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1.
Science ; 365(6456): 873-874, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467214
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 139, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451943

RESUMO

Exploitation of microbes, especially fungi, has the potential to help humankind meet the UN's sustainable development goals, help feed the worlds growing population and improve bioeconomies of poorer nations. The majority of the world's fungal genetic resources are held in collections in developed countries, primarily within the USA, Europe and Japan. Very little capacity exists in low to middle income countries, which are often rich in biodiversity but lack resources to be able to conserve and exploit their own microbial resources. In this paper we review the current challenges facing culture collections and the challenges of integrating new approaches, the worth of collaborative networks, and the importance of technology, taxonomy and data handling. We address the need to underpin research and development in developing countries through the need to build 'in country' infrastructure to address these challenges, whilst tackling the global challenges to meet the requirements of the research community through the impacts of legislation and the Nagoya protocol on access to biological resources.


Assuntos
Fungos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Biodiversidade , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/fisiologia , Disseminação de Informação , Internacionalidade
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2241-2248, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418226

RESUMO

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function is one of the hot spot in ecological research. The driving effect of plant diversity on forest productivity has been widely focused, but its underlying mechanisms are still controversial. We explored the impacts of species diversity and phylogenetic diversity on forest productivity at different spatial scales based on a 9 hm2 forest dynamic monitoring plot of typical mixed broadleaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest in Liangshui National Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang Province, with the censuses data in 2005 and 2015, using linear regression and structural equation models. The results showed that species diversity and phylogenetic diversity were both positively correlated with productivity. The strength of species diversity on productivity gradually enhanced as spatial scales increased, while the effects of phylogenetic diversity on productivity showed opposite trend. On small scales, the effects of phylogenetic diversity on productivity was stronger than species diversity. Moreover, productivity was affected by abiotic factors. Soil factors were significantly positively correlated with productivity at different scales, which was gradually dominated as spatial scales increased. Our results indicated that evolutionary information should be considered in future ecosystem function studies, which might provide additional explanatory power for other diversity metrics. Meanwhile, the effects of spatial scales and abiotic factors should also be considered, which could provide a scientific basis for further understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes of forest productivity.


Assuntos
Florestas , Pinus/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Pinus/classificação , República da Coreia
7.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 113-120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375024

RESUMO

The review provides data on species composition of nematode parasites of cattle, sheep, goats and wild ruminants (Ovis orientalis gmelini, Capreolus capreolus, Capra aegagrus aegagrus) of Armenia. Six species of lung nematodes and 22 species of gastrointestinal ones have been registered in ruminants of Armenia. Five of the species listed in the review (Protostrongylus davtiani, Protostrongylus muraschkinzewi, Nematodirus davtiani, Trichostrongylus andreevi, Trichostrongylus skrjabini) have been first identified in Armenia. The ruminant host species most studied for this territory is a domestic sheep. Data on nematodes of goats and wild ruminants are limited to sporadic reports. Data on nematodes of cattle are limited to the only one species ­ Neoascaris vitulorum. Most of the nematode species found in Armenia are common for all ruminant host species living here and noted as widespread all over the world. Eight species of nematodes detected in ruminants of Armenia able to infect humans. The taxonomy of some rare species of nematodes reported from ruminants in Armenia is not entirely clear and should be re-evaluated basing on thorough studies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Ruminantes , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Armênia , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ruminantes/parasitologia
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190034, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433005

RESUMO

Six Phlebotominae sand fly species are incriminated as biological vectors of human pathogens in Panama, but molecular corroboration is still needed. We aim at confirming the identity of Phlebotominae species documented as anthropophilic in Panama. Adult sandflies were collected from August 2010 to February 2012 in Central Panama using CDC light traps. Species confirmation was accomplished through molecular barcodes and allied sequences from GenBank. A total of 53,366 sand fly specimens representing 18 species were collected. Five species were validated molecularly as single phylogenetic clusters, but Psychodopygus thula depicted two genetically divergent lineages, which may be indicative of cryptic speciation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores/genética , Psychodidae/genética , Animais , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Panamá , Filogenia , Psychodidae/classificação
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20180768, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460592

RESUMO

As a focus for conservation efforts, biodiversity has received increased attention in the last fifty years. Searching for patterns in biodiversity, researchers have suggested studies including: ecological communities, cladistics classifications, hierarchical compositions of different levels of organization, and groups of taxonomically related species. Here, we propose that the study of the biodiversity of interactions may present a new perspective in the efforts to conserve biodiversity, especially in endangered ecosystems like the tropical savannas. We suggest that Cerrado, like other tropical savannas, is a particularly important ecosystem in which we can direct efforts to explain what determines the major part of variation in the outcomes of species interactions.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Árvores/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190215, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460593

RESUMO

In the present context of concerns for biodiversity, the French Academy of Sciences produced in 2017 a report entitled "Mechanisms of adaptation of biodiversity to climate change and their limits". We briefly review here the production process and structure of the report, and summarize its conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions emphasize the role of habitat fragmentation in the expected impact of climate change on biodiversity, in particular for organisms with limited dispersal abilities, and the disparities in species responses which must be taken to understand the future of species assemblages ("communities") under different scenarios of climate change. The recommendations cover the organization of biodiversity research and monitoring (development of observatories, key role of embedded time scales and modeling, integration of Human and Social Sciences), as well as critical domains such as Human, animal and plant health, agriculture and forestry policies, and management of the Environment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Academias e Institutos , Animais , Humanos
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(supp 3): e20190087, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365606

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that pre-Columbian humans had strong impacts on soils, plant and animal communities and ecosystem functioning in many parts of Amazonia, and that the legacies of these impacts still affect biodiversity and how ecosystems function today. Understanding the history of human/environment interactions in Amazonia is essential for analyzing the current state of these interactions and imagining scenarios for the future. This study gives a brief overview of these themes.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Arqueologia , Biodiversidade , Atividades Humanas/história , Brasil , História Antiga , Humanos
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(supp 3): e20190097, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365607

RESUMO

Peugeot-ONF Forest Carbon Sink Project, located at Fazenda São Nicolau (FSN) in Cotriguaçu Municipality, is a public-private initiative and has been supported by several French and Brazilian institutions. Its Research Program includes studies aiming Biodiversity Conservation, Ecology, Carbon Dynamics, Silvicultural Techniques. FSN comprises a high richness of species with more than 20 new species of beetles (Histeridae, Scarabaeidae e Melolonthidae) described among them one endemic genus. A quick overview of the SuperFamily Scarabaeoidea within the FSN area registered 260 species which nearly 100 species might be new to Science. One new species of fish as well as research with amphibian toxins as tools to treat cancer and malaria are also done with material collected at the FSN. Ecology of the decomposer´s fauna at reforestation sites showed that after 10 years, such places were more similar to native forest sites than pastures or abandoned pastures. Finally large mammals studies indicated that many large mammals use FSN as a refuge. We stress the importance to keep the FSN natural habitats linked with the Juruena National Park. The FSN contour is under heavy deforestation which will increase the species loss and turn FSN in one of the few major natural vegetation fragments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Brasil , Setor Privado , Setor Público
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(supp 3): e20190186, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365609

RESUMO

The Amazonian rainforest has been subjected to exceptionally high rates of land use change (LUC), primarily for pasture. We present here an analysis of the impact of LUC on trees from studies made in Pará state. LUC results in drastic declines in native species richness, changes species composition and impacts community resilience and ecosystem services provided by the Amazonian rainforest. Given that secondary forests are expanding in Amazonia we argue that this regrowth forest should be taken into account when planning conservation in this region.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Humanos
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(supp 3): e20190306, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365612

RESUMO

This manuscript describes the role of natural products in the process of drug discovery. In fact, several different natural compounds have been used as inspiration to develop new drugs. Some relevant examples are presented in chronological order.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Produtos Biológicos/química , Química Farmacêutica/história , Descoberta de Drogas/história , Produtos Biológicos/história , História do Século XX , Humanos
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180545, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365651

RESUMO

Fungi play an important role in litter decomposition in forest ecosystems and are considered an undersampled group in the Amazon biome. This study aims to describe the composition, richness and frequency of species of conidial fungi associated with palm trees in an area of ​​the Amapá National Forest, State of Amapá, Brazil. Palm leaf litter was collected from July 2009 to June 2010, incubated in moist chambers and examined for the presence of fungi. One hundred and seven species of conidial fungi were identified, in 79 genera and 25 families. As for the relative frequency of the species, the majority (94.4%) was sporadic and occurred on leaflets. We report new records for South America (Chaetopsis intermedia, Chaetochalara laevis and Thysanophora verrucosa) and Brazil (Chloridium phaeosporum, Helminthosporiella stilbacea and Zygosporium geminatum), and 83 for the State of Amapá, while 15 are also new for the Brazilian Amazon. This study significantly increases the knowledge about the distribution of the fungal species in the Amazon biome, and emphasizes the importance of the conservation of these organisms particularly in view of the large number of sporadic species recorded.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Fungos Mitospóricos/fisiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Brasil , Estações do Ano
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190208, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411242

RESUMO

The development of our society has been based on the use of biodiversity, especially for nutrition, medicines and beauty. Brazil is the nation with the largest biodiversity in the world, with a rich chemical diversity, which is a potential source for bioeconomy. Considering the chemical and biological diversity of the Brazilian territory, we would like to highlight the value of secondary metabolites from Brazilian biodiversity with potential application for new products and technologies and the importance of scientific programs to support the sustainable use of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Produtos Biológicos , Descoberta de Drogas , Farmacoeconomia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Brasil , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190218, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411243

RESUMO

Amazonia has been a focus of interest since the early days of biogeography as an intrinsically complex and extremely diverse region. This region comprises an intricate mosaic that includes diverse types of forest formations, flooded environments and open vegetation. Increased knowledge about the distribution of species in Amazonia has led to the recognition of complex biogeographic patterns. The confrontation of these biogeographic patterns with information on the geological and climatic history of the region has generated several hypotheses dedicated to explain the origin of the biological diversity. Genomic information, coupled with knowledge of Earth's history, especially the evolution of the Amazonian landscape, presents fascinating possibilities for understanding the mechanisms that govern the origin and maintenance of diversity patterns in one of the most diverse regions of the world. For this we will increasingly need more intense and coordinated interactions between researchers studying biotic diversification and the evolution of landscapes. From the interaction between these two fields of knowledge that are in full development, an increasingly detailed understanding of the historical mechanisms related to the origin of the species will surely arise.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Aves/classificação , Filogeografia , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180414, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411255

RESUMO

The deep sea remains the least known biome. Despite this fact, anthropic activities have affected these regions in various ways. The objective of this study was to outline the scientific production scenario based on deep sea research and to analyze trends present in the literature. For this, the bibliographical resources available from the Web of Science (WoS) were surveyed. Between 1987 and 2016, 11,079 articles on the deep sea were published. Growth was over 100% from the first to second decade and 75% from the second to third. The most productive countries were the USA, Germany, France, England and Japan. Of the 404 journals that published articles on the deep sea, 10% accounted for approximately 60% of the total published articles. The keyword with the highest occurrence was "diversity". In the first two decades, the keywords with the greatest "strength" were related to research on mining, especially for hydrocarbons. The description of new species and the analysis of the effects of climate change appear to be emerging trends in deep sea research. Mining continues to be primarily responsible for driving the development of deep sea research.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Oceanos e Mares , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Biodiversidade , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Mudança Climática , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Alemanha , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Água do Mar , Estados Unidos
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121865, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369926

RESUMO

Bacterial community structure and metabolic function during solid waste decomposition were investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states, respectively. Results showed that bacterial community diversity and structure differed in aerobic phase, anaerobic acid phase, and methanogenic phase. Anaerobic acid phase had significantly (p < 0.05) higher richness. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant representatives with significant (p < 0.05) difference between three phases. Total nitrogen of solid waste and pH of leachate were the important factors in shaping bacterial community composition. Bacterial metabolism, information storage and processing, and cellular processes and signaling were the primary functions during solid waste decomposition. Key function genes (amo, nar, nis, and nos) profiles suggested that nitrification and denitrifiation mainly occurred in AP and both AP and MP, respectively.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Filogenia , Resíduos Sólidos , Bacteroidetes/genética , Biodiversidade , Euryarchaeota/genética , Firmicutes/genética , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteobactérias/genética
20.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 108, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267227

RESUMO

A total of 191 yeasts were isolated from 197 samples collected from eight estuarine mangrove forests along four different coastlines of Thailand (Andaman Sea and the East, North and West coasts of the Gulf of Thailand). Of these, 178 isolates were identified as 32 species in 16 genera of Ascomycota, 12 species in nine genera of Basidiomycota, and 13 isolates as potential new species, respectively. Mangroves located along the Andaman Sea coastline had a higher yeast diversity at the species and genera levels than those along the Gulf of Thailand. Kluyveromyces siamensis was the most frequently isolated species, whilst Candida tropicalis was the only species isolated at all eight sites. Screening isolated yeast strains belonging to genera previously reported as oleaginous yeast plus the 13 potential new species, revealed two oleaginous strains, Rhodotorula sphaerocarpa 11-14.4 and Saitozyma podzolica 11-11.3.1. Both of these strains were isolated from the same mangrove forest on the Andaman Sea coastline. They could accumulate lipid when suspended in glucose solution without any supplementation, while the fatty acid composition and oil profile of Rh. sphaerocarpa 11-14.4 and Sait. podzolica 11-11.3.1 were similar to vegetable oil and cocoa butter, respectively.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/química , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/química , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Biocombustíveis , DNA Fúngico/análise , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/análise , Tipagem Molecular , Óleos Vegetais , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência , Tailândia , Leveduras/química , Leveduras/genética
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