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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17521, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have neglected to report the specific action of different probiotic genera in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of specific probiotic genera, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to identify the best prevention strategy for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials had been searched for randomized control trials reporting the probiotics strategy for premature infants. RESULTS: We identified 34 eligible studies of 9161 participants. The intervention in the observation group was to add probiotics for feeding: Lactobacilli in 6 studies; Bifidobacterium in 8 studies; Bacillus in 1 study; Saccharomyces in 4 studies and probiotic mixture in 15 studies. This NMA showed a significant advantage of probiotic mixture and Bifidobacterium to prevent the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A probiotic mixture showed effectiveness in reducing mortality in preterm infants. CONCLUSION: The recent literature has reported a total of 5 probiotic strategies, including Bacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces, and probiotic mixture. Our thorough review and NMA provided a piece of available evidence to choose optimal probiotics prophylactic strategy for premature infants. The results indicated that probiotic mixture and Bifidobacterium showed a stronger advantage to use in preterm infants; the other probiotic genera failed to show an obvious effect to reduce the incidence of NEC, sepsis and all-cause death. More trials need to be performed to determine the optimal probiotic treatment strategy to prevent preterm related complications.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(5): 774-793, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deregulation of the complex interaction among host genetics, gut microbiota and environmental factors on one hand and aberrant immune responses on the other hand, are known to be associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Recent studies provided strong evidence that autophagy plays a key role in the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD). Probiotics may exhibit many therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory abilities. While successful results have been obtained in ulcerative colitis patients, probiotics remain inefficient in CD for unknown reason. It remains therefore important to better understand their molecular mechanisms of action. METHODS: The activation of autophagy was examined by stimulating bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by the bacteria, followed by confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. The impact of blocking in vitro autophagy was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using 3-methyl adenine or bafilomycin followed by cytokine secretion measurement by ELISA. The role of autophagy in the anti-inflammatory capacities of the bacterial strains was evaluated in vivo using an acute trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced murine model of colitis. The impact of BMDC was evaluated by adoptive transfer, notably using bone marrow cells derived from autophagy-related 16-like 1-deficient mice. RESULTS: We showed that selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are able to induce autophagy activation in BMDCs. Blocking in vitro autophagy abolished the capacity of the strains to induce the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, while it exacerbated the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1ß. We confirmed in the TNBS-induced mouse model of colitis that autophagy is involved in the protective capacity of these selected strains, and showed that dendritic cells are involved in this process. CONCLUSION: We propose autophagy as a novel mechanism involved in the regulatory capacities of probiotics.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108288, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421399

RESUMO

Even though spore-forming bacteria have been mainly linked to spoilage or foodborne pathogens vehiculated through foods, some strains of Bacillus can potentially present probiotic properties. The advantage of incorporating probiotic Bacillus strains in foods relies mainly on the fact that these microorganisms present high resistance to harsh processing conditions. "Requeijão cremoso" is a type of processed cheese highly appreciated in Brazil. During processing, this product is submitted to several harsh conditions (heating at 90 °C, for instance), leading to the inactivation of probiotic bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera. That fact has precluded the development of probiotic "requeijão cremoso" products; however, probiotic Bacillus strains may comprise a promising alternative to overcome the low resistance of traditional probiotics to food processing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different Bacillus strains with claimed probiotic properties throughout processed cheese ("requeijão cremoso") manufacturing. A total of five different Bacillus strains with claimed probiotic properties (B. coagulans MTCC 5856, B. coagulans GBI-30 6086, B. subtilis PXN 21, B. subtilis PB6, and B. flexus HK1) were individually inoculated at different stages of manufacture - curd pasteurization, coagulation, and fusion - of "requeijão cremoso" and their survival in each of these stages was determined. The survival of B. coagulans GBI-30 6086 was further assessed throughout "requeijão cremoso" production and shelf life (45 days at 6 °C). Besides, the chemical composition, level of proteolysis, and fatty acid profile of the treatments during shelf life were evaluated. The fusion stage was found as the most appropriate for the addition of B. coagulans GBI-30 6086, which allows the production of probiotic "requeijão cremoso" and facilitates the technological process while preventing the occurrence of final product recontamination.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Probióticos , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Brasil , Queijo/análise , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284413

RESUMO

Our objective was to investigate the effects of different delivery and feeding modes on the gut microbiota composition of early infants with special emphasis on Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus profiles at species level. 16S rRNA V3-V4 regions, bifidobacterial, and lactobacilli groEL genes from infant feces were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Gut microbiota abundance was significantly different, where standard vaginally delivered (SVD) and breast-fed (BF) groups were higher in comparison with caesarean section (CS), milk-powder-fed (MPF), and mixed-fed (MF) groups. The genus unclassified Enterobacteriaceae was dominant, followed by Bifidobacterium, which was highly abundant in SVD and BF groups. The dominant Bifidobacterium species in all groups were B. longum subsp. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis and B. animalis subsp. lactis. B. dentium and the diversity of Bifidobacterium in SVD and BF groups were significantly higher. For Lactobacillus profiles, L. rhamnosus and L. gasseri were dominant among all the groups, while Lactobacillus species in CS and MPF groups were more diverse. Functional predictions showed significant differences between delivery mode and feeding groups, such as phosphotransferase system as well as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. In early infants with different delivery and feeding methods, gut microbiota-particularly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli communities-showed significant differences, with strong implications for physiological functions.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 1207-1218, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260157

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize four novel autochthonous bifidobacteria isolated from monkey faeces and a Bifidobacterium lactis strain isolated from chicken faeces by evaluating their technological and biological/functional potential to be used as probiotics. Different stressors, including food process parameters and storage, can affect their viability and functionality. METHODS AND RESULTS: The resistance to frozen storage, tolerance to lyophilization and viability during storage, thermal, acidic and simulated gastric resistance, surface hydrophobicity and antimicrobial activity against pathogens were studied. Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and INL1 were used as reference strains. The results obtained demonstrated that the new isolates presented strain-dependent behaviour. Good results were obtained for thermal resistance, frozen storage at -80°C and lyophilized powders maintained at 5°C. Cell viability during refrigerated storage was higher when the strains were resuspended in milk at pH 5·0 than at 4·5. The surface hydrophobicity ranged between 7 and 98% depending on the strain. The simulated gastric resistance was improved for the strains incorporated in cheese. Regarding antimicrobial activity, bifidobacteria isolated from monkey presented higher inhibitory capacity than the reference strains. CONCLUSION: This research provides a deeper insight into new strains of bifidobacteria isolated from primates and chicken that have not been previously characterized for their potential use in dairy products and confirm the most robust stress tolerance of B. lactis. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The possibility of expanding the available bifidobacteria with the potential to be added to a probiotic food necessarily implies characterizing them from different points of view, especially when considering unknown species. For monkey isolates (which showed higher antimicrobial activity against pathogens), more in-depth knowledge is needed before applying strategies to improve their performance. On the contrary, the chicken isolate B. lactis P32/1 showed similar behaviour to the references B. lactis strains; therefore, it could be considered as a potential probiotic candidate.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium , Probióticos , Animais , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Galinhas , Fezes/microbiologia , Haplorrinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Viabilidade Microbiana
7.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 131, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to determine the effect of probiotic consumption containing six viable microorganisms of 30 × 1010 cfu Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria strains for six months on clinical outcomes and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17C and IL-22) in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with colorectal cancer were randomized at four weeks after surgery to receive either a placebo (n = 25) or 30 billion colony-forming unit (CFU) of a mixture of six viable strains including 107 mg of Lactobacillus acidophilus BCMC® 12,130, Lactobacillus lactis BCMC® 12,451, Lactobacillus casei subsp BCMC® 12,313, Bifidobacterium longum BCMC® 02120, Bifidobacterium bifidum BCMC® 02290 and Bifidobacterium infantis BCMC® 02129 (n = 27). Patients were instructed to take the product orally twice daily for six months. Infection status, diarrhea or hospital admission were recorded throughout the study. Blood was taken pre- and post-intervention to measure TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17C and IL-22 using ELISA multiplex kit. RESULTS: The majority of cases (~ 70%) were in Duke's C colorectal cancer for both groups. No surgical infection occurred and no antibiotics were required. Chemotherapy induced diarrhea was observed in both groups. Significant reduction in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17C and IL-22 were observed in CRC patients who received probiotics as compared to pre-treatment level (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the IFN-γ in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that probiotics containing six viable microorganisms of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria strains are safe to be consumed at four weeks after surgery in colorectal cancer patients and have reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (except for IFN-gamma). Probiotic may modify intestinal microenvironment resulting in a decline in pro-inflammatory cytokines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03782428; retrospectively registered on 20th December 2018.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Colectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Diarreia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 57(2): 286-293, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309394

RESUMO

Eczema is increasing worldwide with associated increases in health costs and decreases in quality of life. There are many factors that are speculated to interact in the development of eczema including genetics and environmental exposures. Prevention of the development of eczema may prevent the further development of food allergies and asthma. This concept has prompted a variety of research into the area of primary prevention of eczema in infants. This exploration includes a growing body of research examining infants supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or both (synbiotics) often compared with their breastfed counterparts. The goal of this paper is to examine the evidence for manipulating the microbiome in the prevention of eczema. Several strains of probiotics, compositions of prebiotics, and varied combinations of both are commercially available. Evidence supports altering the microbiome in infants at high risk of atopy who are not able to breastfeed with Lactobacillus strains when given both prenatally followed by prolonged use (greater than 6 months) postnatally for the primary prevention of eczema. Prebiotics have also been shown beneficial for primary prevention of eczema in formula-fed infants with prolonged use greater than 6 months. These findings are in keeping with the World Allergy Organization (WAO) recommendations that support interventions to manipulate the microbiome with both probiotics and prebiotics.


Assuntos
Eczema/dietoterapia , Eczema/prevenção & controle , Microbiota/imunologia , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Simbióticos , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Eczema/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida
9.
mBio ; 10(3)2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213556

RESUMO

Much remains unknown about how the intestinal microbiome interfaces with the protective intestinal mucus layer. Bifidobacterium species colonize the intestinal mucus layer and can modulate mucus production by goblet cells. However, select Bifidobacterium strains can also degrade protective glycans on mucin proteins. We hypothesized that the human-derived species Bifidobacterium dentium would increase intestinal mucus synthesis and expulsion, without extensive degradation of mucin glycans. In silico data revealed that B. dentium lacked the enzymes necessary to extensively degrade mucin glycans. This finding was confirmed by demonstrating that B. dentium could not use naive mucin glycans as primary carbon sources in vitro To examine B. dentium mucus modulation in vivo, Swiss Webster germfree mice were monoassociated with live or heat-killed B. dentium Live B. dentium-monoassociated mice exhibited increased colonic expression of goblet cell markers Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), Trefoil factor 3 (Tff3), Relm-ß, Muc2, and several glycosyltransferases compared to both heat-killed B. dentium and germfree counterparts. Likewise, live B. dentium-monoassociated colon had increased acidic mucin-filled goblet cells, as denoted by Periodic Acid-Schiff-Alcian Blue (PAS-AB) staining and MUC2 immunostaining. In vitro, B. dentium-secreted products, including acetate, were able to increase MUC2 levels in T84 cells. We also identified that B. dentium-secreted products, such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), stimulated autophagy-mediated calcium signaling and MUC2 release. This work illustrates that B. dentium is capable of enhancing the intestinal mucus layer and goblet cell function via upregulation of gene expression and autophagy signaling pathways, with a net increase in mucin production.IMPORTANCE Microbe-host interactions in the intestine occur along the mucus-covered epithelium. In the gastrointestinal tract, mucus is composed of glycan-covered proteins, or mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells to form a protective gel-like structure above the epithelium. Low levels of mucin or alterations in mucin glycans are associated with inflammation and colitis in mice and humans. Although current literature links microbes to the modulation of goblet cells and mucins, the molecular pathways involved are not yet fully understood. Using a combination of gnotobiotic mice and mucus-secreting cell lines, we have identified a human-derived microbe, Bifidobacterium dentium, which adheres to intestinal mucus and secretes metabolites that upregulate the major mucin MUC2 and modulate goblet cell function. Unlike other Bifidobacterium species, B. dentium does not extensively degrade mucin glycans and cannot grow on mucin alone. This work points to the potential of using B. dentium and similar mucin-friendly microbes as therapeutic agents for intestinal disorders with disruptions in the mucus barrier.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Bifidobacterium/enzimologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vida Livre de Germes , Células Caliciformes/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mucina-2/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Mucinas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
10.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 89, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134431

RESUMO

The present study is dedicated to the development of novel criteria for assessing the synbiotic effect of prebiotic and probiotic composition against a specific pathogen. These criteria were obtained from the quantitative model of Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 9634 (as a model food contaminant) competition in co-culture fermentation. The model is based on the hypothesis that probiotics can reduce the specific growth rate of non-probiotics by producing short-chain fatty acids. To define the relationship between the specific growth rate of non-probiotics and short-chain fatty acid yields, the inhibition constants were determined separately for each inhibitor produced by bifidobacteria (lactic, acetic and propionic acids) in a pure culture of bacilli. Two different equations based on the minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) and inhibition constant (Ki) were used to connect the specific growth rate and concentrations of inhibitors. The yields of the inhibitors mentioned above were obtained from co-culture experiments. The experimental values and the values predicted by the model of Bacillus count did not differ significantly (R2 not less than 0.83) in the competition experiments. Therefore, the general criterion of the synbiotic effect was derived from the model and presents the coefficient of non-probiotic specific growth rate reduction as a result of probiotic growth and inhibitor formation in the final co-culture fermentation. This criterion has been examined for different commercial prebiotics coupled with the Bifidobacterium adolescentis strain. The synergistic combination of inulin GR with bifidobacteria had the best effect against Bacillus cereus ATCC 9634.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Simbióticos , Ácido Acético , Antibiose , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteriocinas/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Cocultura , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fermentação , Contaminação de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inulina , Cinética , Ácido Láctico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Propionatos
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 133: 957-963, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028812

RESUMO

The efficacy of probiotic health products depends on the capability of the constituent probiotic bacteria to survive through long period of cold storage and the gastrointestinal tract. This study was to evaluate the protective effects of a high-molecular weight (MW) exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a medicinal fungus Cs-HK1 on three different bifidobacteria. The EPS had a total dietary fiber content about 70% (w/w), which was close to its total carbohydrate content. It was resistant to artificial gastric acid (pH 2) with no more than 4% (w/w) hydrolysis in 6 h. EPS at 5 g/L significantly increased the survival rate of the probiotic bacteria during cold storage (4 °C) and in simulated gastric acid, reducing the death rate of different bacterial strains by 50% to 70%. The protective effect of EPS was weaker when the concentration was decreased to 3 g/L or when the MW of EPS was reduced by partial degradation with power ultrasound. EPS also showed significantly protective effect on the all bacterial strains in bile juice. The results have demonstrated the potential value of Cs-HK1 EPS as a novel prebiotic fiber for the formulation of synbiotic products with probiotic bacteria.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomimética , Temperatura Baixa , Cordyceps/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013872

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the association between bifidobacterial colonization in low birth weight infants and perinatal factors, including the timing of initial colostrum and the effect of probiotics on this colonization. In this non-randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 98 low-birth-weight infants from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Japan. Infants were divided into three groups: group N (no intervention), group H (received non-live bifidobacteria), and group L (received live bifidobacteria). The number of bifidobacteria in the infants' stools at 1 month of age was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We divided infants into "rich bifidobacteria" (≥104.8 cells/g feces) and "poor bifidobacteria" (<104.8 cells/g feces) subgroups. The ratio of "rich bifidobacteria" infants was 20/31, 34/36, and 30/30 in groups N, H, and L, respectively. In group N, the "rich bifidobacteria" group received first colostrum significantly earlier than the "poor bifidobacteria" group (1 day vs. 4 days, P < 0.05). Compared with the N group, both groups H and L had a significantly high proportion of "rich bifidobacteria" infants (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterial colonization was poor in premature infants at 1 month compared with term infants, and the level of colonization was associated with the timing of initial provision of colostrum. Providing probiotics to premature infants can improve bifidobacterial colonization.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Colostro/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
13.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1114-1115: 100-109, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947130

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to find the component of the Bifidobacterium cell wall more particularly the functional groups from peptidoglycan involved in the mechanism of binding with Benzo[a]pyrene. Additionally, the effect of different stress factors (acid, heat, alkaline, oxidative, osmotic, enzymatic, and detergent factors) on the functional group and the overall binding mechanism of Bifidobacterium with B[a]p were also evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to explain the binding mechanism of Bifidobacterium with B[a]p along with HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography). The peptidoglycan-B[a]p complexes were highly stable after benzene washing. Peptidoglycan from Bifidobacterium infantis BY12 showed highest binding rate with B[a]p out of nine selected strains. FTIR spectra showed that the main functional groups involved in B[a]p binding were CO, OH and/or NH. FTIR spectrums along with SEM electrographs as a function of stress factors reveal that peptidoglycan structural integrity is important in B[a]p binding. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis BY12 may be employed as a biological detoxification agent for the elimination of B[a]p from human diet and animal feed in the future.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/citologia , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Bifidobacterium/química , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Peptidoglicano/química , Probióticos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(7): 781-795, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843443

RESUMO

Microbiome is the community of microorganism that co-live with a host. The human being is the result of the integration of its genome and the coexistence with millions of microorganisms throughout its evolutionary history. Human-microbiome association can be considered a step of integration in evolution, constituting a superorganism. Many emergent diseases are related to the loss of part of this microbiome and its restoration can be achieved by different strategies. Gut microbiome imbalance is particularly associated with numerous inflammatory, immune and nervous system-related diseases by a communication pathway called microbiome-brain axis. Modulation of microbiome by administering prebiotics, like arabinoxylans, and synbiotics is a plausible treatment for dysbiosis, the regulation of neurotransmitters and alleviation of neurological manifestations.


Assuntos
Saúde , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Microbiota/imunologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/microbiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Simbióticos
15.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 80(3): 139-145, 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860919

RESUMO

An awareness of the importance of the gut-brain axis in psychiatric disorders such as depression is increasing. The gut microbiome is a key component of this axis. Gut bacteria can communicate with the brain through a variety of pathways including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune modulation, tryptophan metabolism and the production of various neuroactive compounds. Patients with depression, and other mood and anxiety disorders, show distinct compositional changes in their gut bacteria profile, raising the question about a possible aetiological role for the microbiome in these disorders. Evidence is emerging that the gut microbiome may represent a new potential antidepressant target and the term 'psychobiotic' has been coined to describe bacteria which confer mental health benefits. Gut bacteria are easily accessible and can be altered in a variety of ways including through the use of probiotics, prebiotics and dietary change. Psychobiotics containing various Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species have demonstrated the ability to improve mood, reduce anxiety and enhance cognitive function in both healthy populations and patient groups. This article provides an overview of the identification and development of antidepressant psychobiotics, from the preclinical evidence in the laboratory to the more recent encouraging results from human trials.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/microbiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Isoniazida , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Transtornos do Humor/microbiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Nervo Vago
16.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699901

RESUMO

Studies devoted to evaluating the outcome of different doses of probiotics are very limited, especially for multistrain formulations. In this context, we performed an intervention study that aimed to compare the effect of the administration of two doses (7 billion and 70 billion bacterial cells) of a multistrain probiotic formulation on the persistence of the four probiotic strains that were present in the product in the fecal samples collected from healthy subjects. The overall persistence of the probiotic strains was significantly higher for the 70 billion formulation than for the 7 billion formulation. Furthermore, probiotic strains were detected earlier and for longer for the 70 billion formulation compared to those for the 7 billion formulation. All probiotic strains were recovered alive from the 70 billion preparation, whereas recovery was not possible in a few fecal samples upon administration of the 7 billion preparation. In addition, the overall number of viable probiotic cells recovered on day 14 (i.e., the last day of consumption) was significantly higher for the 70 billion formulation than that for the 7 billion formulation. Finally, we found that the viability of the probiotic cells was stable over the course of the trial independent of volunteers' handling, demonstrating good manufacturing of the product. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that strains belonging to different taxa may coexist in the human gastrointestinal tract upon ingestion of a multispecies probiotic formulation. Moreover, this study suggests that higher doses of bacterial cells in probiotic formulations may permit a higher, earlier, and longer recovery of the probiotics in the feces of healthy adults.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sobrevivência Celular , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactoferrina/deficiência , Transtornos Leucocíticos
17.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome in early infancy affects immunologic development and thus may affect vaccine memory, though few prospective studies have examined such associations. We examined the association of Bifidobacterium levels in early infancy with memory responses to early vaccination measured at 2 years of age. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we examined the association of Bifidobacterium abundance in the stool of healthy infants at 6 to 15 weeks of age, near the time of vaccination, with T-cell and antibody responses measured at 6 weeks, 15 weeks, and 2 years of age. Infants were vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) (at birth), oral polio virus (at birth and at 6, 10, and 14 weeks), tetanus toxoid (TT) (at 6, 10, and 14 weeks), and hepatitis B virus (at 6, 10, and 14 weeks). Fecal Bifidobacterium was measured at 6, 11, and 15 weeks. Bifidobacterium species and subspecies were measured at 6 weeks. RESULTS: Mean Bifidobacterium abundance in early infancy was positively associated with the CD4 T-cell responses to BCG, TT, and hepatitis B virus at 15 weeks, with CD4 responses to BCG and TT at 2 years, and with plasma TT-specific immunoglobulin G and stool polio-specific immunoglobulin A at 2 years. Similar associations were seen for the predominant subspecies, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis. CONCLUSIONS: Bifidobacterium abundance in early infancy may increase protective efficacy of vaccines by enhancing immunologic memory. This hypothesis could be tested in clinical trials of interventions to optimize Bifidobacterium abundance in appropriate populations.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Bifidobacteriales/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bifidobacteriales/prevenção & controle , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinação/métodos , Infecções por Bifidobacteriales/epidemiologia , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/tendências
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(3): 304-311, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600360

RESUMO

In the present study, probiotic, safety and functional characteristics of eight indigenous bifidobacterial isolates were compared to identify suitable strains for functional food application. Among the isolates, six strains of Bifidobacterium longum and one each of Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum were identified by 16S rRNA, xfp and hsp60 gene sequencing. Diversity among these strains was established by RAPD and Rep-PCR. Genes associated with sortase-dependent pili (SDP) (credited for role in adhesion) and serpin (immunomodulation) which can serve as potential marker genes for rapid identification of probiotic Bifidobacterium, was also evaluated. All the isolates exhibited potential probiotic, functional (antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, phytase activity, milk fermentation ability) and safety attributes. However, among them, B. breve NCIM5671 exhibited, better tolerance to low pH, amylase activity and exopolysaccharide producing ability. B. bifidum NCIM5697 and B. longum NCIM5672 demonstrated higher adherence ability to Caco-2 cells. NCIM5697 also displayed exopolysaccharide producing ability while NCIM5672 showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogens tested. Further, with respect to presence of adhesion marker genes, disparity was observed among B. longum strains. B. longum NCIM5684 and B. longum NCIM5686 displayed presence of subunits of SDP reported to be present in B. breve. In addition, B. longum NCIM5686 also lacked SDP present in all other B. longum isolates. B. breve NCIM5671, B. longum NCIM5672 and B. bifidum NCIM5697 with appreciable traits qualifies as potential probiotic cultures. Further, the variations observed in molecular and functional characteristics of isolates signify genetic diversity among the cultures.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Probióticos/análise , Ácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Bifidobacterium/classificação , Bifidobacterium/enzimologia , Bifidobacterium/genética , Bile/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Segurança , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210798, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645630

RESUMO

Gut fungi may influence the course of Clostridium difficile infection either positively or negatively for the host. Fungi are not prominent in the mouse gut, and C. albicans, the major human gastrointestinal commensal yeast, is in low abundance or absent in mice. Bifidobacterium is one of the probiotics that may attenuate the severity of C. difficile infection. Inflammatory synergy between C. albicans and C. difficile, in gut, may provide a state that more closely resembles human infection and be more suitable for testing probiotic effects. We performed fecal mycobiota analysis and administered C. albicans at 1 day prior to C. difficile dosing. Fecal eukaryotic 18S rDNA analysis demonstrated the presence of Ascomycota, specifically, Candida spp., after oral antibiotics, despite negative fecal fungal culture. C. albicans administration enhanced the severity of the C. difficile infection model as determined by mortality rate, weight loss, gut leakage (FITC-dextran assay), and serum and intestinal tissue cytokines. This occurred without increased fecal C. difficile or bacteremia, in comparison with C. difficile gavage alone. Candida lysate with C. difficile increased IL-8 production from HT-29 and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cell-lines. Bifidobacterium attenuated the disease severity of the C. difficile plus Candida model. The reduced severity was associated with decreased Candida burdens in feces. In conclusion, gut C. albicans worsened C. difficile infection, possibly through exacerbation of inflammation. Hence, a mouse model of Clostridium difficile infection with C. albicans present in the gut may better model the human patient condition. Gut fungal mycobiome investigation in patients with C. difficile is warranted and may suggest therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Micobioma/fisiologia , Permeabilidade , Probióticos
20.
Animal ; 13(1): 64-73, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745350

RESUMO

Dietary resistant starch (RS) may have prebiotic properties but its effects on fermentation and the microbial population are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify the relationship between RS type 2 (RS2) and intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and pH as well as certain key bacterial taxa for intestinal health in pigs. From the 24 included articles with sufficient information about the animal, and dietary and physiological measurements published between 2000 and 2017, individual sub-data sets for fermentation metabolites, pH, bacterial abundances and apparent total tract digestibility were built and used to parameterize prediction models on the effect of RS2, accounting for inter- and intra-study variability. In addition, the effect of pig's BW at the start of the experiment and duration of the experimental period on response variables were also evaluated using backward elimination analysis. Dietary RS levels ranged from 0% to 78.0% RS, with median and mean RS levels of 28.8% and 23.0%, respectively. Negative relationships could be established between dietary RS and pH in the large intestine (P<0.05), with a stronger effect in the mid and distal colon, and feces (R 2=0.64 to 0.81; P<0.001). A dietary level of 15% RS would lower the pH in the proximal, mid-, distal colon and feces by 0.2, 0.6, 0.4 and 0.6 units, respectively. Increasing RS levels, however, did not affect SCFA concentrations in the hindgut, but enhanced the molar proportion of propionate in mid-colon and reduced those of acetate in mid-colon and of butyrate in mid- and distal colon (R 2=0.46 to 0.52; P<0.05). Backward elimination indicated an age-related decrease in mid-colonic propionate proportion and increase in mid- and distal colonic butyrate proportion (P<0.05), thereby modulating RS2 effects. In feces, increasing RS levels promoted fecal lactobacilli (R 2=0.46; P<0.01) and bifidobacteria (R 2=0.57; P<0.01), whereby the slope showed the need for a minimal RS level of 10% for a 0.5 log unit-increase in their abundance. Best-fit equations further supported that a longer experimental period increased fecal lactobacilli but decreased fecal bifidobacteria (P<0.05). In conclusion, dietary RS2 seems to effectively decrease digesta pH throughout the large intestine and increase lactic acid-producing bacteria in feces of pigs which may limit the growth of opportunistic pathogens in the hindgut. To achieve these physiologically relevant changes, dietary RS should surpass 10% to 15%.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Intestino Grosso , Masculino , Prebióticos , Propionatos/metabolismo
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