Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36.421
Filtrar
1.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Brasil | ID: cfc-393798

RESUMO

Vídeoaula sobre "modelos de desenvolvimento que respeitem e promovam a diversidade sociocultural dos povos indígenas", por Ana Lúcia Pontes, pesquisadora da ENSP e coordenadora do Grupo Temático de Saúde Indígena da ABRASCO, durante o evento: Colóquios da Semana Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia 2019, tem como tema "Bioeconomia: Diversidade e Riqueza para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável". Data: 16 Outubro de 2019


Assuntos
Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Biodiversidade , Direitos Humanos
2.
Zootaxa ; 4820(1): zootaxa.4820.1.10, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056088

RESUMO

Taxon names are at the core of communication related to biodiversity. Thus, systems that regulate such names should prevent unnecessary changes. Unfortunately, the current regulatory codes have some articles that produce confusion or, even, generate name instability. To promote nomenclatural stability, while maintaining a system that effectively conveys information about biological diversity and its evolution, we argue in favor of emendations to the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). We propose that taxon names should be created within an evolutionary framework; ideally, this would mean including a phylogenetic tree or, at the very least, formulating a hypothesis in words based on explicit arguments (homologous traits) for the evolutionary relatedness of taxa, avoiding subjective perceptions. Additionally, we consider that some relatively minor changes of the ICZN would greatly increase name stability; the most relevant modifications that would facilitate long-term stability are: (i) immutability of the species epithet of species names, (ii) intercalation of unranked taxa between formal Linnaean ranks, (iii) elimination of homonyms in taxon names at the genus-group level, and (iv) inclusion of flexible phylogenetic definitions when supraspecific taxa are named.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais , Fenótipo , Filogenia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4780(3): zootaxa.4780.3.1, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056510

RESUMO

This paper is a contribution to the distribution, taxonomy and phenology of Orthoptera Tettigoniidae of Central African Republic. Thanks to scientific expeditions and entomological missions, 2155 Orthoptera belonging to 118 species of five subfamilies of Tettigoniidae have currently been studied. Examined material is here listed with its known distribution. New genera and species have been found and here described: Eurycoplangiodes sanghaensis Massa, n. gen. and n. sp. Paraeulioptera emitflesti Massa, n. gen. and n. sp., Paraeurycorypha Massa, n. gen. ocellata Massa et Annoyer, n. sp., Arantia (Arantia) gretae Massa, n. sp., Arantia (Euarantia) syssamagalei Massa et Annoyer, n. sp. and Dapanera brevistylata Massa, n. sp. Overall, from 2012 to 2020, the study of the orthopteran material collected in the scientific expeditions to Central Africa carried out since 1984, enabled the description of 6 new genera and 27 new species. They represent 22.8% of the total amount of species currently recorded in the protected areas where this scientific activity has been carried out. This demonstrates that these areas still hold a high number of new species, representing a biodiversity hotspot.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Animais , Biodiversidade , República Centro-Africana
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 708, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068209

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the efficiency of two different sizes of the Surber sampler to assess benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams in two Amazonian regions. Two Surber samplers of different sizes were used, one measuring 20 × 20 cm and the other 30 × 30 cm, both with a 0.25-mm net. The number of replicates taken was 6 for the smaller sampler and 3 for the bigger one, maintaining approximately the same total sampled area. The study was carried out in 12 headwater streams with different environmental conditions. Biological metrics were calculated for each size at each site and compared within each stream health category. A two-way analysis of similarities test was performed to compare the community structure assessed by each method at each stream. A normalized sampling effort was used to quantify the number of samples required to correctly sample each site. The data did not show a significant difference between the two sizes regarding the taxonomic recruitment and the community structure sampled at each stream, but differences were found between the two sizes in dominance values and in Shannon index scores for the natural sites. Furthermore, the smaller Surber was able to assess 70% of the estimated richness in all sites, which suggests that it is better to assess benthic macroinvertebrates than the larger Surber. Moreover, the smaller Surber is easier to transport in the field, reducing the effort of the technician, and takes less time to sort the material collected with it, which can reduce the sample processing effort, therefore reducing the cost of the project.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental
5.
Zootaxa ; 4772(3): zootaxa.4772.3.5, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055604

RESUMO

Despite Greece being a global hotspot of subterranean biodiversity, its hypogean fauna is largely neglected from both an ecological and conservational point of view. An overview of the Niphargidae occurring in Greece is presented as an annotated list of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting taxonomic corrections and species distribution range in the Greek peninsula. A total of 23 species, attributed to 3 genera, is up to date known from Greece with a high rate of endemicity found particularly in Crete. The endemic species of Greece amount to 21 (91% of total species richness), with the remaining species distributing also in the Republic of North Macedonia. Currently, none of them is listed in the national, European or global IUCN Red Lists of Threatened Species. Considering the increasing habitat degradation due to anthropic pressure, groundwater harvesting and climate change we could lose rare and endemic species without even acknowledging their existence.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Grécia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4834(2): zootaxa.4834.2.1, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056119

RESUMO

According to the Orthoptera species file, there are 765 genera of the infraorder Gryllidea in the world, belonging to 2 superfamilies, 8 families, 37 subfamilies and 6159 species or subspecies in total. A complete list of all genera in the world is provided, including type species, synonyms and species richness. Through statistical analysis, there are 26 extant subfamilies, accounting for 70.27%, 692 extant genera, accounting for 90.46%, 6010 extant species or subspecies, accounting for 97.58%. At the same time, the composition characteristics of the extant genera and species or subspecies in all subfamilies: subfamily Gryllinae has the largest number of genera and species or subspecies, reaching 125 genera and 1221 species or subspecies, with the proportion of 16.34% and 20.34%, followed by subfamily Podoscrtinae, with the number of 99 genera, 770 species or subspecies, with the proportion of 12.94% and 12.83%; subfamily Gryllomiminae with the least number, the number and ratio is 1 genus, 2 species and 0.13%, 0.03%. Among all fossil genera, subfamily †Cearagryllinae is the largest, with 7 genera, 15 species. There are 21 free genera in infraorder Gryllidea, accounting for 2.75%, and 268 monotypic genera (only 1 species), accounting for 35.03%. The largest genus is Hapithus Uhler, 1864, with 209 species or subspecies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Gryllidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Fósseis
7.
Zootaxa ; 4829(1): zootaxa.4829.1.1, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056261

RESUMO

Tentative studies of Malaise trap samples from different geographic regions and habitats indicate unanimously that Winnertzia, a genus of mycophagous gall midges (Cecidomyiidae), is exceptionally speciose, but hard data in proof of that were previously unavailable. A taxonomic inventory of mycophagous cecidomyiids in Sweden has now revealed that, of 751 species found in total, 93 are Winnertzia. A preliminary census in 2013 had identified only 26 different Winnertzia in Sweden. Two factors are responsible for this increment: the inclusion of large amounts of fresh material to study and the application of a narrower species concept. The latter results from the reevaluation of male morphological characters in the light of COI sequence (DNA barcoding) data. With the inclusion of 37 new Winnertzia described here, the genus now contains 136 extant species. New Winnertzia discovered in Sweden are described here under the following names: W. acutistylus sp. nov., W. angustistylus sp. nov., W. arctostylus sp. nov., W. bicolor sp. nov., W. brachytarsus sp. nov., W. dentata sp. nov., W. egregia sp. nov., W. ekdalensis sp. nov., W. fraxinophila sp. nov., W. grytsjoenensis sp. nov., W. hamatula sp. nov., W. hemisphaerica sp. nov., W. imbecilla sp. nov., W. incisa sp. nov., W. inornata sp. nov., W. lapponica sp. nov., W. lobata sp. nov., W. longicoxa sp. nov., W. normalis sp. nov., W. oelandica sp. nov., W. ombergensis sp. nov., W. parvidens sp. nov., W. pilosistylus sp. nov., W. pratensis sp. nov., W. pustulatula sp. nov., W. quercinophila sp. nov., W. rickebasta sp. nov., W. ruliki sp. nov., W. serri sp. nov., W. setosa sp. nov., W. silvestris sp. nov., W. smalandensis sp. nov., W. sundini sp. nov., W. tumidoides sp. nov., and W. upplandensis sp. nov. Additionally, W. panguana sp. nov. is the first Winnertzia described from the Neotropical region (Peru), and W. warraensis sp. nov. is the first member of the genus described from the Australasian region (Tasmania). Parwinnertzia Felt, 1920 syn. nov. is revealed to be a junior synonym of Winnertzia Rondani, 1860, implying the recombinations of Winnertzia notmani (Felt) comb. nov. and Winnertzia italiana (Mamaev Zaitzev) comb. nov. The intrageneric classification of Winnertzia is reviewed and developed further, with the W. setosa group introduced for species whose gonostylar claw is conspicuously long and exposed, and whose gonocoxal emargination is bordered by dense, large setae. Winnertzia feralis Mamaev, revived here from synonymy with W. tridens Panelius, and W. fusca Kieffer are new faunistic records in Sweden. Swedish records published in the past of W. brachypalpa Mamaev and W. pravdini Mamaeva Mamaev rest on misidentifications, and both species are deleted from the Swedish checklist.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Austrália , Tamanho Corporal , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Peru , Suécia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4855(1): zootaxa.4855.1.1, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056354

RESUMO

Despite the species richness of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) world-wide (about 6,200 species) and their role as agents for controlling plant pests, their significance as pollinators, and as bioindicators of site quality, hoverfly fauna of Saudi Arabia is poorly known. In exploring the biodiversity of Diptera in southwest Saudi Arabia a survey of the hoverfly fauna of Jazan, Asir, Najran and Al-Baha was performed mainly using Malaise traps, sweep nets and light traps from 2011 to 2014. Forty known species of Syrphidae were identified and recorded in this study, 19 of them new to Saudi Arabia. This makes the total number of Syrphidae species recorded in Saudi Arabia (including one species recorded by others) is 41. In addition, three taxa belonging to the genera Eumerus Meigen, Orthonevra Macquart, and Paragus Latreille that could not be identified safely to species level because there were no adequate identification keys or males were missing in the collected material. A key to the genera of Syrphidae occurring in Saudi Arabia is provided. The fauna of Syrphidae recorded in this study consists much more of Afrotropical zoogeographical elements than Palaearctic ones. A complete checklist of Syrphidae of Saudi Arabia is provided. Biological data, where known, and world-wide distribution of the studied taxa are provided. This paper is published with the purpose of assisting biogeographical, biological or ecological studies on syrphids in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Masculino , Plantas , Arábia Saudita
9.
Zootaxa ; 4791(1): zootaxa.4791.1.1, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056688

RESUMO

Chloropidae are of major economic importance, since the larvae of some species are pests of cereals and grasses, some are parasitoids and predators, and adults of some Hippelates spp. visit and transmit or are suspected of transmitting yaws sores in man and animals and by feeding around the eyes are vectors of Brazilian Purpuric Fever. Within the framework of the exploration of the biodiversity of Diptera in Southwest Saudi Arabia a survey of the grass flies fauna in 18 sites in Jazan, Asir, and Najran in south-western Saudi Arabia was performed mainly using Malaise traps and sweep nets from 2010- to 2016. Sixty six species of 43 genera and three subfamilies of Chloropidae were identified and are recorded from Saudi Arabia, 20 of them for the first time and three are described as new species: Elachiptera arabica Deeming sp. n.; Kwarea ismayi Deeming sp.n. and Tricimba turneri Deeming sp.n.. This makes the total number of Chloropidae species in Saudi Arabia 95 (including 29 species previously recorded). Seventy images are presented. The species of Chloropidae listed are predominantly of Afrotropical/ Palaearctic origin. An updated checklist of Chloropidae species of Saudi Arabia is presented.This study adds new records of Chloropidae to the Saudi Arabian Diptera fauna, which will become reference points for research detailing the systematic geographic distribution and for identifying other specimens submitted for identification. Further species will undoubtedly be discovered with more research involving collecting and rearing methods.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Larva , Poaceae , Arábia Saudita
10.
Zootaxa ; 4852(1): zootaxa.4852.1.10, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056715

RESUMO

Invasive alien species (IAS) are a major threat to biodiversity and have contributed to population declines in native species worldwide (Vilà et al. 2011; Gurevitch Padilla 2004). IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group lists some 80 invasive or potentially invasive species in Sri Lanka, which is part of a global biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000; Marambe et al. 2011). The major release of aquatic IAS on the island are routed through the ornamental-fish industry (Marambe et al. 2011; Sudasinghe 2016), though a minority represents deliberate, if unplanned, introductions by governmental and non-governmental agencies (Marambe et al. 2011).


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Sri Lanka
11.
Zootaxa ; 4844(1): zootaxa.4844.1.1, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056797

RESUMO

This paper reports 13 Aricidea species from the Sea of Marmara. The Aricidea specimens were collected at 98 stations in the region in 2012 and 2013 from soft and hard substrata at depths ranging from 0 to 1200 m. Among the material, two new species, namely Aricidea (Acmira) katzmanni n. sp. and Aricidea (Acmira) pseudoassimilis n. sp., and 11 known species were discovered. Aricidea mirunekoa and A. bulbosa are new records for the Mediterranean fauna; A. (Acmira) annae and A. (Aricidea) wassi are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Aricidea (Acmira) katzmanni n. sp. is characterized by having a long, digitiform antenna; no notopodial papillae on the posterior part of the branchial region; and hook shaped modified neurochaetae with a strong hood and fragile arista. Aricidea (Acmira) pseudoassimilis n. sp. is characterized by having a short, digitiform antenna; interramal lobes between notopodia and neuropodia; hook-shaped modified neurochaeta that gets subterminally thinner with a rounded tip. As A. (Strelzovia) bulbosa has been only previously reported from the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea), it could be a new alien species for the Sea of Marmara and Mediterranean Sea. Based on the characters that have been overlooked so far, the subspecies A. suecica meridionalis and A. capensis bansei were raised to species level, A. meridionalis n. stat. and A. bansei n. stat. The present paper reports the usage of ciliary bands and slits on the prostomium and body, swellings/ridges in the branchial region, and the shape and distribution of sense organs in the taxonomy of Aricidea. All species were described and figured.


Assuntos
Poliquetos , Animais , Biodiversidade
12.
Zootaxa ; 4790(1): zootaxa.4790.1.3, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055854

RESUMO

Despite being a great species-rich area, the Gulf of Thailand has been relatively poorly studied and new species are awaiting to be described. In the present study two new species of Sphaerodoridae (Annelida), Geminofilum thailandica sp. nov. and Sphaerodoridium songkhlaensis sp. nov. were collected in shallow soft bottoms at Songkhla Sea. Geminofilum thailandica sp. nov. is characterised by bearing sessile and elongated dorsal macrotubercles, arranged in two transverse rows per segment, lacking other dorsal papillae, having parapodia with a single papilla at the base and compound chaetae with blades 4-6 times as long as wide and serration showing variation within fascicles. Sphaerodoridium songkhlaensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from other congeners by the singular morphology of the short stalked dorsal macrotubercles as inverted cones, with a conspicuous rim encircling the flattened distal surface, and two longitudinal rows of smaller sessile tubercles, as inverted cones, along ventrum, with four pairs of tubercles per segment. Chaetae show variation in the serration within fascicles. The present study highlights the need for further biodiversity studies on benthic communities in this area.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Tailândia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4810(1): zootaxa.4810.1.2, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055909

RESUMO

We described four new gelechioid species from Costa Rica: Philtronoma cbdora Metz, new species; Tinaegeria carlosalvaradoi Metz, new species; Tinaegeria romanmacayai Metz, new species (Depressariidae: Tinaegeriinae revised status); and Percnarcha claudiadoblesae Metz, new species (Gelechiidae: Gelechiinae). We provide these honorifics to recognize commitment and devotion to conservation of biodiversity. The new species are all highly diagnostic among other species of Gelechioidea, and species of Tinaegeria and Percnarcha demonstrate striking mimesis for presumed wasp and beetle models. The family-group name Tinaegeriidae Hampson, 1893 is clarified, including the previously overlooked priority of the family-group name synonyms, and is placed as a valid subfamily in Depressariidae comprised of the genera Filinota Busck, 1911, Nematochares Meyrick, 1931, Philtronoma Meyrick, 1914, Profilinota Clarke, 1973, and Tinaegeria Walker, 1856.


Assuntos
Besouros , Mariposas , Vespas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Costa Rica
14.
Zootaxa ; 4803(1): zootaxa.4803.1.7, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056034

RESUMO

Porifera has been relatively well studied from underwater caves worldwide. However, sponges in Mexico are only known from two anchialine caves: La Quebrada and El Aerolito, both in Cozumel Island. An ecological study found that sponges have the second highest species richness and density in La Quebrada. The aim of the present work is to describe the sponge biodiversity inhabiting the dark zone of La Quebrada anchialine cave. A total of ten species were found and are described herein, six are new species to science vis. Calyx maya n. sp. a thinly branched sponge; Haliclona (Reniera) stygobia n. sp. globe-shaped with the thinnest diameter of oxeas in its group; Haliclona (Halichoclona) chankanaabiis n. sp. tubular habit with the smallest oxeas in its group; Neosiphonia microtriaeneae n. sp. characterized by very small dichotriaenes; Svenzea germanyanezi n. sp. a lone conical shape; and Diplastrella cozumella n. sp. for its tri to multilobed tylostyles. The other four species are previously known from open reefs or deep-sea: Discodermia adhaerens, Siphonidium ramosum, Cinachyrella kuekenthali, and Plakinastrella onkodes. This is the only inventory of Porifera in Mexican caves up to now, thus the species here described are the first stygobiont sponges from Mexico with an endemism rate of Porifera in this anchialine cave of 60%. Conservation programs are needed to preserve this unique and special ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Haliclona , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , México
15.
Zootaxa ; 4821(1): zootaxa.4821.1.13, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056341

RESUMO

Kinorhyncha is a phylum of exclusively marine, meiofaunal invertebrates (Sørensen Pardos 2008). Currently, the knowledge about the worldwide distribution of most of its species is considerably patchy, as several taxa have been reported from a single or few localities, usually within a limited geographic area (Sørensen Pardos 2008; Yamasaki et al. 2018a). This even becomes more evident for deep-sea kinorhynchs, as noticed by Sørensen et al. (2018). Given the particular value of new records from the deep-sea to increase our understanding in the distribution of meiofaunal organisms plus the observed relationship of morphological variation through the bathymetric gradient, we aim to report the first record of Echinoderes unispinosus Yamasaki, Neuhaus George, 2018 in the southern edge of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), and contribute with new information about the morphological intraspecific variation of this species. In Mexico, studies of kinorhynch biodiversity are limited to the northern Gulf of California (50-1570m depth) (Álvarez-Castillo et al. 2015, 2018; Cepeda et al. 2019) and the Yucatán Peninsula (Sánchez Martínez 2019). The GoM is a semi-closed basin located in a transition zone with both subtropical and tropical weather. Deep-sea muddy sediment samples of the present study were collected during the expedition XIXIMI-5 (10-24 June 2016) and processed according to Cisterna-Céliz et al. (2019). Kinorhynch specimens were mounted, measured and photographed according to Cepeda et al. (2019). Two adult males were identified as E. unispinosus, one from station B11 (2298 m depth) and another from station B15 (3708m depth). Kinorhynch specimens were deposited at the Aquatic Invertebrates Collection of the Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico, under accession numbers: KGM.001 and KGM.002.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Animais , Biodiversidade , Golfo do México , Masculino
16.
Zootaxa ; 4802(2): zootaxa.4802.2.13, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056628

RESUMO

Our recent paper Artüz Fricke (2019) provided an updated list of marine teleost fishes of the Sea of Marmara. Bilecenoglu argues that our paper includes mistranslations of some previous research, misinterpretation and incomplete examination of certain published biodiversity data related to the Sea of Marmara (Bilecenoglu 2020). We answer his comments below.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes , Animais
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104946, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907716

RESUMO

Zooplankton biodiversity assessment is a crucial element in monitoring marine ecosystem processes and community responses to environmental alterations. In order to evaluate the suitability of metabarcoding for zooplankton biodiversity assessment and biomonitoring as a fast and more cost-effective method, seasonal zooplankton sampling was carried out in the Venice Lagoon and the nearby coastal area (Northern Adriatic Sea). The molecular analysis showed higher taxa richness compared to the classical morphological method (224 vs. 88 taxa), discriminating better the meroplanktonic component, morphologically identified only up to order level. Both methods revealed a similar spatio-temporal distribution pattern and the sequence abundances and individual counts were significantly correlated for various taxonomic groups. These results indicate that DNA metabarcoding is an efficient tool for biodiversity assessments in ecosystems with high spatial and temporal variability, where high sampling effort is required as well as fast alert systems for non-native species (NIS).


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ecossistema , Zooplâncton , Animais , DNA
18.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104983, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907721

RESUMO

Intertidal macrobenthic assemblages associated with monospecific areas of different sympatric though not syntopic seagrasses [Cymodocea, Halodule, Zostera and Halophila] were investigated in Moreton Bay across a continuous <0.12 ha seagrass area with minimal potentially-confounding environmental variables. Results indicated patterns of unchanging faunal metrics across seagrass types (abundance, richness, diversity, evenness, taxonomic distinctness, and patchiness) but variation in relative proportions of dominant taxa, particularly microgastropods (abundant in Zostera, insignificant in Cymodocea and Halodule). Although assemblage composition varied, faunal dissimilarities (except with Zostera) were very low and of similar magnitudes within and between different 'host' seagrasses. This suggests that such macroecological faunal characteristics are not consequent on the precise local ecosystem engineer but largely reflect those of a common pool of locally available species, so that the differences in animal abundance and biodiversity described in some studies relate not directly to features inherent in the different seagrasses, but to associated habitat variables.


Assuntos
Alismatales , Biodiversidade , Zosteraceae , Animais , Ecossistema , Simpatria
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104986, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907724

RESUMO

Although eutrophication is considered a major driver for global seagrass loss with aquaculture effluents being a main factor, little is known about the effect on seagrass meadows in eastern Asia and their resilience to long-term nutrient impact. Seagrass meadows impacted by land-based aquaculture since the 1990s, were visited in 2008/2009 and revisited after another 9 years of effluent exposure. During that period seagrass aboveground biomass declined by 87%. Species diversity decreased with increasing effluent exposure. A δ15N of 9.0‰ of seagrass leaves and additional biogeochemical and biological indicators identify pond effluents as the driver of the observed eutrophication. When continuously exposed to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations exceeding a calculated threshold of 8 µM DIN seagrass meadows will disappear. Chronic nutrient pollution from aquaculture effluents can lead to a reduction of biodiversity and ultimately to a complete loss of seagrasses along the aquaculture-dominated coasts in E and SE Asia.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio , Biodiversidade , Biomassa
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105033, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907736

RESUMO

Marine ecosystems are complex socio-ecological systems where sustainable solutions can be best gained by satisfying both conservation and socioeconomic demands. Concretely, the Mediterranean Sea is facing a huge demand of resources and marine activities while hosting abundant and unique biodiversity. It is considered an important elasmobranch hotspot where seventy-two elasmobranch species are present in the basin. Despite the recognised importance of elasmobranchs as umbrella species, to date only a small number of marine protected areas have been designated towards their protection. The paucity of spatially-explicit abundance data on elasmobranchs often precludes the designation of these areas to protect these marine predators. Here, we aimed to identify marine areas to protect elasmobranch species by means of a systematic spatial planning approach. We first estimated the spatial distribution of five elasmobranch species (three sharks and two rays) in the western Mediterranean Sea and then applied Marxan decision support tools to find priority marine conservation areas. We found that the five elasmobranchs are distributed in coastal and slope areas of the southern waters of the study area while in the northern region they are abundant in the continental slope and towards offshore waters. Conservation priority areas were identified in the southern part of the western Mediterranean. Adding more complex cost layers and zoning to the analysis did not alter conservation priority areas, confirming such areas are highly consistent and highly important for elasmobranch protection. The marine conservation priority areas identified here can contribute to designate a proactive area-based protection strategy towards elasmobranch conservation, related species and the habitats that they depend in the western Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tubarões , Animais , Ecossistema , Mar Mediterrâneo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA