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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

RESUMO

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Besouros , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Chile , Biodiversidade , Insetos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251733, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355875

RESUMO

Abstract Mining is vital for human sustenance and a crucial sector in the state economy. However, its impacts on the environment and biodiversity cannot be underestimated. Which are potent to the attract government's attention. Environment and wildlife are subject to the harmful impacts of mining and its related activities. In this study, districts, namely Mardan and Mohmand have been targeted with respect to mining impacts. The assessment was carried out on wildlife adversely affected by the mining sector. The fauna has been keenly observed to bring the calculated risks and threat perception of the regional wildlife. Total 9 species of mammals, 21 species of birds, were recorded in District Mardan. While in District Mohmand 2 species of mammals, 9 species of birds, and 4 species of reptiles were studied. The Study explored that mining primarily responsible for land degradation. Which lead to food and agriculture losses. Several other factors like blasting, pollution, hunting, deforestation, habitat loss was also observed. Deforestation surfaced one of the major causes for extinction of fauna in the said region. preemptive measures are needed to seize the man-made catastrophe.


Resumo A mineração é vital para o sustento humano e um setor crucial na economia do Estado. No entanto, seus impactos sobre o meio ambiente e a biodiversidade não podem ser subestimados, visto serem potentes para atrair a atenção do governo. O meio ambiente e a vida selvagem estão sujeitos aos impactos prejudiciais da mineração e de suas atividades relacionadas. Neste estudo, os distritos, nomeadamente Mardan e Mohmand, foram selecionados ​​no que diz respeito aos impactos da mineração. A avaliação foi realizada em animais selvagens afetados negativamente pelo setor de mineração. A fauna tem sido observada atentamente para trazer os riscos calculados e a percepção de ameaça à vida selvagem regional. Um total de nove espécies de mamíferos, 21 espécies de pássaros, foi registrado no Distrito Mardan. Enquanto no Distrito Mohmand, duas espécies de mamíferos, nove espécies de pássaros e quatro espécies de répteis foram estudadas. O estudo explorou essa mineração que é principalmente responsável pela degradação do solo, acarretando perdas de alimentos e na agricultura. Vários outros fatores como explosões, poluição, caça, desmatamento, perda de habitat também foram observados. O desmatamento veio à tona como uma das principais causas de extinção da fauna da região, e tem-se que medidas preventivas são necessárias para dimensionar a catástrofe provocada pelo homem.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Animais Selvagens , Mineração , Paquistão
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMO

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Rios
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

RESUMO

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Manihot , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249211, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345523

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H' = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H' = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Água , Biodiversidade , Água do Mar , Ecossistema , Peixes
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249229, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339374

RESUMO

Abstract Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.


Resumo Os pássaros são indicadores muito valiosos da riqueza de espécies e padrões endêmicos em um determinado ecossistema, o que acaba ajudando o cientista a medir a degradação ambiental. O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o conhecimento humano e a atitude em relação às aves urbanas na cidade de Faisalabad, Paquistão. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro meses consecutivos: novembro de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020. A população de pássaros foi observada em oito cidades residenciais da cidade de Faisalabad, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário. Faisalabad tem uma população razoavelmente grande de pássaros, e os dados atuais mostram que há uma diferença significativa entre as aves favoritas de áreas residenciais e instituições. O pombo recebeu mais semelhanças na população de pássaros entre os residentes de áreas residenciais, enquanto o myna recebeu menos. A ave mais popular nas instituições de Faisalabad era o pardal, enquanto a ave menos popular era o myna comum. A porcentagem de adaptação de pássaros em áreas residenciais e institucionais de Faisalabad foi a mais alta para papagaios e pardais, respectivamente. As pessoas em áreas residenciais e instituições, por outro lado, se adaptaram menos ao myna comum. Conclui-se que pessoas da área de estudo como pássaros e alimentos oferecidos e alta população de pássaros estão presentes na área de estudo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Cidades , Biodiversidade
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243666, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339361

RESUMO

Abstract Brazil is the world's richest country in biodiversity, including mammal species. In the Brazilian Cerrado biome, mammalian diversity is vast, with about 251 species, 32 of them are endemic and 22 listed as threatened species. In this work, we investigated species diversity of medium- and large-sized mammals in the private protected area RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) and its surroundings, which is a flooded area located in an important biological corridor in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone zone, a priority area for biodiversity conservation in Brazil. We used camera-trapping, active search (night and day), and track survey during dry season (Apr - Aug 2016). We recorded 29 mammal species, being the Carnivora order the most representative with 11 species. Regarding threat status, 35.7% of the recorded species were listed as threatened in Brazil and 32.1% worldwide. We highlight the high relative frequency of threatened species records such as Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, and other, as well as the presence of the newly described aquatic mammal species Inia araguaiaensis. We stress the importance of RPPN-PJ and its surroundings for mammal conservation, which include complex habitats (wetlands) located in an important ecotone zone.


Resumo O Brasil é o país mais rico em biodiversidade no mundo, incluindo espécies de mamíferos. No bioma Cerrado, a diversidade de mamíferos é enorme, com cerca de 251 espécies, sendo 32 delas endêmicas e 22 listadas como ameaçadas de extinção. Neste estudo, investigamos a diversidade de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte da RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) e seu entorno, que é uma floresta de inundação localizada em um importante corredor biológico na zona de ecótono Cerrado-Amazonia, uma área prioritária para conservação da biodiversidade no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por armadilhas fotográficas, busca ativa (noturna e diurna) e identificação de pegadas durante a estação seca (abril - agosto de 2016). Registramos um grande número de espécies de mamíferos (n = 29), sendo a ordem carnívora a mais representativa com 11 espécies. Com relação ao status de ameaça, 34,5% das espécies registradas foram listadas como ameaçadas na lista vermelha do Brasil e 20,7% na lista vermelha da IUCN. Destacamos a alta frequência relativa de registros de espécies ameaçadas como Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, bem como a presença da recém descrita espécie de mamífero aquático Inia araguaiaensis. Nós discutimos a importância da RPPN-PJ e seus arredores para a conservação de espécies de mamíferos, onde inclui habitats complexos (áreas de inundação) localizados em uma importante zona de ecótono.. Os resultados reforçam a relevância desta área para a conservação de mamíferos.


Assuntos
Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Mamíferos , Brasil , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278543

RESUMO

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(6)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701014

RESUMO

This article argues that human health has become a key consideration in recent global reports on climate change and biodiversity produced by various international organisations; however, greater attention must be given to the unequal health impacts of climate change and biodiversity loss around the world and the different health adaptation measures that are urgently required.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade , Humanos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115345, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642814

RESUMO

Calls for urgent action to conserve biodiversity under global change are increasing, and conservation of migratory species in this context poses special challenges. In the last two decades the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) has provided a framework for several subsidiary instruments including action plans for migratory bird species, but the effectiveness and transferability of these plans remain unclear. Such laws and policies have been credited with positive outcomes for the conservation of migratory species, but the lack of international coordination and on-ground implementation pose major challenges. While research on migratory populations has received growing attention, considerably less emphasis has been given to integrating ecological information throughout the annual cycle for examining strategies to conserve migratory species at multiple scales in the face of global change. We fill this gap through a case study examining the ecological status and conservation of a migratory raptor and facultative scavenger, the red kite (Milvus milvus), whose current breeding range is limited to Europe and is associated with agricultural landscapes and restricted to the temperate zone. Based on our review, conservation actions have been successful at recovering red kite populations within certain regions. Populations however remain depleted along the southern-most edge of the geographic range where many migratory red kites from northern strongholds overwinter. This led us to a forward-looking and integrated strategy that emphasizes international coordination involving researchers and conservation practitioners to enhance the science-policy-action interface. We identify and explore key issues for conserving the red kite under global change, including enhancing conservation actions within and outside protected areas, recovering depleted populations, accounting for climate change, and transboundary coordination in adaptive conservation and management actions. The integrated conservation strategy is sufficiently general such that it can be adapted to inform conservation of other highly mobile species subject to global change.


Assuntos
Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática
12.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115350, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642817

RESUMO

To address societal challenges in river landscapes, various options are conceivable that differ in the degree of adopting nature-based solutions (NBS) and the respective impacts on people and nature. Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) can aid participatory deliberations about the performance and significance of such options. However, little experience and evidence exist from the application of participatory MCE in planning NBS in river landscapes. This study aims to expand the understanding of individual and collaborative judgments of agency representatives about river development options with varying levels of NBS interventions. A process tracing approach with a rigorous participatory MCE for four alternatives to develop an exemplary river in Germany is adopted, as well as weighted linear aggregation, descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and decision tree modelling for data analysis. The results reveal a wide agreement among participants on the positive impacts of NBS on biodiversity and water quality. Participants also tended to judge those ecological dimensions as more important than non-ecological ones. The rankings of alternatives differed when elicited individually but seemed to converge during the deliberation process. Overall, the results indicate a relative preference of participants for medium NBS interventions, but also shed light on potential implementation hurdles. The study closes by proposing key questions to consider for MCE of NBS.


Assuntos
Rios , Qualidade da Água , Biodiversidade , Alemanha , Humanos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156234, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644400

RESUMO

Human activities in coastal lagoons over several decades have had a significant impact on their ecology and the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Although there are several management approaches to mitigate the problem, they are unable to link human needs and activities with changes in the state of the environment. This research provides this link via assessment of eleven lagoons in Ghana with a socio-ecological framework (Drivers (D), Activities (A), Pressure (P), State (S), Impact (I) on welfare (W), and Response (R) as a Measure (M); DAPSI(W)R(M)). Data were systematically obtained from relevant publications, previously conducted research, and national reports on the subject and were analyzed using this socio-ecological framework. Results show that basic biological and physiological needs such as food and shelter, social status and dominance, financial self-reliance, and self-actualization are the drivers of fishing, farming, settlements, salt mining, mangrove harvesting, industries, among others. These activities have contributed to pressures of selective extraction of fish and mangroves species, the introduction of heavy metals, organic materials, and smothering of substrates, consequently altering the environment by decreasing the oxygen rate and increasing the biochemical oxygen demand, organic matter, nutrients and pathogens, and reduction in lagoon areas and biodiversity. Thus, ultimately impacting human welfare, such as loss of revenue, employment, and seafood provision. Management options, including addressing the building and fuelwood material sources, afforestation and community ownership of lagoons, the prohibition of construction activities, and research-led management that can support decision-makers to improve the sustainability of these ecosystems, are highlighted. The findings have global implications for guiding local planners and state regulators in the applications of such integrated environmental management.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Atividades Humanas , Mineração , Oxigênio
14.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115409, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662045

RESUMO

Maintaining traditional agricultural management to preserve agrobiodiversity remains one of the major challenges for biodiversity conservation in Europe. In Germany, viticulture on steep slopes has shaped cultural landscapes of high conservational value but has declined strongly in recent decades due to insufficient profitability. One promising approach to keep management economically viable is modern vineyard terracing. Here, vineyard rows run parallel to the hillside, thus facilitating management and lowering production costs. At the same time, terrace embankments offer large non-cropped areas between the vines that could make a significant contribution to biodiversity. However, to fully exploit that potential sustainable revegetation of terrace embankments is mandatory but barely studied. For three consecutive years, we evaluated the effects of different seed mixtures (hay threshing, regional and commercial mixture), seeding techniques (manual vs. hydro-seeding), and the effect of nurse plants, hay mulch, and fertilizer on the establishment and maintenance of vegetation on three terraced vineyards in the Upper Middle Rhine Valley, Germany. The regional mixture best met the demands of biodiversity conservation by providing high herb and flower cover. Hay threshing and the regional mixture provided sufficient vegetation cover to reduce the risk of erosion, whereas the commercial mixture performed poorly in terms of vegetation cover and plant diversity. For hydro-seeding, target species richness was higher and bare ground cover was significantly reduced compared to manual seeding. Nurse plants, hay mulch, and fertilizer application only marginally improved plant establishment. Together these results emphasize that hydro-seeding with regional seeds is the best approach for revegetation of vineyard terrace embankments by combining high biodiversity and sufficient vegetation cover to reduce erosion risks at the best cost-benefit ratio for winegrowers. Vineyard terracing contributes to maintaining economically viable viticulture on steep slopes and may concurrently act as a conservation tool for biodiversity in vineyard landscapes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fertilizantes , Biodiversidade , Fazendas , Plantas , Sementes
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(6): e1010228, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675415

RESUMO

Viruses play diverse and important roles in ecosystems. In recent years, trade-offs between host and virus traits have gained increasing attention in viral ecology and evolution. However, microbial organism traits, and viral population parameters in particular, are challenging to monitor. Mathematical and individual-based models are useful tools for predicting virus-host dynamics. We have developed an individual-based evolutionary model to study ecological interactions and evolution between bacteria and viruses, with emphasis on the impacts of trade-offs between competitive and defensive host traits on bacteria-phage population dynamics and trait diversification. Host dynamics are validated with lab results for different initial virus to host ratios (VHR). We show that trade-off based, as opposed to random bacteria-virus interactions, result in biologically plausible evolutionary outcomes, thus highlighting the importance of trade-offs in shaping biodiversity. The effects of nutrient concentration and other environmental and organismal parameters on the virus-host dynamics are also investigated. Despite its simplicity, our model serves as a powerful tool to study bacteria-phage interactions and mechanisms for evolutionary diversification under various environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Vírus , Bactérias , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional
17.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 527, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650244

RESUMO

Understanding the stability of ecosystem multifunctionality is imperative for maintaining ecosystem health and sustainability under augmented global change. However it remains unknown whether and how biological communities mediate multifunctional stability in response to biodiversity loss and disturbances. Here, we conducted a 3-year experiment by exposing 270 plant communities of four plant richness levels, i.e., 1, 2, 4, or 8 species, to drought and exotic plant invasion disturbances. Then, the direct effects of plant richness, drought and invasion, and their indirect effects mediated by the stability of plant, litter-faunal, and soil-faunal communities on multifunctional stability were disentangled. We found that plant richness increased, while drought and invasion decreased ecosystem multifunctional stability, which were mediated by plant or faunal community stability. By incorporating the stability of communities into the complex ecological mechanisms, the completeness and goodness of ecological models for explaining and maintaining the stability of ecosystem multifunctionality will be improved.


Assuntos
Secas , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Plantas , Solo
18.
PLoS Biol ; 20(6): e3001640, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671265

RESUMO

Reef fishes are closely connected to many human populations, yet their contributions to society are mostly considered through their economic and ecological values. Cultural and intrinsic values of reef fishes to the public can be critical drivers of conservation investment and success, but remain challenging to quantify. Aesthetic value represents one of the most immediate and direct means by which human societies engage with biodiversity, and can be evaluated from species to ecosystems. Here, we provide the aesthetic value of 2,417 ray-finned reef fish species by combining intensive evaluation of photographs of fishes by humans with predicted values from machine learning. We identified important biases in species' aesthetic value relating to evolutionary history, ecological traits, and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat status. The most beautiful fishes are tightly packed into small parts of both the phylogenetic tree and the ecological trait space. In contrast, the less attractive fishes are the most ecologically and evolutionary distinct species and those recognized as threatened. Our study highlights likely important mismatches between potential public support for conservation and the species most in need of this support. It also provides a pathway for scaling-up our understanding of what are both an important nonmaterial facet of biodiversity and a key component of nature's contribution to people, which could help better anticipate consequences of species loss and assist in developing appropriate communication strategies.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estética , Peixes , Humanos , Filogenia
19.
Mycorrhiza ; 32(3-4): 315-325, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660964

RESUMO

The assembly of biological communities depends on deterministic and stochastic processes whose influence varies across spatial and temporal scales. Although ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi play a key role in forest ecosystems, our knowledge on ECM community assembly processes and their dependency on spatial scales is still scarce. We analysed the assembly processes operating on ECM fungal communities associated with Cistus albidus L. and Quercus spp. in Mediterranean mixed forests (Southern Spain), for which root tip ECM fungi were characterized by high-throughput sequencing. The relative contribution of deterministic and stochastic processes that govern the ECM fungal community assembly was inferred by using phylogenetic and compositional turnover descriptors across spatial scales. Our results revealed that stochastic processes had a significantly higher contribution than selection on root tip ECM fungal community assembly. The strength of selection decreased at the smallest scale and it was linked to the plant host identity and the environment. Dispersal limitation increased at finer scales, whilst drift showed the opposite pattern likely suggesting a main influence of priority effects on ECM fungal community assembly. This study highlights the potential of phylogeny to infer ECM fungal community responses and brings new insights into the ecological processes affecting the structure and dynamics of Mediterranean forests.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Micorrizas , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Florestas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
DNA Res ; 29(3)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652724

RESUMO

In an era of severe biodiversity loss, biological monitoring is becoming increasingly essential. The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) has emerged as a new approach that could revolutionize the biological monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. Over the past decade, macro-organismal eDNA analysis has undergone significant developments and is rapidly becoming established as the golden standard for non-destructive and non-invasive biological monitoring. In this review, I summarize the development of macro-organismal eDNA analysis to date and the techniques used in this field. I also discuss the future perspective of these analytical methods in combination with sophisticated analytical techniques for DNA research developed in the fields of molecular biology and molecular genetics, including genomics, epigenomics, and single-cell technologies. eDNA analysis, which to date has been used primarily for determining the distribution of organisms, is expected to develop into a tool for elucidating the physiological state and behaviour of organisms. The fusion of microbiology and macrobiology through an amalgamation of these technologies is anticipated to lead to the future development of an integrated biology.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
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