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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252088, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345543

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Resumo Acacia mangium é uma espécie pioneira, de rápido crescimento e utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Os objetivos foram avaliar insetos e aranhas, seus índices ecológicos e interações com plantas de A. mangium em área tropical degradada em processo de recuperação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 24 repetições, com os tratamentos representados pelos primeiro e segundo anos após a plantio de A. mangium. Os números de folhas/galhos, galhos/plantas e cobertura do solo por plantas de A. mangium, de Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. e Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula e Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. e Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. e Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; a abundância, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, formigas cuidadoras e a abundância de predadores de Sternorrhyncha foram maiores no segundo ano após o plantio. Os números de Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, formigas cuidadoras, insetos polinizadores, predadores de Sternorrhyncha e a riqueza de espécies de formigas cuidadoras foram maiores em plantas de A. mangium com maior altura e número de folhas ou galhos. O aumento populacional de artrópodes e da cobertura do solo com o processo de envelhecimento das plantas de A. mangium indicam impacto positivo dessa planta na recuperação de áreas degradadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aranhas , Acacia , Insetos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376

RESUMO

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.


Assuntos
Animais , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Abelhas , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Endossulfano/análise
3.
Environ Pollut ; 310: 119861, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940480

RESUMO

Marine debris is now a ubiquitous component of the Anthropocene global ocean. Plastic ingestion by marine wildlife was first reported in the 1960s and since that time, roughly one thousand marine species have been reported to consume this debris. This study focuses on plastic ingestion by marine invertebrates and vertebrates in the North Pacific Ocean. Specifically, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess the scope of the problem, identified key bioindicator species, and proposed guidelines for future monitoring of plastic debris in North Pacific marine ecosystems. Our meta-analysis confirmed that the North Pacific is among the most polluted ocean regions globally; roughly half of all fish and seabird specimens and more than three-quarters of sea turtles and bivalve specimens examined in this region had consumed plastic. While there are not enough standardized data to assess if these ingestion rates are changing, sampling standardization and reporting of methods are improving over time. Using a rubric-evaluation approach, we evaluated 352 species for their potential to serve as bioindicators of the prevalence of plastic pollution in the North Pacific. This analysis revealed a suite of 12 bioindicator species candidates which sample a variety of ecosystem components and cover a wide range of plastic size classes. Thus, we contend that these bioindicator candidates provide a key foundation for developing a comprehensive plastic monitoring program in the region. To enhance the utility of these bioindicators, we developed a framework for standardized data collection to minimize methodological variability across different studies and to facilitate the assessment of temporal trends over space and time. Tracking plastic ingestion by these bioindicators will help to assess the effectiveness of mitigation actions in the region, a critical step to evaluate progress towards sustainability and improved ocean health in the 21st century.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais , Plásticos , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Pacífico , Espécies Sentinelas , Resíduos
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 695, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986195

RESUMO

Despite the biodiversity and ecosystem services provided by lotic ecosystems, they are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, biological monitoring and assessment strategies are crucial in helping maintain these ecosystems and developing mitigation policies. We provide a global overview of the use of benthic diatoms as bioindicators in lotic environments, by analyzing 764 articles published in the past 20 years. We analyzed the influence of substrate type on samplings, which species have been highlighted as indicators and for which type of impacts, which anthropogenic impacts have been most commonly evaluated, and which metrics have been commonly used in studies using diatoms to assess and monitor the quality of lotic environments. We found that the most studied anthropogenic impact is artificial eutrophication and that some species, especially Nitzschia palea, have been thoroughly mentioned as indicators of this impact. Indicator species related to other types of impact are less common, demonstrating the need for studies on this issue. Moreover, we verified that traditional taxonomic metrics, such as diversity and diatom indices, have been widely used. Some alternative metrics have been used recently, such as those based on teratological valves, lipid bodies, valve size, and DNA metabarcoding. The number of biomonitoring and assessment studies based on diatoms has increased considerably in the past 20 years. Nonetheless, the demand for natural resources and consequently the degradation of lotic ecosystems have accelerated significantly. Thus, the development of low-cost and time-efficient biological assessment and monitoring strategies is essential for evaluating the health of lotic environments.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização
5.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 83(2): 168-179, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963961

RESUMO

The biodiversity of Neotropical region is affected by anthropogenic disturbance. Throughout Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, the native fish, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus, is well distributed and widely used as an excellent bioindicator of environmental quality. We investigated the diversity and genetic structure of its populations along a water pollution gradient to answer the following questions: 1- Does the genetic diversity decrease under the stressful conditions of a severe water quality gradient? and 2- Is there any relationship between the haplotypes registered along the studied basin and those recorded in other distant basins? Two mitochondrial DNA markers, Cytochrome b and D-loop, were analyzed and four haplotypes were registered for both markers along the basin. H1 was present throughout all the river sections in high frequencies leading to a low genetic diversity. We suggest that only a few haplotypes tolerate the stressful conditions of mountain rivers. On the other hand, the presence of H4 at the site located downstream suggests a history of recent colonization from the southeast to the northwest of the biome. These results, together with the abundance decrease along the pollution gradient, and the non-migratory characteristic of C. decemmaculatus suggest that its populations may be at risk of local extinction.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Animais , Brasil , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Rios/química
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 114025, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963229

RESUMO

To evaluate the prospects of using Baikal endemic sponges as bioindicators of chemical elements pollution, the elemental composition of sponges, water and substrate samples, collected in two areas with different levels of anthropogenic loading of the Baikal Lake, was determined using two analytical techniques. The content of Cl, Ca, V, Zn, As, Se, Ba, Cd, and Cu in the sponges collected in Listvennichny Bay was significantly higher than in Bolshye Koty Bay. The values of the pollution indices point at the slight to moderate pollution of the substrates. According to the bioaccumulation factor values, sponges accumulate mainly Cd, Cu and Br from the substrate, and the main part of the elements from water. The distribution of elements longwise the sponges and their intraspecific variation were evaluated. It was shown that Lubomirskia baikalensis sponges were suitable bioindicators to assess the pollution of Lake Baikal.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cádmio , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Lagos , Água
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 128: 536-546, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988713

RESUMO

Fish are extremely vulnerable to environmental stimulation and produce oxidative stress. Among them, hydrogen peroxide is an oxidative stress source that cannot be ignored in fish, which can cause physical disorders, inflammation and even death. Taurine was revealed to reduce oxidative damage and inflammation caused by toxic substances, but whether it can reduce toxicity of rice field eel caused by H2O2 has not been determined. Thus, the intervention effects of taurine on H2O2-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy in rice field eel. The results showed that oxidative injury in the liver was determined after H2O2 injection, as indicated by enhanced serum AST and ALT activities, inhibited the antioxidant function (increased MDA and ROS contents, decreased antioxidant enzymes, inhibited nrf2 transcription level), and induced inflammatory response (upregulated il-1ß, il-6, il-8, and il-12ß gene expression, downregulated tgf-ß1 gene expression, activated the transcription level of nf-κb, tlr-3, and tlr-7). In addition, bax, caspase3, beclin1, and Lc3B gene expression were significantly upregulated after H2O2 injection, while bcl2 and p62 gene expression were downregulated, leading to the occurrence of apoptosis and autophagy. In contrast, adding 0.2 and 0.5% taurine to feed significantly alleviated this damage, as indicated by the recovery of the aforementioned bioindicators, and the effect of 0.5% taurine addition is better than 0.2%. Overall, these results suggested that taurine can relieve the liver toxicity induced by H2O2, which enriched the toxic mechanism of H2O2 on fish and provided evidence for the protective effect of taurine on liver.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proteína Beclina-1 , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8 , Fígado/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 113964, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870355

RESUMO

Underwater volcanic eruptions are a type of natural contamination that affect all marine organisms at a local level. These eruptions usually begin and end a degassing stage of the volcano that, although they do not affect the magnitude of magma emanation, affect organisms to a lesser degree locally, such as cephalopods that due to their metabolism and trophic level, are good bioindicators of contamination. A total of 180 samples of three species of cephalopods were collected for the study: sixty Sepia officinalis, sixty Octopus vulgaris and sixty Loligo vulgaris in the area of the submarine volcano in El Hierro, Tenerife and Lanzarote in the Canary Islands (twenty samples per species in each location), and the metal concentrations (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Ni, Pb and Zn) in each of the samples were analyzed. All species showed significant differences for all metals in El Hierro compared to Tenerife and Lanzarote. All the analyzed species from El Hierro had higher concentrations of the nine studied metals, this is due to the fact that they were caught near the Tagoro submarine volcano, which at the time was in a state of degassing and discharged many metal-rich compounds.


Assuntos
Metais , Octopodiformes , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Espanha , Erupções Vulcânicas
9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 73: 127037, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Each of the bioindicator organisms studied, such as fish, crustaceans, or parasites, have certain advantages when used in the assessment of metal exposure. In this research, special attention was given to intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, as effective metal bioaccumulators with the main aim of estimating and comparing metal accumulation in all organisms involved in their life cycle and testing their usage as sensitive bioindicators in metal exposure assessments. METHODS: Efficiency of metal accumulation was evaluated in fish intestine (brown trout, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758), gammarids (Gammarus balcanicus Schäferna, 1922) and acanthocephalans (Dentitruncus truttae Sinzar, 1955) in the Krka River at site threatened by industrial and municipal wastewaters (Town of Knin) and reference site (Krka River source) in two seasons (autumn and spring). All samples were digested in a drying oven at 85 °C for 3.5 h using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Samples were diluted with ultrapure water and total concentrations of 15 trace and macroelements were measured by HR ICP-MS. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of Co, Cu, Fe and Mn at the contaminated than at the reference site were recorded in all bioindicator organisms. Additionally, Se, Sr, Zn, Ca, K and Mg were elevated at the contaminated site in acanthocephalans, Cs, Pb, Zn and K in gammarids and Se, Sr and Ca in fish intestine. Opposite, concentrations of Cd, Cs and Rb were mostly higher in organisms from the reference than wastewater impacted site, which did not coincide with waterborne metal exposure but indicated importance of assessing dietary metal uptake. CONCLUSION: More effective metal accumulation was confirmed in acanthocephalans than fish and gammarids, especially of Cd and Pb in respect to gammarids, and of Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn and Sr in respect to fish intestine. Thus, both fish intestine and whole body of D. truttae were confirmed as sensitive indicators of low environmental metal exposure, reflecting site-specific differences, which proved their potential to be used in monitoring programmes and metal exposure assessment in real environmental situations.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cádmio , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce , Chumbo , Truta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11617, 2022 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804079

RESUMO

We studied activity concentrations of radionuclides in the Kopacki Rit Nature Park using mosses as bioindicators. This area of intact nature is at the tripoint of Croatia, Hungary, and Serbia, being located basically at the centre of the middle Danube River basin. Therefore, it can be easily affected by airborne pollution from various locations in the Middle Europe and beyond. The goal of our research was to assess whether the Park could serve as a location where any new radioactive contamination could be sensitively detected, which implied a necessity for low activity concentrations at the present time. Our gamma-ray spectrometry revealed the presence of only one anthropogenic gamma emitter, that is, 137Cs. Its activity concentration in the mosses ranged from 0.7 to 13.1 Bq kg-1, being low indeed. Another radionuclide in our focus was 210Pb. Generally, its elevated concentrations may signify ecologically undesirable human activities that involve naturally occurring radioactive matter. The activity concentration of 210Pb in the mosses was in the range from 183 to 690 Bq kg-1. This did not depart from the results of other similar studies and was again low enough for a detection of possible excess amounts of this radionuclide in the future.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Rios , Briófitas/química , Croácia , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Humanos , Chumbo , Rios/química , Sérvia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 846: 157458, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863571

RESUMO

There are few biological indicators for freshwater systems subjected to high chloride levels. Freshwater systems receive many forms of chloride such as road salts (e.g., NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2), fertilizers (e.g., KCl), and year-round water softener pollution. The goal our study was to investigate Halomonadaceae populations as prospective biological indicators of chloride-impacted freshwaters. The bacterial family Halomonadaceae are halophiles that generally require the presence of salt to survive, which make them an attractive candidate in determining chloride impaired areas. Field sediment surveys assessed how salt tolerant and halophilic bacteria abundance corresponded to chloride and conductivity measurements. Colony forming unit (CFU) counts on modified M9 6% NaCl plates (w/v) at urbanized sites compared to the rural sites had highest counts during winter and spring when chloride concentrations were also highest. Select isolates identified as Halomonadaceae through 16S rRNA sequencing were kept as active cultures to determine the NaCl concentration and temperature preference that resulted in the isolates optimal growth. Isolates tested under 5 °C (cold) grew optimally in 2 % NaCl (w/v), whereas under 18 °C (warm), isolates showed optimal growth at 6 % NaCl. The majority of isolates had maximum growth in the warmer temperature, however, select isolates grew better in the cold temperature. Culture-independent methods were used and identified Halomonadaceae were widespread and permeant members of the microbial community in a Lake Michigan drainage basin. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting Halomonadaceae genera demonstrated that abundance varied by site, but overall were present throughout the year. However, community sequencing revealed there were a large relative proportion of specific Halomonadaceae populations present in winter versus summer. Methods targeting salt tolerant bacteria and specific members of Halomonadaceae appears to be a promising approach to assess chloride-impacted areas to better understand the long-term ecological impacts as we continue to salinize freshwater resources.


Assuntos
Cloretos/metabolismo , Halomonadaceae/metabolismo , Lagos/química , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Halomonadaceae/genética , Halomonadaceae/isolamento & purificação , Lagos/microbiologia , Michigan , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura
12.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115471, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751270

RESUMO

Terrestrial mosses are promising species to study concerning metal deposition, absorption, and soil fertility as moss biocrusts. However, acrocarpous moss, as a kind of terrestrial mosses, has not yet been well understood, both in environmental monitoring and ecological application, especially exposed to an abandoned pyrite mining. Herein, we investigated the concentrations of different heavy metals in soil underlying acrocarpous moss Campylopus schmidii at three distances from an abandoned pyrite mine tailings (0.5, 1, 2 km) by sampling analysis, as well as the accumulation properties of heavy metals in different parts of mosses and soil nutrients under intact mosses and moss-free layers. The results indicated that the soil we researched was heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, and Cd, which was 4.46, 4.18, and 1.77 times higher than the standard of risk screening values for soil environment quality in China. And there was a marked difference in the concentrations and distribution of heavy metals in mosses, with higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb mainly in the ageing parts. In addition, mosses can effectively promote soil fertility. Compared with the bare soil without the moss layer, the total organic matter and total potassium concentrations of the soil covered by the intact moss layer were significantly increased, by 113.91% and 186.08% respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that similar pollution sources for Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb, and the concentrations of these heavy metals in soil connected with the distance from the source of pollution. Overall, we expected that these findings could assess the greater potential of single native dominant moss species C.schmidii to act as biomonitors in specific pyrite mine tailings characterized by barren soil with strong acids (pH < 4.0) and polymetallic pollution. Meanwhile, our results revealed may serve as a possibility reference for similar areas and is recommended for developing a vegetative cover utilizing local acrocarpous mosses to achieve greening of degraded tailings in the future, as well as environmental management and protection.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , China , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ferro , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfetos
13.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt C): 113369, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508220

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are characterized by their high persistence in marine ecosystems, and due to their small size, they can be easily ingested by very diverse organisms. Although the presence of MPs in wild fish is well documented, there is still limited information on their potential to induce adverse effects. Pelagic fish species, because of their wide distribution, are considered good bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution of marine ecosystems. This study investigated the presence of MPs in the gastrointestinal tract of the predatory pelagic fish (Seriola dumerili) in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea), and the possible relationship with oxidative stress through the analysis of biomarkers in liver tissue. The results showed the presence of MPs in 98% of total samples examined (n = 52) with an average of 12.2 ± 1.3 MPs/individual. A greater amount of fibre-like particles was isolated compared to fragments. No correlation between the presence of MPs in the gastrointestinal contents and the size of the fishes was noted. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and the phase II detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase showed increased activities in fish with higher MPs load. The activity ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and the levels of malondialdehyde were similar in both groups. In conclusion, the present results provide an important database on the assessment of the presence of MP debris in S. dumerili gastrointestinal tract and, the potential capability to cause oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Fígado/química , Microplásticos , Estresse Oxidativo , Plásticos/análise , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 837: 155846, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561901

RESUMO

Trace elements in the blood of crocodilians and the factors that influence their concentrations are overall poorly documented. However, determination of influencing factors is crucial to assess the relevance of caimans as bioindicators of environmental contamination, and potential toxicological impact of trace elements on these reptiles. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 14 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn) in the blood of four French Guiana caiman species (the Spectacled Caiman Caiman crocodilus [n = 34], the Black Caiman Melanosuchus niger [n = 25], the Dwarf Caiman Paleosuchus palpebrosus [n = 5] and the Smooth-fronted Caiman Paleosuchus trigonatus [n = 20]) from 8 different sites, and further investigated the influence of individual body size and stable isotopes as proxies of foraging habitat and trophic position on trace element concentrations. Trophic position was identified to be an important factor influencing trace element concentrations in the four caiman species and explained interspecific variations. These findings highlight the need to consider trophic ecology when crocodilians are used as bioindicators of trace element contamination in environmental studies.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Oligoelementos , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Guiana Francesa , Isótopos
15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e258106, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584458

RESUMO

The antioxidant enzyme system is an important defense mechanism to cope with Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) produced due to exposure to heavy metals. In the present study lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in water and the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was investigated in three species (Metrocoris communis, Limnogonus fossarum fossarum, and Aquarius adelaidis) of water striders collected from the industrial triangle of Punjab, Pakistan. The results of present study revealed that Pb, Cr, As, Cd and Ni were according to the permissible amount of WHO. The antioxidant activity of SOD, CAT and POD was found significantly different among species against oxidative stress, but found the highest activity of determining parameters in A. adelaidis. This is one of the pioneer studies in Pakistan reporting the role of water striders as a bioindicator of heavy metals present in the water through antioxidants enzyme variations. The current results supported that variant level of antioxidant enzyme activities in different species of water strider were reflective of heavy metal pollution in the Industrial triangle of Punjab, Pakistan and will be a useful ecotoxicological tools to evaluate the detrimental effects of heavy metal pollutants in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Metais Pesados , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cádmio , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/farmacologia , Água , Poluição da Água/análise
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 458, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35614274

RESUMO

In this study, spatiotemporal investigations were conducted along five cascade dams in the main channel of the North River of China during 2019 to explore bacterioplankton community indicators of water environments in a fragmented, highly regulated river. Bacterioplankton communities were good bioindicators of temporal variation in river environments, especially when considering the bacterial class level. Specifically, the most dominant bacterial classes (Gammaproteobacteria, Oxyphotobacteria, and Actinobacteria) and sub-dominant bacterial classes (Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, and Acidimicrobiia) exhibited obvious temporal variation. Rainfall, water temperature (WT), water transparency (SD), and pH were all highly associated with temporal variation. In contrast, bacterioplankton indicators of spatial variation were limited to individual dominant bacterial classes for individual study periods, while rainfall, total phosphorus (TP), and pH were also associated with spatial variation. Clustering of bacterioplankton community compositions revealed that temporal differences were much stronger than spatial differences, which is consistent with most environmental parameters exhibiting obvious temporal differences, but minimal spatial differences. A possible reason for these observations could be that river fragmentation caused by cascade dams weakened spatial differences in communities, with WT, rainfall, and river runoff playing key roles in these patterns. In conclusion, bacterioplankton communities were good bioindicators of water environments in the fragmented river ecosystem of this study and their temporal variation was more apparent than their spatial variation.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Rios , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Água
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 814767, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572499

RESUMO

Low-energy electron irradiation is an emerging alternative technology for attenuated or complete pathogen inactivation with respect to medical, biotechnological, and pharmaceutical applications. Pathogen inactivation by ionizing radiation depends mainly on the absorbed electron dose. In low-energy electron irradiation processes, determination of the absorbed electron dose is challenging due to the limited, material-dependent penetration depth of the accelerated electrons into the matter. In general, there are established dosimetry systems to evaluate the absorbed dose under dry irradiation conditions. However, there is no system for precise dose monitoring of low-energy irradiation processes in liquids or suspensions so far. Therefore, in this study three different bacterial species were investigated as biological dose indicators, especially in the range of low doses (< 6.5 kGy) in aqueous solutions or suspensions. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus warneri were comparatively evaluated for their suitability as biological dose indicators. Thin homogeneous films of the respective bacterial suspensions were irradiated with increasing doses of low-energy accelerated electrons. The average absorbed dose was determined using a colorimetric dosimeter based on a tetrazolium salt solution. The maximum and minimum absorbed doses were measured with a referenced film dosimeter. Subsequently, the inactivation kinetics was determined in terms of inactivation curves and D10 values. Thus, the minimum inactivation dose of bacterial growth was assessed for E. coli and S. warneri. The effect of irradiation with low-energy accelerated electrons on the growth behavior and activity of the bacteria was studied in more detail using impedance spectroscopy. With increasing irradiation doses growth was delayed.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Bactérias , Escherichia coli , Suspensões
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 178: 113607, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367698

RESUMO

This study describes the use of D. trunculus as a bioindicator of microplastic (MPs) pollution due to beach urbanization related to the development of the Taghazout Bay tourist resort in Morocco. In six sites located on the coast, MPs densities ranged from 1.75 to 5.93 items per gram of D. trunculus wet weight. MPs contamination was significantly influenced spatiotemporally by the urbanization degree in the area. The shapes found were fibers (90.5%) and fragments (9.5%). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis reported two polymers: polyethylene (65%) and polypropylene (35%). MPs colors were dark and light, with a predominance of light blue (23.8%). The species ingested different sizes of MPs, mainly the 0.1 and 0.5 mm fractions. Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM/EDX) revealed weathered MPs with chemical elements adhered to their surface (Cu, Fe, Mg, S, Cl, etc.). The results of this study recommend the use of D. trunculus as a new bioindicator of MPs pollution following an urban change in the coastal scenery. Also, a sustainable coastal management must be implemented in the study area.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microplásticos , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 178: 113576, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398688

RESUMO

Coastal trace metal contamination is of serious concern and the role of new bioindicator species in monitoring of trace metals is essential. The present study quantified the concentration of trace metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and the macrophytes of Chilika lagoon, India, and investigated the bioindicator potential of the seagrasses, saltmarshes and macroalgae. The Igeo values for sediment indicated significant contamination of Cu and Zn in seagrass, Cu, Ni and Zn in saltmarsh and moderate contamination of Cr, Cu and Pb in macroalgal ecosystems. In general, the Bio-Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) indicated that the macrophytes accumulated higher concentration of Mn and Ni from the sediments. The high concentration of trace metals in the sediment of the three macrophytes ecosystems did not result in higher accumulation of the same metals in the tissues of the respective macrophytes suggesting metal specific and species-specific behaviour.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ásia , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 247: 106176, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487150

RESUMO

The application of nanocomposite materials fabricated from titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) and different carbon (C) allotropes have gained popularity in water treatment applications due to their synergistic properties. Studies to date have focused on simple forms of nanomaterials (NMs), however, with the technology development, there is a dramatic increase in production and application of these complex NMs which could result in toxicological impacts on organisms when released into aquatic environments. This raises serious concerns about their safety and the need to ascertain their potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. While conjugated TiO2 NPs/carbon-based nanohybrids (TiO2/C-NHs) may exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity, there is no research in the scientific community regarding their toxicological effects on D. magna, which are indicators of freshwater pollution. In this study, two under-represented TiO2/C-NHs (i.e., TiO2- conjugated carbon nanofiber (CNF), and TiO2-conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT)) were investigated for their toxic effects on D. magna, through a series of acute toxicity tests with a set of sublethal biochemical biomarkers of oxidative stress. The lethal toxicity and oxidative stress formation of TiO2/C-NHs over 48 h revealed a concentration-dependant increase in D. magna mortality. The primary mechanism identified was the generation of ROS, which was in line with toxicity results. Light microscopy and CytoViva® images visualized D. magna interaction with the NPs, which accumulated and appeared as dark materials in the lines of the gut tract. The collective results indicate that TiO2/C-NHs have the potential to cause an effect on freshwater organisms when released into the environment. However, the relevance of TiO2/C-NHs effects needs further chronic toxicity studies since they show promise to be used in nano-bioremediation materials to treat wastewaters.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Daphnia , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Água Doce , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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