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Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 149-166, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191351


Se presenta una reflexión de la valía e importancia de los talleres de filosofía, inscritos en el Proyecto Boecio, que se han llevado a cabo en el Reclusorio Femenil de Santa Martha Acatitla y Reclusorio Varonil Oriente, ambos en Ciudad de México. Se mencionarán los contenidos y aprendizajes de dichos talleres, los cuales han sido significativos para las personas privadas de su libertad, para sobrellevar su proceso judicial, y el sobrevivir su "encierro", así como también, la manera en que sus familiares y amistades han sido beneficiados con dichos aprendizajes de sus seres queridos en reclusión, al brindarles herramientas para sobrellevar el estar "encerrados en casa" por la cuarentena de la COVID-19

This is a reflection about the value and importance of the philosophy workshops, registered in the Boethius Project, which have been carried out at the Santa Martha Acatitla's Womens Prison and East Men's Prison both of them in Mexico City. The contents and learning from these workshops will be mentioned, which have been signicant for the people in prison, to survive their judicial process and "confinement", as well as the way in which their family and friends have been benefitied with these learnings from their loved ones in jail, by providing then with tools to support "Stay in home" by the COVID-19 quarantine

Es presenta una reflexió de la importància dels tallers de filosofia, inscrits en el Projecte Boeci, que s'han dut a terme en el Reclusorio Femenil de Santa Martha Acatitla y Reclusorio Varonil Oriente, tots dos a Ciutat de Mèxic. Es parlarà dels continguts I aprenentatges d'aquests tallers, els quals han estat significatius per a les persones privades de la seva llibertat, per suportar el seu procés judicial, I sobreviure el seu "tancament", així com també, la manera en què els seus familiars I amistats s'han beneficiat d'aquests aprenentatges dels seus éssers estimats en reclusió, en poder brindar-los eines per a suportar l'estar "tancats a casa" per la quarantena de la COVID-19

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisões/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Bioética , México
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 333-352, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-191361


Pretende-se mostrar como a pandemia de COVID-19 causada pelo novo coronavírus Sars-CoV-2, afeta a distribuição equitativa de recursos sanitários no Brasil, bem como evidenciar os dilemas e entraves éticos e psicológicos vivenciados pelos profissionais da saúde no contexto de combate à doença. O presente estudo objetivou revisar conhecimentos acerca de questões bioéticas referentes à escassez de recursos e saúde mental. Realizou-se, desse modo, uma análise de protocolos sobre alocação de recursos recém-publicados no Brasil

Se pretende mostrar cómo la pandemia de COVID-19 causada por el nuevo coronavirus Sars-CoV-2, afecta la distribución equitativa de los recursos de salud en Brasil, así como resaltar los dilemas y barreras éticas y psicológicas advertidas por los profesionales de la salud en el contexto de lucha contra la enfermedad. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo revisar el conocimiento sobre cuestiones bioéticas relacionadas con la escasez de recursos y la salud mental. Así, se realizó un análisis de protocolos sobre la asignación de recursos recientemente publicados en Brasil

Es pretén mostrar com la pandèmia de COVID-19 causada pel nou coronavirus Sars-COV-2, afecta la distribució equitativa dels recursos de salut al Brasil, així com ressaltar els dilemes I les barreres ètiques I psicològiques reconegudes pels professionals de la salut en el context de lluita contra la malaltia. El present estudi va tenir com a objectiu revisar el coneixement sobre qüestions bioètiques relacionades amb l'escassetat de recursos I la salut mental. Així, es va realitzar una anàlisi de protocols sobre l'assignació de recursos recentment publicats al Brasil

It is intended to show how the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the new Sars-CoV-2 coronavirus, affects the equitable distribution of health resources in Brazil, as well as to highlight the ethical and psychological dilemmas and barriers experienced by health professionals in the context of fighting disease. The present study aimed to go through knowledge about bioethical issues related to the scarcity of resources and mental health. Thus, an analysis of protocols on the allocation of newly published resources in Brazil was carried out

Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias/ética , Saúde Mental , Bioética , Prioridades em Saúde , Gestão de Recursos , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Brasil/epidemiologia
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-09-29. (OPS/HSS/BIO/COVID-19/20-0034).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52767


La transparencia es un componente central de la gobernanza ética de la investigación. En el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19, la transparencia es fundamental para promover la confianza pública en la investigación y en la respuesta a la pandemia. Si la sociedad y todos los actores involucrados conocen qué investigaciones se están realizando y qué mecanismos se tienen para asegurar que esas investigaciones se realicen de manera ética, estarán más dispuestos a contribuir a los esfuerzos de investigación y confiar en los resultados de las investigaciones. Por ello, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) recomienda a las autoridades nacionales competentes tomar acción para fortalecer la transparencia de la investigación durante la pandemia.

Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Bioética , Ética em Pesquisa
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 274: 19-28, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990662


This chapter aims at providing the student with a general overview of the appropriate structure and ethics healthcare organizations are based on, the concept of ethical leadership, the importance of having clear statements of mission, vision and value in healthcare organizations and the Health Promotion Charters implemented in a Globalized World.

Bioética , Liderança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Princípios Morais
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 43-47, 2020 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988185


We want here to examine the challenge of cultural pluralism that the new discipline of Bioethics is rising to a Church that wants to leave the sacristy. Being herself in the contemporary world, the Church should be involved in those issues and should be concerned by the common anguish shared by secularized society, which does not share necessarily a religious vision of the world. We should question why theology should be interested in bioethics and its problems and the way we tackle them. We should also search what may be the perspectives for dialogue faced with those challenges such as the health as a right and duty; dilemmas that arise at the beginning and end of life, the role of the theologian and religious persons in the new research ethics committees.

Bioética , Diversidade Cultural , Religião , Humanos , América Latina , Teologia
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 49-61, 2020 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988186


When bioethics, by its multidisciplinary and pluralist nature, calls on many constitutive sources, moral and religious thought as philosophy find all the more their place that bioethics is a culture of discussion to make, if not emerge, less to reconstruct or adapt to their time, values whose history is linked to that of religions and philosophical trends. This brief text has only the interest of synthesizing this contribution in the light of what bioethics is today, a phenomenon in which everyone can find an anchor where, as in the labyrinth of Theseus, he will be able to find his way by following a guideline.

Bioética , Diversidade Cultural , Princípios Morais , Religião , Humanos , Filosofia
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47761


In January 2020, we published the findings of a two year in-depth inquiry into the ethical issues relating to research in global health emergencies. The inquiry was run by an international working group which gathered evidence and experience from many contributors across the globe. Better evidence about what helps or doesn’t help during an emergency is needed in order to improve the response to global health emergencies. Research conducted during an emergency itself plays a crucial role in obtaining this evidence, and helps support the immediate response, as well as learning for the future. The aim of the report is to identify ways in which research can be undertaken ethically during emergencies, in order to promote the contribution that ethically-conducted research can make to improving current and future emergency preparedness and response. We have made 24 recommendations to ‘duty bearers’ such as research funders, research organisations, governments, and researchers. These are summarised in our call for action. We suggest changes that would align their policies and practices more closely to three core values of fairness, equal respect, and helping reduce suffering. The report presents these values in the form of an ‘ethical compass’ to guide the conduct of the very wide range of people involved in research in global health emergencies.

Serviços Médicos de Emergência/ética , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/ética , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Formulação de Políticas , Bioética
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 803-809, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821055


Jules Bordet came to the Institut Pasteur soon after his MD graduation at the Université libre de Bruxelles, thanks to a grant from the Belgian government. He joined there the laboratory of Elie Metchnikoff, the father of phagocytes and cellular immunity. Amazingly, he will decipher there some of the key mechanisms of humoral immunity initially discovered by the German school against which his mentor was fighting. He described the mechanisms that govern bacteriolysis and hemolysis, following the action of immune sera. Even if he favored the term alexin coined by Hans Buchner, he is indeed one of the founding fathers of the complement system (term coined by Paul Ehrlich). It is for these works that he was awarded in October 1920 the 1919 Nobel Prize. Back in Belgium, he became the director of Institut Pasteur du Brabant and made another landmark discovery, namely the identification of the bacillus of whooping cough, now named Bordetella pertussis.

Bacteriologia , Pessoal de Laboratório , Prêmio Nobel , Bacteriologia/história , Bacteriólise/fisiologia , Bélgica , Bioética , Testes de Hemaglutinação/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Imunidade Humoral/fisiologia , Pessoal de Laboratório/história , Masculino , Sorogrupo , Testes Sorológicos/história
Rev. Hosp. El Cruce ; (26): 1-8, Ago 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117085


En el marco de la pandemia por el coronavirus originada en China en el mes de diciembre de 2019 y luego expandida por Europa y todo el mundo, el Gobierno Nacional, ha sancionado normativa de emergencia a efectos de abordar y mitigar la presente crisis en materia sanitaria. Se ha realizado esta revisión narrativa con el propósito de analizar dicho marco normativo por el que se implementan las medidas para hacer frente a la pandemia y su contexto en este país y relacionarlo con los derechos vinculados a la salud. Se presenta la controversia de derecho de la salud vs. derechos en potencial conflicto, y parte de las recomendaciones al equipo de salud son, no deshumanizarse en esta pandemia, buscar redactar Protocolos de Actuación que contemplen el trato humanizado en este contexto, que se evalúe el caso concreto, sobre la base de los pilares de la Bioética, de la dignidad del ser humano, del trato digno al paciente desde una perspectiva de derechos humanos.

In the framework of the coronavirus pandemic that originated in China in December 2019 and then spread throughout Europe and throughout the world, the National Government has enacted emergency regulations in order to address and mitigate the current health crisis . This narrative review has been carried out with the purpose of analyzing said normative framework through which measures are implemented to face the pandemic and its context in this country and relate it to the rights related to health. The health vs. health controversy is presented Rights in potential conflict, and part of the recommendations to the health team are, not to become dehumanized in this pandemic, to seek to write Action Protocols that contemplate humanized treatment in this context, to evaluate the specific case, based on the pillars of Bioethics, the dignity of the human being, the dignified treatment of the patient from a human rights perspective.

Argentina , Bioética , Normas Jurídicas , Saúde Pública
Rev. Hosp. El Cruce ; (26): 9-16, Ago 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117086


Se describen las recomendaciones y los principios éticos para la asignación de recursos en la organización y práctica de la salud pública en el marco de pandemias originadas por enfermedades infecciosas. Durante las pandemias, las capacidades humanas y los recursos materiales disponibles para dar respuesta a las necesidades suelen verse sobrepasados. En este escenario se deberán adoptar múltiples decisiones, muchas de ellas difíciles, acerca de cómo, dónde, cuándo y a quién asignar esos recursos. Para ayudar a los médicos a sortear estos desafíos, las instituciones deberían contar con personal abocado al triage, comités de expertos y de ética que ayuden a aplicar estas recomendaciones, asistir en la toma de decisión o realizar elecciones, liberando al médico de esa pesada carga.

Recommendations and ethical principles for the allocation of resources in the organization and practice of public health in the context of pandemics caused by infectious diseases are described. During pandemics, the human capacities and material resources available to respond to needs are often overwhelmed. In this scenario, multiple decisions will have to be made, many of them difficult, about how, where, when and to whom to allocate those resources. To help physicians overcome these challenges, institutions should have triage staff, expert and ethics committees to help implement these recommendations, assist in decision-making or make choices, freeing the physician from that heavy burden.

Argentina , Bioética , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 204, ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103539


Como parte de la evaluación de la asignatura Bioética e Investigación de la Maestría en Bioética, se solicitó a los estudiantes de la VI Cohorte que realizarán un análisis comparativo de las Pautas CIOMS 2016 con documentos anteriores. En esta segunda parte, se presentan las pautas relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, la recolección, almacenamiento y uso de materiales biológicos y datos relacionados, así como la rendición pública de cuentas y la publicación de las investigaciones. Estas pautas son fundamentales para la realización de investigaciones científicas en seres humanos por eso el objetivo de estos trabajos es proporcionar a los investigadores un aporte en su formación y una rápida adaptación a la nueva propuesta CIOMS(AU)

As part of the evaluation of the Bioethics and Research subject of the Master in Bioethics, students of the VI Cohort were asked to make a comparative analysis of the CIOMS 2016 Guidelines with previous documents. In this second part, the guidelines related to informed consent, collection, storage and use of biological materials and related data, as well as public accountability and publication of research are presented. These guidelines are fundamental for carrying out scientific research on human beings, and for this reason the objective of this work is to provide researchers with a contribution in their training and a rapid adaptation to the new CIOMS proposal(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Bioética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Defesa do Paciente , Faculdades de Medicina , Direitos Humanos
Wiad Lek ; 73(7): 1554-1560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759454


OBJECTIVE: Introduction: A rapid development of biomedicine, genetics, pharmacology, transplantation and biotechnology has posed a number of problems to humanity, in particular, with regard to human rights protection in healthcare. These problems solution requires considering the achievements and propositions of biology, medicine, ethics and law. International legal standards in the field of bioethics are of significance in development of national states regulations on bioethics and biotic legislation. Aim: To investigate the impact of international legal instruments in the field of bioethics on protection of human rights. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In the research the international legal instruments and documents in the field of healthcare and bioethics were used. Civilizational, axiological, dialectical, systemic and comparative legal methods as well as systematization, analysis and synthesis were decisive in the research process. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Legal instruments in the field of biomedical technologies (directives and regulations) are mainly advisory by nature. In many cases, the problems arising in biotechnology are resolved through establishment and involvement of national supervision bodies: councils (commissions, committees) in bioethics as well as courts. An important role in protection of human rights in the field of biotechnology is played by the ECHR the decisions of which are dynamic, based on the Convention and consideration of national legislations. At the same time, a number of problems remain unresolved because of constant development of biomedical technologies, necessity to take into account the latest achievements and discoveries as well as all types and methods of applying of genetic engineering to humans. In general, insufficient attention is paid to the problems of medical biotechnologies application both at the international and national levels.

Bioética , Assistência à Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos
J Med Philos ; 45(4-5): 560-579, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726810


After expressing our gratitude to the commentators for their valuable analyses and assessments of Principles of Biomedical Ethics, we respond to several particular critiques raised by the commentators under the following rubrics: the compatibility of different sets of principles and rules; challenges to the principle of respect for autonomy; connecting principles to cases and resolving their conflicts; the value of and compatibility of virtues and principles; common morality theory; and moral status. We point to areas where we see common agreement with our commentators and respond to their critical evaluations.

Bioética , Ética Baseada em Princípios , Teoria Ética , Humanos , Virtudes
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [15], jul. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118983


Después de una reseña introductoria de la medicina como ciencia y como arte, se muestra el desarrollo histórico de la ética médica desde los albores de la medicina, con su carácter mágico y religioso; su evolución y enriquecimiento a lo largo de la cultura griega, los cambios sucedidos en la edad media, moderna y contemporánea, con la naturalización, cientifización y tecnificación de la medicina, originando conflictos biomédicos que la ética médica tradicional es insuficiente para enfrentar. Surge entonces la bioética en la década de los años 70. Se ilustra su inicio como un área de reflexión multidisciplinaria de integración de temas medioambientales, sociales y médicos, que con el paso del tiempo llega a ser esencialmente una bioética médica. Se recuerda su origen y desarrollo inicialmente en los EE. UU. de NA, luego en Europa, Latinoamérica y el resto del mundo, hasta su evolución y situación actual, en la que surgen cuestionamientos a su teoría principialista original, aportando nuevas concepciones, como la de justicia social, generada en Sudamérica.

After an introductory review of medicine as a science and art, it is shown the historical development of medical ethics, since the down of medicine, with its magical and religious character; its evolution and enrichment through greek culture, changes occurred in medieval, modern and contemporary ages, with its medical naturalization, scientification and tecnification, originating biomedical conflicts that traditional medical ethics is insufficient to face. Bioethics then arises in the 70 decades. It is shown its origin as a multidisciplinary and integrative reflection área of environmental, social and medical topics, that with the passage of times becomes essentially a medical bioethics. It is remembered his origin and development initially in USA, then Europe, Latinamerica and the whole world, until its evolution and current situation, when questions arise to its principlist original theory, bringing new conceptions as social justice, originated in Southamerica.

Bioética , Ética Médica , História da Medicina , Médicos , Ciência , Medicina
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(2): 23-28, jul. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1104003


Objetivo: identificar qual a conduta assistencial do enfermeiro frente à amamentação cruzada. Metodologia: estudo qualitativo, realizado com seis enfermeiras atuantes da Estratégia de saúde da família por meio de um grupo focal em de Duque de Caxias. Resultados: aponta a carência do aconselhamento na conduta assistencial frente à amamentação cruzada e o silenciamento sobre os motivos da não recomendação da mesma. Conclusão: Recomenda-se mudança nos discursos dos enfermeiros para a busca dos motivos que desencadearam a prática da amamentação cruzada para assim poderem intervir, visto que na maioria das vezes é praticada pela não efetividade de seus direitos. (AU)

Objective: identify the nurse's care practice towards cross-breastfeeding.Methodology: a qualitative study carried out with six nurses working in the Family Health Strategy through a focus group in Duque de Caxias. Results: points out the lack of counseling in the care practice regarding cross-breastfeeding and the silencing of the reasons for not recommending it.Conclusion: it is recommended to change the nurses's discourses to search for the reasons that triggered the practice of cross-breastfeeding in order to intervene, considering that most of the time it is practiced for the non-effectiveness of their rights. (AU)

Objetivo: identificar cuál es la conducta asistencial del enfermero frente a la lactancia cruzada. Metodología: estudio cualitativo, realizado con seis enfermeras actuantes de la Estrategia de salud de la familia por medio de un grupo focal en el Duque de Caxias. Resultados: apunta la carencia del asesoramiento en la conducta asistencial frente a la lactancia cruzada y el silenciamiento sobre los motivos de la no recomendación de la misma. Conclusión: Se recomienda cambiar en los discursos de los enfermeros para la búsqueda de los motivos que desencadenaron la práctica de la lactancia cruzada para así poder intervenir, ya que la mayoría de las veces es practicada por la no efectividad de sus derechos. (AU)

Aleitamento Materno , Bioética , Enfermagem , Aconselhamento