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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461353, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797833

RESUMO

This paper reports the development of an LC-ESI-MS2 method for the sensitive determination of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in human serum samples. Congener-specific separation was achieved by using a polar-embedded stationary phase, previously optimized for the working group, which provided better separation of isobaric compounds than the common octadecylsilane phases. MS fragmentation patterns and energies showed differences among OH-PCB congeners, mainly depending on the position of OH-group and the number of chlorine atoms in the molecule, although the most intense transitions were always those corresponding to the neutral loss of an HCl group from the quasi-molecular ion cluster. The method allowed the determination of OH-PCBs with good linearity (dynamic linear range of four orders of magnitude with R2 higher than 0.995) and precision (relative standard deviations of absolute areas lower than 10%), and with better sensitivity than other similar methods previously described in the literature. Matrix effect has been evaluated and reduced to less than 10% by the addition of isotopically labeled standards and a 10-fold dilution of the final sample extract. The low iLODs provided by the developed method (from 1.2 to 5.4 fg µL-1 for all the OH-PCBs studied, except 4'-OHCB108, whose iLOD was 61 fg µL-1) allows dilution without losses of detected peaks. Finally, the applicability of the method has been demonstrated by analyzing human serum samples belonging to an interlaboratory exercise.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maldescended testes or cryptorchidism is a genital birth defect that affects 2-9% of all male new-borns. Over the last 40 years there have been reports of increased prevalence in countries like the US, the UK and the Scandinavian countries. This possible increase has in some studies been linked to a foetal exposure to chemical pollutants. In this matched case-control study, we analysed maternal serum samples in early pregnancy for three different organochlorine compounds, to investigate whether the levels were associated with the risk of cryptorchidism. METHOD: Maternal serum samples taken during the first trimester of pregnancy from 165 cases (boys born with cryptorchidism) and 165 controls, matched for birth year and maternal age, parity and smoking habits during the pregnancy, were retrieved from the Southern Sweden Maternity Biobank. The samples were analysed for 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Associations between exposure and cryptorchidism were evaluated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no statistically significantly associations between exposure to these compounds and cryptorchidism, either when the exposure variables were used as a continuous variable, or when the exposure levels were divided in quartiles. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of an association between maternal levels of PCB-153, p,p'-DDE or HCB during the pregnancy and the risk of having cryptorchidism in the sons.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criptorquidismo/induzido quimicamente , Criptorquidismo/epidemiologia , Criptorquidismo/patologia , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexaclorobenzeno/sangue , Hexaclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461170, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505276

RESUMO

In this study, a multiresidue analytical method was developed, validated, and applied for quantifying 85 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including 38 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 24 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from 200 µL of human serum. A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method was applied to minimize the required sample amount and optimize various conditions including the extraction solvent and the number of extractions. The extraction efficiency was optimized using double extraction with an ethyl acetate/hexane/acetone mixture. Gas chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for analysis, and two different ionization sources, electron impact ionization (EI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), were used to compare their sensitivity. The APCI source employed soft ionization at atmospheric pressure, producing abundant molecular ion formation with minimal fragmentation, in contrast to extensive fragmentation caused by EI. Of the 85 POPs analyzed, 59 target compounds (69.4%) showed lower limits of detection that were two- to fifty-fold lower in APCI than those determined using EI. The developed method was validated for its detection limit (0.5-10 pg/mL for PCBs, 2-20 pg/mL for PBDEs, and 2-40 pg/mL for OCPs), precision (0.8%-34.3% of coefficient of variation), recovery (49.6%-77.1%), matrix effect (46.7%-156.9%), and accuracy (81.2%-113.1% for PCBs, 85.8%-112.2% for PBDEs, and 55.2%-113.9% for OCPs). Its linearity was R2 > 0.99 for 84 compounds, and 96% average accuracy (for APCI) was obtained using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (NIST 1957 and 1958). These ionization methods were compared by analyzing 25 real human serum samples. The observed species were 1.1-24.6 pg/mL of 28 PCBs, 2.5 pg/mL of BDE-47, and 6.5-195.1 pg/mL of 6 organochlorine pesticides (median concentration for each species), and only 11 compounds were detected with APCI owing to its enhanced sensitivity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Acetatos/química , Acetona/química , Pressão Atmosférica , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Hexanos/química , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Limite de Detecção , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231376

RESUMO

Food safety crises involving persistent organic pollutants [POPs, e.g. dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides] lead to systematic slaughter of livestock to prevent their entry into the food chain. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies to depurate livestock moderately contaminated with POPs in order to reduce such economic and social damages. This study aimed to test a POPs depuration strategy based on undernutrition (37% of energy requirements) combined with mineral oil (10% in total dry matter intake) in nine non-lactating ewes contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and PCBs 126 and 153. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the depuration process, POPs kinetics and body lipids dynamics were followed concomitantly over 57-day of depuration in POPs storage (adipose tissue, AT), central distribution (blood) and excretion (faeces) compartments. Faecal POPs concentrations in underfed and mineral oil supplemented ewes increased by 2.0 to 2.6-fold, but not proportionally to lipids concentration which increased by 6-fold, compared to the control ewes. Nonetheless, after 57 days of depuration in undernutrition and mineral oil supplementation, AT POPs concentrations were 1.5 to 1.6-fold higher while serum concentrations remained unchanged compared to the control ewes. This was concomitant with a decrease by 2.7-fold of the AT estimated lipids weight along the depuration period. This reduction of the volume of the storage compartment combined with the increase of POPs faecal excretion in underfed and mineral oil supplemented ewes led to a reduction by 1.5-fold of the PCB 126 AT burden, while no changes were observed for TCDD and PCB 153 burdens (vs. no change for PCB 126 and increases for TCDD and PCB 153 AT burdens in control ewes). The original approach of this study combining the fine description at once of POPs kinetic and of body lipids dynamic improved our understanding of POPs fate in the ruminant.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dioxinas/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Desnutrição/patologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Peso Corporal , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Cinética , Lipídeos/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Ovinos
5.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(1): 122-130, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300848

RESUMO

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, and air occurred during the life, which may change telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood leukocytes. The present study was designed to investigate the association between TL and serum levels of PCBs and OCPs in Tehran male's population. Whole blood samples were randomly taken from 300 adult males, aged between 25 and 40 years. TL was determined by real-time PCR to measure the number of the telomere (T) repeats to the number of a single-copy gene (S). We applied the multivariate linear regression model to compare the effect of each lipid adjusted serum levels of PCBs and OCPs congener on the TL, with adjustment for age, body mass index, education, smoking, and food patterns. Each doubling of the nondioxin-like PCBs, dioxin-like PCBs, and OCPs levels were associated with 1.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.70 to 5.40%], 2.5% (95% CI 0.30-8.3%), and - 2.4% (95% CI - 0.70 to - 6.2%) variation in the TL, respectively. The percent difference in the TL with exposure to nondioxin-like PCBs, dioxin-like PCBs, and OCPs for participants with older than age 37 years were 6.45% (95% CI 2.81-16.50%), 4.52% (95% CI 1.60-10.54%), and - 7.44% (95% CI - 1.55 to - 15.51%), respectively. Exposures to nondioxin-like PCBs (except for PCB 28 and 52) with high chlorine in structure and dioxin-like PCBs were related to longer TLs. Conversely, serum levels of OCPs can be associated with oxidative stress and systemic inflammation that lead to telomere shortening.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Irã (Geográfico) , Leucócitos/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126092, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041072

RESUMO

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) may change leukocyte telomere length (TL) at the end of the DNA sequence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between PCBs and OCPs exposure with TL in Tehran adult males. Whole-blood samples were randomly taken from three hundred adult males in population-based cross-section study from October 2016 to November 2017. We studied the serum levels of PCBs, OCPs as well as socio-demographic characteristics of individuals. The quantitative PCR was used to investigate the number of the telomere (T) repeats to the number of a single copy gene. We measured the effect of each PCBs and OCPs congeners on TL using linear regressions adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, and dietary patterns. The median level of the six non-dioxin-likes, five dioxin-likes PCBs three OCPs and TL in the study population were 344.5, 306.0, 45.0 ng/g lipid and 5377.7 ± 573.4 base pairs, respectively. In the adjusted model, the percent difference in the TLs with exposure to Σnon-dioxin-like PCBs, Σdioxin-like PCBs, and OCPs were 1.93 (-0.70 to 5.4), 3.4 (1.8-8.3) and -2.4 (-0.80 to -6.2), respectively. In the fourth quartile compared to the first quartile, the percent difference in the TLs due to Σnon-dioxin-like PCBs, Σdioxin-like PCBs, and OCP exposure were 0.01 (-0.01 to 0.05), 10.3 (2.9-18.1) and -0.20 (-0.10 to -4.5), respectively. Exposures to ndl-PCBs and dl-PCBs (except for PCB28) were related to longer TLs, but OCPs exposure can be related to telomere shortening.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Encurtamento do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Int ; 137: 105526, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062441

RESUMO

Widespread polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) contamination occurred in Michigan from 1973 to 1974, when PBBs were accidentally substituted for a nutritional supplement in livestock feed. People who lived in the state were exposed to PBBs via several routes including ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. PBBs sequestered in lipid-rich matrices such as adipose tissue, are slowly eliminated after entering the human body, and can also be transferred from a mother to her offspring through the placenta and breastfeeding. Due to the long biological half-lives of PBBs, as well as concerns from the exposed community, biomonitoring measurements were conducted from 2012 to 2015. Because of their similar structures, serum PBBs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were all measured 40 years after the PBB contamination incident (N = 862). The serum PBB-153 levels among the original highly-exposed groups (i.e., chemical workers, the family of chemical workers, and individuals who lived on or received food from the contaminated farms) remains significantly higher than other Michigan residents. Several predictors such as sampling age, sex, and smoking status were significantly associated with the serum levels of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Higher average values and also wider ranges of serum POP levels were found in this study compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), with the most substantial difference in serum PBB-153. This was true for all groups of Michigan residents including those who were not part of the above-described highly-exposed groups. Moreover, the people born after the contamination incident began also have higher serum PBB-153 levels when compared with more recent NHANES data (2010-2014), which suggests potential intergenerational exposure and/or continued environmental exposure following the contamination period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Bifenil Polibromatos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Bifenil Polibromatos/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 14, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants can have deleterious effects on child development. While psychomotor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes have been investigated in relation to chronic exposure, the associations with visual functions remains unclear. The present study's aim was to assess the associations of prenatal exposure to legacy persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals with visual acuity in Canadian infants. The potential protective effects of selenium against mercury toxicity were also examined. METHODS: Participants (mean corrected age = 6.6 months) were part of the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), lead and mercury were measured in maternal blood during pregnancy, as well as in the cord blood. The Teller acuity card test (TAC) (n = 429) and the visual evoked potentials in a sub-group (n = 63) were used to estimate behavioural and electrophysiological visual acuity, respectively. Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between exposure to each contaminant and visual acuity measures, while controlling for potential confounders. Breastmilk selenium, which was available for about half of the TAC and VEP samples, was also taken into account in the mercury models as exploratory analyses. RESULTS: We observed no significant associations between exposure to any contaminants and TAC. Analyses revealed a negative trend (p values < 0.1) between cord blood lead and mercury and electrophysiological visual acuity, whereas PCB and PBDE showed no association. When adding breastmilk selenium concentration to the mercury models, this association became statistically significant for cord concentrations (ß = - 3.41, 95% CI = - 5.96,-0.86), but also for blood levels at 1st and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy (ß = - 3.29, 95% CI = - 5.69,-0.88). However, further regression models suggested that this change in estimates might not be due to adjustment for selenium, but instead to a change in the study sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that subtle, but detectable alterations of infant electrophysiological visual acuity can be identified in a population prenatally exposed to low mercury concentrations. Compared to behavioural visual acuity testing, electrophysiological assessment may more sensitive in detecting visual neurotoxicity in relation with prenatal exposure to mercury.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Exposição Materna , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/sangue , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Canadá , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Leite Humano/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez , Selênio/sangue , Selênio/química , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 224: 113430, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978727

RESUMO

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in buildings constructed with PCB-containing materials can lead to increased body burden of PCB for building users. Exposure to PCB from building related sources was assessed by measuring PCB in serum and hand wipes in two groups of tenants living in the same building estate in apartments constructed with and without PCB. The median serum levels of the sum of 19 PCB congeners was 777 ng/g lw (5-95th percentile: 219-2576 ng/g lw) for the exposed group and 282 ng/g lw (5-95th percentile: 49.8-797 ng/g lw) for the reference group. The congener pattern in serum of the exposed was shifted towards lower chlorinated congeners and was dominated by tri- and tetrachlorinated congeners. The largest difference in serum levels between the groups was observed for PCB-28, with median levels of the exposed being 70 times higher than in the reference group. For very persistent lower chlorinated congeners, like PCB-28, 66 and 74, an increase with residence times was observed as a result of accumulation over time. Less persistent congeners such as PCB-44 and 70 were also elevated in the exposed group -but independent of residence time. The less persistent congeners can therefore be used as markers of recent exposure to original PCB sources. The hand wipes also showed a large exposure contrast, e.g. PCB-28 being more than 60 times higher in the exposed group compared to the reference group (medians 14.4 and 0.23 ng/wipe, respectively) and no overlap between the groups. All measured di- to pentaPCB congeners were significantly higher in hand wipes from the exposed group compared with the reference group. Thus hand wipes seem to be a good, non-invasive screening tool for ongoing indoor exposure to PCB. Furthermore, the measured level of PCB on hand wipes was significantly correlated to PCB in blood for almost all congeners. In conclusion, PCB exposure in contaminated buildings can contribute significantly to the exposure and total body burden of PCB and the lower chlorinated congeners can make up the majority of the total PCB body burden.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Monitoramento Ambiental , Habitação , Humanos
10.
Environ Res ; 182: 109068, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are considered human carcinogens, results from studies evaluating exposures and breast cancer risk have been inconsistent, potentially related to varying ages at exposure. Additionally, few studies evaluated the association between POPs exposure and mammographic breast density (MBD), an intermediate biomarker of breast cancer risk. We carried out a cross-sectional study to investigate associations between serum POPs concentrations and MBD measured in 1998 in female residents of Triana, Alabama, in a predominately African American population with high POPs exposures, particularly to p,p'-DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). METHODS: We measured lipid-adjusted serum concentrations (ng/g lipid) of p,p'-DDT and its main metabolite p,p'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCCH), heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, mirex, and aldrin for each woman in our study (n = 210). We also measured two MBD metrics, percent MBD (%MBD) and area of MBD (aMBD). Using adjusted Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) we evaluated correlations between %MBD and aMBD with individual POPs in the overall population and by age group (19-40, 41-54, and 55-91 years) and also estimated adjusted mean measures of MBD with 95% confidence intervals across tertiles of analytes using generalized linear models (GLM). We calculated p-values for multiplicative interaction by age group using GLM. Additional analyses excluded women with current hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and evaluated early-life exposure (prior to age 18) during the heaviest contamination period in Triana (1947-90). RESULTS: Among all women, we found no correlation between p,p'-DDE and %MBD, but after age stratification and exclusion of HRT users, there was a suggestion of a difference by age group, with younger women having a weak positive correlation (rs = 0.12, p = 0.37) and older women having a weak negative correlation (rs = -0.12, p = 0.43); pinteraction = 0.06. In contrast, PCBs were weakly positively correlated with %MBD among all women, with the correlation magnitudes increasing after excluding current HRT users (rs-total PCBs = 0.17, p = 0.03). After age stratification and exclusion of HRT users, correlations for PCBs were higher among younger and middle-age women, with only a handful of these correlations being statistically significant. For ß-HCCH, the strongest finding was a negative correlation among older women (rs = -0.26, p = 0.07). Correlations were positive predominantly in the younger age group for heptachlor epoxide (rs = 0.27, p = 0.04), oxychlordane (rs = 0.35, p = 0.006), and trans-nonachlor (rs = 0.37, p = 0.003), and largely null for the middle and older age groups; pinteraction range: 0.03-0.05. Similar patterns were found in GLM analyses using tertiles of exposure and aMBD as the metric for MBD. Women exposed during the heaviest chemical contamination period in Triana prior to age 18 had positive correlations between %MBD and PCBs, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, oxychlordane, and trans-nonachlor. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, despite high exposures to p,p'-DDT and thus high serum concentrations of its main metabolite, p,p'-DDE, we did not find strong evidence of a positive association with MBD. In fact, there was some evidence of a negative association among older women for p,p'-DDE; a similar pattern was found for ß-HCCH. However, younger women with higher serum levels of PCBs, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, and trans-nonachlor, who were likely exposed in early life, had higher MBD. These findings should be replicated in larger studies.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Idoso , Alabama , Estudos Transversais , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 228-237, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood exposure to organochlorines has been associated with alterations in somatic growth. We evaluated the associations of peri-pubertal serum levels of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs), with adolescent growth, body composition, and near adult height (NAH) in a longitudinal cohort study of Russian boys. METHODS: 473 8-9 year-old boys had serum DLCs and associated toxic equivalents (TEQs) and NDL-PCBs concentrations measured. Physical examinations were performed at enrollment between 2003 and 2005, and annually over 11 years to 2016; annual bio-electric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition began in 2006. We used mixed effects models to evaluate associations of quartiles of serum chemical concentrations with longitudinal measurements through age 19 of body mass index (BMI-Z) and height (HT-Z) z-scores, annual height velocity (HV), and BIA-derived height-adjusted fat (FMi) and fat-free mass (FFMi) indexes. Potential modification by age of the associations of chemical exposures with growth was evaluated. NAH (defined as HV < 1 cm/year) and age at NAH attainment were estimated using parametric survival models accounting for right censoring. RESULTS: The medians of serum ∑TEQs, ∑DLCs, and ∑NDL-PCBs were 21.1 pg TEQ/g lipid, 362 pg/g lipid, and 250 ng/g lipid, respectively. In multivariable models, higher serum concentrations of peri-pubertal ∑TEQs, ∑DLCs, and ∑NDL-PCBs were associated with significantly lower BMI-Z, FMi, and FFMi over 11 years of follow-up. The differences in FFMi for boys with higher versus lower ΣTEQs and ΣNDL-PCBs increased with age. In multivariable models, higher ∑NDL-PCBs were associated with lower HT-Z, with attenuation of the association with age (interaction p < 0.001). The highest versus the lowest quartiles of ∑NDL-PCBs were not associated with differences in NAH, but were associated with an average of 6 months later attainment of NAH. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that dioxin and NDL-PCB exposures during childhood are associated with alterations in body composition and subsequent somatic growth.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dioxinas/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/sangue , Federação Russa
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 1-9, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have linked greater polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure to adverse neuropsychological effects in older adults, including learning, memory, and depressive symptoms. However, no studies among older adults have evaluated the association over time. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of serum PCB levels on neuropsychological function over a 14-year period in a cohort of older men and women from a PCB-contaminated area of New York State. METHODS: In 2000-2002, we assessed serum PCB levels and neuropsychological function (including the California Verbal Learning Test Trial 1 (CVLTT1) for verbal memory and learning, and the Beck Depression Index (BDI) for depressive symptoms) in 253 men and women, ages 55-74 years. A total of 116 (46%) persons repeated the PCB and neuropsychological assessment 14 years later. To assess the association over time, we used generalized estimating equations with clustering variables time, total PCB (∑PCB), and ∑PCB × time, and adjusted for baseline age, sex, smoking, and total serum-lipids. For statistically significant ∑PCB × time interactions, we evaluated the association between PCBs and either verbal memory and learning or depressive symptoms while holding ∑PCB constant at the 10th and 90th percentiles to clarify the direction of the interaction. RESULTS: Over the study period, serum ∑PCB levels (wet-weight) declined by 22%, and were associated with different patterns of change over time for memory (∑PCB × Time ß = 0.08 p = 0.009) and depressive symptoms (∑PCB × Time ß = -0.16 p = 0.013). Specifically, verbal memory and learning decreased (ß = -0.08 p = 0.008) and depressive symptoms increased (ß = 0.17 p = 0.008) among persons with low exposure (∑PCB levels at the 10th percentile), while persons with high exposure (90th percentile) showed non-significant improvements. DISCUSSION: In this cohort, declining ∑PCB levels were likely due at least in part to low rates of local fish consumption in recent decades, given the ban since 1976. The decreased verbal memory and learning and increased depressive symptoms over time among persons with low serum ∑PCB levels is consistent with studies of normative aging. However, the small improvements in those outcomes among those with high serum ∑PCB levels was unexpected. Healthy survivor selection bias or uncontrolled confounding may explain this result. It may also indicate that the neurotoxic impacts of PCBs in older adults are not permanent, but future studies are needed to confirm this possibility.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Idoso , Animais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Alimentos Marinhos
13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 657-663, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892691

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to environmental chemicals with hormonal properties, also called endocrine disrupting chemicals, may be involved in the occurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). Such exposure may also influence the treatment outcome as it is still present at the time of diagnosis, the beginning of therapy, and beyond. We followed 326 men in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment of localized PCa. We analyzed the relationship between exposure to the estrogenic chlordecone, the antiandrogenic dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, the main metabolite of the insecticide DDT), and the nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) with mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties and the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after surgery. After a median follow-up of 6.1 years after surgery, we found a significant increase in the risk of BCR, with increasing plasma chlordecone concentration (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.39-4.56 for the highest vs. lowest quartile of exposure; p trend = 0.002). We found no associations for DDE or PCB-135. These results shown that exposure to environmental estrogens may negatively influence the outcome of PCa treatment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Clordecona/efeitos adversos , Clordecona/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Seguimentos , Guadalupe , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/sangue , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134118, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494415

RESUMO

The Greenlandic population has some of the highest levels of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs) globally. Studies have previously found POPs to be linked with disturbance of child development, immune function and reproductive abilities. We investigated the associations between serum POP levels of pregnant women in Greenland and their infant's birth weight, length, head circumference and gestational age (GA) at birth. Pregnant Greenlandic women (n = 504) were enrolled during pregnancy and serum levels of the lipophilic POPs (Organochlorine pesticides, Polychlorinated biphenyls and Polybrominated diphenyl ethers) and the amphiphilic POPs, Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), were measured. We analysed the associations between maternal serum levels of POPs and birth weight, length, head circumference and GA using linear regression analysis. We found significant inverse associations between Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and birth weight (adjusted ß = -119 g, 95% CI: -201; -36), birth length (adjusted ß = -0.37 cm, 95% CI: -0.76; 0.02, borderline significant) and head circumference (adjusted ß = -0.35 cm, 95% CI: -0.59; -0.10) and a positive association with GA (adjusted ß = 0.45 week, 95% CI: 0.17; 0.74). For the lipophilic POPs, we found an overall trend of inverse associations to foetal growth indices. In conclusion, we found that the amphiphilic PFOA had a significant inversely association with foetal growth indices, whereas GA was positively associated. The data indicate that POPs have a negative effect on foetal growth.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Groenlândia/epidemiologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878083

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess temporal trends in health risks related to most common persistent contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), lead (Pb), as well as mercury (Hg) among indigenous peoples living in coastal areas of Chukotka in Arctic Russia. This is examined in relation to exposure pathways and a range of social and behavioral factors capable of modifying the exposure to these contaminants, including place of residence, income, traditional subsistence, alcohol consumption, and awareness of risk prevention. The primary exposure pathway for PCBs is shown to be the intake of traditional foods, which explained as much as 90% of the total health risk calculated employing established risk guidelines. Nearly 50% of past DDT-related health risks also appear to have been contributed by contaminated indoor surfaces involving commonly used DDT-containing insecticides. Individuals who practiced traditional activities are shown to have experienced a 4.4-fold higher risk of exposure to PCBs and a 1.3-fold higher risk for DDTs, Pb, and Hg. Low income, high consumption of marine mammal fat, alcohol consumption, and lack of awareness of health risk prevention are attributed to a further 2- to 6-fold increase in the risk of PCBs exposure. Low socioeconomic status enhances the health risks associated with exposure to the persistent contaminants examined.


Assuntos
DDT/sangue , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Inseticidas/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Mercúrio/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(12): 127007, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, we conducted a longitudinal study [Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS II)] 8 y after the baseline (ACHS I). OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between persistent chlorinated compounds and hypertension in residents living around the former polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) production plant in Anniston, Alabama. We also examined the potential role of inflammatory cytokines in those with hypertension. METHODS: A total of 338 participants had their blood pressure measured and medications recorded, gave a blood sample, and completed a questionnaire. Prevalent hypertension was defined as taking antihypertensive medication or having systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and/or diastolic pressure >90 mmHg; incident hypertension used similar criteria in those who developed hypertension since the baseline in 2005-2007. PCB congeners were categorized into structure-activity groups, and toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for dioxin-like compounds. Descriptive statistics, logistic and linear regressions, as well as Cox proportional hazard models, were used to analyze the associations between exposures and hypertension. RESULTS: Prevalent hypertension (78%) in ACHS II showed statistically significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for PCBs 74, 99, 138, 153, 167, 177, 183, and 187, ranging from 2.18 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 4.33] to 2.76 (95% CI: 1.14, 6.73), as well as for two estrogenic-like PCB groups, and the thyroid-like group [ORs ranging from 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.75) to 2.54 (95% CI: 1.13, 5.74)]. Furthermore, analysis of quartiles demonstrated a monotonic relationship for dioxin-like non-ortho (non-o)-PCB TEQs [fourth vs. first quartile: 3.66 (95% CI: 1.40, 9.56)]. Longitudinal analyses of incident hypertension supported those positive associations. The results were strongest for the di-o-PCBs [hazard ratio (HR)=1.93 (95% CI: 0.93, 4.00)] and estrogenic II PCB group [HR=1.90 (95% CI: 0.96, 3.78)] but were weaker for the dioxin TEQs. DISCUSSION: Findings supportive of positive associations were reported for dioxin-like mono-o- and non-o-PCBs as well as for nondioxin-like estrogenic and thyroid-like congeners with prevalent and incident hypertension, suggesting that multiple pathways may be involved in hypertension development. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5272.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Alabama , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Masculino , Saúde Pública
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(11): 1865-1873, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic environmental toxicants that accumulate in adipose tissue. Weight loss leads to mobilization and increased redistribution of these toxicants. Many are obesogens and endocrine disruptors. Increased exposure could pose long-term health risks. The study objective was to measure the changes in serum concentrations of lipophilic POPs during significant weight loss. METHODS: This study enrolled 27 patients at a university hospital in a longitudinal, 6-month, observational study examining changes in POP blood levels after bariatric surgery. The primary outcome was the changes in the concentrations of 24 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 9 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 11 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl, and 4 perfluorochemicals (PFCs). RESULTS: Older adults (those born before 1976) had baseline levels of PCBs, OCPs, and PFCs that were two- to fivefold higher than younger adults (those born after 1976). Older adults had greater increases in PCBs, OCPs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers associated with weight loss. Conversely, younger adults had greater increases in PFCs associated with weight loss. On average, blood POP levels increased as weight loss occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Although weight loss is considered beneficial, the release and redistribution of POPs to other lipid-rich organs such as the brain, kidneys, and liver warrant further investigation. Interventions should be considered to limit organ exposure to POPs when weight loss interventions are planned.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Tecido Adiposo/química , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise Química do Sangue , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/farmacocinética , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacocinética , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/sangue , Praguicidas/farmacocinética , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/farmacocinética , Período Pós-Operatório , Distribuição Tecidual , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107005, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and children are especially vulnerable to exposures to food contaminants, and a balanced diet during these periods is critical for optimal nutritional status. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the association between diet and measured blood and urinary levels of environmental contaminants in mother-child pairs from six European birth cohorts (n=818 mothers and 1,288 children). METHODS: We assessed the consumption of seven food groups and the blood levels of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and heavy metals and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites, phenolic compounds, and organophosphate pesticide (OP) metabolites. Organic food consumption during childhood was also studied. We applied multivariable linear regressions and targeted maximum likelihood based estimation (TMLE). RESULTS: Maternal high (≥4 times/week) versus low (<2 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 15% higher PCBs [geometric mean (GM) ratio=1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.29], 42% higher perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) (GM ratio=1.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 89% higher mercury (Hg) (GM ratio=1.89; 95% CI: 1.47, 2.41) and a 487% increase in arsenic (As) (GM ratio=4.87; 95% CI: 2.57, 9.23) levels. In children, high (≥3 times/week) versus low (<1.5 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 23% higher perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (GM ratio=1.23; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.40), 36% higher PFUnDA (GM ratio=1.36; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), 37% higher perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (GM ratio=1.37; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.54), and >200% higher Hg and As [GM ratio=3.87 (95% CI: 1.91, 4.31) and GM ratio=2.68 (95% CI: 2.23, 3.21)] concentrations. Using TMLE analysis, we estimated that fish consumption within the recommended 2-3 times/week resulted in lower PFAS, Hg, and As compared with higher consumption. Fruit consumption was positively associated with OP metabolites. Organic food consumption was negatively associated with OP metabolites. DISCUSSION: Fish consumption is related to higher PFAS, Hg, and As exposures. In addition, fruit consumption is a source of exposure to OPs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5324.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Arsênico , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Funções Verossimilhança , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez
19.
Environ Res ; 178: 108666, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472363

RESUMO

Studies have shown that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can have various health effects. However, little is known about the effects of multiple chemicals with possible common sources of exposure on walking speed, a proxy index reflecting lower limb neuromuscular function and physical function. We simultaneously applied multiple linear and nonlinear statistical models to explore the complex exposure-response relationship between a mixture of 22 selected POPs and walking speed. A total of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and 5 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the serum of participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2002. Walking speed was measured during a physical examination. Linear regression (LR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and group LASSO were used to evaluate the linearity of mixtures, while restricted cubic spline (RCS) regression, random forest (RF), and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models were used to evaluate the nonlinearity of mixtures. Potential confounders were adjusted in the above models. A total of 436 subjects were included in our final analysis. The results of the LR model did not identify any POP exposure that was significantly associated with walking speed. The LASSO results revealed an inverse association of one PCDD congener and two PCDF congeners with walking speed, while the group LASSO analysis identified PCDFs at the exposure level and at the group level. In the RCS analysis, two PCB congeners presented significant overall associations with walking speed. The PCB congener PCB194 showed statistically significant effects on the outcome (P = 0.01) when a permutation-based RF was used. The BKMR analysis suggested that PCBs and PCDFs (probabilities = 0.887 and 0.909, respectively) are potentially associated with walking speed. Complex statistical models, such as RCS regression, RF and BKMR models, can detect the nonlinear and nonadditive relationships between PCBs and walking speed, while LASSO and group LASSO can identify only the linear relationships between PCDFs and walking speed. Fully considering the influence of collinearity in each method during modelling can increase the comprehensiveness and reliability of conclusions in studies of multiple chemicals.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/sangue , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Benzofuranos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos , Velocidade de Caminhada
20.
Chemosphere ; 235: 969-975, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561313

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Group 1 as carcinogenic to human, based on sufficient evidence in humans of an increased risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma and limited evidence for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However present findings on the association of PCB exposure and NHL are still controversial. This study examined the relationship between PCB serum levels and risk of NHL in a Northern Italy area (Brescia province), where a chemical factory produced PCBs from 1938 to 1984, causing human contamination. A case-control study of 215 NHL patients and 215 control subjects was conducted. Cases and controls were assayed for serum levels of 33 PCB congeners. No associations were found between risk of NHL and serum levels of total PCBs (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.25-1.04 for highest vs lowest quartile) or specific PCB congeners. The study confirmed a strong association of NHL with HCV infection (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.30-10.02). This case-control study does not support the hypothesis of an association between current serum levels of PCBs and NHL development in the general population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/sangue , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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