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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(10): 3651-3661, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576995

RESUMO

Our subject is a dialogue with six literary works, understood in the publishing market as biographies that consider first and second person narratives on the relationship with situations of chronic, rare or complex disease. As a theoretical essay, we try to build an argument: these biographies are public forms of people's construction and presentation; they represent the possibility of assigning a place of visibility to moral experiences, of great public appeal, but which must be recognized in health care and training as political tools for reflection on practices. Thus, they become testimonies, providing less personal life histories and more biographical paths, with an interactionist dialogue among meanings, places, people, positions, stigma, right violations and discrimination.


Assuntos
Biografias como Assunto , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Doenças Raras/psicologia , Humanos
2.
BMC Palliat Care ; 18(1): 79, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing the quality of life with short interventions for vulnerable patients is one of the objectives of palliative care. Biographical approaches are used in a range of different interventions which may require considerable resources of staff time and energy. This study evaluated the feasibility of training hospice volunteers in biographical interviews of patients confronted with a life-limiting disease. For the purpose of this study, we evaluated resources such as time needed for training, coordination and supervision, outcome such as completion of the intervention in appropriate time and risks such as causing distress in patients or volunteers as major determinants of feasibility. METHODS: Nine volunteers from a hospice service attended an advanced training with an introduction to palliative care, biography work, interview techniques, transcribing and writing. Volunteers interviewed a patient and developed a written narrative from the interview. Volunteers completed a questionnaire before training and were interviewed at the end of the project. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and evaluated using descriptive and qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Patients provided positive feedback from the intervention. Volunteers felt that their involvement was personally rewarding and were moved by the courage and confidence of the patients. There were no systematic problems or negative experiences reported neither by volunteers nor by patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found the use of volunteers for biography work with patients in palliative care feasible and effective in this study. Volunteers needed supervision and ongoing support in providing this intervention.


Assuntos
Biografias como Assunto , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Voluntários/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação
3.
Protein J ; 38(4): 363-376, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410705

RESUMO

During my postdoc interview in June of 1998, I asked Günter why he was moving more towards the nucleus in his latest studies. He said, "Well Joe, that's where everything starts." By the end of the interview, I accepted the postdoc. He had a way of making everything sound so cool. Günter's progression was natural, since the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus are the only organelles that share the same membrane. The nuclear envelope extends into a double membrane system with nuclear pore complexes embedded in the pore membrane openings. Even while writing this review, I remember Günter stressing; it is the nuclear pore complex. Just saying nuclear pore doesn't encompass the full magnitude of its significance. The nuclear pore complex is one of the largest collection of proteins that fit together for an overall function: transport. This review will cover the Blobel lab contributions in the quest for the blueprint of the nuclear pore complex from isolation of the nuclear envelope and nuclear lamin to the ring structures.


Assuntos
Laminas/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Lâmina Nuclear/ultraestrutura , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/química , Poro Nuclear/ultraestrutura , Animais , Biografias como Assunto , Citoesqueleto/ultraestrutura , Pessoas Famosas , Humanos , Ratos , Leveduras
4.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e908-e914, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Textual analysis of obituaries provides insight into the shared values of a profession or community. Neurosurgeon obituaries are frequently published in both the medical literature and the lay press, but the content of these works has never been analyzed. METHODS: Using obituary pieces from Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery, and the New York Times, frequent terms were quantified through preliminary text analysis to derive the relative importance of concepts such as innovation, research, training and family. The sentiment of these obituaries was qualitatively reviewed to approximate perceptions of neurosurgical legacy within the profession and the general public. RESULTS: Thirty relevant obituaries with full text available were identified in the Journal of Neurosurgery, 14 were identified in Neurosurgery, and 23 were identified in the New York Times. Both neurosurgical journals and lay press articles relied on linear narratives, with greater emphasis on professional leadership and residency training in neurosurgical journals and proportionally greater mention of family in the lay press. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary text analysis of neurosurgeon obituaries suggest what values are shared among the professional community and general public regarding the legacy of a neurosurgeon.


Assuntos
Biografias como Assunto , Neurocirurgiões/normas , Neurocirurgiões/tendências , Jornais como Assunto/tendências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(3): 267-291, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095321

RESUMO

This article explores prisoners' observations of mental illness in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British prisons, recorded in memoirs published following their release. The discipline of separate confinement was lauded for its potential to improve prisoners' minds, inducing reflection and reform, when it was introduced in the 1840s, but in practice led to high levels of mental breakdown. In order to maintain the integrity of the prison system, the prison authorities played down incidences of insanity, while prison chaplains lauded the beneficent influence of cellular isolation. In contrast, as this article demonstrates, prisoners' memoirs offer insights into the prevalence of mental illness in prison, and its poor management, as well as inmates' efforts to manage mental distress. As the prison system became more closed, uniform and penal after the 1860s, the volume of such publications increased. Oscar Wilde's evocative prison writings have attracted considerable attention, but he was only one of many prison authors criticizing the penal system and decrying the damage it inflicted on the mind. Exploration of prison memoirs, it is argued, enhances our understanding of experiences of mental disorder in the underexplored context of the prison, highlighting the prisoners' voice, agency and advocacy of reform.


Assuntos
Biografias como Assunto , Prisioneiros/história , Prisões/história , Transtornos Psicóticos/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia
8.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(1): 82-91, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932052

RESUMO

Collective memory and attention are sustained by two channels: oral communication (communicative memory) and the physical recording of information (cultural memory). Here, we use data on the citation of academic articles and patents, and on the online attention received by songs, movies and biographies, to describe the temporal decay of the attention received by cultural products. We show that, once we isolate the temporal dimension of the decay, the attention received by cultural products decays following a universal biexponential function. We explain this universality by proposing a mathematical model based on communicative and cultural memory, which fits the data better than previously proposed log-normal and exponential models. Our results reveal that biographies remain in our communicative memory the longest (20-30 years) and music the shortest (about 5.6 years). These findings show that the average attention received by cultural products decays following a universal biexponential function.


Assuntos
Atenção , Comunicação , Cultura , Memória , Modelos Teóricos , Bibliometria , Biografias como Assunto , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Música , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Física/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0205771, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785879

RESUMO

Communication technologies, from printing to social media, affect our historical records by changing the way ideas are spread and recorded. Yet, finding statistical evidence of this fact has been challenging. Here we combine a common causal inference technique (instrumental variable estimation) with a dataset on nearly forty thousand biographies from Wikipedia (Pantheon 2.0), to study the effect of the introduction of printing in European cities on Wikipedia's digital biographical records. By using a city's distance to Mainz as an instrument for the adoption of the movable type press, we show that European cities that adopted printing earlier were more likely to become the birthplace of a famous scientist or artist during the years following the invention of printing. We bring these findings to recent communication technologies by showing that the number of radios and televisions in a country correlates with the number of globally famous performing artists and sports players born in that country, even after controlling for GDP, population, and including country and year fixed effects. These findings support the hypothesis that the introduction of communication technologies can bias historical records in the direction of the content that is best suited for each technology.


Assuntos
Arte , Disseminação de Informação , Impressão , Ciência , Biografias como Assunto , Europa (Continente) , Internet , Música , Política , Rádio , Pesquisadores , Canto , Televisão
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(479)2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760582

RESUMO

Medicine-based evidence integrates a patient's biology and biography to improve individual medical care and to help eliminate the translational gap between research and the clinic.


Assuntos
Biografias como Assunto , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
12.
World Neurosurg ; 121: e113-e118, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An academic genealogy describes mentoring relationships in an academic discipline. In this study, we outline an academic genealogy of neurosurgery department chairs in the United States beginning with the founding members of the field. METHODS: The biographic information provided by the Society for Neurological Surgery provided the basis for our genealogy. We also performed a literature review with PubMed using the term neurosurgery department history. Our data was manually uploaded to an online database called Academic Tree. Within this platform, mentor and trainee relationships were indicated to produce an academic genealogy. RESULTS: Our search yielded a total of 377 chairs and 368 mentoring relationships across 98 neurosurgery departments. The largest family tree in our academic genealogy was that of Harvey Cushing, with 177 department chairs. Harvey Cushing was also the individual who trained the most number of department chairs (22). The institution that trained the most department chairs was Brigham and Women's Hospital (26). Only 23.6% of department chairs completed residency training at the same institution where they became chair. CONCLUSIONS: The academic genealogy in this study allows for any neurosurgeon trained in the United States to put his or her training into historical context. It also provides a reference for bibliographic research to quantitatively describe the influence of individuals and institutions on the field.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Biografias como Assunto , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Mentores , Neurocirurgia/educação , Estados Unidos
13.
Recife; Cepe; 2019. 357 p. il.
Monografia em Português | HISA - História da Saúde | ID: his-43372

RESUMO

Registra a história doo dr. Salomão e das pequenas histórias pessoais registradas nos vários depoimentos de familiares, amigos, ex-alunos rememorando alguns dos fatos pessoais mais marcantes da vida do dr. Salomão, bem como os testemunhos públicos das várias homenagens recebidas em vida e as póstumas recebidas até agora.


Assuntos
Biografias como Assunto , Médicos , História da Medicina
14.
J Nurs Educ ; 57(12): 742-746, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30512111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lack of specialized knowledge about providing health care to older people decreases their health outcomes and quality of life. This article presents an innovative learning strategy for preregistration nursing students to raise awareness of person-centered care of the older adult. METHOD: This report is based on the authors' own experience and includes comments from students to the authors who taught the unit of study from 2010 to 2015, supported by current literature and theory discussing contemporary educational strategies. RESULTS: Students came to value the older adult as a person to whom they could relate and the learning promoted person-centered care delivery. Although many students found this approach to learning to be challenging, student feedback demonstrated that the overall reception of the strategy was very positive. CONCLUSION: This strategy facilitated learning to improve person-centered care and addressed negative attitudes toward older adults, which improved health outcomes and their quality of life. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(12):742-746.].


Assuntos
Biografias como Assunto , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Idoso , Currículo , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Feminino , Enfermagem Geriátrica/educação , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(5): 187-191, 1 sept., 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175173

RESUMO

Introducción. La utilización de metáforas médicas es frecuente en el discurso social y en los medios de comunicación. Sin embargo, su empleo por los propios médicos para definir conceptos distintos al significado original del término resulta poco habitual. Objetivo. Analizar el empleo del término "escotoma", en su sentido metafórico, en las obras del neurólogo y escritor Oliver Sacks. Desarrollo. Sacks usó escotoma metafóricamente en dos obras, en el libro autobiográfico A leg to stand on y en un ensayo, Scotoma: forgetting and neglect in science. En el primer caso, lo utilizó para describir la situación de pérdida sensorial de su extremidad inferior, que experimentó después de un accidente, lo que podría interpretarse como un «escotoma mental». En el segundo caso, Sacks analizó el proceso y las razones del olvido de las obras de algunos descubridores científicos precoces y comentó por qué había sucedido, una situación que denominó "escotoma histórico" o "social". Conclusiones. Sacks no utiliza el término «escotoma» de forma uniforme y, si bien en el caso de su accidente podría considerarse como una acepción menor, pero aceptada, es indudable su uso como metáfora médica para describir el olvido y la ignorancia de algunos descubrimientos científicos en determinadas situaciones históricas


Introduction. The use of medical metaphors is common in the social discourse and in the media. However, the use by physicians themselves to define different concepts to the original meaning of the medical word is rare. Aim. To analyze the term 'scotoma' in its metaphorical sense in the works of the neurologist and writer Oliver Sacks. Development. Sacks used scotoma metaphorically in two works, in the autobiographical book A leg to stand on and in an essay Scotoma: forgetting and neglect in science. In the first case, he used it to define the sensorial loss of his leg after an accident, which could be interpreted as a ‘mental scotoma'. In the second case, Sacks analyzed the process and the reasons of forgetting the works of some early scientific discoverers and discussed why this happened. In this case, Sacks made an analogy with the process suffered by scientific discoveries and the reasons why some of them are largely ignored, in a situation that he called 'historical' or 'social scotoma'. Conclusions. Sacks does not use the term 'scotoma' uniformly. When used to describe the sensorial loss of his leg, it might be considered that scotoma is there a second, although minor but accepted, meaning of the word. However, its use in the definition of historical neglect of early discoveries can be clearly defined as a medical metaphor in full sense


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XX , Escotoma/história , Metáfora , Medicina na Literatura , Neurologia/história , Despersonalização , Biografias como Assunto , Ciência/história
17.
Microb Ecol ; 76(1): 1, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948016
18.
Index enferm ; 27(1/2): 62-66, ene.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175352

RESUMO

Este artículo tiene como propósito presentar las posibilidades de la investigación con enfoque biográfico narrativo para el conocimiento en enfermería, el cual ha tenido su mayor desarrollo a partir de la lógica deductiva propia del paradigma positivista que acompañó su nacimiento como disciplina. Para ello, se presenta una panorámica de los fundamentos epistemológicos, ontológicos, praxiológicos y metodológicos del enfoque, así como sus usos en enfermería a partir del rastreo de investigaciones realizadas en los últimos años, mostrando las posibilidades que ofrece y las preguntas potenciales que pueden ayudar a resolver en relación con el cuidado de la vida


This article has the purpose to present the possibilities of research with biographical narrative approach to nursing knowledge, which has had its greatest development from the own deductive logic of the positivist paradigm that accompanied its birth as a discipline. To do this, an overview of and epistemological, ontological, praxiológical and methodological approach and its uses in nursing starting from tracking researches conducted in recent years is presented , showing the possibilities that offer and potential questions that can help resolve regarding life care


Assuntos
Pesquisa em Enfermagem/métodos , Conhecimento , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/instrumentação , Biografias como Assunto , Narração
20.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 54(2): 40-46, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-907032

RESUMO

Background - Jean-Martin Charcot had a profound influence on Sigmund Freud's life and career. The founders of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry were influenced by the ideas of Charcot and Freud. Objective - To describe Charcot's influence on Freud, and both on the beginning of Brazilian Neurology and Psychiatry. Results - After Freud's stay in Charcot's neurology service during the winter of 1885-1886, there was a shift in his interest from general neurology to hysteria, hypnosis and other psychological issues, which greatly influenced the development of psychoanalytic theory. Like Charcot, Freud would become an admirer of the arts, literature, and culture. When Freud began his collection, in the late 1890s, Charcot served as an important model. In Salpêtrière Hospital, Charcot was staging a show different from modernity, capable of inspiring Freud. Antonio Austregesilo founded the first Brazilian school of Neurology, in Rio de Janeiro, inspired in Charcot. Austresegilo also practiced psychiatry, and, together Juliano Moreira and others, is considered propagator of Freud's ideas in Brazil. Conclusion - The ideas of Charcot and Freud were fundamental in the formation of physicians who helped to found and to consolidate the Brazilian neurology and psychiatry.(AU)


Introdução - Jean-Martin Charcot exerceu uma profunda influência na vida e na carreira de Sigmund Freud. Os fundadores da neurologia e da psiquiatria brasileiras foram influenciados pelas ideias de Charcot e de Freud. Objetivo - Descrever a influência de Charcot sobre Freud e de ambos sobre o início da Neurologia e da Psiquiatria brasileiras. Resultados - Após a permanência de Freud no serviço de neurologia de Charcot durante o inverno de 1885-1886, houve uma mudança em seu interesse da neurologia geral para histeria, hipnose e outras questões psicológicas, o que influenciou muito o desenvolvimento da teoria psicanalítica. Como Charcot, Freud se tornaria admirador das artes, literatura e cultura. Quando Freud começou sua coleção, no final da década de 1890, Charcot serviu de modelo importante. No Hospital Salpêtrière, Charcot era a representação da modernidade, capaz de inspirar Freud. Antonio Austregésilo fundou a primeira escola brasileira de Neurologia, no Rio de Janeiro, inspirada em Charcot. Austresegilo também praticou psiquiatria, e, juntamente com Juliano Moreira e outros, é considerado propagador das ideias de Freud no Brasil.Conclusão - As ideias de Charcot e Freud foram fundamentais na formação de médicos que ajudaram a fundar e consolidar a neurologia e a psiquiatria brasileiras.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Psiquiatria/história , Psicanálise/história , Teoria Psicanalítica , Histeria/psicologia , Neurologia/história , Biografias como Assunto , Brasil , Educação Médica , Hipnose
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