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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 150: 102950, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339980

RESUMO

Incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer are increasing, thus making mandatory to improve the knowledge of disease etiology. The hypothesis of a role for anthropogenic chemicals is raising wide consideration. A series of occupational studies revealed that job exposures with high risk of chemical contamination were usually more prone to thyroid cancer development. These include shoe manufacture, preserving industry, building activities, pulp/papermaker industry and the wood processing, agricultural activities, and other work categories characterized by contact with chemicals, such as chemists and pharmacists. However, such epidemiological analyses cannot define a causal relationship. Thyroid-disrupting activity has emerged for a broad set of anthropogenic chemicals, with the best evidence being gained for polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dioxins, bisphenols, phthalates, pesticides, and heavy metals. A series of case-control studies, assessing exposure to thyroid-disrupting agents, as measured on biological matrices, have been recently performed providing the following insights: a) positive relationship with thyroid cancer was found for phthalates, bisphenols, the heavy metals cadmium, copper, and lead; b) polybrominated diphenyl ethers exposure showed no relationship with thyroid cancer c) controversial results were reported for polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides. However, such studies cannot demonstrate the causal link with disease occurrence, as exposure is assessed after tumour development. Studies with different methodological approach are therefore required for defining the role of anthropogenic environmental chemicals in thyroid carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Bifenil Polibromatos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Éteres Fenílicos/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia
2.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125030, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606000

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes in different regions, although few studies from China have been published. We aimed to investigate the associations between POP exposure and type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. A total of 158 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 158 participants without the disorder from Shandong Province were enrolled in this case-control study during 2016-2017. Nine polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers with detectable levels in ≥75% of the participants were selected for data analysis. The results showed that POP exposure was significantly and positively associated with the risk of diabetes after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, triglycerides and total cholesterol. However, we did not observe an obvious modified effect of adiposity on the associations between POP exposure and diabetes in the present study, as strong associations between POPs and diabetes were observed in both the higher-BMI (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and the lower-BMI (BMI<25 kg/m2) groups. POPs showed stronger associations with diabetes in males than in females. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile of ∑POPs was 6.97 for males, nearly two times higher than that for females (OR = 3.58). All these findings suggest that POP exposure may impact the risk of diabetes in Chinese population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Razão de Chances , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 657-663, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892691

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to environmental chemicals with hormonal properties, also called endocrine disrupting chemicals, may be involved in the occurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). Such exposure may also influence the treatment outcome as it is still present at the time of diagnosis, the beginning of therapy, and beyond. We followed 326 men in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment of localized PCa. We analyzed the relationship between exposure to the estrogenic chlordecone, the antiandrogenic dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, the main metabolite of the insecticide DDT), and the nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) with mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties and the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after surgery. After a median follow-up of 6.1 years after surgery, we found a significant increase in the risk of BCR, with increasing plasma chlordecone concentration (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.39-4.56 for the highest vs. lowest quartile of exposure; p trend = 0.002). We found no associations for DDE or PCB-135. These results shown that exposure to environmental estrogens may negatively influence the outcome of PCa treatment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Clordecona/efeitos adversos , Clordecona/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Seguimentos , Guadalupe , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/sangue , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653098

RESUMO

The completed environmental study was concerned with assessing the exposure of the Czech population to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Simultaneously, the levels of polychlorinated pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated diphenyl ethanes (DDTs) were also monitored. The pollutant levels were newly measured in solid fat tissue removed during plastic surgery. A total of 107 samples of fat were taken from 19-76-year-old volunteers. A total of 16 PBDE congeners were determined, of which only six occur in more than 38% of fat tissue samples. The total PBDE level attains an average value of 3.31 ng/g, which is 25% less than was measured in 2009. On the other hand, there was an increase in the levels of two PCB congeners, which was caused by an increase of the total PCB concentration from level of 625.5 ng/g, published in 2009, to the current level of 776 ng/g. The level of DDTs decreased and currently has a value of 467.4 ng/g, which is about 24% lower than in 2009. The contamination of obese middle-aged women in Czechia by more modern types of pollutants, such as PBDEs, is incomparably lower than that by PCBs and DDTs and is also decreasing in time.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Adulto , Idoso , República Tcheca , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 112925, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454572

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and new flame retardants (NFRs) are known thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors, but their disrupting mechanisms in humans are not completely understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the disrupting mechanisms of the aforementioned chemicals via examining TH-regulated proteins and gene expression in human serum. Adult participants from an e-waste dismantling (exposed group) and a control region (control group) in South China provided blood samples for the research. Some compounds of PCBs, PBDEs, and NFRs showed strong binding affinity to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), gene expression of TH receptor α (TRα) and ß, and iodothyronine deiodinase I (ID1). The highly exposed individuals had lower levels of TBG, TSH, and expression of TRα, but higher expression of ID1 than those of the control group. The disruption of TH-regulated proteins and gene expression suggested the exertion of different and, at times, even contradictory effects on TH disruption. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the TH levels between the exposed and the control group, implying that the TH disruption induced by these chemicals depends on the combined influence of multiple mechanisms. Gene expression appears to be an effective approach for investigations of TH disruption and the potential health effects.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Tireotropina/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina/genética , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina/metabolismo
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(7): 77004, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate with obesity, but during weight loss, liberated PCBs act as ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to negatively influence health. Previous studies demonstrated that PCB-77 administration to obese male mice impaired glucose tolerance during weight loss. Recent studies indicate higher toxic equivalencies of dioxin-like PCBs in exposed females than males. OBJECTIVES: We compared effects of PCB-77 on weight gain or loss and glucose homeostasis in male vs. female mice. We defined effects of AhR deficiency during weight gain or loss in male and female mice exposed to PCB-77. METHODS: Study design was vehicle (VEH) or PCB-77 administration while fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 12 wk, followed by weight loss for 4 wk. The following groups were examined: male and female C57BL/6 mice administered VEH or PCB-77, female [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] mice administered VEH or PCB-77, and male [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] mice administered PCB-77. Glucose tolerance was quantified during weight gain (week 11) and loss (week 15); liver and adipose AhR and IRS2 (insulin receptor substrate 2) mRNA abundance, and PCB-77 concentrations were quantified at week 16. RESULTS: PCB-77 attenuated development of obesity in females but not males. During weight loss, PCB-77 impaired glucose tolerance of males. AhR-deficient females (VEH) were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Compared with VEH-treated mice, HF-fed [Formula: see text] females treated with PCB-77 has less weight gain, and [Formula: see text] females had greater weight gain. During weight loss, [Formula: see text] females but not [Formula: see text] males treated with PCB-77 exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. In [Formula: see text] females administered PCB-77, IRS2 mRNA abundance was lower in adipose tissue compared with VEH-treated mice. CONCLUSION: Male and female mice responded differently to PCB-77 and AhR deficiency in body weight (BW) regulation and glucose homeostasis. AhR deficiency reversed PCB-77-induced glucose impairment of obese males losing weight but augmented glucose intolerance of females. These results demonstrate sex differences in PCB-77-induced regulation of glucose homeostasis of mice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4133.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/deficiência , Glucose/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/deficiência , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 223-231, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271988

RESUMO

To investigate the influence of haze on human dermal exposure to a series of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), paired forehead wipes were collected from 46 volunteers (23 males, 23 females) using gauze pads soaked in isopropyl alcohol under heavy and light haze pollution levels. The median levels of ∑27HFRs and ∑27PCBs in all 92 samples were 672 and 1300ng/m2, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (171ng/m2) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) (134ng/m2) were the dominant components of HFRs, indicating that dermal exposure may also be the significant pathway for non-volatile compounds. PCB-37 contributed the most to ∑27PCBs, with a median concentration of 194ng/m2, followed by PCB-60 (141ng/m2). Generally, PBDE, PCB and DD (dehalogenated derivatives of DPs) levels on the foreheads of female participants (291, 1340, 0.92ng/m2) were higher (p=0.037, 0.001, and 0.031, respectively) than those of male participants (226, 989, and 0.45ng/m2). A significant difference (p=0.001) in PCBs was found between light (1690ng/m2) and heavy (996ng/m2) haze pollution conditions. Nevertheless, HFR levels under heavy (median=595ng/m2, ranging from 295 to 1490ng/m2) and light haze pollution conditions (ranging from 205 to 1220ng/m2 with a median of 689ng/m2) did not show significant differences (p=0.269). The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from dermal exposure to ∑8HFRs and ∑27PCBs was 8.72×10-5 and 1.63×10-2, respectively, raising more concern about populations' exposure to PCBs than HFRs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Halogenação , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Pele
8.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 57, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to neurotoxicants on the risk of dementia. Exposure to known neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is suspected to have adverse cognitive effects in older populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether plasma concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides are associated with the risk of cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of all-cause dementia in the Canadian older population. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a 3-phase, 10-year population-based study of individuals aged 65+ years. Analyses included 669 clinically assessed subjects, of which 156 developed dementia including 108 incident cases of AD. Subjects were screened at each phase with the 100-point Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), a measurement of global cognitive function. Statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards model when the outcome was dementia or AD, and a repeated-measure mixed model when the outcome was the 3MS score. RESULTS: No association of PCB and OC pesticides with the risk of dementia and AD was observed. Elevated concentrations of PCB congeners nos 118, 153, 156, 163, and OC pesticides 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) were significantly associated with cognitive decline as assessed with the 3MS. A posteriori analyses suggested that only p,p'-DDE was significantly related to a higher cognitive decline in time based on the 3MS among incident cases of dementia compared to subjects remaining nondemented. CONCLUSION: PCB and OC pesticide plasma concentrations were not related to the incident diagnosis of neither dementia, nor AD. Using the 3MS scores as the outcome, higher concentrations of four PCB congeners and two OC pesticides were associated with lower cognitive performances in subjects. The association of p,p'-DDE with cognitive decline in time in incident cases of dementia merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Demência/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 486-495, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154221

RESUMO

The recent changes in the compositions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) after their restriction for 40 years may have various effects on human health. In order to characterize the congener-specific compositions of PCBs in the soil-air process and assess the associated human health risks, soil and air samples were simultaneously collected in winter and summer at two different functional locations. Homologue patterns suggest that long-range atmospheric transport might be the major source of soil and air residues of PCBs. The net deposition from air to soil was overwhelming for most PCB congeners. Variations in the occurrence and the homologue patterns of PCBs between the soil and air interface depended on chemical volatility, soil organic matter (OM) content, ambient temperature, topographical condition and atmospheric transport. Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for 11.0-70.3% and 2.31-54.8% of total PCB residues in soil and air, respectively. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks associated with exposure to soil and air PCBs were also estimated. Different PCB congeners showed different health effects, with the highest contribution from PCB-26. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic risk levels of PCBs were enhanced, while the carcinogenic risk levels decreased during the soil-air exchange process of PCBs with time. Our results highlight the soil-air interaction of PCBs in predicting their potential human exposure health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos
10.
Environ Int ; 129: 221-228, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes have been found in humans, but the relationship has rarely been investigated in the general population. The current nested case-control study examined internal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and pesticides and the incidence of type 2 diabetes among participants of two population-based German cohort studies. METHODS: We retrospectively selected 132 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and 264 age- and sex-matched controls from the CARdiovascular Living and Aging in Halle (CARLA) study (2002-2006, East Germany) and the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study (1999-2001, South Germany) based on diabetes status at follow-up examinations in 2007-2010 and 2006-08, respectively (60% male, mean age 63 and 54 years). We assessed the association between baseline POP concentrations and incident diabetes by conditional logistic regression adjusted for cohort, BMI, cholesterol, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and parental diabetes. Additionally, we examined effect modification by sex, obesity, parental diabetes and cohort. RESULTS: In both cohorts, diabetes cases showed a higher BMI, a higher frequency of parental diabetes, and higher levels of POPs. We observed an increased chance for incident diabetes for PCB-138 and PCB-153 with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.50 (95%CI: 1.07-2.11) and 1.53 (1.15-2.04) per interquartile range increase in the respective POP. In addition, explorative results suggested higher OR for women and non-obese participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our results add to the evidence on diabetogenic effects of POPs in the general population, and warrant both policies to prevent human exposure to POPs and additional research on the adverse effects of more complex chemical mixtures.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 66(2): 123-127, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125391

RESUMO

The notion of 'civilization diseases' is used to describe certain ailments whose aetiology is difficult to explain based on the knowledge about the functioning of the body and its metabolism. Only studies at the cellular level, on biochemical changes shed light on the causes of some diseases described as civilization diseases (cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, obesity, psychomotor disorders in children and an increase in the frequency of malformations). The factors whose incontestable influence on the increase in the frequency of occurrence of various 'civilization diseases' has been proved are persistent organic pollutants, among others belonging to the group of organohalogen compounds. Among organohalogen pollutants one needs to distinguish organochlorine compounds, which have been used as pesticides, and pollution emitted by various industries such as dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated organic compounds used as flame retardants and perfluoroalkylated substances, which are characterized by high chemical and thermal stability as well as high surface activity due to which they may be widely used as oleophobic and hydrophobic factors.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Dioxinas/sangue , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Furanos/efeitos adversos , Furanos/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 376-381, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982271

RESUMO

Objective: To study on the exposure of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination and DNA methylation in male employees in an e-waste dismantling area in Tianjin. Methods: In 2016, an e-waste dismantling area in Tianjin and an area 50 km away from the e-waste dismantling area (no e-waste or other chemical, industrial and agricultural pollution nearby) were selected as the study area and the reference area. Male residents of the study area and male farmers who planted vegetables, fruits, and crops in the reference area were selected as the exposed and reference group by using the convenient sampling method. A total of 60 subjects (30 in each of the exposed group and the reference group) were included. The peripheral blood (5 ml) of the study subject was collected, and the PCB concentration was detected. Eight independent subjects in the exposed group and the reference group were randomly selected by random number table method to detect the methylation level of the promoter region of all gene loci, and the mRNA transcript levels. Results: The PCB concentration in peripheral blood of the exposed group was higher than that of the reference group, and the difference was statistically significant (allP values <0.001). The methylation levels of the promoter region of the exposed group and the reference group showed obvious clustering, and 994 gene loci had different degrees of methylation. Compared with the reference group, there were 391 hypomethylation sites and 553 hypermethylation sites in the exposed group. The proportion of methylation sites in the high CpG-rich region was 59.2% and 48.1%, respectively. The mRNA level of the hypomethylated gene in the exposed group was higher (FAM131A, HBM), and the transcription level of the hypermethylated gene was lower (CAPN15, NFIC, SHISA5, FGF13, GRAMD1A, CLEC3B, LILRB2, DCAF7). The mRNA transcription levels of 10 genes above in the exposed group and the reference group were statistically significant (all P values <0.001). Conclusion: The PCB concentration of peripheral blood in the exposed population of e-waste is high. PCB exposure changes the methylation level of specific genes and affects the mRNA transcription level of some genes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Metilação de DNA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 175: 164-172, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897415

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of persistent organic pollutant, are closely related to abnormal eye development in children. However, little is known regarding the role of peptides in the development of PCB-induced ocular dysplasia. To characterize the nature of PCB exposure on peptides involved in the development of the ocular system, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect differential expression of peptides between normal and PCB-exposed zebrafish embryos. A total of 7900 peptides were analyzed, 90 of which were differentially expressed, with 29 being up-regulated and 61 down-regulated. These peptides were investigated using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and gene ontology (GO) analysis to explore their role in eye development. This study identified 18 peptides associated with the development of the optic nerve and ocular system in the PCB-exposure group, as well as 10 peptides that are located in the functional domain of their precursor proteins. These peptides provide potential biomarkers for the treatment of ocular dysplasia caused by PCBs and may help us understand the mechanism of abnormal eye development caused by organic pollutants.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 34, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early disruption of the microbial community may influence life-long health. Environmental toxicants can contaminate breast milk and the developing infant gut microbiome is directly exposed. We investigated whether environmental toxicants in breastmilk affect the composition and function of the infant gut microbiome at 1 month. We measured environmental toxicants in breastmilk, fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and gut microbial composition from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using samples from 267 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Microbiota Cohort (NoMIC). We tested 28 chemical exposures: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and organochlorine pesticides. We assessed chemical exposure and alpha diversity/SCFAs using elastic net regression modeling and generalized linear models, adjusting for confounders, and variation in beta diversity (UniFrac), taxa abundance (ANCOM), and predicted metagenomes (PiCRUSt) in low, medium, and high exposed groups. RESULTS: PBDE-28 and the surfactant perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were associated with less microbiome diversity. Some sub-OTUs of Lactobacillus, an important genus in early life, were lower in abundance in samples from infants with relative "high" (> 80th percentile) vs. "low" (< 20th percentile) toxicant exposure in this cohort. Moreover, breast milk toxicants were associated with microbiome functionality, explaining up to 34% of variance in acetic and propionic SCFAs, essential signaling molecules. Per one standard deviation of exposure, PBDE-28 was associated with less propionic acid (- 24% [95% CI - 35% to - 14%] relative to the mean), and PCB-209 with less acetic acid (- 15% [95% CI - 29% to - 0.4%]). Conversely, PFOA and dioxin-like PCB-167 were associated with 61% (95% CI 35% to 87%) and 22% (95% CI 8% to 35%) more propionic and acetic acid, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental toxicant exposure may influence infant gut microbial function during a critical developmental window. Future studies are needed to replicate these novel findings and investigate whether this has any impact on child health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Metabolômica , Noruega , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
15.
Chemosphere ; 223: 483-493, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784755

RESUMO

This paper reviews literature for the last two decades with emphasis on levels, toxic equivalencies and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in Africa. Further, we comprehensively analysed data, interpret differences and identify existing gaps with those from other continents. We observed that high levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were reported in environmental and biological samples near densely populated urban and industrialised areas compared to those in rural settings. In general, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in the blood samples from Africa were in the same range as those from Asia but lower than those from Europe. The concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the atmosphere in Africa were comparable to and/or higher than those in developed countries. The reported sources of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in Africa were industrial emissions, obsolete pesticide stockpiles, household heating, recycling of electronic waste, and incineration and combustion of domestic waste. Regional and intercontinental transport of dioxins could not be confirmed because of the lack of sufficient literature on them. Further data about the levels and sources of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in Africa need to be generated to complete the chemical inventories for the continent and to facilitate the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. The reviewed literature shows that most analyses have been carried out in laboratories outside Africa because of the limited institutional capacity in Africa. More support needs to be given to laboratories in Africa to develop the capacity to accurately quantify dioxins on routine basis.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , África , Humanos
16.
Chemosphere ; 223: 608-615, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798056

RESUMO

Microplastics are important vectors for the transport and accumulation of persistent organic contaminants in coastal and marine environments. We determined the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) associated with microplastic pellets collected along a 39-km stretch of Brazil's South Atlantic coastline to understand the spatial dynamics and potential risk posed by these contaminants. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 1,454 to 6,002 ng g-1 and regularly exceeded the threshold effect level (TEL) for sediments defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Sampling stations, spaced evenly along the coastline (i.e., 3-km intervals) exhibited a general north-to-south decline in the concentrations of some PAHs, but this spatial gradient was complicated by small-scale differences in the concentrations and composition of associated contaminants. Similarly, analysis of individual isomer ratios revealed further complexity driven by differences in the contribution of petrogenic versus pyrolytic inputs which pose different levels of risk to marine organisms. PCB concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 104.6 ng g-1 and were dominated by low chlorinated congeners likely to have originated from major industrial areas to the north. Overall, this study highlights the challenge of directly linking microplastic pollution with the potential toxicological effects of organic contaminants in coastal waters. We recommend that monitoring programs should explicitly consider both the origin (i.e., pellet sources and dispersal pathways) and nature of organic contamination (i.e., concentration and composition) when assessing the risks for biota and human health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Oceano Atlântico , Humanos , Medição de Risco
17.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(1): 1-27, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744511

RESUMO

The notion that adverse health effects produced by exposure to environmental contaminants (EC) may be modulated by the presence of non-chemical stressors is gaining attention. Previously, our lab demonstrated that cross-fostering (adoption of a litter at birth) acted as a non-chemical stressor that amplified the influence of developmental exposure to EC on the glucocorticoid stress-response in adult rats. Using liver from the same rats, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cross-fostering might also modulate EC-induced alterations in hepatic gene expression profiles. During pregnancy and nursing, Sprague-Dawley dams were fed cookies laced with corn oil (control, C) or a chemical mixture (M) composed of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), and methylmercury (MeHg), at 1 mg/kg/day. This mixture simulated the contaminant profile reported in maternal human blood. At birth, some control and M treated litters were cross-fostered to form two additional groups with different biological/nursing mothers (CC and MM). The hepatic transcriptome was analyzed by DNA microarray in male offspring at postnatal days 21 and 78-86. Mixture exposure altered the expression of detoxification and energy metabolism genes in both age groups, but with different sets of genes affected at day 21 and 78-86. Cross-fostering modulated the effects of M on gene expression pattern (MM vs M), as well as expression of energy metabolism genes between control groups (CC vs C). In conclusion, while describing short and long-term effects of developmental exposure to EC on hepatic transcriptomes, these cross-fostering results further support the consideration of non-chemical stressors in EC risk assessments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(8): 7405-7427, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687894

RESUMO

Breastfeeding is a gold standard of neonate nutrition because human milk contains a lot of essential compounds crucial for proper development of a child. However, milk is also a biofluid which can contain environmental pollution, which can have effects on immune system and consequently on the various body organs. Polychlorinated biphenyls are organic pollutants which have been detected in human milk. They have lipophilic properties, so they can penetrate to fatty milk and ultimately to neonate digestive track. Another problem of interest is the presence in milk of heavy metals-arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury-as these compounds can lead to disorders in production of cytokines, which are important immunomodulators. The toxicants cause stimulation or suppression of this compounds. This can lead to health problems in children as allergy, disorders in the endocrine system, end even neurodevelopment delay and disorder. Consequently, correlations between pollutants and bioactive components in milk should be investigated. This article provides an overview of environmental pollutants found in human milk as well as of the consequences of cytokine disorder correlated with presence of heavy metals. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Leite Humano/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Mães
19.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 9-18, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317087

RESUMO

This study investigated relationships between organohalogen compound (OHC) exposure, feeding habits, and pathogen exposure in a recovering population of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Various samples were collected from 39 free-living, apparently healthy, adult male walruses immobilised at three sampling locations during the summers of 2014 and 2015. Concentrations of lipophilic compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) were analysed in blubber samples, and concentrations of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were determined in plasma samples. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured in seven tissue types and surveys for three infectious pathogens were conducted. Despite an overall decline in lipophilic compound concentrations since this population was last studied (2006), the contaminant pattern was similar, including extremely large inter-individual variation. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen showed that the variation in OHC concentrations could not be explained by some walruses consuming higher trophic level diets, since all animals were found to feed at a similar trophic level. Antibodies against the bacteria Brucella spp. and the parasite Toxoplasma gondii were detected in 26% and 15% of the walruses, respectively. Given the absence of seal-predation, T. gondii exposure likely took place via the consumption of contaminated bivalves. The source of exposure to Brucella spp. in walruses is still unknown. Parapoxvirus DNA was detected in a single individual, representing the first documented evidence of parapoxvirus in wild walruses. Antibody prevalence was not related to contaminant exposure. Despite this, dynamic relationships between diet composition, contaminant bioaccumulation and pathogen exposure warrant continuing attention given the likelihood of climate change induced habitat and food web changes, and consequently OHC exposure, for Svalbard walruses in the coming decades.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Mudança Climática , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Morsas , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Bivalves/virologia , Brucella , Carbono/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/análise , Masculino , Nitrogênio/análise , Parapoxvirus , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Focas Verdadeiras , Svalbard , Toxoplasma
20.
Biometrics ; 75(1): 315-325, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267541

RESUMO

Motivated by the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study that investigated the association between exposure to a large number of environmental pollutants and human reproductive outcomes, we propose a joint latent risk class modeling framework with an interaction between female and male partners of a couple. This formulation introduces a dependence structure between the chemical patterns within a couple and between the chemical patterns and the risk of infertility. The specification of an interaction enables the interplay between the female and male's chemical patterns on the risk of infertility in a parsimonious way. We took a Bayesian perspective to inference and used Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms to obtain posterior estimates of model parameters. We conducted simulations to examine the performance of the estimation approach. Using the LIFE Study dataset, we found that in addition to the effect of PCB exposures on females, the male partners' PCB exposures play an important role in determining risk of infertility. Further, this risk is subadditive in the sense that there is likely a ceiling effect which limits the probability of infertility when both partners of the couple are at high risk.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Infertilidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/etiologia , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco/métodos
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