plasma and liver samples was analyzed using untargeted lipidomic method. Hepatic mRNA levels for Nqo1, Icam1, and PAI1 were significantly increased in the mixture-exposed mice. Plasma levels of PAI1, a marker of fibrosis and thrombosis, were also significantly elevated in the mixture-exposed group. Liver injury was observed only in the mixture-exposed mice. Lipidomic analysis revealed that co-exposure to the mixture enhanced hepatic lipid accumulation and elevated oxidized phospholipids levels. In summary, this study shows that acute co-exposure to PCB126 and PFOS in mice results in liver injury and increased cardiovascular disease risk.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fibrose/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Risco , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/metabolismo
7.
J Immunotoxicol ; 17(1): 86-93, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233818

RESUMO

Many persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have high immunomodulating potentials. Exposure to them, in combination with virus infections, has been shown to aggravate outcomes of the infection, leading to increased viral titers and host mortality. Expression of immune-related microRNA (miR) signaling pathways (by host and/or virus) have been shown to be important in determining these outcomes; there is some evidence to suggest pollutants can cause dysregulation of miRNAs. It was thus hypothesized here that modulation of miRNAs (and associated cytokine genes) by pollutants exerts negative effects during viral infections. To test this, an in vitro study on chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) exposed to a PCB mixture (Aroclor 1260) and then stimulated with a synthetic RNA virus (poly(I:C)) or infected with a lymphoma-causing DNA virus (Gallid Herpes Virus 2 [GaHV-2]) was conducted. Using quantitative real-time PCR, expression patterns for mir-155, pro-inflammatory TNFα and IL-8, transcription factor NF-κB1, and anti-inflammatory IL-4 were investigated 8, 12, and 18 h after virus activation. The study showed that Aroclor1260 modulated mir-155 expression, such that a down-regulation of mir-155 in poly(I:C)-treated CEF was seen up to 12 h. Aroclor1260 exposure also increased the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes after 8 h in poly(I:C)-treated cells, but levels in GaHV-2-infected cells were unaffected. In contrast to with Aroclor1260/poly(I:C), Aroclor1260/GaHV-2-infected cells displayed an increase in mir-155 levels after 12 h compared to levels seen with either individual treatment. While after 12 h expression of most evaluated genes was down-regulated (independent of treatment regimen), by 18 h, up-regulation was evident again. In conclusion, this study added evidence that mir-155 signaling represents a sensitive pathway to chemically-induced immunomodulation and indicated that PCBs can modulate highly-regulated innate immune system signaling pathways important in determining host immune response outcomes during viral infections.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Arocloros/efeitos adversos , Embrião de Galinha , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Poli I-C/imunologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Viroses/genética , Viroses/virologia
8.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 36(7): 636-640, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295439

RESUMO

Both environmental and genetic factors interact and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We analyzed the plasma levels of 12 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with genetic polymorphisms of glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione-S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) codon 185. Total sum of the 12 congeners was significantly higher in the controls compared with endometriosis group. Women without C/C genotype in AhRR codon 185 had a significantly increased risk of endometriosis compared with those with C/C genotype. Total sum of the 12 congeners was significantly higher in women without C/C genotype compared with those with C/C genotype. Adjusting for age and AhRR codon 185 genotype, there was no significant association between exposure to PCBs and the risk of endometriosis. These findings suggest a possible presence of gene-environment interaction, however, we could not see any clear association between exposure to PCBs and the risk of endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Doenças Ovarianas , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Endometriose/sangue , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endometriose/genética , Endometriose/patologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Doenças Ovarianas/sangue , Doenças Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Doenças Ovarianas/genética , Doenças Ovarianas/patologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 150: 102950, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339980

RESUMO

Incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer are increasing, thus making mandatory to improve the knowledge of disease etiology. The hypothesis of a role for anthropogenic chemicals is raising wide consideration. A series of occupational studies revealed that job exposures with high risk of chemical contamination were usually more prone to thyroid cancer development. These include shoe manufacture, preserving industry, building activities, pulp/papermaker industry and the wood processing, agricultural activities, and other work categories characterized by contact with chemicals, such as chemists and pharmacists. However, such epidemiological analyses cannot define a causal relationship. Thyroid-disrupting activity has emerged for a broad set of anthropogenic chemicals, with the best evidence being gained for polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dioxins, bisphenols, phthalates, pesticides, and heavy metals. A series of case-control studies, assessing exposure to thyroid-disrupting agents, as measured on biological matrices, have been recently performed providing the following insights: a) positive relationship with thyroid cancer was found for phthalates, bisphenols, the heavy metals cadmium, copper, and lead; b) polybrominated diphenyl ethers exposure showed no relationship with thyroid cancer c) controversial results were reported for polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides. However, such studies cannot demonstrate the causal link with disease occurrence, as exposure is assessed after tumour development. Studies with different methodological approach are therefore required for defining the role of anthropogenic environmental chemicals in thyroid carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Bifenil Polibromatos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Éteres Fenílicos/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia
10.
Biol Res Nurs ; 22(2): 295-301, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), dispersed in all environmental compartments, are associated with increased adipogenesis and body weight. These lipophilic toxicants bioaccumulate in the human body and get transferred from mothers to their offspring via the placental circulation and breast milk. The current study was designed to compare polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations between obese and normal-weight lactating women. METHODS: A cross-sectional correlation design was used to compare POP concentrations in breast milk samples of 24 obese and 21 normal-weight adult lactating women at their 2- to 8-week postpartum clinic visit. Concentrations of 12 specific PCB congeners and HCB were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: Of 12 targeted PCB congeners, 6 were detected in the breast milk samples of obese women compared to 3 in normal-weight lactating women. PCB presence was not significantly different between the obese and normal-weight groups. HCB was not detected in any of the breast milk samples for either group. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study revealed no statistically significant difference in the presence of PCBs in breast milk of obese mothers compared to that of normal-weight women. Therefore, fear of increased risk of transmission of these toxicants may not be a good reason to avoid breastfeeding. Results point to the need for a large-scale multicenter study that examines the effect of PCBs on breastfeeding, considering possible geographic variations of the examined phenomenon.


Assuntos
Hexaclorobenzeno/efeitos adversos , Leite Humano/química , Obesidade Pediátrica/induzido quimicamente , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3314, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094419

RESUMO

In 1973, accidental contamination of Michigan livestock with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) led to the establishment of a registry of exposed individuals that have been followed for > 40 years. Besides being exposed to PBBs, this cohort has also been exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a structurally similar class of environmental pollutants, at levels similar to average US exposure. In this study, we examined the association between current serum PCB and PBB levels and various female reproductive health outcomes to build upon previous work and inconsistencies. Participation in this cross-sectional study required a blood draw and completion of a detailed health questionnaire. Analysis included only female participants who had participated between 2012 and 2015 (N = 254). Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to identify associations between serum PCB and PBB levels with each gynecological and infertility outcome. Additionally, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to evaluate each pregnancy and birth outcome in order to account for multiple pregnancies per woman. We controlled for age, body mass index, and total lipid levels in all analyses. A p-value of <0.05 was used for statistical significance. Among the women who reported ever being pregnant, there was a significant negative association with higher total PCB levels associating with fewer lifetime pregnancies (â€Šß = -0.11, 95% CI = -0.21 to -0.005, p = 0.04). There were no correlations between serum PCB levels and the self-reported gynecological outcomes (pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or uterine fibroids). No associations were identified between serum PCB levels and the prevalence of female infertility in women reporting ever having sexual intercourse with a male partner. There were no associations identified between serum PCB levels and pregnancy outcomes (singleton live births or miscarriages) or birth outcomes (preterm birth, birth weight, birth defects, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or gestational diabetes). PBB was not associated with any outcome. Further research is needed to determine if and how PCB may reduce pregnancy number.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 657-663, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892691

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to environmental chemicals with hormonal properties, also called endocrine disrupting chemicals, may be involved in the occurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). Such exposure may also influence the treatment outcome as it is still present at the time of diagnosis, the beginning of therapy, and beyond. We followed 326 men in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment of localized PCa. We analyzed the relationship between exposure to the estrogenic chlordecone, the antiandrogenic dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, the main metabolite of the insecticide DDT), and the nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) with mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties and the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after surgery. After a median follow-up of 6.1 years after surgery, we found a significant increase in the risk of BCR, with increasing plasma chlordecone concentration (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.39-4.56 for the highest vs. lowest quartile of exposure; p trend = 0.002). We found no associations for DDE or PCB-135. These results shown that exposure to environmental estrogens may negatively influence the outcome of PCa treatment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Clordecona/efeitos adversos , Clordecona/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Seguimentos , Guadalupe , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/sangue , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125030, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606000

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes in different regions, although few studies from China have been published. We aimed to investigate the associations between POP exposure and type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. A total of 158 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 158 participants without the disorder from Shandong Province were enrolled in this case-control study during 2016-2017. Nine polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers with detectable levels in ≥75% of the participants were selected for data analysis. The results showed that POP exposure was significantly and positively associated with the risk of diabetes after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, triglycerides and total cholesterol. However, we did not observe an obvious modified effect of adiposity on the associations between POP exposure and diabetes in the present study, as strong associations between POPs and diabetes were observed in both the higher-BMI (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and the lower-BMI (BMI<25 kg/m2) groups. POPs showed stronger associations with diabetes in males than in females. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile of ∑POPs was 6.97 for males, nearly two times higher than that for females (OR = 3.58). All these findings suggest that POP exposure may impact the risk of diabetes in Chinese population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Razão de Chances , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Annu Rev Physiol ; 82: 177-202, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738670

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals are common in our environment and act on hormone systems and signaling pathways to alter physiological homeostasis. Gestational exposure can disrupt developmental programs, permanently altering tissues with impacts lasting into adulthood. The brain is a critical target for developmental endocrine disruption, resulting in altered neuroendocrine control of hormonal signaling, altered neurotransmitter control of nervous system function, and fundamental changes in behaviors such as learning, memory, and social interactions. Human cohort studies reveal correlations between maternal/fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors and incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we summarize the major literature findings of endocrine disruption of neurodevelopment and concomitant changes in behavior by four major endocrine disruptor classes:bisphenol A, polychlorinated biphenyls, organophosphates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We specifically review studies of gestational and/or lactational exposure to understand the effects of early life exposure to these compounds and summarize animal studies that help explain human correlative data.


Assuntos
Comportamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Bifenil Polibromatos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
15.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 20(1): 12-18, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521536

RESUMO

The incidence of breast cancer across the world has been on the rise in recent decades. Because identified risk factors can only explain a relatively small portion of the cases, environmental exposure to organic pollutants is suspected to play a role in breast cancer etiology. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most abundant pollutants, and the impact of their exposure on breast cancer risk has been extensively studied in recent decades. However, the results of most epidemiologic studies do not support an association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that the effects of PCBs on breast cancer might have been undervalued for reasons such as insufficient recognition of the confounding effects of several factors and lack of attention on the innate heterogeneity of PCB mixtures or breast cancer. After reviewing the evidence in the existing literature, we concluded that early life exposure, known risk factors of breast cancer, and impact of exposure to other pollutants are the main sources of confounding effects and have potentially masked the associations between PCBs and breast cancer. Because PCBs are mixtures of congeners with varied properties, and because breast cancers of different subtypes are etiologically distinct diseases, the absence of stratified subgroup analysis on individual PCBs and patients with specific biological subtypes and insufficient attention paid to the results of these subgroup analyses may result in an underestimation of the correlations between PCBs and breast cancer. In future studies, these factors must be taken into consideration when exploring the effect of PCB exposure on breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Carga Global da Doença , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 2: S94-S100, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be associated with obesogenic effects in offspring. Our study is the first to investigate associations between concentrations of POPs from newborn dried blood spots (DBS) and birth characteristics. METHODS: Concentrations of 10 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether-47 (PBDE-47), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were measured from DBSs collected at birth from 2,065 singleton infants. DBS samples were pooled in groups of five and assayed together to reach limits of detection. Differences in risk of large for gestational age (LGA, defined as >90th percentile of birth weight for sex and gestational age), small for gestational age (SGA, <10th), and preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks) were estimated using logistic regression per unit (ng/ml) increase in concentration of each chemical, adjusting for individual-level covariates, including maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, education, parity, smoking, and infant sex while assuming a gamma distribution and using multiple imputation to account for pools. RESULTS: There were 215 (11.3%) singletons born LGA, 158 (7.5%) born SGA, and 157 (7.6%) born preterm. Higher concentrations of POPs were positively associated with slightly higher risk of LGA and higher birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Relationships between POPs measured in newborn DBS and birth size were mixed. Pooled analysis methods using DBS could address challenges in limits of detection and costs for population-based research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido/sangue , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653098

RESUMO

The completed environmental study was concerned with assessing the exposure of the Czech population to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Simultaneously, the levels of polychlorinated pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated diphenyl ethanes (DDTs) were also monitored. The pollutant levels were newly measured in solid fat tissue removed during plastic surgery. A total of 107 samples of fat were taken from 19-76-year-old volunteers. A total of 16 PBDE congeners were determined, of which only six occur in more than 38% of fat tissue samples. The total PBDE level attains an average value of 3.31 ng/g, which is 25% less than was measured in 2009. On the other hand, there was an increase in the levels of two PCB congeners, which was caused by an increase of the total PCB concentration from level of 625.5 ng/g, published in 2009, to the current level of 776 ng/g. The level of DDTs decreased and currently has a value of 467.4 ng/g, which is about 24% lower than in 2009. The contamination of obese middle-aged women in Czechia by more modern types of pollutants, such as PBDEs, is incomparably lower than that by PCBs and DDTs and is also decreasing in time.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Adulto , Idoso , República Tcheca , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 112925, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454572

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and new flame retardants (NFRs) are known thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors, but their disrupting mechanisms in humans are not completely understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the disrupting mechanisms of the aforementioned chemicals via examining TH-regulated proteins and gene expression in human serum. Adult participants from an e-waste dismantling (exposed group) and a control region (control group) in South China provided blood samples for the research. Some compounds of PCBs, PBDEs, and NFRs showed strong binding affinity to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), gene expression of TH receptor α (TRα) and ß, and iodothyronine deiodinase I (ID1). The highly exposed individuals had lower levels of TBG, TSH, and expression of TRα, but higher expression of ID1 than those of the control group. The disruption of TH-regulated proteins and gene expression suggested the exertion of different and, at times, even contradictory effects on TH disruption. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the TH levels between the exposed and the control group, implying that the TH disruption induced by these chemicals depends on the combined influence of multiple mechanisms. Gene expression appears to be an effective approach for investigations of TH disruption and the potential health effects.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Tireotropina/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina/genética , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina/metabolismo
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 223-231, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271988

RESUMO

To investigate the influence of haze on human dermal exposure to a series of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), paired forehead wipes were collected from 46 volunteers (23 males, 23 females) using gauze pads soaked in isopropyl alcohol under heavy and light haze pollution levels. The median levels of ∑27HFRs and ∑27PCBs in all 92 samples were 672 and 1300ng/m2, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (171ng/m2) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) (134ng/m2) were the dominant components of HFRs, indicating that dermal exposure may also be the significant pathway for non-volatile compounds. PCB-37 contributed the most to ∑27PCBs, with a median concentration of 194ng/m2, followed by PCB-60 (141ng/m2). Generally, PBDE, PCB and DD (dehalogenated derivatives of DPs) levels on the foreheads of female participants (291, 1340, 0.92ng/m2) were higher (p=0.037, 0.001, and 0.031, respectively) than those of male participants (226, 989, and 0.45ng/m2). A significant difference (p=0.001) in PCBs was found between light (1690ng/m2) and heavy (996ng/m2) haze pollution conditions. Nevertheless, HFR levels under heavy (median=595ng/m2, ranging from 295 to 1490ng/m2) and light haze pollution conditions (ranging from 205 to 1220ng/m2 with a median of 689ng/m2) did not show significant differences (p=0.269). The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from dermal exposure to ∑8HFRs and ∑27PCBs was 8.72×10-5 and 1.63×10-2, respectively, raising more concern about populations' exposure to PCBs than HFRs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Halogenação , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Pele
20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(7): 77004, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate with obesity, but during weight loss, liberated PCBs act as ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to negatively influence health. Previous studies demonstrated that PCB-77 administration to obese male mice impaired glucose tolerance during weight loss. Recent studies indicate higher toxic equivalencies of dioxin-like PCBs in exposed females than males. OBJECTIVES: We compared effects of PCB-77 on weight gain or loss and glucose homeostasis in male vs. female mice. We defined effects of AhR deficiency during weight gain or loss in male and female mice exposed to PCB-77. METHODS: Study design was vehicle (VEH) or PCB-77 administration while fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 12 wk, followed by weight loss for 4 wk. The following groups were examined: male and female C57BL/6 mice administered VEH or PCB-77, female [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] mice administered VEH or PCB-77, and male [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] mice administered PCB-77. Glucose tolerance was quantified during weight gain (week 11) and loss (week 15); liver and adipose AhR and IRS2 (insulin receptor substrate 2) mRNA abundance, and PCB-77 concentrations were quantified at week 16. RESULTS: PCB-77 attenuated development of obesity in females but not males. During weight loss, PCB-77 impaired glucose tolerance of males. AhR-deficient females (VEH) were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Compared with VEH-treated mice, HF-fed [Formula: see text] females treated with PCB-77 has less weight gain, and [Formula: see text] females had greater weight gain. During weight loss, [Formula: see text] females but not [Formula: see text] males treated with PCB-77 exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. In [Formula: see text] females administered PCB-77, IRS2 mRNA abundance was lower in adipose tissue compared with VEH-treated mice. CONCLUSION: Male and female mice responded differently to PCB-77 and AhR deficiency in body weight (BW) regulation and glucose homeostasis. AhR deficiency reversed PCB-77-induced glucose impairment of obese males losing weight but augmented glucose intolerance of females. These results demonstrate sex differences in PCB-77-induced regulation of glucose homeostasis of mice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4133.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/deficiência , Glucose/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/deficiência , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente
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