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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 163-171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016370

RESUMO

Annual and multiyear records of trace element deposition are difficult to develop using monitoring systems but have proven feasible using plant material in several settings. Here, we used material from several tree species (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall, Platanus occidentalis L., and Ginkgo biloba L.) to detect atmospheric deposition of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in six localities along a transect from near-urban to far-urban in southeastern Indianapolis, IN, and one control site. We captured soil (legacy footprint), bark (multiannual record), and leaves (seasonal record) across a broad swath of the urban landscape and using a multi-metal approach. Tree bark, leaf, and proximal soil samples were collected and analyzed for their trace element content. The highest trace metal concentrations occurred at the near-urban sites, with particularly high Cu and Pb values. The highest Zn values were found at one of the far-urban sites, which is located near a large brownfield that was a former coal and coke storage and processing facility. No correlation was found between soil trace element composition and that of bark and leaves, perhaps indicating a disconnect between legacy inputs recorded in soils and current inputs recorded in the biological materials. Overall, the tree species analyzed served well as trace element bioindicators, although less so for G. biloba, and thus this approach is promising for further understanding the role that airborne pollution and deposition play in urban watersheds.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Árvores
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 460-471, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016418

RESUMO

The agricultural reuse of urban sewage sludge (USS) modifies soil properties depending on sludge quality, management, and pedo-environmental conditions. The aim of this microcosm study was to assess C mineralization and subsequent changes in soil properties after USS addition to two typical Mediterranean soils: sandy (Soil S) and sandy loam (Soil A) at equivalent field rates of 40 t ha-1 (USS-40) and 120 t ha-1 (USS-120). Outcomes proved the biodegradability of USS through immediate CO2 release inside incubation bottles in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the highest rates of daily C emission were recorded with USS-120 (3.7 and 3.9 mg kg-1 d-1 for Soils S and A, respectively) after 84 d of incubation at 25 °C. The addition of USS also improved soil fertility by enhancing soil macronutrients, microbial proliferation, and protease activity. Protease showed significant correlation with N, total organic C, and heterotrophic bacteria, reflecting the biostimulation and bioaugmentation effects of sludge. Soil indices like C/N/P stoichiometry and metabolic quotient (qCO2 ) varied mostly with mineralization rates of C and P in both soils. Despite a significant increase of soil salinity and total heavy metal content (lead, nickel, zinc, and copper) with USS dose, wheat germination was not affected by these changes. Both experimental soils showed intrinsic (Soil A) and incubation-induced (Soil S) phytotoxicities that were alleviated by USS addition. This was likely due to the enhancement of biodegradation and/or retention of phytotoxicants originating from previous land uses. Urban sewage sludge amendments could have applications in soil remediation by reducing the negative effects of allelopathic and/or anthropogenic phytoinhibitors.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo , Carbono/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Esgotos
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 559-564, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974765

RESUMO

In this work, we propose to evaluate the effect of agriculture intensification under greenhouses on the biochemical and transcriptomic responses of the earthworms Eisenia andrei. This work was conducted on two sites in Téboulba and Sahline (Monastir governorate) and a control site in an experimental plot that is undergoing organic farming. For this purpose, the earthworms Eisenia andrei were exposed to the soils during 7 and 14 days. The physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. The biochemical biomarkers of metallothioneins (MTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulations were also assessed. Moreover, the gene expression level of the MTs was analyzed. The results of our study revealed a significant trace element accumulation accompanied by a high level of MDA and MT proteins. Moreover, a significant expression of the MT gene was observed in earthworms exposed to the soils from Sahline and Téboulba. Hence, this work reveals that intensive agriculture can affect the biological responses of earthworms and consequently, the soil's biofertility.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biomarcadores Ambientais/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/genética , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Tunísia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140339, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806342

RESUMO

Studies have demonstrated the role of acanthocephalan as environmental bioindicators. The dynamics in the parasite-host relationship that define the patterns of distribution of trace metals in parasites and, in its host, are extremely variable. In addition, the neotropical region, which is a major maintainer of the biodiversity of fish and parasites, remains little explored in this subject. Therefore, our objective was to analyze and compare the concentration of Cadmium (Cd) in the tissues of Prochilodus lineatus and Serrasalmus marginatus collected from Baía and Paraná rivers, as well as to assess the use of acanthocephalan as environmental bioindicators of pollution and their Cd bioaccumulation capacity. We collected 53 fish, 20 specimens of Prochilodus lineatus from Paraná River and 17 from Baía River, in addition to 16 specimens of Serrasalmus marginatus from Baía River, in September 2017 and March 2018. Tissues of the fish along with their parasites were subjected a Cd concentration analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results revealed that the parasites had higher concentrations than all the tissues of S. marginatus, P. lineatus from Baía River and Paraná River. The high Cd concentrations in these parasites derived from their bioaccumulation capacity, because of the absorption of nutrients directly from the intestinal content of the fish through the tegument, as well as for the presence of Cd on the surface waters of Praná River floodplain. Besides that, the Coefficient of Spearman Rank Correlation showed that the infrapopulation size seems to affect Cd bioaccumulation in the parasites, smaller infrapopulations demonstrate a higher accumulation capacity compared to the larger ones. With that, we concluded that the two acanthocephalans species analyzed in this study have a good capacity for Cd accumulation, and can be used as accumulation indicators of trace-metal pollution. Accumulation indicators provide important information on the biological availability of pollutants.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Parasitos , Animais , Brasil , Cádmio/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111117, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798753

RESUMO

Wood distillate (pyroligneous acid) can be successfully applied in agriculture to increase crop quality and productivity with a lower risk for the environment respect to synthetic chemical herbicides, pesticides or fertilizers. However, the effects of wood distillate on the environment and biota are still under investigation, depending on biological attributes of potentially influenced organisms. The potential toxicological effects of wood distillate on sensitive non-target organisms, lichens and mosses, are studied for the first time. The physiological parameters (chlorophyll a fluorescence emission FV/FM and PI(ABS), chlorophyll content, spectral reflectance, antioxidant power, and dehydrogenase activity) and eventual bioaccumulation of selected elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) were investigated in the lichen Xanthoria parietina and the moss Hypnum cupressiforme after short-term treatments over a range of wood distillate solutions (1:300, 1:500, 1:700) to detect potential early stress responses. Overall, the lichen did not show changes after the treatments, while in the moss wood distillate caused only modest alterations in FV/FM and PI(ABS) and progressive increasing of antioxidant activity according to the dose supplied. The bioaccumulation of toxic elements was low and did not show any pattern of uptake with increasing concentrations of wood distillate.


Assuntos
Briófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Líquens/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Briófitas/química , Bryopsida , Clorofila/farmacologia , Clorofila A , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Madeira/química
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105593, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861021

RESUMO

Along with traditional ecotoxicological approaches in model organisms, toxicological studies in non-model organisms are being taken into consideration in order to complement them and contribute to more robust approaches. This allows us to figure out the complexity of the exposures involved in natural ecosystems. In this context, in the present research we have used the model species Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae, Diptera) and the non-model species Prodiamesa olivacea (Chironomidae, Diptera) to assess the aquatic toxic effects of acute 4-h and 24-h exposures to 1 µgL-1 of three common environmental pollutants: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bisphenol A (BPA), and benzophenone 3 (BP3). Individuals of both species were collected from a contaminated river (Sar) in Galicia (Spain). Regarding Chironomus, there are four OECD standardized tests for the evaluation of water and sediment toxicity, in which different species in this genus can be used to assess classical toxicity parameters such as survival, immobilization, reproduction, and development. In contrast, Prodiamesa is rarely used in toxicity studies, even though it is an interesting toxicological species because it shares habitats with Chironomus but requires less extreme conditions (e.g., contamination) and higher oxygen levels. These different requirements are particularly interesting in assessing the different responses of both species to pollutant exposure. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to evaluate the transcriptional changes caused by xenobiotics in different genes of interest. Since information about P. olivacea in genomic databases is scarce, its transcriptome was obtained using de novo RNAseq. Genes involved in biotransformation pathways and the oxidative stress response (MnSOD, CAT, PHGPx, Cyp4g15, Cyp6a14-like and Cyp6a2-like) were de novo identified in this species. Our results show differential toxic responses depending on the species and the xenobiotic, being P. olivacea the dipteran that showed the most severe effects in most of the studied biomarker genes. This work represents a multi-species approach that allows us to deepen in the toxicity of BBP, BPA, and BP3 at the molecular level. Besides, it provides an assessment of the tolerance/sensitivity of natural populations of model and non-model insect species chronically exposed to complex mixtures of pollutants in natural scenarios. These findings may have important implications for understanding the adverse biological effects of xenobiotics on P. olivacea, providing new sensitive biomarkers of exposure to BBP, BPA, and BP3. It also highlights the suitability of Prodiamesa for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Chironomidae/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Benzofenonas , Chironomidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis , Ácidos Ftálicos , Rios , Espécies Sentinelas , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(8): 1138-1147, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862260

RESUMO

To examine whether sexually selected traits are particularly sensitive bioindicators of environmental toxicants, we assessed the effects of exposure to environmentally relevant dietary concentrations of the pollutant methylmercury on pigment coloration in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). First, we tested whether effects of methylmercury on coloration were influenced by timing of exposure. Birds were either exposed developmentally (up to 114 days after hatching), as adults (after reaching sexual maturity), or for their entire life. Bill coloration, which is a carotenoid-based, sexually selected trait, was less red in males with lifetime exposure to methylmercury, compared to controls. Neither adult, nor developmental exposure influenced bill color in adult males, with the possible exception of early exposure of nestlings. Among females, where bill color is not under strong sexual selection, neither lifetime nor adult exposure to methylmercury affected bill color. For males and females, there was no effect of either lifetime or adult methylmercury exposure on coloration of back feathers, which is a non-sexually-dimorphic, melanin-based trait that is not likely the result of sexual selection. This study is a comprehensive experimental test of the proposal that sexually selected traits may be particularly useful bioindicators of the stress imposed by environmental toxins such as methylmercury.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Tentilhões , Pigmentação , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Poluentes Ambientais , Plumas , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20190486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813859

RESUMO

Foraminifera are diversified protists with high ecological and bioindicator importance. Physical-chemical parameters of the environment can be evaluated through the taphonomic analysis of the test coloring, because once they settle in the sediment their tests begin to behave as sedimentary particles. Five urbanized tropical Brazilian beaches were sampled in this study in order to characterize the diversity, abundance, taxonomic and taphonomic structure of Foraminifera assemblages. General environmental characterization such as granulometric analysis, temperature and salinity was also performed. A total of 69 foraminiferan species were found, dominated by Quinqueloculina lamarckiana, Archaias angulatus, Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia tepida and Eponides repandus. A large predominance of dead tests (>90%) was found, and only them were considered in further analyses. The cluster based on the taxonomic composition formed two groups, separating Miramar from the other beaches. Miramar was dominated by Ammonia tepida (18.9%), Sorites marginalis (16.8%), Quinqueloculina lamarckiana (13.9%) and Textularia agglutinans (10.2%), and had the highest density, number of species and diversity, what may be related with the sheltered nature of this beach and the dominance of fine sand. The other four beaches have high oceanic influence and the medium and coarse sand predominated. In these beaches Quinqueloculina lamarckiana dominated, representing between 30.9 and 38.7% of total foraminiferans. The taphonomic analysis indicates that Miramar presents a high deposition of tests and a low hydrodynamic energy, since the majority of tests were white. In Bessa, Manaíra and Seixas most of the tests were brownish, which is characteristic of beaches with high hydrodynamic energy, which causes the tests to be constantly brought to the oxidation zone.


Assuntos
Foraminíferos , Praias , Brasil , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110941, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678749

RESUMO

The increasing diversity and complexity of contaminants released in the environment continuously lead to new challenges when applying ecotoxicity assays. This paper comprises a review concerning exposure assessment and highlights important variables that should be taken into account when investigating aquatic media toxicity under both laboratory or field conditions. Thus, to reflect as much as possible what occurs in nature, ecotoxicity assays must carefully consider these variables in their experimental design. This includes contaminant properties, the selected bioindicators and biomarkers, the dose mode/regime, concentration vs. load, exposure to single vs. multiple contaminants and exposure of single vs. multiple species. Many of these, however, are not usually taken into account, leading to critical knowledge gaps in this area, discussed in detail herein.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecotoxicologia/normas , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114867, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504977

RESUMO

The present work was done to explore the joint effect of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) and plant nutrients on phytoremediation of smelter-contaminated soils. The physiological indicators and phytoextraction indices of potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss) grown in Act12 inoculated soil with or without Hoagland's solution (H), humic acid (HA) and peat (PS) were evaluated. The results indicated that H, HA and PS acted synergistically with Act12, notably increasing chlorophyll and soluble protein contents and thereby promoting plant growth. Soil nutrient treatments reduced the antioxidant activities (PPO, CAT and POD) by 28.2-41.4%, 22.3-90.1% and 15.2-59.4% compared to control, respectively. Act12 and H treatments markedly facilitated plant to accumulate more cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), but it was observed decreases when applied with HA and PS. Metal uptake (MU) values further indicated the differences in phytoextraction efficiency, i.e., H > PS > Control > HA. Taken together, Act12 combined with plant nutrients contributed to alleviating metal toxicity symptoms of plant. Hoagland's solution and peat were highlighted in the present phytoextraction trial, and recommended as soil additives.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Streptomyces , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mostardeira , Nutrientes , Solo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139787, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540602

RESUMO

Rare-earth elements have gained significant attention as they are currently widely used in high tech, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Here we used the fiddler crabs Leptuca leptodactyla as bioindicators to verify the presence of rare-earth elements in two mangrove areas of the Ubatuba, northern littoral of São Paulo state, Brazil. The specimens were collected in the mangrove areas of the Tavares River and Quiririm-Puruba river system, separated by season (dry and rainy). A total of 243 individuals were collected and analyzed. For determination and quantification of the elements we used the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. In both the dry and rainy season, the elements La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Sc were detected in samples of both mangroves, with La and Ce presenting higher concentrations. Samples from Tavares River mangrove had higher concentration levels of rare-earth elements than those of the Quiririm-Puruba river system. That is probably due to the central geographic position of the Tavares River in Ubatuba, which crosses a large portion of the city and receives a great amount of sewage. On the other hand, the Quiririm-Puruba river system has less anthropogenic inputs, thus, it receives much fewer rare-earth elements when compared to the Tavares River.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Biomarcadores Ambientais
12.
Mar Environ Res ; 158: 105006, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501270

RESUMO

The seas worldwide are threatened by a "new" source of pollution. Munitions dumped into the seas worldwide will corrode and start to leak. Their impacts on the environment and on human health are now more than ever subject of scientific research. Bivalves are a first choice bioindicator and their importance is demonstrated in numerous worldwide studies as well as their integration in important monitoring programs. In this review, the use of mussels in context with marine pollutants in recent years is pointed out in general but with a special focus on dumped conventional and chemical munitions. Monitoring experiments with mussels are able to generate large data sets, which should be mandatory included in decision support tools to increase their weight of evidence. The usefulness of mussels with regard to dumped munitions has clearly been documented in recent years and the further application of this important biomonitoring system is strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares
13.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(4): 447-451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telogen effluvium is the most common form of non-scarring alopecia characterized by diffuse hair loss. Ischemia-modified albumin is a marker of oxidative stress and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the levels of ischemia-modified albumin of telogen effluvium patients with healthy controls. METHODS: Ninety-one patients diagnosed with telogen effluvium and 35 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum ischemia-modified albumin level was determined by a fast-colorimetric method, and albumin cobalt binding test. The results were evaluated statistically. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the serum albumin values of patient and control groups (p=0.739). Serum ischemia-modified albumin values were significantly higher in the patients with telogen effluvium than healthy controls (p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Body mass index values of the patient and control groups could not be calculated. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical study to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of telogen effluvium using ischemia-modified albumin as a biomarker. Based on the results of the present study, it can be considered that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of telogen effluvium. There is a need for further studies to support the results of this study, to demonstrate the possible effects of oxidative stress, and to investigate the other oxidative stress markers in the pathogenesis of telogen effluvium.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Albumina Sérica , Alopecia , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138749, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570306

RESUMO

The presence of pyrethroid compounds in hepatic tissue of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) is reported for the first time. Twelve pyrethroids were determined in 50 animals from eight locations of the Brazilian coast. The highest average concentration of total pyrethroids (∑PYR) was 1166 ng.g-1 lw, with values ranging from 148 to 5918 ng.g-1 lw, in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, while the Espírito Santo State had the highest median, 568 ng.g-1 lw. Permethrin was the predominant compound in most areas, contributing for 42% to 81% of the ∑PYR, whereas cypermethrin was the most abundant compound in Guanabara and Sepetiba bays (79% and 81%, respectively), both located in Rio de Janeiro State. Biological factors were not correlated with pyrethroids concentration. Tetramethrin and es/fenvalerate compounds were negatively correlated to the age, suggesting degradation/metabolization capacity in these animals that increases throughout life. Despite being metabolized and excreted, the wide use of these pollutants is reflected in relevant concentrations found in Guiana dolphins. This is the first study evaluating pyrethroids in a representative number of hepatic samples and covering >2600 km of coast. The overall lack of information on pyrethroids in cetaceans highlights the importance of understanding the profile and distribution of these pollutants in dolphins which exclusively inhabit the Southwestern Atlantic coast.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Biomarcadores Ambientais
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36121-36131, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557025

RESUMO

The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the most abundant ungulate species in Europe. Many studies have investigated its distribution, behavior, and ecology, but few have focused on its role as bioindicators for pollutants, particularly regarding antlers, which has been shown to indicate also deer physiology. The presence of geothermal power plants can induce accumulation of potentially polluting elements (such as Tl, S, and Pb). Thus, we collected roe deer samples from areas of Tuscany (Italy) where power plants are present. They were divided according to whether their home range included areas close or far from geothermal power plants. We analyzed the body measurements and the profile of the minerals in the liver and antlers tissues using the ICP-OES technique. Results showed that livers from roe deer close to power plant accumulated higher quantity of Bi, Co, Ni, Tl, and S compared to controls. Males culled close to geothermal power plants had significantly lower values for weight and chest circumference, and also, the antlers showed higher values for Li and Sr in the first sampling position. Thus, despite the small sample size in this preliminary study, antlers and livers of roe deer seem to be a bioindicator of industrial impact on the environment.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Europa (Continente) , Itália , Masculino , Minerais , Centrais Elétricas , Dados Preliminares
16.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126416, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380589

RESUMO

The flavonoid metal-insecticide magnesium-hesperidin complex (MgHP) has recently been considered as a novel insecticide to replace some persistent pesticides. However, it is important to evaluate its action on non-target species, mainly those living in an aquatic environment, as these ecosystems are the final receptors of most chemicals. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity as well as cell cycle was evaluated in the liver cell line from zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF-L) exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng mL-1 MgHP. MgHP affected cell stability by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both exposure times (24 and 96 h) at high concentrations. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased after 24 h exposure, and glutathione and metallothionein values increased, avoiding the lipid peroxidation. Genotoxicity increased as MgHP concentration increased, after 24 h exposure, exhibiting nuclear abnormalities; it was recovered after 96 h exposure, evidencing possible stimulation of DNA repair mechanisms. The alteration in the cell cycle (increasing in the Sub-G1 phase and decreasing in the S-phase) was associated with chromosomal instability. In conclusion, the responses of ROS and the antioxidant defense system depended on MgHP concentration and time exposure, while DNA exhibited some instability after 24 h exposure, which was recovered after 96 h.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hesperidina/química , Hesperidina/toxicidade , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Magnésio/química , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126583, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443269

RESUMO

Birds are bioindicators for research on the relationship between environmental heavy metal concentration levels and accumulation levels in bird tissues. We use roadkill samples, collected by citizen science participants, to investigate the accumulation levels and associations of seven heavy metals in internal organs (heart, liver, and kidney), feathers (primary and breast), and bones (sternum and femur) of two focal species, Amaurornis phoenicurus and Gallinula chloropus. We found that heavy metal accumulation varied by target tissue, and that variables are associated with bird species and heavy metal type. Although Zn and Cu were highest by concentration among both species, Cu was mostly accumulated in internal organs, As in feathers, and Pb in bones. Concentrations of As, Ni, and Pb in feathers of both focal species were lower than those reported in literature, whereas Cd and Cr were above toxic levels. The results also showed that spatial correlation for heavy metal concentration among bird tissues were weaker than non-spatial correlation, suggesting low spatial autocorrelations and variability. In addition, multiple regression analysis revealed significant correlation for Cr, As, and Pb estimations in A. phoenicurus heart, sternum, and kidney, respectively; and potentially Cr in G. chloropus femur by using feathers. These results support the feasibility of using feathers as indicators of As, Cr, and Pb heavy metal contamination to enhance our understanding of heavy metal accumulation in birds, although caution is required for feather-based estimations of Cd, Cu, and Ni concentration.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Animais , Crowdsourcing , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Plumas/química , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Metais Pesados/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126839, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361016

RESUMO

Due to their large range across diverse habitats, flying-foxes are potential bioindicator species for environmental metal exposure. To test this hypothesis, blood spots, urine, fur, liver and kidney samples were collected from grey-headed flying-foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) and black flying-foxes (P. alecto) from the Sydney basin, Australia. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc and 11 other trace metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As predicted, kidney and fur lead concentrations were lower compared to concentrations found in flying-foxes in the early 1990's, due to reduced environmental lead emissions. Tissue cadmium concentrations in flying-foxes were higher compared to previous studies of flying-foxes and other bat species, suggesting that flying-foxes were exposed to unrecognized cadmium sources. Identification of these sources should be a focus of future research. Urine concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead were proportional to kidney concentrations. Given that urine can be collected from flying-foxes without handling, this demonstrates that many flying-foxes can be assessed for metal exposure with relative ease. The analysis of blood spots was not viable because of variable metal concentrations in the filter paper used. Fur concentrations of metals correlated poorly with tissue concentrations at the low levels of metals found in this study, but fur could still be a useful sample if flying-foxes are exposed to high levels of metals. Lastly, heat inactivation had minimal impact on metal concentrations in kidney and liver samples and should be considered as a tool to protect personnel working with biohazardous samples.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Ambientais/fisiologia , Chumbo/metabolismo , Animais , Austrália , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Chumbo/toxicidade
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110713, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464436

RESUMO

Calcutta Leather Complex of the state of West Bengal, India has been designated as an industrially active zone with around 400 active tannery units. This area spanning 4.5 km2 is surrounded by human habitation. The soil of this region is contaminated with metal pollutants and exhibited an alteration in selected physicochemical parameters, namely cation exchange capacity, moisture content, pH, total nitrogen, total organic carbon and water holding capacity. Metaphire posthuma, a common variety of endogeic earthworm inhabiting this region is thus continuously exposed to these toxic metals. Coelomocytes, the chief immune effector cells of earthworm presented a shift in phagocytosis, lysosomal membrane stability, lysozyme and phosphatase activity, physiological apoptosis and cell cycle profile of M. posthuma sampled from the soil of tannery industry. Presence of high concentration of toxic metals and change in the physicochemical characteristics of soil led to a state of cellular stress and immunocompromisation in M. posthuma, a common inhabitant of soil of this region. Experimental endpoints bear ecotoxicological significance as biomarkers of physiological stress in earthworm for monitoring the health of soil around this tannery industrial zone.


Assuntos
Metais/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Humanos , Índia , Indústrias , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Muramidase/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/enzimologia , Oligoquetos/imunologia , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26058-26065, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356070

RESUMO

Urban air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems. Lichens are good bioindicators in air pollution studies because of their dependence on the atmospheric deposition for nutrition. The present study focused on the effects of urbanization on the composition of atmospheric deposition inputs and physiological parameters of transplanted epiphytic lichen Ramalina farinacea. The status of lichens responded to urban pollutants related to vehicle and industrial activity (NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO2, PM10). The content of chlorophyll and FV/FM were positively related to the amount of precipitation (mm) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The increase in lipid peroxidation and electrolyte conductivity, indicating damage to the cell membrane, was found in lichens transplanted to the urban environment. The high variability in electrolyte conductivity indicated that cell membrane injuries were characteristics of the investigated study area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Líquens , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental
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