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1.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(4): 631-645, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123945

RESUMO

Wetlands and their biodiversity are constantly threatened by contaminant pollution from urbanisation. Despite evidence suggesting that snakes are good bioindicators of environmental health, the bioaccumulation of contaminants in reptiles is poorly researched in Australia. We conducted the first broad-scale analysis of 17 metals and trace elements, 21 organochlorine pesticides, and 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments (4 samples per site, December 2018) from four wetlands along an urban gradient in Perth, Western Australia, and from the livers (5 livers per site, February-April 2019) of western tiger snakes Notechis scutatus occidentalis captured at those sites. All 17 metals and trace elements were detected in the sediments of wetlands as well as 16 in the livers of tiger snakes. Arsenic, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn were at concentrations exceeding government trigger values in at least one sediment sample. Two organochlorine pesticides and six of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the sediments of a single wetland, all exceeding government trigger values, but were not detected in tiger snakes. Metals and trace elements were generally in higher concentration in sediments and snake livers from more heavily urbanised wetlands. The least urbanised site had some higher concentrations of metals and trace elements, possibly due to agriculture contaminated groundwater. Concentrations of nine metals and trace elements in snake livers were statistically different between sites. Arsenic, Cd, Co, Hg, Mo, Sb, and Se near paralleled the pattern of contamination measured in the wetland sediments; this supports the use of high trophic wetland snakes, such as tiger snakes, as bioindicators of wetland contamination. Contamination sources and impacts on these wetland ecosystems and tiger snakes are discussed herein.


Assuntos
Elapidae/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Austrália , Cidades , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(4): 589-603, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020255

RESUMO

This is the first comprehensive report on the accumulation of Cr, Ni, As, and Ag in the fish species Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Victoria, complemented with recent data on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. This also is the first report on Cr, Ni, As, and Ag levels in invertebrates: the shrimp Caridina nilotica, gastropod Pila ovata, and bivalve Mutela bourguignati. The study was conducted at five sites in the Kenyan part of Lake Victoria: four sites in Winam Gulf influenced by various anthropogenic pressures, including a site near Kisumu City, and one in the main lake, with lesser direct anthropogenic influence. Apart from Cu and Ag, which were highest in O. niloticus liver, the invertebrates had higher levels of trace elements than fish. Contamination of the gulf with trace elements was best mirrored by the invertebrates, whose mobility is limited; they accumulated Cr, Cd, Ag, and Pb corresponding to the levels in the surface sediment. The accumulation of trace elements in fish species and their bioindicative potential corresponded to their habitats and feeding behaviour. The tissue contents of most trace elements were higher in the inshore-dwelling, omnivorous O. niloticus compared to the pelagic, piscivorous L. niloticus. Cu (465 ± 689 mg/kg dw) and Ag (3.45 ± 1.49 mg/kg dw) in the liver of O. niloticus were up to 10 and 119 times higher than in L. niloticus, respectively. Oreochromis niloticus therefore has bioindicative potential for Cu and Ag contamination. Both the invertebrates and fish showed positive correlations between Cu and Ag concentrations, indicating similar source and/or uptake route. The target hazard quotients (THQ) show that there is no human health risk associated with the consumption of these fish. However, the levels of Zn, Cd, and Pb in P. ovata surpassed maximum food safety limits and are hence potentially unsafe for human consumption.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioacumulação , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Humanos , Quênia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Moluscos/metabolismo , Percas/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(3): 478-494, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016484

RESUMO

In the present study, a multi-biomarker approach was used to assess the biological effects of metal pollution in the southern lagoon of Tunis, on clam Ruditapes decussatus both in "hot" (in summer) and "cold" (in winter) seasons. Clams were collected in August 2015 and February 2016 from three sites of the lagoon and from Louza considered a reference site. The concentrations of five trace metals (cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc) in the soft tissues of R. decussatus were evaluated at the sampling sites. A core of biomarkers indicative of (a) neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AChE); (b) biotransformation (glutathione S-transferase, GST); (c) oxidative stress (catalase, CAT; total glutathione peroxidase, T-GPx; total glutathione peroxidase, T-GPx; selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, Se-GPx; glutathione reductase, GR; superoxide dismutase, SOD) (d) lipid peroxidation (malondialdhyde, MDA level), and (e) apoptotic process (caspase 3-like, CSP3) was selected for measurements of environmental effects on the populations of clams collected from the different sampling sites. The results of metal bioaccumulation in soft tissues of Ruditapes decussatus revealed a high pollution in the South Lagoon of Tunis with spatial variation and relatively high levels at the navigation channel. Anthropogenic pollutants in the lagoon led to the activation of antioxidant defense and biotransformation enzymes to oxidative damage of the membrane and activation of apoptosis, and revealed neurotoxicity. Among this core of biomarkers, the antioxidants enzymes (CAT, SOD, GR, and GPx) were very sensitive, allowing the discrimination among sites and pointing to the navigation channel as the most impacted site in the southern lagoon of Tunis. Moreover, a significant effect of season was recorded on biomarkers responses (e.g., CAT, GR, SOD, AChE, and CSP3 activities and MDA levels) with higher levels in winter than in summer, probably influenced by the reproductive stage and food availability. Finally, the measurement of the selected core of biomarkers in the whole soft tissues of clams was considered as an integrated indicator of environmental stress. Moreover, R. decussatus proved to be a remarkable sentinel species capable to establish a reliable diagnosis of the health status of the marine environment in different areas of the southern lagoon of Tunis, both in "hot" and "cold" seasons.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/análise , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/análise , Tunísia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(3): 463-477, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034428

RESUMO

The environmental quality of a Ramsar wetland site located at the Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe Protected Area (CIP-PA), in São Paulo, Brazil, was assessed by geochemical analyses and biomarker assessments (GPx, GST, GSH, GST, MT, LPO, DNA damage) performed in swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 organs (posterior and anterior gills and hepatopancreas) to estimate sediment contaminant bioavailability. The results indicated that two sampling stations, PT and PM, exhibited the worst environmental conditions, as sediments collected at both points contained metal contamination, while crabs exhibited significant responses for GPx, GST, and LPO (mostly during winter). Sediment contamination tended to be associated to fine sediments (both seasons) and organic matter (winter). During the summer survey, Pb concentrations in sediments of station PT exceeded the Brazilian Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and the Canadian Interim Marine Sediment Quality Guidelines. Metal concentrations in sediments sampled in winter were higher compared with summer, with Co, Ni, and Pb exceeding SQGs levels at PT, whereas Co, Ni, Hg, Zn, and Pb exceeded SQGs at PM. Biomarker induction during summer appeared to be caused by natural variables (water salinity and temperature, and molting cycle), whereas oxidative stress and tissue damage during winter appeared to be more clearly linked to metal contamination. Anterior gills presented the clearest signs of seasonal variability, being more responsive to sediment contamination. The results suggest that metals originated from the upper Ribeira de Iguape River are transported toward the estuarine system, causing effects on C. danae individuals. Additionally, seasonality is a strong factor concerning CIP-PA toxicity, since the rainfall regime significantly modifies the freshwater flow and, consequently, estuarine water salinity, suspended particle and metal inputs, as well as the location of depositional areas. Thus, efforts to mitigate CIP-PA contamination should be based on the control of upstream pollution sources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Brasil , Brânquias/química , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/química , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110271, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044605

RESUMO

Pollution with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) is a global concern and particularly in coastal environments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are regarded as the most toxic components of TPHs and they can also be derived from other sources. Fangcheng Port is considered as a representative emerging coastal city in China, but the status, sources, and hazards to organisms and humans with respect to contamination with PAHs and TPHs are unknown in the coastal regions of this area. Therefore, in this study, we cloned cytochrome P450 family genes (CYP1A1, CYP3A, and CYP4) and heat shock protein 70 gene (HSP70) in the clam Meretrix meretrix as well as optimizing the method for measuring the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. These molecular indicators and four specific physiological indexes were found to be appropriate biomarkers for indicating the harmful effects of PAHs and TPHs on clams after exposure to the crude oil water-soluble fraction. In field monitoring surveys, we found that the 2- and 3-ring PAHs were dominant in the clams whereas the 4- to 6-ring PAHs were dominant in the sediments at each site. The PAH levels (3.63-12.77 ng/g wet weight) in wild clams were lower, whereas the TPH levels (13.25-70.50 µg/g wet weight) were higher compared with those determined previous in China and elsewhere. The concentrations of PAHs and TPHs in the sediments (19.20-4215.76 ng/g and 3.65-866.40 µg/g dry weight) were moderate compared with those in other global regions. Diagnostic ratio analysis demonstrated that the PAHs were derived mainly from pyrogenic sources. The TPHs may have come primarily from industrial effluents, land and maritime transportation, or fishing activities. The Integrated Biomarker Response version 2 indexes indicated that the clams collected from site S5 exhibited the most harmful effects due to contamination by PAHs and TPHs. Human health risk assessments demonstrated that the risks due to PAHs and TPHs following the consumption of clams can be considered acceptable. Our results suggest that continuous monitoring of contamination by PAHs and TPHs is recommended in this emerging coastal city as well as assessing their human health risks.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , China , Cidades , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Urbanização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110215, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978765

RESUMO

Information on the kinetic characteristics of soil enzymes under long-term arsenic (As) pollution in field soils is scarce. We investigated Michaelis-Menten kinetic properties of four soil enzymes including ß-glucosidase (BG), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and dehydrogenase (DHA) in field soils contaminated by As resulting from long-term realgar mining activity. The kinetic parameters, namely the maximum reaction velocity (Vmax), enzyme-substrate affinity (Km) and catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) were calculated. Results revealed that the enzyme kinetic characteristics varied in soils and were significantly influenced by total nitrogen (N) and total As, which explained 31.8% and 30.7% of the variance in enzyme kinetics respectively. Enzyme pools (Vmax) and catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) of BG, ACP and DHA decreased with elevated As pollution, while the enzyme affinity for substrate (Km) was less affected. Redundancy analysis and stepwise regression suggested that the adverse influence of As on enzyme kinetics may offset or weakened by soil total N and soil organic matter (SOM). Concentration-response fitting revealed that the specific kinetic parameters expressed as the absolute enzyme kinetic parameters multiplied by normalized soil total N and SOM were more relevant than the absolute ones to soil total As. The arsenic ecological dose values that cause 10% decrease (ED10) in the specific enzyme kinetics were 20-49 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 35 mg kg-1, indicating a practical range of threshold for As contamination at field level. This study concluded that soil enzymes exhibited functional adaptation to long-term As stress mainly through the reduction of enzyme pools (Vmax) or maintenance of enzyme-substrate affinity (Km). Further, this study demonstrates that the specific enzyme kinetics are the better indicators of As ecotoxicity at field-scale compared with the absolute enzyme parameters.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Enzimas/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Mineração , Nitrogênio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfetos/toxicidade
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 218: 105357, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812648

RESUMO

Aquatic media are ultimate recipients of various contaminants including pesticides pervasively applied in agrosystems. Characterizing the ecotoxicity of pesticides and their mixtures to aquatic wildlife at field-realistic levels is thus crucial for environmental risk assessment. This study aims at assessing the effects of two current-use insecticides, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos, on Gammarus fossarum using multi-level biomarkers. In microcosms, gammarids were exposed for 72 h to insecticides tested individually or in mixture at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/L of each chemical. Multi-metric responses were assessed at the individual level (behavioural traits: locomotion, respiration and amplexus formation) and the cellular level (enzymes involved in growth, moulting, digestion and cell stress). The results showed insecticide-elicited behavioural and biochemical responses from the lowest concentration of 0.01 µg/L. Overall, single exposures stimulated behavioural traits and inhibited enzymatic activities, highlighting subtle impacts at different organizational levels but these were not dose related. For binary mixtures, antagonistic effects (i.e. less-than-additive) on biomarkers were mainly observed when compared with single exposures. Multi-variable analyses indicated the complementarity of behavioural and biochemical biomarkers in identifying sublethal biological alterations and dose-dependent multiple action sites of insecticides. Besides, the mortality observed only for the mixture at 1 µg/L demonstrated a high lethal potential of insecticides in a simple binary combination. To conclude, this study demonstrates disturbances in individual performances and cellular impairments occurring at environmentally realistic exposure levels in a non-target wild species. Since the sublethal effects, such as those identified with this multi-biomarker approach, could lead to long-term alterations in population dynamics of agricultural areas, they constitute promising early endpoints for risk assessment of insecticides.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Anfípodes/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109827, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655413

RESUMO

Earthworms and their biomarkers are considered good indicators for assessing the effects of toxic chemicals. Therefore, in this study, we exposed Eisenia fetida to lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of Cd and Pb nitrate in artificial soil for 14 and 28 days to evaluate the impact on subcellular partitioning, lethal toxicity (LC50), growth, sperm count, morphology and apoptosis (using TUNEL assay). The soluble internal pools of both metals were good predictors of the responses of biomarkers. We found sperm deformation, TUNEL positive sperms and weight loss positively and sperm count negatively correlated with the concentrations of Cd and Pb in the total internal and cytosolic fraction (p < 0.01) and to a lesser extent with Pb concentrations in the granular fraction (p < 0.05). Fourteen days LC50 for Cd and Pb were 2169 ±â€¯322 and 6387 ±â€¯904 µg/g, respectively. Cadmium and Pb caused a significant depression in sperm count after 14 (Cd: up to 46.9%; Pb: up to 36.24%) and 28 (Cd: up to 72.47%; Pb: up to 43.12%) days of exposure relative to the control (p < 0.05). Cadmium induced higher abnormality in sperm heads than Pb. For both metals, TUNEL positive sperms significantly increased after 14 (Cd: up to 14.17%; Pb: up to 16.33%) and 28 (Cd: up to 16.33%; Pb: up to 11.67%) days of exposure compared with the control (p < 0.05). The findings of this study, illustrate the importance of considering sperm parameters as a rapid, easy and sensitive biomarker for the evaluation of metal toxicity.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Masculino , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/patologia , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo
9.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124572, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422312

RESUMO

The wastewaters from distilleries of winemaking by-products, a scarcely studied type of vinasse, were treated by white-rot fungal strains from species Irpex lacteus, Ganoderma resinaceum, Trametes versicolor, Phlebia rufa and Bjerkandera adusta. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate fungal performance during vinasse biodegradation, their enzyme patterns and ecotoxicity evolution throughout treatment. Despite all strains were able to promote strong (>80%) dephenolization and reduction of total organic carbon (TOC), P. rufa was less affected by vinasse toxicity and exhibit better decolorization. In batch cultures at 28 °C and pH 4.0, the first phase of P. rufa biodegradation kinetics was characterized by strong metabolic activity with simultaneous depletion of TOC, phenolics and sugars. The main events of second phase are the increase of peroxidases production after the peak of laccase activity, and strong color removal. At the end of treatment, it was observed highly significant (p < 0.001) abatement of pollution parameters (83-100% removal). Since water reclamation and reuse for e.g. crop irrigation is a priority issue, vinasse ecotoxicity was assessed with bioindicators representing three different phylogenetic and trophic levels: a marine bacterium (Aliivibrio fischeri), a freshwater microcrustacean (Daphnia magna) and a dicotyledonous macrophyte (Lepidium sativum). It was observed significant (p < 0.05) reduction of initial vinasse toxicity, as evaluated by these bioindicators, deserving special mention an almost complete phytotoxicity elimination.


Assuntos
Aliivibrio fischeri/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coriolaceae/metabolismo , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lepidium sativum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polyporales/metabolismo , Trametes/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Aliivibrio fischeri/metabolismo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Daphnia/metabolismo , Destilação , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lacase/metabolismo , Lepidium sativum/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Filogenia
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 219: 105378, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841729

RESUMO

Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used to control pests in agriculture even though evidence of harmful side effects in non-target species has been reported. A comprehensive study on the effects of dietary administration of Regent®800WG (80 % fipronil) in European sea bass juveniles was carried out under two temperature regimes: a) natural conditions, and b) 3 °C above the natural temperature (an increase predicted for the NW Mediterranean by the end of this century). Fipronil was added to the fish food (10 mg fipronil /Kg feed) and the effects were studied at several time points including right before administration, 7 and 14 days after daily fipronil feed and one-week after the insecticide withdrawal from the diet (depuration period). A wide array of physiological and metabolic biomarkers including feeding rate, general condition indices, plasma and epidermal mucus metabolites, immune response, osmoregulation, detoxification and oxidative-stress markers and digestive enzymes were assessed. General linear models and principal component analyses indicated that regardless of water temperature, fipronil resulted in a significant alteration of several of the above listed biomarkers. Among them, glucose and lactate levels increased in plasma and decreased in epidermal mucus as indicators of a stress response. Similarly, a depletion in catalase activity and higher lipid peroxidation in liver of fipronil-exposed fish were also indicative of an oxidative-stress condition. Fipronil induced a time dependent inhibition of Cytochrome P450-related activities and an increase of phase II glutathione-S-transferase. Moreover, fipronil administration was able to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capability as shown by the increase of plasmatic osmolality and altered several digestive enzymes including trypsin, lipase, alpha amylase and maltase. Finally, analyses in bile and muscle confirmed the rapid clearance of fipronil but the persistence of the metabolite fipronil-sulfone in bile even after the 7-day depuration period. Altogether, the results reveal a notable impact of this compound on the physiological condition of the European sea bass. The results should be considered in future environmental risk assessment studies since fipronil could be hazardous to fish species, particularly those inhabiting estuarine ecosystems exposed to the discharge of agriculture runoffs where this pesticide is mainly used.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Glucose/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Osmorregulação , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109880, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711777

RESUMO

An increase in the area treated with the fungicide thifluzamide has triggered concerns for soil ecosystem service providers such as earthworms. Here, we assessed effects of thifluzamide on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) biomarker indicators of stress responses and reproduction following exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg of thifluzamide kg-1 soil for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d (biomarker indicators) and 30 d (reproduction). Growth and reproduction were inhibited by exposure to thifluzamide at 10.0 mg/kg, and the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and respiratory chain complex II were inhibited by exposure to 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg thifluzamide for the majority of the 28-d experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased across all thifluzamide treatments, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) tended to be inhibited by thifluzamide. Upon exposure to thifluzamide, the activities of catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) initially increased and then decreased. Increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected only at seven days after exposure, and genotoxicity increased as the thifluzamide concentration increased. The results suggest that thifluzamide presents a potential risk to earthworms at the concentration of 10.0 mg/kg, and its use should be moderated to reduce damage to soil ecosystem function.


Assuntos
Anilidas/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Anilidas/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/análise , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tiazóis/análise
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(1): 116-123, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559683

RESUMO

AIMS: This study investigated the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) at inactivating hazard group 3 bacteria that have been presented dried from their growth medium to present a realistic challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hydrogen peroxide vapour technology (Bioquell) was used to decontaminate a class III microbiological safety cabinet containing biological indicators (BIs) made by drying standard working suspensions of the following agents: Bacillus anthracis (Ames) spores, Brucella abortus (strain S99), Burkholderia pseudomallei (NCTC 12939), Escherichia coli O157 ST11 (NCTC 12079), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37Rv) and Yersinia pestis (strain CO92) on stainless steel coupons. Extended cycles were used to expose the agents for 90 min. The HPV cycle completely inactivated B. anthracis spores, B. abortus, B. pseudomallei, E. coli O157 and Y. pestis when BIs were processed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Whilst M. tuberculosis was not completely inactivated, it was reduced by 4 log10 from a starting concentration of 106 colony-forming units. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that HPV is able to inactivate a range of HG3 agents at high concentrations with associated organic matter, but M. tuberculosis showed increased resistance to the process. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This publication demonstrates that HPV can inactivate HG3 agents that have an organic load associated with them. It also shows that M. tuberculosis has higher resistance to HPV than other agents. This shows that an appropriate BI to represent the agent of interest should be chosen to demonstrate a decontamination is successful.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Gases/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/instrumentação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aço Inoxidável
13.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(Suppl 1): 75, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gasoline is a complex mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, in which aromatic compounds, such as BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) feature as the main constituents. Simultaneous exposure to these aromatic hydrocarbons causes a significant impact on benzene toxicity. In order to detect early alterations caused in gasoline station attendants exposed to BTX compounds, immunological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. METHODS: A total of 66 male subjects participated in this study. The gasoline station attendants (GSA) group consisted of 38 gasoline station attendants from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The non-exposed group consisted of 28 subjects who were non-smokers and who had no history of occupational exposure. Environmental and biological monitoring of BTX exposure was performed using blood and urine. RESULTS: The GSA group showed increased BTX concentrations in relation to the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). The GSA group showed elevated protein carbonyl (PCO) levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of CD80 and CD86 in monocytes, and reduced glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.05). BTX levels and trans,trans-muconic acid levels were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with interleukin-10 contents (p < 0.001). Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were accompanied by increased PCO contents and decreased GST activity (p < 0.001). Furthermore, according to the multiple linear regression analysis, benzene exposure was the only factor that significantly contributed to the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings show the influence of exposure to BTX compounds, especially benzene, on the immunological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress biomarkers evaluated. Furthermore, the data suggest the relationship among the evaluated biomarkers of effect, which could contribute to providing early signs of damage to biomolecules in subjects occupationally exposed to BTX compounds.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/urina , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Citocinas/urina , Biomarcadores Ambientais/imunologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-1/sangue , Antígeno B7-1/urina , Antígeno B7-2/sangue , Antígeno B7-2/urina , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Brasil , Citocinas/sangue , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 217: 105353, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734625

RESUMO

The present work aimed to investigate the effects of acute (12, 24, 48 and 96 h) and subchronic (168 and 336 h) exposure of seahorse, Hippocampus reidi to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel fuel on biotransformation parameters, antioxidant defenses and DNA integrity. In addition, a recovery experiment was performed, where the organisms remained in absence of the contaminant for 336 h, after WAF exposure for 168 h (totaling 504 h). At the end of each experimental protocol, the concentration of pyrene-, benzo(a)pyrene- and naphthalene-type metabolites in bile, hepatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in hepatocytes, were analyzed, in addition to the DNA damage and the micronucleus (MN) test in the peripheral blood. It was observed that both acute and subchronic WAF exposure affected the investigated parameters in different ways. In general, the exposed groups presented higher mean values for the investigated parameters if compared with their respective controls. After the recovery experiment, the mean values of PAH metabolites, LPO, DNA damage and MN frequency were significantly lower than those of animals exposed for 168 h, indicating that the recovery period was appropriately long for the evaluated biomarkers return to the control levels. The results indicated that the selected H. reidi biomarkers proved to be adequate and complementary tools in determining the first impacts of acute and subchronic exposure caused by WAF of diesel fuel in fish, as well as their recovery in clean water.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gasolina/toxicidade , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Smegmamorpha/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
15.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(6): 796-801, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676939

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of copper on the bivalve Perumytilus purpuratus. The individuals were exposed to three copper concentrations: 1, 30 and 45 µg L-1 for 24, 48 and 96 h. Lysosomal membrane stability in hemocytes was determined through the neutral red retention time (NRRT) and micronucleus (MN) frequency tests in hemocytes and gills. The results show that the NRRT decreased significantly at 30 µg L-1 after 48 h of exposure. The frequency of MN was significantly greater in gills after 24 h in all concentrations tested. Copper is cytotoxic from 30 µg L-1 and genotoxic from 1 µg L-1. The use of these biomarkers of effects in P. purpuratus is proposed as an early warning tool for monitoring in environmental assessment of coastal ecosystems impacted by mining activities.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Intracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Mytilidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cobre/análise , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/irrigação sanguínea , Hemócitos/citologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Intracelulares/patologia , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Mytilidae/genética , Vermelho Neutro , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109580, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493585

RESUMO

Ionic Liquids (ILs) are generically regarded as environmentally "harmless" and thus, assumed as "non-toxic". However, due to the endless design possibilities, their ecotoxicological profile is still poorly known. An accurate knowledge on the toxicity of a substance is required, under the scope of environmental regulation worldwide, before their application and commercialization. Knowledge on the relationship between the chemical structure and toxic effects is essential for the future design of more biocompatible solvents. Focusing on the use of ILs as base lubricants, lubricant additives, or even as potential working fluids for absorption heat pumps, the knowledge on its environmental impact is of great importance, due to the possibility of spills. In this specific context, four analogues of glycine-betaine-based ILs (AGB-ILs) and four glycine-betaine based ILs (GB-ILs) were synthesized and characterized. Their ecotoxicity was assessed using representatives of two trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems, the bacteria Allivibrio fischeri (commonly used as a screening test organism) and the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata (as an alternative test organism that has been proven very sensitive to several IL families). The microalgae were more sensitive than the bacteria, hence, following a precautionary principle, we recommend considering the toxicity towards microalgae as an indicator in future studies regarding the focused ILs. Although four of the studied ILs were derived from a natural amino acid, all were considered hazardous for the aquatic environment, disproving the primary theory that all ILs derived from natural compounds are benign. Furthermore, the modification in the structure of anion and the cation can lead to the increase of toxicity.


Assuntos
Betaína/química , Glicina/química , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Ânions/química , Cátions/química , Clorofíceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquidos Iônicos/síntese química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/síntese química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109528, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404724

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF), using L. culinaris apical cells as a biological indicator. L. culinaris seeds were exposed to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 15 mg L-1) and a control solution based on distilled water. Subsequently, root growth was measured during 24, 48 and 72 h. Therefore, the mitotic index (MI) and the number of cellular abnormalities were determined at 72 h. According to the obtained results, a decrease in root size was observed in the concentrations of T5 (8 mg L-1) and T6 (10 mg L-1). On the other hand, it was evidenced that, through all the evaluated concentrations, the inhibition of mitosis in the concentrations of T5 (8 mg L-1), T6 (10 mg L-1) and T7 (15 mg L-1) was greater than 50%. Additionally, a variety of chromosomal abnormalities were reported, such as Micronuclei, sticky chromosomes in anaphase, chromosome disruption, irregular anaphase, nucleus absence, nuclear lesions, chromosomes grouped in metaphase, anaphase bridges, metaphase sticky chromosomes, present in all concentrations evaluated. Consequently, the presence of micronuclei in the concentrations of 8 mg L-1, 10 mg L-1 and 15 mg L-1 indicates that the CPF is a highly cytotoxic substance to L. culinaris. Therefore, L. culinaris is a plant species that offers a feasible experimental model to be implemented in laboratory studies with the purpose to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of pesticides.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Biomarcadores Ambientais/genética , Lens (Planta)/citologia , Lens (Planta)/genética , Índice Mitótico
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426713

RESUMO

Comprehensive bioassessment multiple stressor field studies were conducted in five waterbodies in the Central Valley, San Francisco and Central Coast areas of California between 2006 and 2017. Samples were collected over multiple years in Pleasant Grove Creek (PGC - 8 years), Kirker Creek (KC - 2 years), Arcade Creek (ARC - 3 years), Salinas streams (SAL - 3 years) and the lower Santa Maria River watershed (SM - 3 years). In each watershed, metrics indicative of physical habitat quality and the relative health of benthic communities were collected, along with measurements of various potential toxicants in sediment (metals and pyrethroids), total organic carbon (TOC) and sediment grain size characteristics. For all waterbodies, pyrethroids have been reported at concentrations suspected to be toxic based on single-species laboratory toxicity tests. The data from all of these studies were assembled into a single data base which was analyzed by a series of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. These analyses were designed to examine overall relationships between benthic community health and environmental quality conditions across the watersheds, as well as to address the following two key questions: (1) Which benthic metrics (response indicators) were the most important to relationships with environmental quality conditions and how do these metrics rank from most to least important? and (2) Which environmental variables (stressors) were the most important in terms of relationships to benthic metrics indicative of community health and how do the stressors rank from most to least important? Consensus ranking of 14 benthic metrics showed that stress tolerant (% Tolerant taxa, Tolerance value and Collectors/gatherers) and stress sensitive (EPT taxa and taxa richness) were the most important. The consensus ranking of 38 environmental variables from most to least important showed that habitat metrics, metals and grain size characteristics were most important for shaping benthic communities while pyrethroids were not reported to be an important stressor across the geographic scope of the watersheds.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , California , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(8): 938-948, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402411

RESUMO

The paper reports the results of a laboratory test on the bioaccumulation and toxicological effects of sub-lethal soil concentration of copper, a widely used fungicide in organic farming, on DNA damage, a critical marker increasingly used in ecotoxicology in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. In the same experimental setting we evaluated gene expression of classical biomarker of stress induced by xenobiotic. [Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) and Metallothionein (MET)], as well as genes coding for enzymes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species [Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)]. Additionally, expression of genes involved in the immune response were investigated: a Toll-like receptor (TLR), a receptor with cytolytic activity named Cytolytic Factor (CCF) and two antimicrobial peptides, fetidin (FET) and lysenin (LYS). Results showed significant time-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu and DNA damage at concentrations remarkably lower than those found in most agricultural soils worldwide. MET was increased as was FET and TLR. The present work gives new insights into the mechanisms of sub-lethal toxicity of copper as an environmental pollutant and in the identification of novel sub-lethal biomarkers of cellular response to the stressor such as immune response genes.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais/genética , Oligoquetos/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 30857-30865, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446602

RESUMO

Recently, the residues of some common and widely used herbicides (acetochlor, bispyribac-sodium, bentazon, bensulfuron-methyl, halosulfuron-methyl, and quinclorac) were detected in the surface water, soil, sediments, and fish tissues as the agricultural drainage problems. In this study, juveniles of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these herbicides as 2.625, 0.800, 36.00, 2.50, 1.275, and 11.250 mg/l for acetochlor, bispyribac-sodium, bentazon, bensulfuron-methyl, halosulfuron-methyl, and quinclorac respectively for 96 h. Some hemato-biochemical parameters were evaluated. In comparison with the control group, sub-lethal concentrations of all tested herbicides induced alterations in the shape of erythrocytes. Also, in all tested herbicides, hematological parameters of exposed fish exhibited a significant decrease in red blood cell count except bentazon. However, all tested herbicides showed an insignificant reduction in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and total white blood cells except bensulfuron-methyl. For biochemical parameters, most tested herbicides induced a significant increase in levels of cholesterol, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total plasma protein (only with acetochlor), urea, and creatinine (except bentazon and halosulfuron-methyl that exhibited non-significant decrease in creatinine level) compared with the control. In conclusion, the fish blood profiles can be used as good biomarkers for laboratory study to assess the toxicity of the tested rice herbicides at a sub-acute level especially acetochlor on O. niloticus. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Ecotoxicologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Peixes/sangue , Herbicidas/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem
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