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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5364, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097697

RESUMO

Over the last ten years, satellite and geographically constrained in situ observations largely focused on the northern hemisphere have suggested that annual phytoplankton biomass cycles cannot be fully understood from environmental properties controlling phytoplankton division rates (e.g., nutrients and light), as they omit the role of ecological and environmental loss processes (e.g., grazing, viruses, sinking). Here, we use multi-year observations from a very large array of robotic drifting floats in the Southern Ocean to determine key factors governing phytoplankton biomass dynamics over the annual cycle. Our analysis reveals seasonal phytoplankton accumulation ('blooming') events occurring during periods of declining modeled division rates, an observation that highlights the importance of loss processes in dictating the evolution of the seasonal cycle in biomass. In the open Southern Ocean, the spring bloom magnitude is found to be greatest in areas with high dissolved iron concentrations, consistent with iron being a well-established primary limiting nutrient in this region. Under ice observations show that biomass starts increasing in early winter, well before sea ice begins to retreat. The average theoretical sensitivity of the Southern Ocean to potential changes in seasonal nutrient and light availability suggests that a 10% change in phytoplankton division rate may be associated with a 50% reduction in mean bloom magnitude and annual primary productivity, assuming simple changes in the seasonal magnitude of phytoplankton division rates. Overall, our results highlight the importance of quantifying and accounting for both division and loss processes when modeling future changes in phytoplankton biomass cycles.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Carbono/análise , Clorofila/análise , Clima , Ecologia , Camada de Gelo , Luz , Biologia Marinha , Meteorologia , Nutrientes , Oceanos e Mares , Dinâmica Populacional , Microbiologia da Água
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4764, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958769

RESUMO

Industrial-scale harvest of species at risk of extinction is controversial and usually highly regulated on land and for charismatic marine animals (e.g. whales). In contrast, threatened marine fish species can be legally caught in industrial fisheries. To determine the magnitude and extent of this problem, we analyze global fisheries catch and import data and find reported catch records of 91 globally threatened species. Thirteen of the species are traded internationally and predominantly consumed in European nations. Targeted industrial fishing for 73 of the threatened species accounts for nearly all (99%) of the threatened species catch volume and value. Our results are a conservative estimate of threatened species catch and trade because we only consider species-level data, excluding group records such as 'sharks and rays.' Given the development of new fisheries monitoring technologies and the current push for stronger international mechanisms for biodiversity management, industrial fishing of threatened fish and invertebrates should no longer be neglected in conservation and sustainability commitments.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes , Invertebrados , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Pesqueiros/economia , Peixes/classificação , Invertebrados/classificação , Biologia Marinha , Alimentos Marinhos/classificação , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822424

RESUMO

Besides understanding the effects of fishing on harvested fish stocks, effects on non-target species, habitats and seafloor integrity also need to be considered. Static fishing gears have often been mentioned as a lower impact fishing alternative to towed gears, although studies examining their actual impact on the seafloor are scarce. In this study, we aimed to describe fish trap movements on the seafloor related to soaking time and trap retrieval. Impacts on the seafloor of lightweight rectangular traps and heavier circular traps were compared. We used 3D video cameras to estimate sweeping motion on the seabed and penetration into the sediment during soaking time. The area and distance swept by each type of trap during retrieval was determined by a camera set up facing the sea bottom. The potential rotation of the traps around the mainline was assessed using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Results showed that no penetration and almost no movements could be detected during soaking time for either lightweight or heavy commercial traps, even for high tidal coefficient (maximum 6 cm). No rotation could be observed when the tide turned. The swept area covered by a trap during retrieval was low (maximum 2.04 m2) compared to towed fishing gear and other static gear.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Pesqueiros , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Ecossistema , Peixes , Biologia Marinha
4.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111077, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854884

RESUMO

China needs to balance between current population pressures and a vulnerable marine environment, creating a national, political outline or management strategy dubbed an ecological civilization construction. The nation's effort to protect and maintain a sustainable ocean and address the relevant economic, resource and environmental issues relies on Marine Ecological Civilization (MEC) construction. The quantification of MEC progress is essential to track the management performance and guide the subsequent development and implementation. This study evaluates the performance of China's MEC from 2006 to 2016 based on a comprehensive index system. Our findings are as follows: During 2006-2016, the overall MEC performance score increased from 0.3426 to 0.4850 nationwide. Large space-time variations exist among the eleven coastal regions. The Shandong and Guangdong regions showed relatively good performances, whereas the Jiangsu, Guangxi and Shanghai regions had low scores. A decade long change in MEC scores showed that Hebei achieved the largest increase ratio. Marine management was improved by implementing various conservation strategies by China's government. Marine education and human talent introduction deserve more attention in less developed areas such as Hainan and Guangxi, and poor marine environmental quality was an urgent issue of the Yangtze river estuary economic zone. More accessible marine monitoring dataset are needed to track future space-time progress dynamics towards MEC construction. Our results provide a decade long retrospect of China's MEC achievements, and the quantified evaluation for each coastal region can provide valuable insight to policy-makers.


Assuntos
Civilização , Biologia Marinha , Logro , China , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 10): 348, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioinformatics has pervaded all fields of biology and has become an indispensable tool for almost all research projects. Although teaching bioinformatics has been incorporated in all traditional life science curricula, practical hands-on experiences in tight combination with wet-lab experiments are needed to motivate students. RESULTS: We present a tutorial that starts from a practical problem: finding novel enzymes from marine environments. First, we introduce the idea of metagenomics, a recent approach that extends biotechnology to non-culturable microbes. We presuppose that a probe for the screening of metagenomic cosmid library is needed. The students start from the chemical structure of the substrate that should be acted on by the novel enzyme and end with the sequence of the probe. To attain their goal, they discover databases such as BRENDA and programs such as BLAST and Clustal Omega. Students' answers to a satisfaction questionnaire show that a multistep tutorial integrated into a research wet-lab project is preferable to conventional lectures illustrating bioinformatics tools. CONCLUSION: Experimental biologists can better operate basic bioinformatics if a problem-solving approach is chosen.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/educação , Biologia Computacional/educação , Biologia Marinha/educação , Metagenômica , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Sequência de Bases , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Objetivos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Interface Usuário-Computador
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674437

RESUMO

Involving and engaging stakeholders is crucial for studying and managing the complex interactions between marine ecosystems and human health and wellbeing. The Oceans and Human Health Chair was founded in the town of Roses (Catalonia, Spain, NW Mediterranean) in 2018, the fruit of a regional partnership between various stakeholders, and for the purpose of leading the way to better health and wellbeing through ocean research and conservation. The Chair is located in an area of the Mediterranean with a notable fishing, tourist, and seafaring tradition and is close to a marine reserve, providing the opportunity to observe diverse environmental conditions and coastal and maritime activities. The Chair is a case study demonstrating that local, collaborative, transdisciplinary, trans-sector, and bottom-up approaches offer tremendous opportunities for engaging coastal communities to help support long-lasting solutions that benefit everyone, and especially those living by the sea or making their living from the goods and services provided by the sea. Furthermore, the Chair has successfully integrated most of its experts in oceans and human health from the most prestigious institutions in Catalonia. The Chair focuses on three main topics identified by local stakeholders: Fish and Health; Leisure, Health, and Wellbeing; and Medicines from the Sea. Led by stakeholder engagement, the Chair can serve as a novel approach within the oceans and human health field of study to tackle a variety of environmental and public health challenges related to both communicable and non-communicable diseases, within the context of sociocultural issues. Drawing on the example provided by the Chair, four principles are established to encourage improved participatory processes in the oceans and human health field: bottom-up, "think local", transdisciplinary and trans-sectorial, and "balance the many voices".


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares , Participação dos Interessados , Animais , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Biologia Marinha , Espanha
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3454, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651383

RESUMO

Biological rhythms are a fundamental property of life. The deep ocean covers 66% of our planet surface and is one of the largest biomes. The deep sea has long been considered as an arrhythmic environment because sunlight is totally absent below 1,000 m depth. In the present study, we have sequenced the temporal transcriptomes of a deep-sea species, the ecosystem-structuring vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus. We reveal that tidal cycles predominate in the transcriptome and physiology of mussels fixed directly at hydrothermal vents at 1,688 m depth at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, whereas daily cycles prevail in mussels sampled after laboratory acclimation. We identify B. azoricus canonical circadian clock genes, and show that oscillations observed in deep-sea mussels could be either a direct response to environmental stimulus, or be driven endogenously by one or more biological clocks. This work generates in situ insights into temporal organisation in a deep-sea organism.


Assuntos
Mytilidae/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Fontes Hidrotermais , Biologia Marinha , Periodicidade
8.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110757, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560987

RESUMO

Marine protected areas (MPAs) socio-ecological effectiveness depends on a number of management and governance elements, among which stakeholder engagement and community support play key roles. Collaborative conservation initiatives that engage stakeholders in action research and knowledge co-production processes can enhance management and governance of MPAs. To design effective strategies aimed at reconciling biodiversity conservation and management of sustainable human uses, it is key to assess how local communities respond to such initiatives and identify the set of contextual factors, institutional, local and individual, potentially affecting these responses. This paper presents the approach and results of one such initiative, spanning 6 EU countries and 11 MPAs in the Mediterranean Sea, focusing on small-scale fishers as key MPA users. Through a collaborative project, managers and fishers agreed upon specific governance interventions (e.g. increasing stakeholder engagement, engaging fishers in monitoring activities, reducing fishing efforts) to be implemented in each MPA for one year. Structured surveys queried: MPA managers on the MPA context, governance structure, feasibility and effectiveness of the tested interventions; and small-scale fishers on their perceptions of the impact of the tested interventions on a set of 9 socio-ecological variables (e.g. amount of fish caught, level of participation in decision-making, support for the MPA). Results revealed that the interventions tested were relatively feasible, effective and cost-effective. Fishers reported positive perceptions of the interventions for the 9 variables considered, especially for level of support for the MPA and for those associated with aspects of governance. Proportional odds models highlighted perceived effects are maximized under certain institutional, local and individual circumstances (e.g. old MPAs, small fisher communities, and fishers with a high proportion of income from fisheries). Findings highlight that employing good governance processes involving stakeholders may rapidly generate improved local support for conservation and provide insights for potential leverage points upon which to act to maximize perceived effectiveness and enhance support toward MPAs.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Peixes , Humanos , Biologia Marinha , Mar Mediterrâneo
9.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(8): 2329-2336, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529508

RESUMO

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput method for bacteria characterization. However, most previous studies focused on clinical isolates. In this study, we evaluated the use of MALDI-TOF MS as a rapid screening tool for marine bacterial symbionts. A set of 255 isolates from different marine sources (corals, sponge, fish and seawater) was analyzed using cell lysates to obtain a rapid grouping. Cluster analysis of mass spectra and 16S rRNA showed 18 groups, including Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudovibrio, Alteromonas and Ruegeria. MALDI-TOF distance similarity scores ≥ 60% and ≥ 70% correspond to ≥ 98.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and ≥ 95% pyrH gene sequence similarity, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for Vibrio species groups' identification.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Biologia Marinha/métodos , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Vibrio/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Simbiose , Vibrio/química , Vibrio/genética
10.
Nat Methods ; 17(5): 451, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371968
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0229058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469874

RESUMO

A wide range of anthropogenic structures exist in the marine environment with the extent of these set to increase as the global offshore renewable energy industry grows. Many of these pose acute risks to marine wildlife; for example, tidal energy generators have the potential to injure or kill seals and small cetaceans through collisions with moving turbine parts. Information on fine scale behaviour of animals close to operational turbines is required to understand the likely impact of these new technologies. There are inherent challenges associated with measuring the underwater movements of marine animals which have, so far, limited data collection. Here, we describe the development and application of a system for monitoring the three-dimensional movements of cetaceans in the immediate vicinity of a subsea structure. The system comprises twelve hydrophones and software for the detection and localisation of vocal marine mammals. We present data demonstrating the systems practical performance during a deployment on an operational tidal turbine between October 2017 and October 2019. Three-dimensional locations of cetaceans were derived from the passive acoustic data using time of arrival differences on each hydrophone. Localisation accuracy was assessed with an artificial sound source at known locations and a refined method of error estimation is presented. Calibration trials show that the system can accurately localise sounds to 2m accuracy within 20m of the turbine but that localisations become highly inaccurate at distances greater than 35m. The system is currently being used to provide data on rates of encounters between cetaceans and the turbine and to provide high resolution tracking data for animals close to the turbine. These data can be used to inform stakeholders and regulators on the likely impact of tidal turbines on cetaceans.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Organismos Aquáticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Caniformia , Cetáceos/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Biologia Marinha , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Energia Renovável/efeitos adversos , Som , Ondas de Maré
13.
Nature ; 580(7801): 39-51, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238939

RESUMO

Sustainable Development Goal 14 of the United Nations aims to "conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development". Achieving this goal will require rebuilding the marine life-support systems that deliver the many benefits that society receives from a healthy ocean. Here we document the recovery of marine populations, habitats and ecosystems following past conservation interventions. Recovery rates across studies suggest that substantial recovery of the abundance, structure and function of marine life could be achieved by 2050, if major pressures-including climate change-are mitigated. Rebuilding marine life represents a doable Grand Challenge for humanity, an ethical obligation and a smart economic objective to achieve a sustainable future.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/tendências , Biologia Marinha/tendências , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Peixes , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Atividades Humanas , Humanos
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1870, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312964

RESUMO

In many developing countries, aquaculture is key to ensuring food security for millions of people. It is thus important to measure the full implications of environmental changes on the sustainability of aquaculture. We conduct a double meta-analysis (460 articles) to explore how global warming and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) impact aquaculture. We calculate a Multi-Antibiotic Resistance index (MAR) of aquaculture-related bacteria (11,274 isolates) for 40 countries, of which mostly low- and middle-income countries present high AMR levels. Here we show that aquaculture MAR indices correlate with MAR indices from human clinical bacteria, temperature and countries' climate vulnerability. We also find that infected aquatic animals present higher mortalities at warmer temperatures. Countries most vulnerable to climate change will probably face the highest AMR risks, impacting human health beyond the aquaculture sector, highlighting the need for urgent action. Sustainable solutions to minimise antibiotic use and increase system resilience are therefore needed.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Aquecimento Global , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Mudança Climática , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecologia , Humanos , Biologia Marinha , Temperatura
15.
Nat Methods ; 17(5): 481-494, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251396

RESUMO

Diverse microbial ecosystems underpin life in the sea. Among these microbes are many unicellular eukaryotes that span the diversity of the eukaryotic tree of life. However, genetic tractability has been limited to a few species, which do not represent eukaryotic diversity or environmentally relevant taxa. Here, we report on the development of genetic tools in a range of protists primarily from marine environments. We present evidence for foreign DNA delivery and expression in 13 species never before transformed and for advancement of tools for eight other species, as well as potential reasons for why transformation of yet another 17 species tested was not achieved. Our resource in genetic manipulation will provide insights into the ancestral eukaryotic lifeforms, general eukaryote cell biology, protein diversification and the evolution of cellular pathways.


Assuntos
DNA/administração & dosagem , Eucariotos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Biologia Marinha , Modelos Biológicos , Transformação Genética , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Eucariotos/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 5943-5948, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123112

RESUMO

Marine microbes form the base of ocean food webs and drive ocean biogeochemical cycling. Yet little is known about the ability of microbial populations to adapt as they are advected through changing conditions. Here, we investigated the interplay between physical and biological timescales using a model of adaptation and an eddy-resolving ocean circulation climate model. Two criteria were identified that relate the timing and nature of adaptation to the ratio of physical to biological timescales. Genetic adaptation was impeded in highly variable regimes by nongenetic modifications but was promoted in more stable environments. An evolutionary trade-off emerged where greater short-term nongenetic transgenerational effects (low-γ strategy) enabled rapid responses to environmental fluctuations but delayed genetic adaptation, while fewer short-term transgenerational effects (high-γ strategy) allowed faster genetic adaptation but inhibited short-term responses. Our results demonstrate that the selective pressures for organisms within a single water mass vary based on differences in generation timescales resulting in different evolutionary strategies being favored. Organisms that experience more variable environments should favor a low-γ strategy. Furthermore, faster cell division rates should be a key factor in genetic adaptation in a changing ocean. Understanding and quantifying the relationship between evolutionary and physical timescales is critical for robust predictions of future microbial dynamics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Antecipação Genética , Clima , Simulação por Computador , Meio Ambiente , Variação Genética , Biologia Marinha
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6590-6598, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152110

RESUMO

The effects of predator intimidation on habitat use and behavior of prey species are rarely quantified for large marine vertebrates over ecologically relevant scales. Using state space movement models followed by a series of step selection functions, we analyzed movement data of concurrently tracked prey, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus; n = 7), and predator, killer whales (Orcinus orca; n = 3), in a large (63,000 km2), partially ice-covered gulf in the Canadian Arctic. Our analysis revealed pronounced predator-mediated shifts in prey habitat use and behavior over much larger spatiotemporal scales than previously documented in any marine or terrestrial ecosystem. The striking shift from use of open water (predator-free) to dense sea ice and shorelines (predators present) was exhibited gulf-wide by all tracked bowheads during the entire 3-wk period killer whales were present, constituting a nonconsumptive effect (NCE) with unknown energetic or fitness costs. Sea ice is considered quintessential habitat for bowhead whales, and ice-covered areas have frequently been interpreted as preferred bowhead foraging habitat in analyses that have not assessed predator effects. Given the NCEs of apex predators demonstrated here, however, unbiased assessment of habitat use and distribution of bowhead whales and many marine species may not be possible without explicitly incorporating spatiotemporal distribution of predation risk. The apparent use of sea ice as a predator refuge also has implications for how bowhead whales, and likely other ice-associated Arctic marine mammals, will cope with changes in Arctic sea ice dynamics as historically ice-covered areas become increasingly ice-free during summer.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Orca/fisiologia , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Biologia Marinha , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1500, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198372

RESUMO

Anthropogenic nutrient discharge to coastal marine environments is commonly associated with excessive algal growth and ecosystem degradation. However in the world's largest coral reef ecosystem, the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the response to enhanced terrestrial nutrient inputs since European settlement in the 1850's remains unclear. Here we use a 333 year old composite record (1680-2012) of 15N/14N in coral skeleton-bound organic matter to understand how nitrogen cycling in the coastal GBR has responded to increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Our major robust finding is that the coral record shows a long-term decline in skeletal 15N/14N towards the present. We argue that this decline is evidence for increased coastal nitrogen fixation rather than a direct reflection of anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. Reducing phosphorus discharge and availability would short-circuit the nitrogen fixation feedback loop and help avoid future acute and chronic eutrophication in the coastal GBR.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Isótopos , Biologia Marinha , Fósforo/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 825, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047154

RESUMO

Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous in the iron-limited Southern Ocean, controlling ocean-atmosphere exchange processes, however their influence on phytoplankton productivity remains unknown. Here we probed the biogeochemical cycling of iron (Fe) in a cold-core eddy. In-eddy surface dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations and phytoplankton productivity were exceedingly low relative to external waters. In-eddy phytoplankton Fe-to-carbon uptake ratios were elevated 2-6 fold, indicating upregulated intracellular Fe acquisition resulting in a dFe residence time of ~1 day. Heavy dFe isotope values were measured for in-eddy surface waters highlighting extensive trafficking of dFe by cells. Below the euphotic zone, dFe isotope values were lighter and coincident with peaks in recycled nutrients and cell abundance, indicating enhanced microbially-mediated Fe recycling. Our measurements show that the isolated nature of Southern Ocean eddies can produce distinctly different Fe biogeochemistry compared to surrounding waters with cells upregulating iron uptake and using recycling processes to sustain themselves.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Atmosfera , Carbono , Clorofila , Biologia Marinha , Modelos Biológicos , Temperatura , Oligoelementos
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