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1.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 233-236, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676997

RESUMO

The Siphoviridae phage PMBT6 was identified by transmission electron microscopy in the supernatant of Bifidobacterium thermophilum MBT94004 bioreactor fermentation culture, where it occurred at a moderately high titer. Genome analysis of the bacterial DNA confirmed the presence of this prophage within the genome of the lysogenic host. Under laboratory conditions, the prophage could not be induced by mitomycin C, ultraviolet C irradiation or hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the prophage was released by spontaneous induction under (yet unknown) bioreactor conditions. Genome sequencing of the virion resulted in a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule of 36,561 bp with a mol% G + C content of 61.7 and 61 predicted open reading frames with low similarity to other Bifidobacterium spp. genomes, confirming that PMBT6 represents a novel temperate phage for this genus.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/ultraestrutura , Composição de Bases , Bifidobacterium/virologia , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Fermentação , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Viral , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Prófagos/classificação , Prófagos/genética
2.
Food Chem ; 309: 125709, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708343

RESUMO

To produce manno-oligosaccharides from cassia gum, a mutated glycoside hydrolase family 134 ß-mannanase gene (mRmMan134A) from Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis F518 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and a high expression level (3680 U mL-1) was obtained through high cell density fermentation. mRmMan134A exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.5 and 50 °C. It was then subjected to hydrolyze cassia gum with 70.6% of overall yield of manno-oligosaccharides. From the hydrolysate, seven components (F1-F7) were separated and identified as mannose, mannobiose, galactose, mannotriose, mannotetraose, 61-α-d-galactosyl-ß-d-mannobiose, and mannopentaose, respectively. According to in vitro fermentation, the manno-oligosaccharides were able to promote the growth of three Bifidobacterium strains and six Lactobaillus strains with 3.0-fold increment in culture absorbance, and these strains preferred manno-oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (DP) 2-3 rather than those with DP 4-5. Novel manno-oligosaccharides from cassia gum with promising prebiotic activity were provided in the present study.


Assuntos
Cassia/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Prebióticos , beta-Manosidase/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Manose/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Rhizopus/enzimologia , Temperatura Ambiente , beta-Manosidase/genética
3.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 17-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566084

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have drawn attention for their contribution to the explosive bifidobacterial growth in the intestines of neonates. We found that bifidobacteria can efficiently metabolize lacto-N-biose I (LNB), the major building blocks of HMOs, and we have developed a method to synthesize LNB by applying this system. We produced LNB on a kilogram scale by the method. This proved that, among the enterobacteria, only bifidobacteria can assimilate LNB, and provided the data that supported the explosive growth of bifidobacteria in neonates. Furthermore, we were also able to reveal the structure of LNB crystal and the low stability for heating at neutral pH, which has not been clarified so far. In this paper, using bifidobacteria and LNB as examples, I describe the research on oligosaccharide synthesis that was conducted by utilizing a sugar metabolism.Abbreviations: LNB: lacto-N-biose I; GNB: galacto-N-biose; HMOs: human milk oligosaccharides; GLNBP: GNB/LNB phosphorylase; NahK: N-acetylhexosamine 1-kinase; GalT: UDP-glucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; GalE: UDP-glucose 4-epimerase; SP: sucrose phosphorylase.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/análogos & derivados , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/química , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sacarose/química , Acetilglucosamina/síntese química , Acetilglucosamina/química , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Resinas de Troca de Ânions/química , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cristalização , Dissacaridases/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Recém-Nascido
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13969-13977, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747272

RESUMO

Various ß-galactosidase enzymes catalyze the trans-glycosylation reaction with lactose. The resulting galactooligosaccharide (GOS) mixtures are widely used in infant nutrition to stimulate growth of beneficial gut bacteria. GOS consists mainly of compounds with a degree of polymerization (DP) varying from 2-8 and with diverse glycosidic linkages. In recent years, we have elucidated in detail the composition of several commercial GOS mixtures in terms of DP and the structural identity of the individual compounds. In this work, 13 (single) probiotic strains of gut bacteria, belonging to 11 different species, were grown to stationary phase with a Vivinal GOS-derived sample purified to remove lactose and monosaccharides (pGOS). Growth among the probiotic strains varied strongly between 30 and 100% of OD600nm relative to positive controls with glucose. By identifying the components of the pGOS mixture that remain after growth, we showed that strains varied in their consumption of specific GOS compounds. All strains commonly used most of the GOS DP2 pool. Lactobacillus salivarius W57 also utilized the DP3 branched compound ß-d-Galp-(1 → 4)-[ß-d-Galp-(1 → 2)]-d-Glc. Bifidobacterial strains tended to use GOS with higher DP and branching than lactobacilli; Bifidobacterium breve DSM 20091, Lactobacillus acidophilus W37, and Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 20088 were exceptional in using 38, 36, and 35 compounds, respectively, out of the 40 different structures identified in pGOS. We correlated these bacterial GOS consumption profiles with their genomic information and were able to relate metabolic activity with the presence of genome-encoded transporters and carbohydrate-active enzymes. These detailed insights may support the design of synbiotic combinations pairing probiotic bacterial strains with GOS compounds that specifically stimulate their growth. Such synbiotic combinations may be of interest in food/feed and/or pharmacy/medicine applications.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus acidophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolismo , Prebióticos/análise , Probióticos/metabolismo
5.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 42(6): 126017, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585749

RESUMO

Fifteen bifidobacterial strains were obtained from faeces of Rousettus aegyptiacus; after grouping them by RAPD PCR only eight were selected and characterized. Analysis of 16S rRNA and of five housekeeping (hsp60, rpoB, clpC, dnaJ, dna G) genes revealed that these eight strains were classified into five clusters: Cluster I (RST 8 and RST 16T), Cluster II (RST 9T and RST 27), Cluster III (RST 7 and RST 11), Cluster IV (RST 19), Cluster V (RST 17) were closest to Bifidobacterium avesanii DSM 100685T (96.3%), Bifidobacterium callitrichos DSM 23973T (99.2% and 99.7%), Bifidobacterium tissieri DSM 100201T (99.7 and 99.2%), Bifidobacterium reuteri DSM 23975 T (98.9%) and Bifidobacterium myosotis DSM 100196T (99.3%), respectively. Strains in Cluster I and strain RST 9 in Cluster II could not be placed within any recognized species while the other ones were identified as known species. The average nucleotide identity values between two novel strains, RST 16T and RST 9T and their closest relatives were lower than 79% and 89%, respectively. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization values for those closest relatives were 32.5 and 42.1%, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic tests demonstrated that strains in Cluster I and RST 9T in Cluster II represent two novel species for which the names Bifidobacterium vespertilionis sp. nov. (RST 16T=BCRC 81138T=NBRC 113380T=DSM 106025T ; RST 8=BCRC 81135=NBRC 113377) and Bifidobacterium rousetti sp. nov. (RST 9T=BCRC 81136T=NBRC 113378T=DSM 106027T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/classificação , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Composição de Bases , Bifidobacterium/química , Bifidobacterium/genética , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Egito , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genes Essenciais/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108288, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421399

RESUMO

Even though spore-forming bacteria have been mainly linked to spoilage or foodborne pathogens vehiculated through foods, some strains of Bacillus can potentially present probiotic properties. The advantage of incorporating probiotic Bacillus strains in foods relies mainly on the fact that these microorganisms present high resistance to harsh processing conditions. "Requeijão cremoso" is a type of processed cheese highly appreciated in Brazil. During processing, this product is submitted to several harsh conditions (heating at 90 °C, for instance), leading to the inactivation of probiotic bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera. That fact has precluded the development of probiotic "requeijão cremoso" products; however, probiotic Bacillus strains may comprise a promising alternative to overcome the low resistance of traditional probiotics to food processing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different Bacillus strains with claimed probiotic properties throughout processed cheese ("requeijão cremoso") manufacturing. A total of five different Bacillus strains with claimed probiotic properties (B. coagulans MTCC 5856, B. coagulans GBI-30 6086, B. subtilis PXN 21, B. subtilis PB6, and B. flexus HK1) were individually inoculated at different stages of manufacture - curd pasteurization, coagulation, and fusion - of "requeijão cremoso" and their survival in each of these stages was determined. The survival of B. coagulans GBI-30 6086 was further assessed throughout "requeijão cremoso" production and shelf life (45 days at 6 °C). Besides, the chemical composition, level of proteolysis, and fatty acid profile of the treatments during shelf life were evaluated. The fusion stage was found as the most appropriate for the addition of B. coagulans GBI-30 6086, which allows the production of probiotic "requeijão cremoso" and facilitates the technological process while preventing the occurrence of final product recontamination.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Probióticos , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Brasil , Queijo/análise , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(5): 325-332, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454425

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to develop a galenical formulation for the combination of the three probiotic strains Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3 and Bifidobacterium bifidum MF 20/5 that would lead to the presence of a high amount of viable cells in the small intestine, the presumed site of action of these strains. This was tested in a validated, dynamic in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine (TIM-1), simulating human adults after intake of a meal. Experiments were performed both in the gastric compartment of the model, as well as in the complete system (stomach + small intestine). Survival of the strains in an unformulated probiotic powder after transit through the gastric compartment was 5·3% for the bifidobacteria and 1% for L. gasseri. After transit through the complete gastrointestinal tract, this dropped to 2% for bifidobacteria and 0·1% for Lactobacillus. After several rounds of optimization, an enteric-coated tablet was developed that increased the delivery of viable cells reaching the small intestine to 72% (gastric survival) for bifidobacteria, and 53% (gastric) for L. gasseri. Also survival in the small intestine increased by about an order of magnitude. The final galenical formulation was tested in two applications: adults and elderly, both of which have their own physiological parameters. These experiments corroborated the results obtained in the development phase of the project. In conclusion, the developed enteric coating led to a 20- to 40-fold increase in the delivery of viable cells to the small intestine. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Predictive GI in vitro models are very helpful and reliable tools for the development of new galenical formula containing probiotics, and in the current example helped to deliver >10-fold higher numbers of viable cells to the small intestine, presumably leading to improved functionality of the strains.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos/química , Estômago/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Comprimidos/química
8.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 3909-3922, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192321

RESUMO

The Tenebrio molitor insect flour (TMIF) is considered a nutritive food ingredient, but its impact at the gut microbiota level and its potential prebiotic activity still need be assessed. For such studies, an in vitro simulation model of gut microbiota was optimized. Pure cultures of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains in monocultures and co-cultures (pairs and consortium) were used in this model to evaluate the effect of TMIF on the viability and metabolic activity of those bacteria. The optimization of the in vitro model of the gut microbiota was successful, and growth of the most important groups of bacteria in the gut microbiota was observed. So this model can be used to study the effects of other ingredients at that level. It also enabled pinpointing the prebiotic effects of the studied TMIF suggesting possible symbiotic interactions. In addition, the direct effect of the TMIF on bacterial cells, when in nutritive stress was also evaluated. In terms of TMIF effects on probiotic bacteria viability and growth, no negative effects were observed, and even an enhancement of growth and an increase of production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate, in most of the cases, was observed. Also, this study showed that TMIF helps in maintaining the viability of bacteria during incubation time when these are under nutritional stress conditions. A potential prebiotic effect of TMIF is then predictable with this study, opening a path to new research on this subject.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Prebióticos , Tenebrio/química , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Farinha , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana , Valor Nutritivo , Estresse Psicológico , Simbiose
9.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 45(4): 413-432, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157574

RESUMO

During the last decades, studies exploring the role of microorganisms inhabiting human body in different scenarios have demonstrated the great potential of modulating them to treat and prevent diseases. Among the most outstanding applications, probiotics have been used for over a century to treat infections and inflammation. Despite the beneficial role of other probiotics, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are the most frequently used, and have been effective as a therapeutic option in the treatment/prevention of dental caries, periodontal diseases, urogenital infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Additionally, as gastrointestinal tract harbors a great diversity of microbial species that directly or indirectly modulate host metabolism and immune response, the influence of intestinal microbiota, one of the targets of therapies using probiotics, on the biology of immune cells can be explored to treat inflammatory disorders or immune-mediated diseases. Thus, it is not surprising that probiotics have presented promising results in modulating human inflammatory diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, among others. Hence, the purpose of this review is to discuss the potential of therapeutic approaches using probiotics to constrain infection and development of inflammation on human subjects.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(15): 6287-6296, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168650

RESUMO

In the present study, the modulatory effects of bifidobacterial spp. (Bifidobacterium breve NCIM 5671, Bifidobacterium longum NCIM 5672 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIM 5697) on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats were evaluated. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting 250 µg of Freund's adjuvant directly into the paw. Fifteen days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis, suspended cultures of bifidobacteria (109 cfu/ml) were administered by oral gavage. Paw volume, bone mineral content, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, cytokines, eicosanoids and expression of COX2, as well as bone hydrolytic enzymes, were assessed by RT PCR. Although piroxicam-treated groups (drug control) had better effects than bifidobacteria-treated groups, bifidobacteria probiotics administration exhibited significant (P < 0.05) prophylactic effects in terms of downregulating arthritis markers. Parameters including paw volume, bone mineral content, cytokines, and eicosanoids level were significantly (p < 0.05) modulated in bifidobacteria administered groups compared to arthritic control group. Among the three strains tested, B. breve NCIM 5671 exhibited superior prophylactic effects as assessed in the experimental rat model of arthritis. In conclusion, bifidobacteria probiotics administration can downregulate the markers of arthritis and hence can be a potential therapeutic regimen in the treatment of arthritis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Artrite/prevenção & controle , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Artrite/patologia , Artrite/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4134-4142, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241125

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of putrescine on the immune function and intestinal bacteria of weaning piglets. Twenty-four male castrated weaning piglets on their 21st day were randomly assigned into four groups: control (basal diet) and treatment groups given basal diets supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.15% putrescine for 11 days. Results were as follows: (1) Dietary putrescine increased the villus height, width, height/crypt depth and surface area, and decreased the diarrhea index (P < 0.05). (2) Dietary putrescine increased the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and the amount of immunoglobulin M, antibacterial peptides, and transforming growth factor ß1, but decreased the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (P < 0.05). (3) Dietary putrescine increased the mRNA expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin, signal transducer and activator of transcription, and Janus kinase 2 but decreased the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-kappa B P65 (P < 0.05). (4) Dietary putrescine increased the population of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium and decreased that of Escherichia coli in the colon and cecum (P < 0.05). (5) Finally, dietary putrescine increased the concentrations of butyrate and total volatile fatty acids in the colon and those of acetate, propionate, and total volatile fatty acids in the cecum (P < 0.05). Overall, putrescine can enhance intestinal development, improve immune functions, and regulate the population of intestinal bacteria in weaning piglets.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Putrescina/farmacologia , Desmame , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Animais , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Muramidase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Suínos
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2323540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119156

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 20020 and Lactobacillus gasseri IPLA 20212, two strains isolated from human samples, were evaluated for safety and influence over the intestinal microbiota and cytokine production by the intestinal tissue of adult BALB/c mice. Mice were divided into four groups receiving during 8 days PBS or a suspension of each strain, prepared fresh or lyophilized (bifidobacteria), at an amount of 4x108 viable cells/day. This dose could be comparable to the probiotic intake of a human adult who consumed about 100-200 mL of functional fermented milk per day, considering the usual level of probiotics in commercial products. No microbial translocation to liver or alterations in food intake, weight, and behavior were observed in treated mice. Intestinal content of secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) was not affected, discarding any adverse effect on the mucosa-associated immunity. The profile of intestinal proinflammatory/regulatory cytokines after intervention evidenced that the microbial strain administered and its cellular state (fresh or lyophilized) as well as the host tissue analyzed (small or large intestine) influenced the immune response and suggests a moderate shift towards a T helper 1 profile (Th1) in the large intestine after the administration of both strains. Changes on relative levels of some intestinal microbial groups were evidenced after intervention. It is noteworthy that butyrate was positively associated with a balanced pro-Th1 immune response. Therefore, B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA20020 and L. gasseri IPLA 20212 could be considered potential probiotic candidates to be included in functional foods for balancing the intestinal immune response.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Lactobacillus/imunologia , Animais , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Humanos , Imunomodulação/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Probióticos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/microbiologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(27): 7674-7683, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132256

RESUMO

Lactulose, a safe and beneficial molecule, can be used in food as a prebiotic and as an osmotic laxative during pregnancy. This work evaluated the effects of dietary lactulose on the gut microenvironment of pregnant mice using the fecal microbiota and metabolomic profiling. After 2 weeks of feeding, the Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides abundances in the mouse feces were significantly increased in the LAC-high (the diet supplemented with 15% lactulose) group. A total of 15 metabolites, including 1-monoolein, glucose-6-phosphate, and short-chain fatty acids, were increased significantly in the LAC-high group. The serum glucose and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased, while the progesterone level was significantly increased in the lactulose-fed mice. In the LAC-high group, the colonic pH and intestinal permeability were decreased, while the immunoglobulins in the colonic epithelial cells and the small intestinal absorption capacity were significantly increased. These findings indicated that lactulose supplementation benefitted pregnancy performance in mice.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Lactulose/administração & dosagem , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteroides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Gravidez
14.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 293-299, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098880

RESUMO

Prebiotics are regarded as the non-digestible food constituents that are selectively consumed by health-promoting bacteria (probiotics). In fact, a number of active metabolites is released due to intensive interaction between prebiotics and probiotics in the gut which exert local and systemic beneficial effects including regulation of intestinal disorders and modulation of host immunity. Turmeric is one of the most important medicinal herbaceous that is derived from Curcuma longa rhizome. Curcumin is a well-recognized component of turmeric which contributes to the prevention of multiple inflammatory diseases. Despite curcumin as a well-known compound, few researches have focused on the turmeric extract (TE) and its potential as prebiotic and anti-inflammatory compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic potential and some functional-structural properties of TE. The Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of TE showed identical peaks that belonged to ß configuration in pyranose and glycosidic bonds. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the presence of potent phenolic and flavonoid anti-oxidants and curcuminoids, and some functional monosaccharides. TE demonstrated excellent resistance to artificial human gastric and intestine juice compared to the standard prebiotic (inulin) (p ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, our time course experiment showed that TE not only is digested by probiotics including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12, but also supports the growth of these bacteria even after 72 h (p ≤ 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating prebiotic potential of TE and exploring its suppressive effects on LPS induced IL-8 production in HT29-19A cell line.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Linhagem Celular , Curcuma , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Inulina/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos
15.
Food Chem ; 292: 336-345, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054683

RESUMO

Biochemical effects of the water soluble fiber fraction of sugarcane bagasse (BSF) fermented in the colon was examined to evaluate its potential health promoting effects. A feeding experiment involving Fischer 344 rats, was conducted with 3 experimental diets containing, cellulose (CON), a commercial xylo-oligosaccharide (XYO) and BSF (BGS). Cumulative feed intake was significantly lower in XYO group while cecal weight was significantly higher. Acetic and propionic acid contents in the cecal content were significantly higher in the BGS and XYO, respectively. Total short chain fatty acid content was significantly higher in BGS and XYO resulting significantly lower cecal pH. Beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Akkermansia and Roseburia abundance was significantly higher in the XYO and BGS groups. Further, mucin and immunoglobulin-A contents were significantly higher in BGS group compared to CON group. Thus, BSF exhibited its ability to enhance the intestinal and systemic health upon fermentation in the colon.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Saccharum/metabolismo , Amônia/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/genética , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceco/química , Ceco/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Oligossacarídeos/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Água/química
16.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889821

RESUMO

The current study investigates whether probiotic fermented milk (PFM) and yogurt consumption (YC) are related to both the ingested bacteria taxa and the overall gut microbiota (GM) composition in healthy adults. PFM and YC habits were analyzed in 260 subjects (51% male) by specific questionnaires, and the following groups were considered: (1) PFM groups: nonconsumers (PFM-NC, n = 175) and consumers (PFM, n = 85), divided as follows: Bifidobacterium-containing PFM (Bif-PFM; n = 33), Lactobacillus-containing PFM (Lb-PFM; n = 14), and mixed Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-containing PFM (Mixed-PFM; n = 38); (2) PFM-NC were classified as: yogurt nonconsumers (Y-NC; n = 40) and yogurt consumers (n = 135). GM was analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing. PFM consumers showed higher Bifidobacteria taxa levels compared to NC, from phylum through to species. Specifically, Bif-PFM consumption was related to higher B. animalis levels (p < 0.001), whereas Lb-PFM consumption was associated to higher levels of Bifidobacterium (p < 0.045) and B. longum (p = 0.011). YC was related to higher levels of the yogurt starter Streptococcus thermophilus (p < 0.001). Lactobacilli and the overall GM were not related either to YC or PFM consumption. According to these results, healthy adults might benefit from PFM intake by increasing Bifidobacterium levels.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos , Streptococcus thermophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Iogurte/microbiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Valores de Referência
17.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(6): 1861-1868, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887606

RESUMO

AIMS: This study focuses on the development of a new strategy xylooligosaccharide (XOS) production from aqueous ammonia-pretreated rice straw (A-PRS), followed by ß-xylosidase hydrolysis produced by the newly identified strain Weissella cibaria FB069. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a higher efficiency of A-PRS, including the removal of lignin and increase in cellulose and xylan content, compared to that of the alkali and stream explosion methods. Using the ammonia pretreatment method, rice straw was used to obtain 32·4% xylan. The crude xylanase from W. cibaria was used to hydrolyse A-PRS over different hydrolysis times. The highest XOS yield (131 mg XOS per gram rice straw) was observed after 10 h. XOS produced from the PRS was tested on stimulation effect on Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. CONCLUSION: The possibility of XOS production from PRS using ß-xylosidase with strong prebiotic properties. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: We investigated the new strain for signification production of XOS. The two-stage process here described could help to further explore the optimization conditions for prebiotic production. Additionally, the stimulation effect of XOS from alternative source has a promising prospect in functional food.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Prebióticos , Weissella/enzimologia , Xilosidases/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrólise , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lignina/metabolismo
18.
Int Microbiol ; 22(2): 265-277, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810989

RESUMO

We aimed at isolating and characterising microorganisms present in human breast milk with probiotic potential. In an 8-week postpartum sampling period, two strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum LM7a and Bifidobacterium dentium LM8a') and four strains of lactobacilli were isolated, all during the first 4-week postpartum. B. longum LM7a and B. dentium LM8a', together with four strains previously isolated from breast milk (Bifidobacterium lactis INL1, INL2, INL4 and INL5), were considered for further studies. Susceptibility of the strains to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and chloramphenicol was evaluated and the isolates exhibited, in general, the same properties as previously reported for bifidobacteria. All isolates showed low hydrophobicity and B. lactis and B. longum strains had satisfactory resistance to gastric digestion and bile shock, but not to pancreatin. B. lactis INL1, B. longum LM7a and B. dentium LM8a' were selected for some comparative technological studies. In particular, B. lactis INL1 displayed technological potential, with satisfactory growth in cheese whey-based media in biofermentor and resistance to freeze-drying, accelerated storage conditions and simulated gastric digestion.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/toxicidade , Feminino , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatina/toxicidade
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(4): 1586-1599, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770927

RESUMO

Yeast products may serve as functional ingredients due to their benefits on host health but vary greatly in source, composition, and functionality, justifying research in host species of interest. In this study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) was investigated as a dietary supplement for adult dogs. Adult female beagles (n = 12; mean age = 3.3 ± 0.8 yr; mean BW = 10.3 ± 0.68 kg) were fed the same diet, but supplemented with three levels of SCFP (125, 250, and 500 mg/d) or a placebo (sucrose) via gelatin capsules in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Fecal samples for nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics and microbial populations as well as blood samples for immune indices were collected after a 21-d adaptation phase in each period. A separate palatability test was conducted to examine palatability of an SCFP-containing diet (0.2% of diet). All data, except for palatability data, were analyzed by Mixed Models procedure of SAS (version 9.4). A paired t-test was conducted to analyze data from the palatability test. Supplementation of SCFP did not affect total tract apparent macronutrient and energy digestibilities or fecal characteristics. Fecal phenol and total phenol + indole concentrations decreased linearly with SCFP dosage (P < 0.05). Relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was greater (P < 0.05), while Fusobacterium was lower (P < 0.05) in SCFP-supplemented dogs. Total white blood cell counts were decreased by SCFP (P < 0.05). The percentage of natural killer cells and antigen-presenting cells were not altered by SCFP. However, when comparing control vs. all SCFP treatments, SCFP-supplemented dogs had greater (P < 0.05) major histocompatibility complex class II presenting B cell and monocyte populations than control dogs. IFN-γ secreting helper and cytotoxic T cells increased linearly with SCFP consumption (P < 0.05). Immune cells derived from SCFP-supplemented dogs produced less (P < 0.05) TNF-α than those from control dogs when cells were stimulated with agonists of toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, and 7/8. A linear increase (P < 0.05) in serum IgE with SCFP dosage was noted. In the palatability test, a 1.9:1 consumption ratio was observed for the SCFP-containing diet vs. control diet, demonstrating a preference (P < 0.05) for SCFP. Results of this study suggest that SCFP supplementation may be beneficial to adult dogs by positively altering gut microbiota, enhancing immune capacity and reducing inflammation.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães/imunologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9814623, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793000

RESUMO

Technological processes in the dairy industry and the further passage through the gastrointestinal tract could impair viability and functionality of probiotic bifidobacteria. In the present work, the growth in milk of nine bifidobacterial strains shared by mother and child, their survival to freeze-drying and cold storage, and their behavior in a model cheese were investigated. All the strains exhibited high stability to the technological conditions studied when compared with two commercial strains. Bifidobacterium breve INIA P734 and Bifidobacterium bifidum INIA P671 as adjunct cultures maintained high stability during manufacture and ripening of cheese. Both strains showed, at the end of ripening period, resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, their presence did not affect negatively the quality of cheese. B. breve INIA P734 and B. bifidum INIA P671 could be considered as potential candidates for their use in cheese as adjunct cultures.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Queijo/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Liofilização , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Mães
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