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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1188-1193, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913155

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser with and without NaOCl solution. A total of 81 extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Materials and Methods: After root canal preparation and sterilization, the samples were inoculated with E. faecalis for 24 hours. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 25) was irradiated with 2 W laser, group 2 (n = 25) was irradiated with 0.75 W laser in combination with 2.5% NaOCl, group 3 (n = 25) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group 4 (n = 6) was not treated. Statistical analysis was performed by using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Results: The combination of 0.75 W laser with 2.5% NaOCl regime was found to be just as effective at inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis and sterilization of all root canals as 5% NaOCl irrigation (P > 0.001). The 2 W laser had significant bactericidal effect in infected root canals however it did not eradicate all bacteria. The SEM observations were in accordance with the microbiologic findings. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this laboratory study, NaOCl irrigation improved the antimicrobial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. When the toxic effects of high percentage of NaOCl was considered, the combination of low-powered laser and low concentration of NaOCl can be used as an effective disinfection method in root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Cromo , Érbio , Gálio , Humanos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Escândio , Ítrio
2.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(2): 125-136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749122

RESUMO

Biofilms are a collective of multiple types of bacteria that develop on a variety of surfaces. Biofilm development results in heightened resistance to antibiotics. Quorum sensing plays an important role in biofilm development as it is one of the common communication mechanisms within cells, which balances and stabilizes the environment, when the amount of bacteria increases. Because of the important implications of the roles biofilms play in infectious diseases, it is crucial to investigate natural antibacterial agents that are able to regulate biofilm formation and development. Various studies have suggested that natural plant products have the potential to suppress bacterial growth and exhibit chemopreventive traits in the modulation of biofilm development. In this review, we discuss and collate potential antibiofilm drugs and biological molecules from natural sources, along with their underlying mechanisms of action. In addition, we also discuss the antibiofilm drugs that are currently under clinical trials and highlight their potential future uses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Infecções/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(7): 1277-1282, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748585

RESUMO

Microbial biofilm, a consortium of microbial cells protected by a self-produced polymer matrix, is considered as one main cause of current bacterial drug resistance. As a new type of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial peptides provide a new strategy for the treatment of antibiotic resistant bacteria biofilm infections. Antimicrobial peptides have shown unique advantages in preventing microbial colonization of surfaces, killing bacteria in biofilms or disrupting the mature biofilm structure. This review systemically analyzes published data in the recent 30 years to summarize the possible anti-biofilm mechanisms of antimicrobial peptides. We hope that this review can provide reference for the treatment of infectious diseases by pathogenic microbial biofilm.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pesquisa/tendências
4.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 301-308, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections are challenging complications of implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation. They pose a clinical challenge, with significant economic implications. One proposed solution is implant irrigation at the time of placement. There is no consensus on the optimal irrigant solution. METHODS: The authors tested the relative efficacy of 10% povidone-iodine, Clorpactin, Prontosan, triple-antibiotic solution, or normal saline (negative control) against two strains each of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Sterile, smooth silicone implant disks were immersed in irrigant solution, then incubated in suspensions of methicillin-resistant S. aureus or S. epidermidis overnight. The disks were rinsed and sonicated to displace adherent bacteria from the implant surface, and the displaced bacteria were quantified. Normalized values were calculated to characterize the relative efficacy of each irrigant. RESULTS: Povidone-iodine resulted in reductions of the bacterial load by a factor of 10 to 10 for all strains. Prontosan-treated smooth breast implant disks had a 10-fold reduction in bacterial counts for all but one methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain. In comparison to Prontosan, triple-antibiotic solution demonstrated a trend of greater reduction in methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacterial load and weaker activity against S. epidermidis strains. Clorpactin reduced the recovered colony-forming units for only a single strain of S. epidermidis. Povidone-iodine demonstrated the greatest efficacy against all four strains. However, Clorpactin, triple-antibiotic solution, and Prontosan demonstrated similar efficacies. CONCLUSIONS: Povidone-iodine was the most efficacious of the irrigants at reducing methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis contamination. Given the recent lifting of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration moratorium, larger clinical studies of povidone-iodine as a breast implant irrigant solution are warranted. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Implante Mamário/efeitos adversos , Implantes de Mama/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Bacitracina/administração & dosagem , Benzenossulfonatos/administração & dosagem , Implante Mamário/instrumentação , Cefazolina/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Soluções , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4779-4791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753866

RESUMO

Background: Considering the timeline required for the development of novel antimicrobial drugs, increased attention should be given to repurposing old drugs and improving antimicrobial efficacy, particularly for chronic infections associated with biofilms. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are common causes of biofilm-associated infections but produce different biofilm matrices. MSSA biofilm cells are typically embedded in an extracellular polysaccharide matrix, whereas MRSA biofilms comprise predominantly of surface proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to enhance the delivery of antimicrobial agents into biofilms. However, the mechanisms which influence the interactions between NPs and the biofilm matrix are not yet fully understood. Methods: To investigate the influence of NPs surface chemistry on vancomycin (VAN) encapsulation and NP entrapment in MRSA and MSSA biofilms, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with different surface functionalization (bare-B, amine-D, carboxyl-C, aromatic-A) were synthesised using an adapted Stöber method. The antibacterial efficacy of VAN-loaded MSNs was assessed against MRSA and MSSA biofilms. Results: The two negatively charged MSNs (MSN-B and MSN-C) showed a higher VAN loading in comparison to the positively charged MSNs (MSN-D and MSN-A). Cellular binding with MSN suspensions (0.25 mg mL-1) correlated with the reduced viability of both MSSA and MRSA biofilm cells. This allowed the administration of low MSNs concentrations while maintaining a high local concentration of the antibiotic surrounding the bacterial cells. Conclusion: Our data suggest that by tailoring the surface functionalization of MSNs, enhanced bacterial cell targeting can be achieved, leading to a novel treatment strategy for biofilm infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Nanopartículas/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Dióxido de Silício/química , Vancomicina/farmacologia
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5027-5042, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764934

RESUMO

Background: Bactericidal capacity, durable inhibition of biofilm formation, and a three-dimensional (3D) porous structure are the emphases of infected bone defect (IBD) treatment via local scaffold implantation strategy. Purpose: In this study, silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-loaded nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA)@ reduced graphene oxide (RGO) 3D scaffolds (AHRG scaffolds) were designed to alleviate bone infection, inhibit biofilm formation, and promote bone repair through the synergistic effects of AgNPs, RGO, and nHA. Materials and Methods: AHRGs were prepared using a one-step preparation method, to create a 3D porous scaffold to facilitate a uniform distribution of AgNPs and nHA. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was used as a model-resistant bacterium, and the effects of different silver loadings on the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of materials were evaluated. Finally, a rabbit IBD model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the AHRG scaffold in vivo. Results: The results showed successful synthesis of the AHRG scaffold. The ideal 3D porous structure was verified using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction measurements revealed uniform distributions of AgNP and nHA. In vitro antibacterial and cytocompatibility indicated that the 4% AHRG scaffolds possessed the most favorable balance of bactericidal properties and cytocompatibility. In vivo evaluation of the IBD model showed promising treatment efficacy of AHRG scaffolds. Conclusion: The as-fabricated AHRG scaffolds effectively eliminated infection and inhibited biofilm formation. IBD repair was facilitated by the bactericidal properties and 3D porous structure of the AHRG scaffold, suggesting its potential in the treatment of IBDs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Ósseas Infecciosas/terapia , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Substitutos Ósseos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Durapatita/química , Feminino , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Coelhos , Ratos , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5473-5489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801701

RESUMO

Introduction: Biofilms protect bacteria from antibiotics and this can produce drug-resistant strains, especially the main pathogen of periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Carbon quantum dots with various biomedical properties are considered to have great application potential in antibacterial and anti-biofilm treatment. Methods: Tinidazole carbon quantum dots (TCDs) and metronidazole carbon quantum dots (MCDs) were prepared by a hydrothermal method with the clinical antibacterial drugs tinidazole and metronidazole, respectively. Then, TCDs and MCDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. The antibacterial effects were also investigated under different conditions. Results: The TCDs and MCDs had uniform sizes. The results of UV-visible and energy-dispersive spectrometry confirmed their important carbon polymerization structures and the activity of the nitro group, which had an evident inhibitory effect on P. gingivalis, but almost no effect on other bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Prevotella nigrescens. Importantly, the TCDs could penetrate the biofilms to further effectively inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis under the biofilms. Furthermore, it was found that the antibacterial effect of TCDs lies in its ability to impair toxicity by inhibiting the major virulence factors and related genes involved in the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis, thus affecting the self-assembly of biofilm-related proteins. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate a promising new method for improving the efficiency of periodontitis treatment by penetrating the P. gingivalis biofilm with preparations of nano-level antibacterial drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbono/química , Carbono/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metronidazol/química , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Coelhos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tinidazol/química , Tinidazol/farmacologia , Fatores de Virulência/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 227, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767025

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the principal etiologic agent in the occurrence of human dental caries and the formation of biofilms on the surface of teeth. Tea tree oil (TTO) has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological actions that can effectively inhibit the activity of bacteria. In this context, we evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial effects of TTO on S. mutans both during planktonic growth and in biofilms compared with 0.2% CHX. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) using the microdilution method, the bacteriostatic rate using an MTT assay, and the antimicrobial time using a time-kill assay. Then, we explored the effects of TTO on acid production and cell integrity. Furthermore, the effects of TTO on the biomass and bacterial activity of S. mutans biofilms were studied. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to investigate the structure and activity of biofilms. The MIC and MBC values were 0.125% and 0.25%, and the bacterial inhibition rate was concentration dependent. TTO can effectively inhibit bacterial acid production and destroy the integrity of the cell membrane. Electron micrographs revealed a reduction in bacterial aggregation, inhibited biofilm formation, and reduced biofilm thickness. The effect of TTO was the same as that of 0.2% CHX at a specific concentration. In summary, we suggest that TTO is a potential anticariogenic agent that can be used against S. mutans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Melaleuca/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804963

RESUMO

Since plastics degrade very slowly, they remain in the environment on much longer timescales than most natural organic substrates and provide a novel habitat for colonization by bacterial communities. The spectrum of relationships between plastics and bacteria, however, is little understood. The first objective of this study was to examine plastics as substrates for communities of Bacteria in estuarine surface waters. We used next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize communities from plastics collected in the field, and over the course of two colonization experiments, from biofilms that developed on plastic (low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, polycarbonate, polystyrene) and glass substrates placed in the environment. Both field sampling and colonization experiments were conducted in estuarine tributaries of the lower Chesapeake Bay. As a second objective, we concomitantly analyzed biofilms on plastic substrates to ascertain the presence and abundance of Vibrio spp. bacteria, then isolated three human pathogens, V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus, and determined their antibiotic-resistant profiles. In both components of this study, we compared our results with analyses conducted on paired samples of estuarine water. This research adds to a nascent literature that suggests environmental factors govern the development of bacterial communities on plastics, more so than the characteristics of the plastic substrates themselves. In addition, this study is the first to culture three pathogenic vibrios from plastics in estuaries, reinforcing and expanding upon earlier reports of plastic pollution as a habitat for Vibrio species. The antibiotic resistance detected among the isolates, coupled with the longevity of plastics in the aqueous environment, suggests biofilms on plastics have potential to persist and serve as focal points of potential pathogens and horizontal gene transfer.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estuários , Plásticos , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Oceano Atlântico , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio/genética
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17249-17259, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641516

RESUMO

Control of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae continues to be challenging. The success of this pathogen is favored by its ability to acquire antimicrobial resistance and to spread and persist in both the environment and in humans. The emergence of clinically important clones, such as sequence types 11, 15, 101, and 258, has been reported worldwide. However, the mechanisms promoting the dissemination of such high-risk clones are unknown. Unraveling the factors that play a role in the pathobiology and epidemicity of K. pneumoniae is therefore important for managing infections. To address this issue, we studied a carbapenem-resistant ST-15 K. pneumoniae isolate (Kp3380) that displayed a remarkable adherent phenotype with abundant pilus-like structures. Genome sequencing enabled us to identify a chaperone-usher pili system (Kpi) in Kp3380. Analysis of a large K. pneumoniae population from 32 European countries showed that the Kpi system is associated with the ST-15 clone. Phylogenetic analysis of the operon revealed that Kpi belongs to the little-characterized γ2-fimbrial clade. We demonstrate that Kpi contributes positively to the ability of K. pneumoniae to form biofilms and adhere to different host tissues. Moreover, the in vivo intestinal colonizing capacity of the Kpi-defective mutant was significantly reduced, as was its ability to infect Galleria mellonella The findings provide information about the pathobiology and epidemicity of Kpi+ K. pneumoniae and indicate that the presence of Kpi may explain the success of the ST-15 clone. Disrupting bacterial adherence to the intestinal surface could potentially target gastrointestinal colonization.


Assuntos
Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Células A549 , Animais , Antibacterianos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae/citologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Óperon , Filogenia
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19446-19454, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723829

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides are important candidates for developing new classes of antibiotics because of their potency against antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Current research focuses on topical applications and it is unclear how to design peptides with systemic efficacy. To address this problem, we designed two potent peptides by combining database-guided discovery with structure-based design. When bound to membranes, these two short peptides with an identical amino acid composition can adopt two distinct amphipathic structures: A classic horizontal helix (horine) and a novel vertical spiral structure (verine). Their horizontal and vertical orientations on membranes were determined by solid-state 15N NMR data. While horine was potent primarily against gram-positive pathogens, verine showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Both peptides protected greater than 80% mice from infection-caused deaths. Moreover, horine and verine also displayed significant systemic efficacy in different murine models comparable to conventional antibiotics. In addition, they could eliminate resistant pathogens and preformed biofilms. Significantly, the peptides showed no nephrotoxicity to mice after intraperitoneal or intravenous administration for 1 wk. Our study underscores the significance of horine and verine in fighting drug-resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 681-693, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681869

RESUMO

Chronic wounds present a unique therapeutic challenge to heal. Chronic wounds are colonized with bacteria and the presence of a biofilm that further inhibits the normal wound healing processes, and are locked into a very damaging proinflammatory response. The treatment of chronic wounds requires a coordinated approach, including debridement of devitalized tissue, minimizing bacteria and biofilm, control of inflammation, and the use of specialized dressings to address the specific aspects of the particular nonhealing ulcer.


Assuntos
Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Úlcera Cutânea/fisiopatologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/fisiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/imunologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/fisiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/imunologia , Úlcera Cutânea/terapia , Cicatrização/imunologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/imunologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/fisiopatologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/terapia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609722

RESUMO

Microplastics or plastic particles less than 5 mm in size are a ubiquitous and damaging pollutant in the marine environment. However, the interactions between these plastic particles and marine microorganisms are just starting to be understood. The objective of this study was to measure the responses of a characteristic marine organism (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) to an anthropogenic stressor (polyethelene nanoparticles and microparticles) using molecular techniques. This investigation showed that polyethylene microparticles and nanoparticles have genetic, enzymatic and morphological effects on Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. An RT-PCR analysis showed increases in the expression of esterase and hydrolase genes at 5 days of exposure to polyethylene nanoparticles and at 10 days of exposure to polyethylene microparticles. A qualitative enzymatic assay also showed esterase activity in nanoparticle exposed samples. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy was used to assess morphological changes in exopolymer formation resulting from exposure to polyethylene microparticles and nanoparticles. The data from this paper suggests that microplastic and nanoplastics could be key microbial stressors and should be investigated in further detail.


Assuntos
Microplásticos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Polietileno/química , Polietileno/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Synechococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Synechococcus/fisiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividades Humanas , Microplásticos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Synechococcus/citologia , Synechococcus/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614918

RESUMO

Recurrent caries, the development of carious lesions at the interface between the restorative material and the tooth structure, is highly prevalent and represents the primary cause for failure of dental restorations. Correspondingly, we exploited the self-assembly and strong antibiofilm activity of amphipathic antimicrobial peptides (AAMPs) to form novel coatings on dentin that aimed to prevent recurrent caries at susceptible cavosurface margins. AAMPs are alternative to traditional antimicrobial agents and antibiotics with the ability to target the complex and heterogeneous organization of microbial communities. Unlike approaches that have focused on using these AAMPs in aqueous solutions for a transient activity, here we assess the effects on microcosm biofilms of a long-acting AAMPs-based antibiofilm coating to protect the tooth-composite interface. Genomewise, we studied the impact of AAMPs coatings on the dental plaque microbial community. We found that non-native all D-amino acids AAMPs coatings induced a marked shift in the plaque community and selectively targeted three primary acidogenic colonizers, including the most common taxa around Class II composite restorations. Accordingly, we investigated the translational potential of our antibiofilm dentin using multiphoton pulsed near infra-red laser for deep bioimaging to assess the impact of AAMPs-coated dentin on plaque biofilms along dentin-composite interfaces. Multiphoton enabled us to record the antibiofilm potency of AAMPs-coated dentin on plaque biofilms throughout exaggeratedly failed interfaces. In conclusion, AAMPs-coatings on dentin showed selective and long-acting antibiofilm activity against three dominant acidogenic colonizers and potential to resist recurrent caries to promote and sustain the interfacial integrity of adhesive-based interfaces.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Dentina/química , Dentina/microbiologia , Durapatita/química , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Imobilizadas/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105559, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652412

RESUMO

High nitrate (NO3--N) concentration is a growing aquatic risk concern worldwide. However, adverse effects of high NO3--N concentration on submerged macrophytes-epiphytic biofilms are unclear. In this study, the alterations in physiological changes, biofilms formation and chemical compositions were investigated on leaves of Vallisneria asiatica exposed to different NO3--N concentrations. The findings showed that 10 mg L-1NO3--N resulted in low photosynthetic efficiency by inhibiting chlorophyll content 26.2 % and decreased intrinsic efficiency of photosystem II significantly at 14th day post treatment. Malondialdehyde, several antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), and secondary metabolites (i.e., phenolic compounds and anthocyanin) were all significantly up-regulated with 10 mg L-1NO3--N, implied oxidative stress were stimulated. However, no significant alterations in these indicators were observed with 5 mg L-1NO3--N. Compared to control, 10 mg L-1NO3--N concentration significantly stimulated microbes growth in biofilm and reduced the roughness of leaf-biofilms surface, but it had little effect on the biofilms distribution (from single clone to blocks) as revealed by scanning electron microscope and multifractal analysis. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the percentage of P, Cl, K and the ratio of O1 (-O-) /O2 (C = O) were higher in leaves of control than treatments with 10 mg L-1NO3--N, indicating that 10 mg L-1NO3--N concentration exhibited significant inhibition of chemical activity and nutrient uptake of the leaf surfaces. Overall, these results demonstrated that high NO3--N does stimulate the biofilm growth and can cause negative impacts on submerged macrophytes growth.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hydrocharitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitratos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/microbiologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661899

RESUMO

The antibacterial agent Triclosan (TCS) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant due to its widespread use. Sensitivity to TCS varies substantially among eu- and pro-karyotic species and its risk for the marine environment remains to be better elucidated. In particular, the effects that TCS causes on marine microbial communities are largely unknown. In this study we therefore used 16S amplicon rDNA sequencing to investigate TCS effects on the bacterial composition in marine periphyton communities that developed under long-term exposure to different TCS concentrations. Exposure to TCS resulted in clear changes in bacterial composition already at concentrations of 1 to 3.16 nM. We conclude that TCS affects the structure of the bacterial part of periphyton communities at concentrations that actually occur in the marine environment. Sensitive taxa, whose abundance decreased significantly with increasing TCS concentrations, include the Rhodobiaceae and Rhodobacteraceae families of Alphaproteobacteria, and unidentified members of the Candidate division Parcubacteria. Tolerant taxa, whose abundance increased significantly with higher TCS concentrations, include the families Erythrobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria), Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes), Bdellovibrionaceae (Deltaproteobacteria), several families of Gammaproteobacteria, and members of the Candidate phylum Gracilibacteria. Our results demonstrate the variability of TCS sensitivity among bacteria, and that TCS can change marine bacterial composition at concentrations that have been detected in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Perifíton/efeitos dos fármacos , Perifíton/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722685

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as components of new functional materials has the unintended consequence of causing increases in CNT concentrations in aqueous environments. Aqueous systems are reservoirs for bacteria, including human and animal pathogens, that can form biofilms. At high concentrations, CNTs have been shown to display biocidal effects; however, at low concentrations, the interaction between CNTs and bacteria is more complicated, and antimicrobial action is highly dependent upon the properties of the CNTs in suspension. Here, impact of low concentrations of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) on the biofilm-forming opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is studied. Using phase contrast and confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and antibiotic tolerance assays, it is found that sub-lethal concentrations (2 mg/L) of MWCNTs promote aggregation of P. aeruginosa into multicellular clusters. However, the antibiotic tolerance of these "young" bacterial-CNT aggregates is similar to that of CNT-free cultures. Overall, our results indicate that the co-occurrence of MWCNTs and P. aeruginosa in aqueous systems, which promotes the increased number and size of bacterial aggregates, could increase the dose to which humans or animals are exposed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suspensões
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236441, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701973

RESUMO

Biofilms are microbial communities embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix and display an enhanced tolerance to the action of antimicrobials. The emergence of novel functionalised nanoparticles is considered a promising avenue for the development of biofilm-specific antimicrobial technologies. However, there is a gap in the understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the biofilm matrix. Particularly, questions are raised on how nanoparticle charge and surface groups play a role in aggregation when in contact with biofilm components. Herein we present the synthesis of four types of silica nanoparticles and undertake an analysis of their interactions with Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm matrix. The effect of the biofilm matrix components on the charge and aggregation of the nanoparticles was assessed. Additionally, the study focused on the role of matrix proteins, with the in-depth characterisation of the protein corona of each nanoparticle by Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry experiments. The protein corona composition is dependent on the nanoparticle type; non-functionalised nanoparticles show less protein selectivity, whereas carboxylate-functionalised nanoparticles prefer proteins with a higher isoelectric point. These outcomes provide insights into the field of biofilm-nanoparticle interactions that can be valuable for the design of new nano-based targeting systems in future anti-biofilm applications.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Pseudomonas fluorescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Coroa de Proteína/química , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas fluorescens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614255

RESUMO

Recently, Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become widely applied nanomaterial in human contacting areas such as cosmetics, food and medicine due to their antibacterial property. On the other hand, surfactants are essential ingredient of several industrial and consumer formulations. Based on these important applications, the current research was aimed to carry out the synthesis and characterization of Tween 80 capped silver nanoparticles (T80-AgNPs) using gamma radiation reduction method. Characterization of T80-AgNPs was occurred by using UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR and TEM techniques. UV-Visible spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak in the range of 420 nm signifying the synthesis of colloidal AgNPs. TEM confirmed the formation of spherical and uniformly distributed AgNPs with average size of 18 nm. XRD analysis illustrated the formation of pure crystalline AgNPs. The FTIR analysis provides evidence for the stabilization of AgNPs by Tween 80. The synthesized T80-AgNPs were evaluated for antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) as gram negative (G -ve) bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as gram positive (G + ve) bacteria and anti-biofilm activity to P. aeruginosa. The results show that T80-AgNPs exhibits excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm activities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Raios gama , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polissorbatos/química , Prata/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/farmacologia , Nitrato de Prata/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 329: 108685, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497791

RESUMO

Foodborne pathogens constitute a major food safety risk for cantaloupe, and pathogen biofilms formed are particularly difficult to remove. The goal of this study was to evaluate abrasive brushing in removing biofilms from cantaloupe surface using Listeria monocytogenes V7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 as models. Cantaloupe rind pieces were inoculated and then subjected to 30 min or 24 h incubations. The incubated rind pieces were subject to different washing and/or brushing procedures and then the bacterial cells were enumerated. Cryo-SEM showed planktonic cells after 30 min incubation, whereas biofilms formed at rind surfaces after 24 h incubation. For L. monocytogenes 30 min incubation group, the log reductions were 1.4 for brushing, 2.1 for brushing with diatomaceous earth (DE), 2.8 for peroxyacetic acid (PAA) washing, 4.2 for brushing with PAA, and 4.0 for brushing with DE and PAA. In contrast, for the 24 h incubation group, the log reductions were 0.4 for brushing, 1.5 for brushing with DE, 1.1 for PAA washing, 1.6 for brushing with PAA, and 3.0 for brushing with DE and PAA. Similar results were observed for the S. Typhimurium group. These outcomes showed the pathogen-removal efficacy of brushing with DE (abrasive brushing) in the presence of biofilms, suggesting the potential application of abrasive brushing in cleaning cantaloupe for improved food safety.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cucumis melo/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
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