Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 645
Filtrar
1.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117622, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426380

RESUMO

We assessed the performance of taxonomic and several functional trait-based approaches in the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of dusky flounder (Syacium papillosum) parasite assemblages along the Yucatan shelf to determine their potential as bioindicators of marine chemical pollution. Fish specimens were collected throughout three research cruises that took place in 2015, 2016 and 2018. In addition to the traditional taxonomic approach, four trait-based approaches were performed including community-weighted means (CWM), functional trait niche (FTN), functional groups (FGs), and Rao's functional diversity (FD). Significant spatial and temporal variations in parasite communities were detected using the taxonomic approach. In general, these variations were also reflected in the four trait-based approaches performed, indicating that changes in taxa composition and abundance also resulted in functional composition shifts. Resemblance matrices of both taxonomic and functional trait approaches were significantly correlated. Variations in taxonomic and trait-based composition using the four approaches were significantly correlated with depth, and at least one chemical pollutant variable. Feeding mode, transmission, life stage and attachment structure displayed spatial variability and significant correlations with predictor variables, which indicates that this set of attributes functions as a good surrogate for assessing variations in the functional composition of flatfish parasite communities in relation to pollution. FTN and CWM were the approaches that best detected spatio-temporal variation. CWM and FD were best suited for detecting pollution gradients. These results reveal the feasibility of using trait-based approaches to assess marine parasite communities as bioindicators of chemical pollution. Functional traits of marine metazoan parasites are as good indicators of the effect of oil pollution as taxonomic diversity. This may be a time-saving and cost-effective approach to performing environmental assessments.


Assuntos
Linguado , Parasitos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Peixes
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 539, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331143

RESUMO

Natural honey is a viscous liquid composed of a supersaturated solution of glucose and fructose. Honeybees collect nectar and convert them into honey through biochemical reactions. These small creatures are the major contributors to pollination and food production for humans. At the same time, they are the worst victims of urbanization and irrational use of pesticides, insecticides, and other hazardous materials. Any disturbance to the existence of honeybees is a serious threat to the biodiversity. The quality of a honey sample is largely affected by the contamination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) due to environmental pollution. The present study analyzes systemically 25 samples of honey harvested from the southern part of the Western Ghats for the probable existence of traces of toxic substances. The samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction process, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and characterize the hazardous substances/volatile organic compounds. The results show the presence of nearly 540 VOCs and semi-VOCs comprising alcohols, carboxylic acids, halogenated hydrocarbons, furan and pyran derivatives, and pyridine and pyrazine derivatives. Malonic acid (0.01-0.18%), n-hexa decanoic acid (0.02-8.69%), 9-octa decanoic acid (0.03-4.01%), propanoic acid (1.01%), oleic acid (6.15%), and benzoic acid (1.48%) were found to be present in some of the samples. This investigation would pave the way to identifying the geographical location of floral honey based on the specific VOCs present in the samples.


Assuntos
Mel , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Abelhas , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mel/análise , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Se Pu ; 39(2): 184-196, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227351

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are environmentally persistent and biomagnified along food chains. They have been widely detected globally, even in the human body, and their potential toxicity has attracted great attention. Eggs are the origin of new life of ovipara and are rich in nutrients, thus they serve as one of the main protein sources for humans. Therefore, the level of pollutants in eggs can affect the reproduction of ovipara, and it is also related to human health by food intake. In recent years, poultry egg samples have been widely used in the assessment of biological and ecological pollution as a non-invasive biota matrix. At the same time, recent studies have used eggs to evaluate the developmental toxicity and associated health risks based on the pollutant levels in egg samples. In this study, the methods of sample pretreatment and instrumental detection of PFASs for egg samples are summarized. In addition, the application of eggs as a pollutants bioindicator of PFASs contamination has been discussed.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(31): 42999-43006, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228306

RESUMO

Currently, there is an increase in marine pollution around the world; the most affected areas are the coastal ones since on the coast is where anthropogenic pollution first acts. Therefore, it is important to have natural bioindicators as organisms that indicate us in the first instance of this pollution. The main objective of the present research is to determine if Patella aspera and Patella candei crenata show statistical differences in their element content in contaminated areas of the Island of Tenerife and to verify if limpets can be good bioindicators of marine pollution by trace elements and non-essential elements. A total of 160 limpets were taken from 4 slopes of the Island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The samples were analyzed using the ICP-OES to obtain results of essential trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Ni, and Zn) and non-essential elements (Al, B, Cd, Pb, and V). P. aspera showed a higher concentration of elements than P. candei crenata, and it was in the Buenavista locality where alarming values of Cd 0.658 ± 0.124 mg/kg were observed for P. aspera. These two limpet species have been found to be useful as bioindicators of marine pollution based on the concentrations of metals especially for Cd and Cu.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Espanha , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148522, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187712

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the impact of washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil using EDTA-based technology (ReSoil®) on soil biological properties by measuring some of the most commonly used/sensitive biological indicators of soil perturbation. We estimated the temporal dynamics of the soil respiration, the activities of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, ß-glucosidase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase), and the effect of the remediation process on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in original (Orig), remediated (Rem) and remediated vitalized (Rem+V) soils during a more than one-year garden experiment. ReSoil® technology initially affected the activity level of soil microbial respiration and all enzyme activities except urease and reduced AM fungal potential in the soil. However, after one year of vegetable cultivation and standard gardening practices, soil microbial respiration, acid and alkaline phosphatase in the Rem and Rem+V reached similar activities as in the Orig. Only the activities of dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase remained lower in the remediated soil compared to the Orig. The frequency of arbuscular mycorrhiza in the root system, arbuscular density in the colonized root fragment, and the intensity of mycorrhizal colonization in the colonized root fragments in the remediated treatments increased with time; at the end of the experiment, no consistent differences in these parameters of mycorrhizal colonization were found among the treatments. Our results suggest a restored biological functioning of the remediated soil after one year of vegetable cultivation. In general, no differences were found between the Rem and Rem+V treatments, indicating that simple common garden practices are sufficient to restore soil functioning after remediation.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Micorrizas , Poluentes do Solo , Ácido Edético , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Jardinagem , Micorrizas/química , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112606, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153852

RESUMO

Bioindicators are useful for determining nutrient regimes in marine environments, but their ability to evaluate corals reefs in different ecological states is poorly understood. The precision, availability and congruency of eight potential bioindicators (brown macroalgae, green macroalgae, turf algae, cyanobacteria, soft corals, zoanthids, sponges, and sediment) and their stable isotopic and elemental signatures (δ15N, δ13C, %N, %C, and C:N Ratio) were assessed across 21 reefs in the Inner Seychelles. The coefficient of variation (CoV) for δ15N showed that green and brown macroalgae were highly precise (2.47 ± 0.95, n = 11; 4.68 ± 1.33, n = 16, respectively), though were less common on coral-mortality reefs relative to macroalgal-dominated ones. Zoanthids were also highly precise for δ15N (2.98 ± 1.20), but were more readily available regardless of reef state (n = 18). Congruency was low among these indicators, suggesting that different physiological mechanisms for nutrient processing have a stronger influence on a bioindicator's effectiveness than reef state.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Nutrientes
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148076, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090170

RESUMO

Microplastics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic environments globally. Wastewater treatment plants are considered to be a major source of microplastics and jellyfish have been proposed as potential bioindicators of microplastic pollution. We tested whether treated wastewater influenced the concentration and/or composition of microplastics in the receiving water by comparing the concentration and composition of microplastics in seawater collected in the wastewater plume and at sites distant from treated wastewater releases in the Gold Coast Broadwater, Australia, and at sites within the nearby Tweed River estuaries, which receives >10 times less wastewater discharge. In addition, tiger sea nettle Chrysaora cf. pentostoma medusae were collected to determine whether more microplastics occurred in the guts of the medusae nearby diffusers and whether the microplastics ingested by medusae were representative of those present in the water column. The concentration and composition of microplastics at the wastewater release sites did not significantly differ from sites that were distant from them. Eighty three percent of medusae contained microplastics in their guts and the composition of the ingested microplastics differed significantly from that in the surrounding water. We concluded that discharged treated wastewater had no detectable effect on levels or composition of microplastics in the receiving water and that C. pentostoma are unsuitable bioindicators because the microplastics they ingested did not represent those available in their environment.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117608, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182396

RESUMO

The morphological anomalies of the early development stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, caused by exposure to environmental stressors, are used as biomarker in ecotoxicological and ecological investigations. Here, we reviewed the available literature and classified the embryo and larval anomalies identified so far, to highlight potential commonalities or differences related to the biological action of the different stressors and their ecological impact. Morphological anomalies are influenced by a) the developmental stage of exposure to stressors; b) the intensity of the stress; c) the intra- and inter-cellular mechanisms affected by the exposure to environmental agents. The classification and analysis of embryo and larvae anomalies, either observed by the authors of this review and reported in literature, indicate that sea urchin abnormalities, caused by exposure to different stressors, can be very similar among them and classified into 18 main types, which can occur individually or mixed. All anomalies can be used to calculate an Index of Contaminant Impact to assess the impact of multiple stressors and to identify relationships between morphological anomalies and compromised biological mechanisms. This approach could be useful for a first screening of the presence of potential stressors impairing the growth and development of the early life stages of marine organisms, thus providing a relevant advancement for in future monitoring activities devoted to assess the health status in coastal marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Paracentrotus , Animais , Ecossistema , Embrião não Mamífero , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Larva
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067950

RESUMO

Multiple studies have been conducted to identify the complex and diverse relationships between stream ecosystems and land cover. However, these studies did not consider spatial dependency inherent from the systemic structure of streams. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the relationship between green/urban areas and topographical variables with biological indicators using regression tree analysis, which considered spatial autocorrelation at two different scales. The results of the principal components analysis suggested that the topographical variables exhibited the highest weights among all components, including biological indicators. Moran's I values verified spatial autocorrelation of biological indicators; additionally, trophic diatom index, benthic macroinvertebrate index, and fish assessment index values were greater than 0.7. The results of spatial autocorrelation analysis suggested that a significant spatial dependency existed between environmental and biological indicators. Regression tree analysis was conducted for each indicator to compensate for the occurrence of autocorrelation; subsequently, the slope in riparian areas was the first criterion of differentiation for biological condition datasets in all regression trees. These findings suggest that considering spatial autocorrelation for statistical analyses of stream ecosystems, riparian proximity, and topographical characteristics for land use planning around the streams is essential to maintain the healthy biological conditions of streams.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Peixes , Análise Espacial
10.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 18(4): 365-376, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993397

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this manuscript, we present recent findings concerning concordance and discrepancy between biological measures and self-reports of these three outcomes of HIV programs: HIV status, adherence to antiretroviral medications (ARVs) and use of and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis medication (PrEP), and condom use/unprotected sex. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies suggest that three successive rapid HIV tests (for those whose first test in positive) might be reasonably inexpensive and valid biological data to collect to combine with self-reports of HIV status, dried blood spots sufficiently affordable to combine with self-reports of adherence to ARVs and use of or adherence to PrEP, and that the discrepancy between self-reports of condom use and biomarkers of unprotected sex may be relatively small in high-income countries. Additional work on assessment of incorrect condom usage and breakage, standardized self-report measures of condom use, and more private data collection methodologies in low-income settings might reduce the recent observed discrepancies even further. Concordance between self-reports of HIV and biomarkers indicating HIV positive status has varied considerably, with much lower rates in low-income countries, where the stigma of HIV is still very high. Recommendation is for combining self-report data with the results of three successive rapid tests for those testing positive. For adherence, again agreement between self-reports and a variety of more objective and/or biological measures is only moderate. Dried blood spots (DBS) may be sufficiently inexpensive in low-resource settings that this may be the best biological method to combine with self-reports. In publications over the last 8 years, the discrepancy between self-reports of condom use and biomarkers for unprotected sex may be even lower than 20% after controlling for other features of the study, particularly in high-income countries. Our results suggest that more careful assessment of incorrect condom use and breakage as reasons other than intentional misreporting should be investigated more carefully and that more private data collection methods such as audio, computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) might be employed more often in low-resource settings to reduce this discrepancy in those settings further. In addition, further analysis of the discrepancy between self-reports of condom use and biomarkers should be conducted of published studies using the correct calculation methods to be more certain of these findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Preservativos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Sexo Seguro , Autorrelato
11.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117247, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984779

RESUMO

Noise is a pollutant of emergent concern for ecologists and conservation biologists. Recreational noise pollution, especially unpredictable and intermittent sounds, and its effects on wildlife and biodiversity have been poorly studied. Researchers have paid very little attention to the effect of noisy traditional festivals (fireworks and powder-guns). This study aimed to explore the effect of these recreational activities on the juvenile productivity of an urban avian bioindicator: the house sparrow. We studied five pairs of localities in the Valencia Region (E Spain) with noisy traditional festivals. Each pair was composed of one locality with festivals during the breeding season and the closest similar locality, but with festivals outside the reproductive period (controls). Both locality types were sampled twice each spring (May-June of 2019 and 2020). Sampling dates were selected as 15 and 30 days after noisy festivals ended, while the control localities were sampled 1 day after the census of their correspondent town pair with noisy breeding season festivals. The ratio of the juveniles/adults detected during surveys in the influence area of festivals (100-m buffer around the parades route) was used as a house sparrow breeding success proxy. Data were analysed using GLMM: year (2019/2020), festivals season (breeding/non-breeding), survey (15/30 days), and their interactions were included as fixed factors. Pair of localities and locality nested within the pair were random factors. In 2019, juvenile productivity was lower in the towns with noisy traditional festivals during the breeding season than in the control towns. The 2020 festivals were cancelled due to COVID-19. In spring 2020, house sparrow juvenile productivity was the same in both town groups. Lockdown did not increase this species' juvenile productivity in the control localities in 2020 versus 2019.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pardais , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Ruído , Melhoramento Vegetal , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117343, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030082

RESUMO

Studying the impacts of prenatal atmospheric heavy-metal exposure is challenging, because biological exposure monitoring does not distinguish between specific sources, and high-resolution air monitoring data is lacking for heavy metals. Bioindicators - animal or plant species that can capture environmental quality - are a low-cost tool for evaluating exposure to atmospheric heavy-metal pollution that have received little attention in the public-health literature. We obtained birth records for Portland, Oregon live births (2008-2014) and modeled metal concentrations derived from 346 samples of moss bioindicators collected in 2013. Exposure estimates were assigned using mother's residential address at birth for six metals with known toxic and estrogenic effects (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, lead). Associations were evaluated for continuous (cts) and quartile-based (Q) metal estimates and three birth outcomes (preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks)), very PTB (vPTB; <32 weeks), small for gestational age (SGA; 10th percentile of weight by age and sex)) using logistic regression models with adjustment for demographic characteristics, and stratified by maternal race. Chromium and cobalt were associated with increased odds of vPTB (chromium - odds ratio (OR)cts = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; cobalt - ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.71). Cobalt, chromium and cadmium were significantly associated with odds of SGA, although the direction of association differed by metal (cobalt - ORcts = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07; chromium - ORQ3vsQ1 = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99; cadmium - ORcts = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00). In stratified analyses, odds of SGA were significantly different among non-white mothers compared to white mothers with exposure to chromium, cobalt, lead and nickel. This novel application of a moss-based exposure metric found that exposure to some atmospheric metals is associated with adverse birth outcomes. These findings are consistent with previous literature and suggest that moss bioindicators are a useful complement to traditional exposure-assessment methods.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Nascimento Prematuro , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Oregon , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez
13.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117391, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034136

RESUMO

Sessile benthic organisms are considered good bioindicators for monitoring environmental quality of coastal ecosystems. However, these environments are impacted by new pollutants such as microplastics (MPs), where there is limited information about organisms that can be used as reliable bioindicators of these emerging contaminants. We evaluated MP concentrations in three compartments: surface sediment, water and in three marine sponge species (Haliclona implexiformis, Halichondria melanadocia and Amorphinopsis atlantica), to determine whether these organisms accumulate MPs and reflect their possible sources. Results showed MPs in all three compartments. Average concentrations ranged from 1861 to 3456 items kg-1 of dry weight in marine sponges, 130 to 287 items L-1 in water and 6 to 11 items kg-1 in sediment. The maximum MP concentration was in the sponge A. atlantica, which registered 5000 items kg-1 of dry weight, in water was 670 items L-1 and in sediment was 28 items kg-1, these values were found in the disturbed study area. The three sponge species exhibited MP bioaccumulation and showed significant differences between disturbed and pristine sites (F = 11.2, p < 0.05), suggesting their use as bioindicators of MP.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147374, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045077

RESUMO

Beginning in the late-1800s, gold mining activities throughout Nova Scotia, eastern Canada, released contaminants, notably geogenic arsenic from milled ore and anthropogenic mercury from amalgamation, to local environments via surface water flows through tailings fields. We investigated recovery from and legacy effects of the tailings field at the Montague Gold District (~1863-1940) on nearby urban lake ecosystems using geochemical measures and zooplankton remains archived in dated sediment cores from an impact (Lake Charles) and a reference (Loon Lake) lake. Sedimentary levels of total arsenic and total mercury were used to assess mining-related inputs. Arsenic concentrations remain elevated at nearly 300 times above sediment guidelines in Lake Charles surface sediments, due to its upward mobilization from enriched sediment intervals and sequestration by iron oxyhydroxides in surficial sediments. Peak mercury concentrations at Lake Charles were eight times above sediment guidelines during the mining period, and since ~1990 have recovered to levels observed before mining began. Legacy mining impacts at Lake Charles and non-mining related environmental changes in the post-1950 sediments at both lakes have thus combined to structure assemblage compositions of primary consumers. At both lakes, assemblages of pelagic-dominated Cladocera differed (p ≤ 0.05) during the mining period compared to periods before and after mining. Taxon richness differed (p ≤ 0.01) only between the pre- and post-mining periods at mining-impacted Lake Charles and reflects long-term declines of substrate-dwelling littoral taxa. Geochemical and biological recovery have not completely occurred at Lake Charles despite the mine district's closure ~80 years ago. Our findings demonstrate that impacts of ore processing and amalgamation from historical gold mining, combined with recent watershed stressors, continue to affect sedimentary arsenic geochemistry and intermediate trophic levels of nearby, downstream aquatic habitats.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ouro , Mineração , Nova Escócia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112416, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831641

RESUMO

This study focused on evaluating factors influencing the growth of perennial shrubs by integrating field-based experiments and spatial analysis using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to identify ecological indicators that can help detect potential locations for restoration and revegetation of native plants. The experiment was implemented in the Al-Abduli protected area in Kuwait, which is mainly dominated by a Rhanterium epapposum community (desert shrub). Aerial imagery of the study site was acquired using UAVs during the growing season to estimate the desert shrub biomass and carbon stock. Then, soil samples were collected based on vegetation density to determine the impact of the soil's physical and chemical properties on vegetation biomass, growth, and distribution. It was found that shrub biomass was significantly correlated with crown area and shrub volume. We also observed that annual plants support the growth of perennial shrubs, as the mean shrub height and crown area (CA) are significantly higher, with averages of 0.7 m and 3 cm, respectively, in the presence of high annual plant density. However, shrubs in plots with low annual density had an average shrub height of 0.5 m and CA of 1.4 cm. Annual plants also enhance the soil by providing approximately 50% higher soil moisture, phosphorous (P), organic matter (OM), and carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. In addition, annual plants are mainly supported by loamy soils in the deeper soil layers. We concluded that locations covered with annual plants represent suitable soils and that this can be considered a biological indicator for convenient locations for restoration and revegetation of native perennial shrubs. Remote sensing technologies could be utilized for initial assessments to detect sites that may support annual plant growth over a large scale for classification as potential restoration and revegetation areas.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Biomassa , Clima Desértico , Fósforo , Solo
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 45001, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In June 2020, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a virtual workshop focused on integrating the science of aging and environmental health research. The concurrent COVID-19 pandemic and national attention on racism exposed shortcomings in the environmental research field's conceptualization and methodological use of race, which have subsequently hindered the ability of research to address racial health disparities. By the workshop's conclusion, the authors deduced that the utility of environmental aging biomarkers-aging biomarkers shown to be specifically influenced by environmental exposures-would be greatly diminished if these biomarkers are developed absent of considerations of broader societal factors-like structural racism-that impinge on racial health equity. OBJECTIVES: The authors reached a post-workshop consensus recommendation: To advance racial health equity, a "compound" exposome approach should be widely adopted in environmental aging biomarker research. We present this recommendation here. DISCUSSION: The authors believe that without explicit considerations of racial health equity, people in most need of the benefits afforded by a better understanding of the relationships between exposures and aging will be the least likely to receive them because biomarkers may not encompass cumulative impacts from their unique social and environmental stressors. Employing an exposome approach that allows for more comprehensive exposure-disease pathway characterization across broad domains, including the social exposome and neighborhood factors, is the first step. Exposome-centered study designs must then be supported with efforts aimed at increasing the recruitment and retention of racially diverse study populations and researchers and further "compounded" with strategies directed at improving the use and interpretation of race throughout the publication and dissemination process. This compound exposome approach maximizes the ability of our science to identify environmental aging biomarkers that explicate racial disparities in health and best positions the environmental research community to contribute to the elimination of racial health disparities. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8392.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Exposição Ambiental , Expossoma , Equidade em Saúde , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e024220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909839

RESUMO

This study evaluated the use of gill parasitic monogenoideans from Sciades herzbergii (Siluriformes: Ariidae) as bioindicators of environmental quality in Amazonian estuarine ecosystems. Fish were caught in the tidal channels in an impacted area - IA, near the port of São Luís and a reference area - RA, in the Caeté estuary, Bragança. The influence of the capture site and seasonality on parasite abundance, environmental variables and biometric data of hosts were verified. A total of 416 S. herzbergii specimens were analyzed. The weight and total length of fish from the RA were greater than those of the IA. The relative condition factor was influenced by seasonality. A total of 4,265 monogenoidean specimens from the following species were identified: Chauhanellus boegeri, C. susamlimae, C. velum, Calceostomella herzbergii and Dactylogyridae gen. sp. The seasonal mean parasitic abundance of C. susamlimae was significantly different, with the highest values recorded during the dry season. The mean abundance of C. herzbergii was influenced by seasonality and by the capture site. During the rainy period, the parasite indices in the RA were higher than those of IA. C. herzbergii is a bioindicator sensitive to low water quality, especially in relation to water turbidity in Amazon estuaries.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Parasitos , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Estuários , Estações do Ano
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 782: 146830, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838364

RESUMO

Microplastics in bivalves have caused widespread concern due to their potential health risk to humans. In this study, microplastics in the digestive systems of four locally cultured bivalve species (scallop Chlamys farreri, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, oyster Crassostrea gigas, and clam Ruditapes philippinarum) in Qingdao, China, were analyzed and detected in 233 out of 290 bivalve samples (80%) over four seasons. The microplastic abundance in four species of bivalves ranged between 0.5 and 3.3 items/individual or 0.3 and 20.1 items/g wet weight digestive system, with significant species-specific and region-specific differences but no season-specific differences. Microfiber was the most predominant shape of all microplastics found. Eighteen types of polymer with diameters between 7 and 5000 µm were identified by µ-FT-IR (505 of 587 suspected items identified as microplastics) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and rayon being the most abundant ones. Bivalves collected in summer contained more larger-sized microplastics. R. philippinarum accumulated more smaller-sized microplastics and showed different microplastic features compared with the other three species of bivalves. By comparing and analyzing the microplastic polymer types between each bivalve species and the ambient environment, microplastic in clam can best reflect the variability of microplastic polymer types in sediment among different areas. Mussels can reflect the variability of microplastic polymer types in water to an extent. Therefore, clam and mussel are recommended to serve as bioindicators for microplastic pollution in the sediment and water, respectively. The occurrence of microplastics pollution in bivalves worldwide is wide, and bivalves can act as the transporter of microplastics to humans. Our results suggest that bivalves have an important role as environmental bioindicators and the pollution of microplastics in bivalves needs attention.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , China , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Plásticos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 237, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783594

RESUMO

A widely distributed urban bird, the house crow (Corvus splendens), was used to assess bioavailable heavy metals in urban and rural environments across Pakistan. Bioaccumulation of arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) was investigated in wing feathers of 96 crows collected from eight locations and categorized into four groups pertaining to their geographical and environmental similarities. Results revealed that the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Cr were positively correlated and varied significantly among the four groups. Zn, Fe, Cr, and Cu regarded as industrial outputs, were observed in birds both in industrialized cities and in adjoining rural agricultural areas irrigated through the Indus Basin Irrigation System. Birds in both urban regions accrued Pb more than the metal toxicity thresholds for birds. The house crow was ranked in the middle on the metal accumulation levels in feathers between highly accumulating raptor and piscivore and less contaminated insectivore and granivore species in the studied areas,. This study suggests that the house crow is an efficient bioindicator and supports the feasibility of using feathers to discriminate the local pollution differences among terrestrial environments having different levels and kinds of anthropogenic activities.


Assuntos
Corvos , Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Animais , Cidades , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão
20.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 57(3): 301-315, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769149

RESUMO

Emissions from traffic over the past few decades have become a significant source of air pollution. Among the pollutants emitted are nitrogen oxides (NOx), exposure to which can be detrimental to public health. Recent studies have shown that nitrogen (N) stable isotope ratios in tree-rings and foliage express a fingerprint of their major N source, making them appropriate for bio-monitoring purposes. In this study, we have applied this proxy to Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis) at three distances from one of the busiest roads in Malta, a country known to suffer from intense traffic pollution. Our results showed that N and organic carbon (C) stable isotope ratios in tree-rings do not vary over the period 1980-2018 at any of the investigated sites; however, statistically significant spatial trends were apparent in both tree-rings and foliage. The roadside and transitional sites exhibited more positive δ15N and more negative δ13C values compared to those at a rural control site. This is likely due to the incorporation of 15N-enriched NOx and 13C-depleted CO2 from traffic pollution. Sampled top-soil also exhibited the δ15N trend. Our results constitute the first known application of dendrogeochemistry to atmospheric pollution monitoring in Malta.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Malta , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...