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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204158

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most predominant type of cancer among women. The aim of this study is to find new biomarkers that can help in early detection of BC, especially for those who are too young to be screened using mammography as per guidelines. Using microRNA microarray, we previously showed dysregulation of 74 microRNAs in tumors from early BC patients as compared with normal adjacent tissues, which we were interested in studying in blood circulation. In this study, we investigated the expression of 12 microRNA (miR-21/miR-155/miR-23a/miR-130a/miR-145/miR-425-5p/miR-139-5p/miR-451/miR-195/miR-125b/miR-100, and miR-182) in the plasma of 41 newly diagnosed Lebanese BC patients with early invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with 32 healthy controls. Total RNA was extracted from plasma, and expression levels of miRNA of interest were measured using RT-qPCR followed by statistical analysis; miR-21, miR-155, miR-23a, miR-130a, miR-145, miR-425-5p, and miR-139-5p were significantly upregulated and miR-451 was significantly downregulated, in the plasma of BC patients as compared with healthy controls. The positively correlated miR-23a, miR-21, and miR-130a had a high diagnostic accuracy (86%). Importantly, the combination of miR-145/miR-425-5p/miR-139-5p/miR-130a scored the highest diagnostic accuracy of 95% with AUC = 0.97 (sensitivity 97% and specificity 91%). MicroRNAs are promising non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for early-stage BC with the panel of miR-145/miR-425-5p/miR-139-5p/miR-130a having the highest diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 283, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic values of preoperative tumor markers (TMs) remain elusive in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NACT). This study aimed to assess and establish a novel scoring system incorporating carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) to enhance prognostic accuracy for progression-free survival (PFS) and pathological response (pCR). METHODS: Patients' data were retrospectively analyzed from December 2006 to December 2017 in our center. The cutoff value of TMs was determined using the time-dependent receiver operating test characteristics method. These three TMs were allocated 1 point each for the post neoadjuvant chemotherapy combination of tumor markers (post-NACT CTM) scores. The training group comprised 533 patients, responsible for full analysis, and the validation group comprised 137 patients based on the selection protocol. RESULTS: Of 533 enrolled patients, 138, 233, 117, and 45 patients scored 0, 1, 2, 3 respectively. The 3-year PFS rate Multivariate analysis revealed that post-NACT CTM score was an independent predictor of PFS (0 vs. 1, HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.92-1.96, P = 0.128; 0 vs. 2, HR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.35-3.05, P = 0.001; 0 vs. 3, HR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.83-4.86, P < 0.001). The time-dependent area under curve (AUC) revealed a consistent highest level for post-NACT CTM than other three single TMs. Lower post-NACT CTM score significantly correlated with higher pCR rate based on multivariate logistic regression (2/3 vs. 1, OR: 2.77, 95% CI: 0.90-8.53, P = 0.077; 2/3 vs. 0, OR: 4.33, 95% CI: 1.38-13.61, P = 0.012). A nomogram was formed with both internal and external validation. CONCLUSIONS: The post-NACT CTM score system served as a strong independent predictor for PFS and pCR in LAGC patients who received NACT. Further population-based studies are required to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Gástricas , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4091, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215748

RESUMO

Little is known about the transcriptomic plasticity and adaptive mechanisms of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) during hematogeneous dissemination. Here we interrogate the transcriptome of 113 single CTCs from 4 different vascular sites, including hepatic vein (HV), peripheral artery (PA), peripheral vein (PV) and portal vein (PoV) using single-cell full-length RNA sequencing in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. We reveal that the transcriptional dynamics of CTCs were associated with stress response, cell cycle and immune-evasion signaling during hematogeneous transportation. Besides, we identify chemokine CCL5 as an important mediator for CTC immune evasion. Mechanistically, overexpression of CCL5 in CTCs is transcriptionally regulated by p38-MAX signaling, which recruites regulatory T cells (Tregs) to facilitate immune escape and metastatic seeding of CTCs. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated spatial heterogeneity and an immune-escape mechanism of CTC, which may aid in designing new anti-metastasis therapeutic strategies in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/imunologia , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Prognóstico , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207798

RESUMO

The Serine and Arginine-Rich Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1) has a proto-oncogenic function, being associated with angiogenesis and frequently overexpressed in many human malignant neoplasms. Its immunohistochemical expression has never been investigated in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We evaluated SRSF1 immunoexpression and its possible relation to angiogenesis in a selected cohort of 10 fluoro-edenite(FE)-induced MPM cases. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analyses with an anti-SRSF1 antibody were performed. We interpreted the cases as positive if tumor cell nuclei were stained; a semi-quantitative analysis of the cases was performed by evaluating the intensity of staining and the percentage of tumor positive cells. A microvessel density (MVD) count was also performed. RESULTS: High and low immunoexpressions of SRSF1 were seen in six and four MPMs, respectively. A trend of shorter overall survival was found in FE-induced MPM patients with SRSF1 overexpression. In addition, a significant association between high-MVD and high SRSF1 immunoexpression (p = 0.0476) was found. CONCLUSIONS: SRSF1 appears to be involved in MPM pathogenesis and its immunoexpression may represent a prognostic biomarker capable of identifying subgroups of patients with different prognosis. However, given the preliminary nature of the present study, further investigations on larger series, and additional in vitro studies, are required to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Arginina , Amiantos Anfibólicos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Processamento de RNA , Serina , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199867

RESUMO

NIS is a potent iodide transporter encoded by the SLC5A5 gene. Its expression is reduced in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In this study we analyzed the impact of miR-181a-5p on NIS expression in the context of PTC. We used real-time PCR to analyze the expression of SLC5A5 and miR-181a-5p in 49 PTC/normal tissue pairs. Luciferase assays and mutagenesis were performed to confirm direct binding of miR-181a-5p to the 3'UTR of SLC5A5 and identify the binding site. The impact of modulation of miR-181a-5p using appropriate plasmids on endogenous NIS and radioactive iodine accumulation was verified. We confirmed downregulation of SLC5A5 and concomitant upregulation of miR-181a-5p in PTC. Broadly used algorithms did not predict the binding site of miR-181a-5p in 3'UTR of SLC5A5, but we identified and confirmed the binding site through mutagenesis using luciferase assays. In MCF7 and HEK293-flhNIS cell lines, transfection with mir-181a-expressing plasmid decreased endogenous SLC5A5, whereas silencing of miR-181a-5p increased it. We observed similar tendencies in protein expression and radioactive iodine accumulation. This study shows for the first time that miR-181a-5p directly regulates SLC5A5 expression in the context of PTC and may decrease efficacy of radioiodine treatment. Accordingly, miR-181a-5p may serve as an emerging target to enhance the efficacy of radioactive iodine therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Simportadores/genética , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199928

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive cancer with a high mortality rate, necessitating the development of effective diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for disease management. Aberrantly fucosylated proteins in PC are considered a valuable resource of clinically useful biomarkers. The main objective of the present study was to identify novel plasma glycobiomarkers of PC using the iTRAQ quantitative proteomics approach coupled with Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL)-based glycopeptide enrichment and isotope-coded glycosylation site-specific tagging, with a view to analyzing the glycoproteome profiles of plasma samples from patients with non-metastatic and metastatic PC and gallstones (GS). As a result, 22 glycopeptides with significantly elevated levels in plasma samples of PC were identified. Fucosylated SERPINA1 (fuco-SERPINA1) was selected for further validation in 121 plasma samples (50 GS and 71 PC) using an AAL-based reverse lectin ELISA technique developed in-house. Our analyses revealed significantly higher plasma levels of fuco-SERPINA1 in PC than GS subjects (310.7 ng/mL v.s. 153.6 ng/mL, p = 0.0114). Elevated fuco-SERPINA1 levels were associated with higher TNM stage (p = 0.024) and poorer prognosis for overall survival (log-rank test, p = 0.0083). The increased plasma fuco-SERPINA1 levels support the utility of this protein as a novel prognosticator for PC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Fucose/química , Glicoproteínas/sangue , Lectinas/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Proteoma/metabolismo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Feminino , Fucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Proteoma/análise , Taxa de Sobrevida , alfa 1-Antitripsina/química
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200243

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exerts huge effects on the health burden of the world because of its high mortality and poor prognosis. HCC is often clinically detected late in patients. If HCC could be detected and treated earlier, the survival rate of patients will be greatly improved. Therefore, identifying specific biomarkers is urgent and important for HCC. The liver is also recognized as an immune organ. The occurrence of HCC is related to exacerbation of immune tolerance and/or immunosurveillance escape. The host immune system plays an important role in the recognition and targeting of tumor cells in cancer immunotherapy, as can be seen from the clinical success of immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Thus, there is a pressing medical need to discover immunodiagnostic biomarkers specific to HCC for understanding the pathological mechanisms of HCC, especially for immunotherapy targets. We have reviewed the existing literature to summarize the immunodiagnostic markers of HCC, including autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and exosomes, to provide new insights into HCC and early detection of this deadly cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200284

RESUMO

Aberrant expression of glycosphingolipids is a hallmark of cancer cells and is associated with their malignant properties. Disialylated gangliosides GD2 and GD3 are considered as markers of neuroectoderm origin in tumors, whereas fucosyl-GM1 is expressed in very few normal tissues but overexpressed in a variety of cancers, especially in small cell lung carcinoma. These gangliosides are absent in most normal adult tissues, making them targets of interest in immuno-oncology. Passive and active immunotherapy strategies have been developed, and have shown promising results in clinical trials. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on GD2, GD3, and fucosyl-GM1 expression in health and cancer, their biosynthesis pathways in the Golgi apparatus, and their biological roles. We described how their overexpression can affect intracellular signaling pathways, increasing the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including their metastatic potential and invasiveness. Finally, the different strategies used to target these tumor-associated gangliosides for immunotherapy were discussed, including the use and development of monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, immune system modulators, and immune effector-cell therapy, with a special focus on adoptive cellular therapy with T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Glicoesfingolipídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Glicoesfingolipídeos/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200314

RESUMO

The influence of PVT1 and MALAT1 variants on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility and their impact on PVT1/miRNA-186/epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and MALAT1/miRNA-101/EMT axes in CRC are unknown. We investigated the influence of PVT1 rs13255292 and MALAT1 rs3200401 on the risk of CRC and adenomatous polyps (AP), their impact on the long noncoding RNAs PVT1 and MALAT1 expression and their target miRNA-186, miRNA-101/E-cadherin pathways, along with their potential as early CRC biomarkers. Overall, 280 individuals were recruited: 140 patients with CRC, 40 patients with AP, and 100 healthy volunteers. Genotyping and serum expression profiles were assessed using qPCR. The EMT biomarker, E-cadherin, was measured by ELISA. rs3200401 was associated with increased CRC risk, whereas rs13255292 was protective. Serum PVT1 and MALAT1 were upregulated in CRC and AP patients versus healthy controls, whereas, miRNA-186, miRNA-101 and E-cadherin were downregulated in CRC versus non-CRC groups. MALAT1 showed superior diagnostic potential for CRC and predicted CRC risk among non-CRC groups in the multivariate logistic analysis. PVT1, MALAT1, miRNA-186 and miRNA-101 levels were correlated with E-cadherin, tumor stage, lymph node and distant metastasis. E-cadherin was lost in metastatic vs. non-metastatic CRC. rs3200401CC genotype carriers showed higher E-cadherin levels than CC + CT carriers. rs3200401 was correlated with lymph node status. For the first time, rs13255292 and rs3200401 are potential genetic CRC predisposition markers, with rs3200401 possibly impacting the EMT process. Serum PVT1, MALAT1, miRNA-186 and miRNA-101 are novel non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers that could improve the clinical outcome of CRC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200484

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers in women globally and is the primary cause of cancer mortality in females. BC is highly heterogeneous with various phenotypic expressions. The overexpression of HER2 is responsible for 15-30% of all invasive BC and is strongly associated with malignant behaviours, poor prognosis and decline in overall survival. Molecular imaging offers advantages over conventional imaging modalities, as it provides more sensitive and specific detection of tumours, as these techniques measure the biological and physiological processes at the cellular level to visualise the disease. Early detection and diagnosis of BC is crucial to improving clinical outcomes and prognosis. While HER2-specific antibodies and nanobodies may improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecular imaging, the radioisotope conjugation process may interfere with and may compromise their binding functionalities. Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides capable of targeting biomarkers with remarkable binding specificity and affinity. Aptamers can be functionalised with radioisotopes without compromising target specificity. The attachment of different radioisotopes can determine the aptamer's functionality in the treatment of HER2(+) BC. Several HER2 aptamers and investigations of them have been described and evaluated in this paper. We also provide recommendations for future studies with HER2 aptamers to target HER2(+) BC.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201061

RESUMO

BRAFV600E mutations are found in approximately 10% of colorectal cancer patients and are associated with worse prognosis and poor outcomes with systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to identify novel druggable features of BRAFV600E-mutated colon cancer (CC) cells associated with the response and resistance to BRAFV600E inhibitor vemurafenib. Towards this aim, we carried out global proteomic profiling of BRAFV600E mutant vs. KRAS mutant/BRAF wild-type and double wild-type KRAS/BRAF CC cells followed by bioinformatics analyses. Validation of selected proteomic features was performed by immunohistochemistry and in silico using the TCGA database. We reveal an increased abundance and activity of nucleophosmin (NPM1) in BRAFV600E-mutated CC in vitro, in silico and in tumor tissues from colon adenocarcinoma patients and demonstrate the roles of NPM1 and its interaction partner c-Myc in conveying the resistance to vemurafenib. Pharmacological inhibition of NPM1 effectively restored the sensitivity of vemurafenib-resistant BRAF-mutated CC cells by down-regulating c-Myc expression and activity and consequently suppressing its transcriptional targets RanBP1 and phosphoserine phosphatase that regulate centrosome duplication and serine biosynthesis, respectively. Altogether, findings from this study suggest that the NPM1/c-Myc axis could represent a promising therapeutic target to thwart resistance to vemurafenib in BRAF-mutated CC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Vemurafenib/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Proteoma/análise , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201116

RESUMO

The methylated resveratrol analogue 3'-hydroxy-3,4,5,4'-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-214) has been revealed to exert the anti-cancer activity by a block of the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, apoptosis induction, and metastasis inhibition. These biological events may be involved in crosstalk with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Several cancer therapeutic approaches employ small molecules capable of inhibiting tyrosine kinases (e.g., gefitinib). According to more recent reports, combining gefitinib with chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin, seems to be more effective than monotherapy. The present study aimed to assess the molecular mechanism of the potential anti-proliferative activity of individual and combined treatments with DMU-214 and gefitinib in SCC-25 and CAL-27 human tongue cancer cell lines. We showed for the first time the anti-cancer effects of DMU-214, gefitinib, and their combination in tongue cancer cells triggered via cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway. The anti-proliferative effects of DMU-214 and gefitinib are also suggested to be related to the EGFR and EGFRP (phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor) expression status since we found significantly weaker cytotoxic activity of the compounds tested in SCC-25 cells, which overexpressed EGFR and EGFRP proteins.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Língua/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Gefitinibe/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias da Língua/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Língua/genética , Neoplasias da Língua/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
13.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 115-127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widespread introduction of immunotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to durable responses but still many patients fail and are treated beyond progression. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether readily available blood-based tumor biomarkers allow accurate detection of early non-responsiveness, allowing a timely switch of therapy and cost reduction. METHODS: In a prospective, observational study in patients with NSCLC treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab, five serum tumor markers were measured at baseline and every other week. Six months disease control as determined by RECIST was used as a measure of clinical response. Patients with a disease control <  6 months were deemed non-responsive. For every separate tumor marker a criterion for predicting of non-response was developed. Each marker test was defined as positive (predictive of non-response) if the value of that tumor marker increased at least 50% from the value at baseline and above a marker dependent minimum value to be determined. Also, tests based on combination of multiple markers were designed. Specificity and sensitivity for predicting non-response was calculated and results were validated in an independent cohort. The target specificity of the test for detecting non-response was set at >  95%, in order to allow its safe use for treatment decisions. RESULTS: A total of 376 patients (training cohort: 180, validation cohort: 196) were included in our analysis. Results for the specificity of the single marker tests in the validation set were CEA: 98·3% (95% CI: 90·9-100%), NSE: 96·5% (95% CI: 87·9-99·6%), SCC: 96·5% (95% CI: 88·1-99·6%), Cyfra21·1 : 91.8% (95% CI: 81·9-97·3%), and CA125 : 86·0% (95% CI: 74·2-93·7%). A test based on the combination of Cyfra21.1, CEA and NSE accurately predicted non-response in 32.3% (95% CI 22.6-43.1%) of patients 6 weeks after start of immunotherapy. Survival analysis showed a significant difference between predicted responders (Median PFS: 237 days (95% CI 184-289 days)) and non-responders (Median PFS: 58 days (95% CI 46-70 days)) (p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Serum tumor marker based tests can be used for accurate detection of non-response in NSCLC, thereby allowing early and safe discontinuation of immunotherapy in a significant subset of patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Imunoterapia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 129-140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGFA receptor (KDR) genes confer different inherited abilities in angiogenesis (AG) pathway. We aimed in the present study to evaluate influence of six VEGFA and four KDR SNVs in clinical features and survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-eight DLBCL patients diagnosed between June 2009-September 2014 were enrolled in the study. Patients were homogeneously treated with R-CHOP. Genotypes were identified in genomic DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Patients with VEGFA -634CC and +936CT or TT genotypes were at increased risk of showing grade III / IV toxicities and not achieving complete remission with treatment, and shorter event-free and overall survival were seen in patients with VEGFA -1154GA or AA genotype and VEGFA ATAGCC haplotype. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that inherited abnormalities in AG's gene modulate clinical features and prognosis of DLBCL patients homogeneously treated with R-CHOP.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
15.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(3): 371-381, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238413

RESUMO

Objective To explore the function and mechanism of related genes in the occurrence and development of liver cancer, and the possibility of key genes as potential biomarkers and prognostic indicators for the treatment of liver cancer.Methods We selected 4 datasets(GSE57957, GSE121248, GSE36376 and GSE14520)from the GEO database.With P<0.05 and |log2FC|>1 as the thresholds, we used GEO2R and Venn Diagram Software to filter out the common significant differentially expressed genes(DEGs).Cytoscape 3.6.1 plug-ins CytoHubba and molecular complex detection(MCODE)were used to screen out the hub genes and modules of DEGs.In addition, survival analysis of DEGs was performed by gene expression profiling(GEPIA), and Human Protein Atlas(HPA)were used to examine the protein expression levels of key genes in normal liver tissue and liver cancer tissue.Results There were 45 obviously up-regulated genes and 132 down-regulated genes, and MCODE identified 13 clusters.The cluster 1 and cluster 2 with higher scores included 16 genes and 13 genes, respectively.Among the 32 significant DEGs, IGFALS, HGFAC, CYP3A4, SLC22A1, TAT and CYP2E1 demonstrated significantly higher expression levels in liver tissue than in other organs.The HPA immunohistochemistry(IHC)data showed that the expression levels of IGFALS, CYP3A4, SLC22A1 and CYP2E1 in liver cancer tissue were significantly down-regulated and related to the low overall survival rate of patients.Conclusion The liver tissue-specific genes IGFALS, CYP3A4, SLC22A1 and CYP2E1 are under-expressed in liver cancer and associated with poor prognosis, which may be potential biomarkers and prognostic indicators for liver cancer.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1 , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Prognóstico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
16.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(3): 435-444, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238421

RESUMO

Circular RNA(circRNA)is a novel type of endogenous non-coding RNA.Most circRNAs act as microRNA(miRNA)sponges to regulate the expression of functional genes.In addition,some circRNAs can be translated and interact with RNA-binding proteins to perform biological functions.The expression of circRNAs is prevalent in tissues and body fluids,and their abnormal expression is related to tumor progression.circRNAs are stable even under the treatment of RNase R because of their circular conformation.As circRNAs have construct stability,wide variety,specific regulation of tumor progression and high expression in body fluids,it is potential for circRNAs to serve as candidate diagnostic,prognostic and therapeutic targets.However,the knowledge about circRNAs remains poor.In addition to the not completely resolved functions and generation mechanisms of circRNAs,the annotations of circRNAs are also waiting for expanding.Here,we review the generation mechanisms,biological functions,and application of circRNAs in tumor research,aiming to provide integrated information for the future research.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Circular , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Prognóstico
17.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(3): 475-480, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238426

RESUMO

Breast cancer has become the most common cancer for women in China.Lack of effective therapeutic targets,triple negative breast cancer(TNBC)has poorer prognosis compared with other subtypes of breast cancer.Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes(TILs)are a group of heterogeneous lymphocytes around the tumor,which are believed as immunoreactive products of host immune response to tumor antigens.At present,there have been reports on the predictive effect of TILs on the prognosis of breast cancer,and the available studies focus mainly on TNBC.This article briefly reviews the recent progress of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in immunotherapy of TNBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Biomarcadores Tumorais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207342

RESUMO

The transmembrane glycoprotein mucin 1 (MUC1) is a mucin family member that has different functions in normal and cancer cells. Owing to its structural and biochemical properties, MUC1 can act as a lubricant, moisturizer, and physical barrier in normal cells. However, in cancer cells, MUC1 often undergoes aberrant glycosylation and overexpression. It is involved in cancer invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and apoptosis by virtue of its participation in intracellular signaling processes and the regulation of related biomolecules. This review introduces the biological structure and different roles of MUC1 in normal and cancer cells and the regulatory mechanisms governing these roles. It also evaluates current research progress and the clinical applications of MUC1 in cancer therapy based on its characteristics.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/química , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/terapia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucina-1/química , Mucina-1/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207359

RESUMO

Tumor resection represents the only curative treatment option for patients with biliary tract cancers (BTCs), including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), perihilar and extrahepatic CCA and gallbladder cancer. However, many patients develop early tumor recurrence and are unlikely to benefit from surgery. Therefore, markers to identify ideal surgical candidates are urgently needed. Circulating programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) has recently been associated with different malignancies, including pancreatic cancer which closely resembles BTC in terms of patients' prognosis and tumor biology. Here, we aim at evaluating a potential role of circulating PD-L1 as a novel biomarker for resectable BTC. METHODS: Serum levels of PD-L1 were analyzed by ELISA in 73 BTC patients and 42 healthy controls. RESULTS: Circulating levels of preoperative PD-L1 were significantly lower in patients with BTC compared to controls. Patients with low PD-L1 levels displayed a strong trend towards an impaired prognosis, and circulating PD-L1 was negatively correlated with experimental markers of promalignant tumor characteristics such as CCL1, CCL21, CCL25 and CCL26. For 37 out of 73 patients, postoperative PD-L1 levels were available. Interestingly, after tumor resection, circulating PD-L1 raised to almost normal levels. Notably, patients with further decreasing PD-L1 concentrations after surgery showed a trend towards an impaired postoperative outcome. CONCLUSION: Circulating PD-L1 levels were decreased in patients with resectable BTC. Lack of normalization of PD-L1 levels after surgery might identify patients at high risk for tumor recurrence or adverse outcome.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Colangiocarcinoma/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/cirurgia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208296

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 1-2% of all thyroid malignancies, and it originates from parafollicular "C" cells. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker, mainly for gastrointestinal malignancies. There are references in literature where elevated CEA levels may be the first finding in MTC. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of measuring preoperative and postoperative CEA values in patients with MTC and to define the clinical significance of the correlation between CEA and the origin of C cells. Materials and Methods: The existing and relevant literature was reviewed by searching for articles and specific keywords in the scientific databases of PubMedCentraland Google Scholar (till December 2020). Results: CEA has found its place, especially at the preoperative level, in the diagnostic approach of MTC. Preoperative CEA values >30 ng/mL indicate extra-thyroid disease, while CEA values >100 ng/mL are associated with lymph node involvement and distant metastases. The increase in CEA values preoperatively is associated with larger size of primary tumor, presence of lymph nodes, distant metastases and a poorer prognosis. The clinical significance of CEA values for the surgeon is the optimal planning of surgical treatment. In the recent literature, C cells seem to originate from the endoderm of the primitive anterior gut at the ultimobranchial bodies' level. Conclusions: Although CEA is not a specific biomarker of the disease in MTC, itsmeasurement is useful in assessing the progression of the disease. The embryonic origin of C cells could explain the increased CEA values in MTC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Calcitonina , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia
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