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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4864, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978392

RESUMO

The synthesis of customized glycoconjugates constitutes a major goal for biocatalysis. To this end, engineered glycosidases have received great attention and, among them, thioglycoligases have proved useful to connect carbohydrates to non-sugar acceptors. However, hitherto the scope of these biocatalysts was considered limited to strong nucleophilic acceptors. Based on the particularities of the GH3 glycosidase family active site, we hypothesized that converting a suitable member into a thioglycoligase could boost the acceptor range. Herein we show the engineering of an acidophilic fungal ß-xylosidase into a thioglycoligase with broad acceptor promiscuity. The mutant enzyme displays the ability to form O-, N-, S- and Se- glycosides together with sugar esters and phosphoesters with conversion yields from moderate to high. Analyses also indicate that the pKa of the target compound was the main factor to determine its suitability as glycosylation acceptor. These results expand on the glycoconjugate portfolio attainable through biocatalysis.


Assuntos
Tolerância a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Xilosidases/química , Xilosidases/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoconjugados/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosilação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese , Especificidade por Substrato , Talaromyces/enzimologia , Talaromyces/genética , Xilosidases/genética
2.
Nature ; 585(7826): 609-613, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939087

RESUMO

Breaks in DNA strands recruit the protein PARP1 and its paralogue PARP2 to modify histones and other substrates through the addition of mono- and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)1-5. In the DNA damage responses, this post-translational modification occurs predominantly on serine residues6-8 and requires HPF1, an accessory factor that switches the amino acid specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 from aspartate or glutamate to serine9,10. Poly(ADP) ribosylation (PARylation) is important for subsequent chromatin decompaction and provides an anchor for the recruitment of downstream signalling and repair factors to the sites of DNA breaks2,11. Here, to understand the molecular mechanism by which PARP enzymes recognize DNA breaks within chromatin, we determined the cryo-electron-microscopic structure of human PARP2-HPF1 bound to a nucleosome. This showed that PARP2-HPF1 bridges two nucleosomes, with the broken DNA aligned in a position suitable for ligation, revealing the initial step in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. The bridging induces structural changes in PARP2 that signal the recognition of a DNA break to the catalytic domain, which licenses HPF1 binding and PARP2 activation. Our data suggest that active PARP2 cycles through different conformational states to exchange NAD+ and substrate, which may enable PARP enzymes to act processively while bound to chromatin. The processes of PARP activation and the PARP catalytic cycle we describe can explain mechanisms of resistance to PARP inhibitors and will aid the development of better inhibitors as cancer treatments12-16.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , NAD/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/ultraestrutura , Nucleossomos/química , Nucleossomos/ultraestrutura , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/ultraestrutura , Domínios Proteicos
3.
Nature ; 586(7827): 151-155, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968275

RESUMO

CpG methylation by de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 3A and 3B is essential for mammalian development and differentiation and is frequently dysregulated in cancer1. These two DNMTs preferentially bind to nucleosomes, yet cannot methylate the DNA wrapped around the nucleosome core2, and they favour the methylation of linker DNA at positioned nucleosomes3,4. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a ternary complex of catalytically competent DNMT3A2, the catalytically inactive accessory subunit DNMT3B3 and a nucleosome core particle flanked by linker DNA. The catalytic-like domain of the accessory DNMT3B3 binds to the acidic patch of the nucleosome core, which orients the binding of DNMT3A2 to the linker DNA. The steric constraints of this arrangement suggest that nucleosomal DNA must be moved relative to the nucleosome core for de novo methylation to occur.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/química , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Histonas/química , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Nucleossomos/química , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Xenopus/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4501, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908132

RESUMO

Streptovaricin C is a naphthalenic ansamycin antibiotic structurally similar to rifamycins with potential anti-MRSA bioactivities. However, the formation mechanism of the most fascinating and bioactivity-related methylenedioxy bridge (MDB) moiety in streptovaricins is unclear. Based on genetic and biochemical evidences, we herein clarify that the P450 enzyme StvP2 catalyzes the MDB formation in streptovaricins, with an atypical substrate inhibition kinetics. Furthermore, X-ray crystal structures in complex with substrate and structure-based mutagenesis reveal the intrinsic details of the enzymatic reaction. The mechanism of MDB formation is proposed to be an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution resulting from the hydroxylation by the heme core and the keto-enol tautomerization via a crucial catalytic triad (Asp89-His92-Arg72) in StvP2. In addition, in vitro reconstitution uncovers that C6-O-methylation and C4-O-acetylation of streptovaricins are necessary prerequisites for the MDB formation. This work provides insight for the MDB formation and adds evidence in support of the functional versatility of P450 enzymes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Estreptovaricina/análogos & derivados , Acetilação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Biocatálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/ultraestrutura , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Metilação , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Estreptovaricina/biossíntese , Estreptovaricina/química , Estreptovaricina/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3969, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769976

RESUMO

Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylases (MDDs) catalyze the ATP-dependent-Mg2+-decarboxylation of mevalonate-5-diphosphate (MVAPP) to produce isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), which is essential in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes for polyisoprenoid synthesis. The substrates, MVAPP and ATP, have been shown to bind sequentially to MDD. Here we report crystals in which the enzyme remains active, allowing the visualization of conformational changes in Enterococcus faecalis MDD that describe sequential steps in an induced fit enzymatic reaction. Initial binding of MVAPP modulates the ATP binding pocket with a large loop movement. Upon ATP binding, a phosphate binding loop bends over the active site to recognize ATP and bring the molecules to their catalytically favored configuration. Positioned substrates then can chelate two Mg2+ ions for the two steps of the reaction. Closure of the active site entrance brings a conserved lysine to trigger dissociative phosphoryl transfer of γ-phosphate from ATP to MVAPP, followed by the production of IPP.


Assuntos
Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecalis/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Biocatálise , Carboxiliases/química , Sequência Conservada , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Metais/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato
6.
Nature ; 584(7820): 286-290, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760002

RESUMO

The histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a superfamily of chromatin-modifying enzymes that silence transcription through the modification of histones. Among them, HDAC3 is unique in that interaction with nuclear receptor corepressors 1 and 2 (NCoR1/2) is required to engage its catalytic activity1-3. However, global loss of HDAC3 also results in the repression of transcription, the mechanism of which is currently unclear4-8. Here we report that, during the activation of macrophages by lipopolysaccharides, HDAC3 is recruited to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2)-bound sites without NCoR1/2 and activates the expression of inflammatory genes through a non-canonical mechanism. By contrast, the deacetylase activity of HDAC3 is selectively engaged at ATF3-bound sites that suppress Toll-like receptor signalling. Loss of HDAC3 in macrophages safeguards mice from lethal exposure to lipopolysaccharides, but this protection is not conferred upon genetic or pharmacological abolition of the catalytic activity of HDAC3. Our findings show that HDAC3 is a dichotomous transcriptional activator and repressor, with a non-canonical deacetylase-independent function that is vital for the innate immune system.


Assuntos
Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fator 2 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator 3 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Correpressor 1 de Receptor Nuclear , Correpressor 2 de Receptor Nuclear , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Science ; 369(6507): 1094-1098, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855335

RESUMO

Bacterial production of gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethylene and methane affects soil environments and atmospheric climate. We demonstrate that biogenic methane and ethylene from terrestrial and freshwater bacteria are directly produced by a previously unknown methionine biosynthesis pathway. This pathway, present in numerous species, uses a nitrogenase-like reductase that is distinct from known nitrogenases and nitrogenase-like reductases and specifically functions in C-S bond breakage to reduce ubiquitous and appreciable volatile organic sulfur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide and (2-methylthio)ethanol. Liberated methanethiol serves as the immediate precursor to methionine, while ethylene or methane is released into the environment. Anaerobic ethylene production by this pathway apparently explains the long-standing observation of ethylene accumulation in oxygen-depleted soils. Methane production reveals an additional bacterial pathway distinct from archaeal methanogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Etilenos/biossíntese , Metano/biossíntese , Metionina/biossíntese , Oxirredutases/química , Rhodospirillum rubrum/enzimologia , Anaerobiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biocatálise , Vias Biossintéticas , Oxirredutases/classificação , Oxirredutases/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1043-1049, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788510

RESUMO

The 2-ethylhexyl stearate is used as a bio-lubricant in various cosmetic products. The present study is focused on the biocatalyzed esterification of 2-ethylhexanol and stearic acid to form 2-ethylhexyl stearate catalyzed by Fermase CALB 10000 in the presence of ultrasound treatment. The maximum conversion (95.87%) was obtained at molar ratio of 2-ethylhexanol to stearic acid 2:1, enzyme amount of 2 % (w/w), power 80 W, duty cycle 50 % and temperature 50°C in comparatively short reaction time (3 h) in the presence of Fermase as a catalyst. At optimum conditions, it is observed that in the presence of ultrasound; the reaction time minimizes up to 4 h as compared to mechanical stirring method (7 h). The physiochemical properties for the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate were also evaluated.


Assuntos
Hexanóis/química , Estearatos/síntese química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Biocatálise , Fenômenos Químicos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Esterificação , Estearatos/química , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Food Chem ; 333: 127492, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659673

RESUMO

In this study, recombinant rice quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (rQSOX) was expressed and characterized, and its performance in flour-processing quality was further evaluated. The purified rQSOX exhibited the highest sulfhydryl oxidation activity (1.96 IU/mg) using dithiothreitol as a substrate, accompanying the production of H2O2. The optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and pH 8.0 for rQSOX catalyzing oxidation of dithiothreitol. And rQSOX retained 50% of its maximum activity after incubation at 80 °C for 1 h. Moreover, rQSOX supplementation improved the farinograph properties of dough, indicated by the increased dough stability time and decreased degree of softening, and enhanced viscoelastic properties of the dough. Addition of rQSOX (10 IU/g flour) provided remarkable improvement in specific volume (37%) and springiness (17%) of the steamed bread, and significantly reduced the hardness by half, which was attributed to the strengthened gluten network. The results provide an understanding for rQSOX using in flour-processing industry.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Oryza/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Triticum/química , Biocatálise , Pão/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glutens/química , Dureza , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639967

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by speech impairment, intellectual disability, ataxia, and epilepsy. AS is caused by mutations in the maternal copy of UBE3A located on chromosome 15q11-13. UBE3A codes for E6AP (E6 Associated Protein), a prominent member of the HECT (Homologous to E6AP C-Terminus) E3 ubiquitin ligase family. E6AP catalyzes the posttranslational attachment of ubiquitin via its HECT domain onto various intracellular target proteins to regulate DNA repair and cell cycle progression. The HECT domain consists of an N-lobe, required for E2~ubiquitin recruitment, while the C-lobe contains the conserved catalytic cysteine required for ubiquitin transfer. Previous genetic studies of AS patients have identified point mutations in UBE3A that result in amino acid substitutions or premature termination during translation. An AS transversion mutation (codon change from ATA to AAA) within the region of the gene that codes for the catalytic HECT domain of E6AP has been annotated (I827K), but the molecular basis for this loss of function substitution remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the I827K substitution destabilizes the 3D fold causing protein aggregation of the C-terminal lobe of E6AP using a combination of spectropolarimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Our fluorescent ubiquitin activity assays with E6AP-I827K show decreased ubiquitin thiolester formation and ubiquitin discharge. Using 3D models in combination with our biochemical and biophysical results, we rationalize why the I827K disrupts E6AP-dependent ubiquitylation. This work provides new insight into the E6AP mechanism and how its malfunction can be linked to the AS phenotype.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Síndrome de Angelman/patologia , Biocatálise , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
11.
Science ; 369(6507): 1089-1094, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646917

RESUMO

Cellulose is an essential plant cell wall component and represents the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Supramolecular plant cellulose synthase complexes organize multiple linear glucose polymers into microfibrils as load-bearing wall components. We determined the structure of a poplar cellulose synthase CesA homotrimer that suggests a molecular basis for cellulose microfibril formation. This complex, stabilized by cytosolic plant-conserved regions and helical exchange within the transmembrane segments, forms three channels occupied by nascent cellulose polymers. Secretion steers the polymers toward a common exit point, which could facilitate protofibril formation. CesA's N-terminal domains assemble into a cytosolic stalk that interacts with a microtubule-tethering protein and may thus be involved in CesA localization. Our data suggest how cellulose synthase complexes assemble and provide the molecular basis for plant cell wall engineering.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Populus/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico , Multimerização Proteica
12.
Science ; 369(6499): 59-64, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631887

RESUMO

Eukaryotic histone H3-H4 tetramers contain a putative copper (Cu2+) binding site at the H3-H3' dimerization interface with unknown function. The coincident emergence of eukaryotes with global oxygenation, which challenged cellular copper utilization, raised the possibility that histones may function in cellular copper homeostasis. We report that the recombinant Xenopus laevis H3-H4 tetramer is an oxidoreductase enzyme that binds Cu2+ and catalyzes its reduction to Cu1+ in vitro. Loss- and gain-of-function mutations of the putative active site residues correspondingly altered copper binding and the enzymatic activity, as well as intracellular Cu1+ abundance and copper-dependent mitochondrial respiration and Sod1 function in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae The histone H3-H4 tetramer, therefore, has a role other than chromatin compaction or epigenetic regulation and generates biousable Cu1+ ions in eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Histonas/química , Oxirredutases/química , Multimerização Proteica , Animais , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
13.
Waste Manag ; 114: 166-173, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679474

RESUMO

An environmentally benign leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries was developed. Glucose oxidase produced by Aspergillus niger can oxidize glucose to give the leaching agent gluconic acid. The presence of gluconic acid was proven by mass spectrometry. The cathode material morphology was characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, and the efficiencies with which valuable metals were leached from the Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. More than 95% of the Co, Li, Mn, and Ni were leached from spent lithium-ion batteries using a solid/liquid ratio of 30 g/L, 1 M gluconic acid leaching solution, a 1 vol% H2O2 reductant solution, a temperature of 70 °C, and a reaction time of 80 min. The leaching kinetics were perfectly described by the Avrami equation. The apparent activation energies for leaching of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn were determined as 41.76, 42.84, 43.59, and 45.35 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating that the surface chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step during this leaching process. This mild biocatalysis-aided acid leaching process is a promising method for effectively recovering valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.


Assuntos
Glucose Oxidase , Lítio , Biocatálise , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metais , Reciclagem
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(5): 942-948, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567277

RESUMO

It is of great significance to use biosynthesis to transform the inorganic substance formaldehyde into organic sugars. Most important in this process was to find a suitable catalyst combination to achieve the dimerization of formaldehyde. In a recent report, an engineered glycolaldehyde synthase was reported to catalyze this reaction. It could be combined with engineered D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase, a "one-pot enzyme" method, to synthesize L-xylose using formaldehyde and the conversion rate could reach up to 64%. This process also provides a reference for the synthesis of other sugars. With the increasing consumption of non-renewable resources, it was of great significance to convert formaldehyde into sugar by biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Formaldeído , Xilose , Biocatálise , Formaldeído/química , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo , Xilose/síntese química
15.
Food Chem ; 331: 127322, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569968

RESUMO

Here we report a novel strategy for the immobilization of invertase using amyloid-like fibrils as a support. Optimal conditions to get Tyr-Tyr covalent binding between invertase and the support were determined using a photocrosslinking approach. The biological fibrils with invertase activity turn into microstructured catalysts according to electron microscopy outcomes. Thermal and storage stability as well as optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were conserved. Moreover, the immobilized enzyme recovered by low g-force centrifugation retained 83% of its initial enzymatic activity after 15 reuse cycles. Considering that enzyme cost is the most significant part of the overall fee of enzymatic biomass conversion, the highly efficient recovery/reuse strategy described herein becomes relevant. Besides, it can also be applied to the immobilization of other enzymes for industrial biocatalysis.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/química , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Agregados Proteicos , Temperatura
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2799, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493979

RESUMO

Small molecule polyamines are abundant in all life forms and participate in diverse aspects of cell growth and differentiation. Spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SAT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism and a primary genetic risk factor for suicidality. Here, using genome-wide screening, we find that SAT1 selectively controls nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) biogenesis. SAT1 specifically augments assembly of nAChRs containing α7 or α4ß2, but not α6 subunits. Polyamines are classically studied as regulators of ion channel gating that engage the nAChR channel pore. In contrast, we find polyamine effects on assembly involve the nAChR cytosolic loop. Neurological studies link brain polyamines with neurodegenerative conditions. Our pharmacological and transgenic animal studies find that reducing polyamines enhances cortical neuron nAChR expression and augments nicotine-mediated neuroprotection. Taken together, we describe a most unexpected role for polyamines in regulating ion channel assembly, which provides a new avenue for nAChR neuropharmacology.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Acetiltransferases , Animais , Biocatálise , DNA Complementar/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Fluorescência , Genoma Humano , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores Nicotínicos/química
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1772-1780, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484970

RESUMO

The combined application of CaCl2 and Alcalase 2.4 L to the aqueous extraction process of peanuts was evaluated as a method to destabilize the oil body (OB) emulsion and improve the oil yield. After adding 5 mM CaCl2 , the oil yield was reached to 92.0% which was similar with that obtained using Alcalase 2.4 L alone, and the required enzyme loading was decreased by approximately 60 times. In addition, the demulsification mechanism during aqueous extraction process was also investigated. Particle size and zeta-potential measurements indicated that the stability of the peanut OB emulsion dramatically decreased when CaCl2 was added. Under these conditions, the demulsification of Alcalase 2.4 L performed was more efficiently. SDS-PAGE results showed that adding CaCl2 changed the subunit structure of the peanut OB interface proteins and promoted the cross-linking among the arachin Ara h3 isoforms, resulting in unstable emulsions.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Óleo de Amendoim/análise , Óleo de Amendoim/isolamento & purificação , Subtilisinas/química , Biocatálise , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Emulsões/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Tamanho da Partícula
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2697, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483117

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are powerful genome engineering tools, but unwanted cleavage at off-target and previously edited sites remains a major concern. Numerous strategies to reduce unwanted cleavage have been devised, but all are imperfect. Here, we report that off-target sites can be shielded from the active Cas9•single guide RNA (sgRNA) complex through the co-administration of dead-RNAs (dRNAs), truncated guide RNAs that direct Cas9 binding but not cleavage. dRNAs can effectively suppress a wide-range of off-targets with minimal optimization while preserving on-target editing, and they can be multiplexed to suppress several off-targets simultaneously. dRNAs can be combined with high-specificity Cas9 variants, which often do not eliminate all unwanted editing. Moreover, dRNAs can prevent cleavage of homology-directed repair (HDR)-corrected sites, facilitating scarless editing by eliminating the need for blocking mutations. Thus, we enable precise genome editing by establishing a flexible approach for suppressing unwanted editing of both off-targets and HDR-corrected sites.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Mutação , RNA Guia/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Biocatálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Reparo do DNA , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Genéticos , RNA Guia/metabolismo
19.
Science ; 368(6497): 1381-1385, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554596

RESUMO

The enzyme nitrogenase uses a suite of complex metallocofactors to reduce dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia. Mechanistic details of this reaction remain sparse. We report a 1.83-angstrom crystal structure of the nitrogenase molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein captured under physiological N2 turnover conditions. This structure reveals asymmetric displacements of the cofactor belt sulfurs (S2B or S3A and S5A) with distinct dinitrogen species in the two αß dimers of the protein. The sulfur-displaced sites are distinct in the ability of protein ligands to donate protons to the bound dinitrogen species, as well as the elongation of either the Mo-O5 (carboxyl) or Mo-O7 (hydroxyl) distance that switches the Mo-homocitrate ligation from bidentate to monodentate. These results highlight the dynamic nature of the cofactor during catalysis and provide evidence for participation of all belt-sulfur sites in this process.


Assuntos
Azotobacter vinelandii/enzimologia , Molibdoferredoxina/química , Nitrogênio/química , Biocatálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Oxirredução , Multimerização Proteica , Enxofre/química
20.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(5): 322-337, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482207

RESUMO

This contribution focusses on Oreste Ghisalba's pioneering activities in both fundamental as well as applied research in biocatalysis and his work on building bridges not only between biotechnology and chemistry, but also culturally, geographically and between academia and industry. His scientific work published in journals, books and conferences will be reviewed and his teaching at ETH Zurich and the University of Basel will be highlighted. Furthermore, an appreciation will be given of his broad knowledge and vision in shaping the activities of the Swiss Coordination Committee Biotechnology (SKB), the Swiss-Japanese Meetings in Biotechnology, conferences and research programs such as the Swiss Priority Program Biotechnology (SPP Biotech) of the Swiss National Science Foundation.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Indústrias , Biocatálise
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