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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 426-436, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596254

RESUMO

Thermal pre-flocculation to enable dispersed air flotation is an economical and ecofriendly technology for harvesting microalgae from water. However, the underlying mechanism and optimal conditions for this method remain unclear. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were harvested using a thermal flotation process. The surface structure and characteristics (morphology, electricity, and hydrophobicity) of the microalgae were analyzed using FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), zeta potential, and a hydrophobic test. Further, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the flotation process. The hydrophobicity of S. obliquus exceeded that of C. vulgaris; as such, under the thermal pre-flocculation, S. obliquus (88.16%) was harvested more efficiently than C. vulgaris (47.16%). Thermal pre-flocculation denatured the lipids, carbohydrate, and proteins of microalgal cell surfaces. This resulted in a decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between the cells and air bubbles. The highest harvesting efficiency was 91.96% at 70 °C, 1,412 rpm, and 13.36 min. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for economic and ecofriendly harvesting of microalgae for biofuels and other bioproducts industries.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Floculação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 122063, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473036

RESUMO

In this study, Trichoderma harzianum LZ117 was obtained during screening of cellulolytic enzyme producers from samples collected in Tibet. T. harzianum LZ117 exhibits dramatically earlier enzyme induction (48 h) and shorter fermentation time (5 days) during cellulase production when compared with the widely studied strain T. reesei QM9414. Strain LZ117 showed 61% of the maximum cellulase activity at 48 h, whereas only 17% of the maximum cellulase activity was detected in QM9414 at the same culture time. Early induction and rapid production of cellulase were also observed in LZ117 when compared with two other T. harzianum strains. Significantly higher glucose yield was obtained using crude enzyme from strain LZ117 from pretreated corn stover and Jerusalem artichoke stalks when compared with that of T. harzianum reference strain K223452. These results indicate that strain LZ117 is a promising cellulase producer for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.


Assuntos
Celulase , Helianthus , Trichoderma , Biomassa , Tibet
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 122058, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488335

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) and pyrolysis are two promising technologies used worldwide for waste biomass treatment. Interests on intensification techniques of AD has been increasing to obtain sufficient and sustainable methane production with stable digester performance. For instance, considerable attention has been devoted to the coupling of AD with biochar, which is produced by biomass thermochemical conversion. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review about recent achievements in enhancing AD efficiency with the utilization of biochar. The key roles of biochar include enhancing and equilibrating hydrolysis, acidogenesis-acetogenesis, and methanogenesis, as well as alleviating inhibitor stress were summarized. Biochar can promote biomethane process mainly by serving as a provision for bioelectrical connections between fermentative bacteria and methanogens, a support for microbial colonies, and a reinforcer for buffer capacity. Through an overview of the early applications, this paper aims to pinpoint the potential mechanism and future explorative directions of biochar enhancing AD performance.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Metano , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Hidrólise
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(9): 1607-1618, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559743

RESUMO

With the rapid development of modern biotechnology, fermentation process is increasingly important in industrial production. To guarantee the stability of products, fermentation process should be elaborately monitored and controlled. Biomass is an important parameter for on-line monitoring in bioprocesses because biomass can reflect cell growth in a bioreactor directly. In-situ microscope, a non-invasive and image-analysis based technology, can real-time monitor cells in biological process. This review summarizes the development and application of in-situ microscopy in biomass monitoring.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Microscopia , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Fermentação
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122016, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473375

RESUMO

Pretreatment is a key step in the energy utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Different types of pretreatments (ultrafine grinding pretreatment, alkaline hydroxide peroxide pretreatment, dilute acid pretreatment, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment) were conducted on corn stover. The lignocellulosic composition, microstructural parameters, and glucose yield of differently pretreated corn stover were characterized and compared. Then qualitative and quantitative correlation analyses of the parameters were carried out to explore the correlations among the composition, microstructure properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis efficacy of corn stover after different types of pretreatments and identify the main properties affecting enzymatic hydrolysis. Qualitative correlation analysis found that cellulose content, specific surface area, pore volume, enzyme-accessible pore volume, and surface area of cellulose had significant positive correlations with glucose yield. The results of quantitative correlation analysis were GY = 15.01 × cellulose content-339.05, GY = 13.06 × SSA + 172.35, GY = 7226.27 × PV + 129.14, GY = 8628.61 × EAPV + 125.61, and GY = 1.18 × SAC-287.21.


Assuntos
Celulose , Zea mays , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Hidrólise
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122047, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473376

RESUMO

In the present study, fly ash was used as an additive for the rapid composting of biomass and kitchen waste with jaggery as an activator. The in-vessel composting experiments were carried out in ten plastic vessels of 15 L capacity containing varying amounts of fly ash, biomass waste, and kitchen waste. The effect of fly ash on the microbial and enzymatic activity of the composting system was also ascertained. The compost in Vessel No. 10 having a combination of 50% biomass waste, 30% kitchen waste, and 20% fly ash seemed to have a significant effect on the compost quality. Statistical analysis revealed Vessel No. 10 as significantly separated from other vessels whereas microbial activity (342.67 CFU 108/g), pH (8.15), temperature (48.50 °C), and heavy metals, such as Ni (0.1239 mg kg-1), Ba (0.6109 mg kg-1), Cd (0.0004 mg kg-1) were the most influential variables for the separation.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Biomassa , Cinza de Carvão , Solo
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 121998, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473377

RESUMO

In this study, the indigenous native microalgae were isolated from domestic and dairy effluent (DE) and further screened for DE treatment and lipid accumulation. All the isolated microalgae were examined for their growth adaptability in DE. The growth parameters of 15 isolates were determined and the following six isolates further selected for comprehensive analysis and identified as Desmodesmus sp. ASK01, Chlorella sp. ASK14, Scenedesmus sp. ASK16, Scenedesmus sp. ASK22, Chlorella sp. ASK25 and Chlorella sp. ASK27. The nutrient remediation capacity of six isolates as well as its lipid accumulation potential and biomass composition were determined. The Scenedesmus sp. ASK22 showed the best combined results and promising strain for the DE treatment and biofuel production. Biomass composition of Scenedesmus sp. ASK22 showed an oil accumulation of 30.7% (w/w) and biomass yield 1.22 g L-1. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mainly composed of C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:3.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122029, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473378

RESUMO

Nanosecond pulsed electric field treatment (nsPEF) is an innovative, technology-driven, and resource-efficient approach to foster the upstream performance of microalgae-based biorefinery concepts to transform microalgae into economic more viable raw materials for the biobased industry. A processing window applying three treatments of 100 ns, 5 Hz, and 10 kV cm-1 to industrially relevant phototrophic Chlorella vulgaris in the early exponential growth phase significantly increased biomass yields by up to 17.53 ±â€¯10.46% (p = 3.18 × 10-5). Treatments had limited effects on the carbon and pigment contents, but the protein content was decreased. The longest possible pulse width (100 ns) resulted in the highest biomass yield indicating underlying working mechanisms of enhanced cell proliferation based on intracellular and plasma membrane-related effects. The applicability to eukaryotes and prokaryotes, such as C. vulgaris and cyanobacteria highlights the possible impacts of nsPEF across multiple domains of the biobased industry relying on single-cell-based value-chains.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biomassa , Proliferação de Células , Eletricidade
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122018, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476561

RESUMO

This study aimed to use floating photobioreactor (PBR) to produce microalgae biomass for aquaculture applications, and this was tested with cultivation of Isochrysis zhangjiangensis. The highest cell density of 16.1 ±â€¯0.61 × 106 cell L-1 was obtained in an outdoor culture with a depth of 5.0 cm in 1.0 m2 floating PBR, but deeper culture resulted in higher biomass productivity. Large-scale cultivation at size of 10 m2 (1000 L) produced the highest cell density of 17.8 × 106 cell L-1 and highest biomass productivity of 0.115 g L-1 d-1, which was at the same level as that for flat-panel PBR (100 L). This developed technique provides an innovative approach to produce microalgae on site for use as fresh aquaculture feed, as well as fresh cells for use as seed inoculums for large-area aquaculture water bodies. This approach provides not only a low-cost microalgae production system but also better integration between microalgae production and aquaculture.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Microalgas , Aquicultura , Biomassa , Fotobiorreatores
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 121929, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476565

RESUMO

In the present study, was investigated an environmentally friendly method for pretreating lignocellulosic rice straw (RS) by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) as an ionic liquid (IL) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([Bmim]HSO4) as an acidic-IL (Acidic-IL) under microwave irradiation (microwave-[Bmim]Cl and microwave-[Bmim]HSO4). The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into simple sugars requires both efficient pretreatment and hydrolysis enzymes to produce biofuels and specialty chemicals. Therefore, the applied [Bmim]Cl, [Bmim]HSO4, microwave-[Bmim]Cl, and microwave-[Bmim]HSO4 to improve hydrolysis yields. Structural analyses of the pretreated solids were performed to understand the synergistic effects of [Bmim]Cl, and [Bmim]HSO4 pretreatment under microwave irradiation (microwave-[Bmim]Cl and microwave-[Bmim]HSO4) on the efficiencies of enzymatic hydrolyses. The results of a chemical composition analysis of untreated and all pretreated RS samples by using the difference pretreatment methods showed that significant lignin removal was achieved using microwave-[Bmim]Cl (57.02 ±â€¯1.24%), followed by [Bmim]Cl only (41.01 ±â€¯2.67%), microwave-[Bmim]HSO4 (20.77 ±â€¯1.79%), and [Bmim]HSO4-only (16.88 ±â€¯1.14%). The highest glucan yield and xylan conversion achieved through the enzymatic saccharification of microwave-[Bmim]Cl-regenerated cellulose was consistent with the observations obtained from a structural analysis, which indicated a more disrupted, amorphous structure, with lowered crystallinity index (CrI) and lateral order index (LOI) of cellulose polymers. Thus results demonstrated that the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with [Bmim]Cl under microwave irradiation has potential as an alternative method for pretreating lignocellulosic materials.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Oryza , Biomassa , Hidrólise , Lignina , Micro-Ondas
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122076, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479853

RESUMO

This work comparatively studied the catalytic effect of MgO and MgCO3 on pyrolysis of rice husk (RH). The apparent activation energy (E) was reduced significantly by pyrolysis of RH with MgCO3, thus lowering the decomposition temperature during pyrolysis. MgO could not obviously influence the gas evolution during pyrolysis, while MgCO3 had a better performance on the syngas (H2 and CO) generation at around 600-700 °C. Also, the generation of CO2 was suppressed by the RH pyrolysis with MgCO3. The phenols were the dominant compounds in the bio-oil derived from RH. Furthermore, co-pyrolysis of RH and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the presence of MgO or MgCO3 at 600 °C could improve the oils quality by decreasing the acids content and increasing the hydrocarbons content. Particularly, the resulting oils had high hydrocarbons content (>35%) and low acids content (<2%). The decrease of acids, alcohols, and phenols contributed to the increase of hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Óxido de Magnésio , Pirólise , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Plásticos
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122036, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479857

RESUMO

To improve the neutral DES (choline chloride/glycerol) pretreatment performance, three environmentally friendly heteropoly acids (phosphotungstic, phosphomolybdic and silicotungstic acids) were used as catalysts. Pretreatment with silicotungstic acid at 120 °C for 3 h resulted in 97.3% of enzymatic digestibility at an enzyme loading of 15FPU/g substrate, which was approximately eight times more than that of raw samples. More importantly, 80% of glucose yield was obtained within 12 h. Simultaneously, 81.8% of ethanol yield was achieved in the SSSF process. The efficient conversion was ascribed to the significant delignification (89.5%), which resulted in the exposure of more accessible specific surface area. This was attributed to that the proton (H+) from heteropoly acids could significantly contribute to the lignin degradation. Intriguingly, trace acetic acid (0.39 g/L) and HMF (0.21-0.95 g/L) in the pretreatment liquor were produced without any significant deleterious effects. These discoveries provide new insights for efficient biomass conversion under mild conditions.


Assuntos
Etanol , Lignina , Biomassa , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Solventes
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122049, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484103

RESUMO

This work was the first time to establish a green pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) process to extract microalgal lipids from Isochrysis biomass. PLE with ethanol exhibited superior lipid extraction performance in comparison to Soxhlet and Folch methods and PLE with n-hexane. To reduce the cost in ethanol utilization, ethanol concentration was optimized and found that PLE with 90% ethanol concentration obtained the highest lipid extraction efficiency (41.5 wt%) and total fatty acids (TFAs) recovery value (92.17 wt%) using Isochrysis sp. biomass. Results about lipid class detected by TLC-FID technique showed that ethanol concentration distinctly affected the content of lipidic class during lipid extraction by PLE. Similarly, the process with 90% ethanol concentration achieved over 90 wt% of TFAs recovery values with three different Isochrysis species. Overall, PLE process mediated with ethanol was a promising approach to extract Isochrysis-derived lipids from sustainable microalgal biomass for food application.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Microalgas , Biomassa , Etanol , Lipídeos
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122057, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491653

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of culture salinity (4-6% NaCl) on the harvesting of two microalgal strains (i.e., Picochlorum sp., and Tetraselmis sp.) was investigated using pilot-scale TFF membranes. The cultures of these two strains were collected from their respective continuous cultivation in 2, 25,000 L raceway ponds. For both strains, an increase in culture salinity aggravated the membrane fouling and hence negatively influenced the permeate flux rate, biomass concentrating factor, and energy requirement in biomass harvesting. For the TFF membranes, an increase in 1% NaCl salinity, the volume of processed permeate reduced by 30-44 %, the energy consumption per unit volume of permeate increased by 3-63%, and the biomass concentrating factor reduced by 47-61%.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Microalgas , Biomassa , Tanques , Salinidade
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122087, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493729

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of torrefaction on the gasification reactivity of chars from raw and torrefied biomass was investigated. Three torrefaction temperatures and four pyrolysis temperatures were taken into consideration. It was found that the severe torrefaction (300 °C) would reduce the char gasification reactivity by at least 19% according to the normalized gasification rate. Moreover, the reduction of gasification reactivity appeared after the midterm stage. The gasification reaction were further analyzed by nucleation/growth model and model-free method. The activation energy increased by ~80 kJ/mol with conversion, indicating an enhancement of the reaction resistance. Furthermore, 800 °C pyrolysis was found to be a turning point, beyond which the gasification reactivity reduced significantly. These reactivity changes were implied by the bio-char structure evolution and active alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) contents variations. The research results provide insights into the effect of torrefaction on biomass gasification.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Biomassa , Cinética , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122013, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494434

RESUMO

Here, we show the utility of a cyanobacterial biomass for overproduction and easy downstream processing of the thermostable protein KatB (a Mn-catalase). The nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga, Anabaena, was bioengineered to overexpress the KatB protein (An-KatB). Interestingly, pure An-KatB could be isolated from Anabaena by a simple physical process, obviating the need of expensive resins or chromatographic steps. An-KatB was an efficient H2O2-detoxifying protein that retained all the properties of Mn-catalases. Surprisingly, the purified An-KatB showed improved characteristics than the corresponding KatB (Ec-KatB) protein purified after over-expression in E. coli. An-KatB was unaffected by exposure to high temperature (85 °C), whereas a commercially procured heme-catalase showed an appreciable drop in activity beyond 50 °C. These data convincingly demonstrate the utility of Anabaena as a competent microbial bioresource for overproduction of proteins and further highlight the advantage of An-KatB over heme-catalases in bioprocesses where H2O2 is to be decomposed at elevated temperatures.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Escherichia coli , Biomassa , Catalase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122105, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514116

RESUMO

This work aimed to develop a green protocol for chemical processing of spent aromatic biomass to obtain xylose, levulinic acid, and lignin in good yields via treatment with p-cymene-2-sulphonic acid (p-CSA), a Brønsted acid synthesised from d-limonene as a renewable feedstock from citrus waste. Chemical processing of palmarosa biomass with p-CSA under heating in an autoclave resulted in hydrolysate containing xylose (~16% yield). Further processing of pre-treated biomass with p-CSA in presence of aq. HCl under refluxing caused a selective degradation of cellulose to levulinic acid (~22% yield with respect to biomass). The residual biomass was used to afford lignin in good yields.


Assuntos
Citrus , Lignina , Biomassa , Ácidos Levulínicos , Limoneno , Xilose
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122091, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514119

RESUMO

Five types of lignocellulosic materials were applied as the bio-carriers for low-cost algal biofilm cultivation of three algal strains. The effects of bio-carrier physicochemical properties and toxicity on algal cells growth and attachment were investigated. Rougher and hydrophilic bio-carrier could yield more algal biomass than smoother and hydrophobic bio-carrier. Pine sawdust (diameter: 0.420-0.595 mm) performed the best when cultured Diplosphaera sp. (9.61 g·m-2·day-1) biofilm. Meanwhile, bio-carriers could be leached by the culture medium during cultivation, and their energy conversion proprieties could be improved due to the reduced ash contents and the decreased crystallinities. In addition, Chlorella vulgaris growth tests indicated that pine sawdust (15.45%) leachate promoted cell growth, whereas rick husk (15.48%) and sugarcane bagasse (13.19%) leachate inhibited cell growth. And bio-carriers leachates also modified the chemical compositions (lipid, protein and carbohydrate) of algal cells and increased the corresponding saturated fatty acids methyl ester content (from 48.71 to 55.58-57.08%).


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Biofilmes , Biomassa , Lignina
19.
Chem Rec ; 19(9): 2044-2057, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483089

RESUMO

This review covers the characteristics of pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis bio-oils by focusing on the fundamental factors that determine bio-oil upgradability. The abundant works on the subject of bio-oil production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied to establish the essential attributes of the bio-oils for assessment of the oil stability and upgradability. Bio-oils from catalytic pyrolysis processes relating to catalysts of different compositions and structures are discussed. A general relationship between the higher heating value and the oxygen content in the catalytic pyrolysis oils exists, but this relationship does not apply to the thermal pyrolysis oil. Reporting bio-oil yield is meaningful only when the oxygen content of the oil is measured because the pyrolytic oil stability is mainly determined by the oxygen content. Isoenergy plot that associates bio-oil yield with oxygen content is presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lignina/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Catálise , Oxigênio/química , Plantas/química , Pirólise
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2973-2982, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529872

RESUMO

Ant nesting can modify soil physicochemical conditions in the tropical forest, exerting a crucial effect on spatiotemporal variation in soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient. In this study, the chloroform fumigation method was used to measure the spatiotemporal dynamics of microbial biomass carbon and quotient in ant nests and the reference soils in Syzygium oblatum community of tropical Xishuangbanna. The results were as following: 1) Microbial biomass carbon and quotient were significantly higher in ant nests (1.95 g·kg-1, 6.8%) than in the reference soils (1.76 g·kg-1, 5.1%). The microbial biomass carbon in ant nests and the reference soils showed a signifi-cantly unimodal temporal variation, whereas the temporal dynamics of microbial biomass quotient presented a distribution pattern of "V" type. 2) The microbial biomass carbon and quotient showed significant vertical changes in ant nests and the reference soils. The microbial biomass carbon decreased, and microbial biomass quotient increased significantly along the soil layers. The vertical variations in microbial biomass carbon and quotient were more significant in ant nests than in refe-rence soils. 3) Ant nesting significantly changed the spatiotemporal distributions of soil water and temperature in ant nests, which in turn affected spatiotemporal dynamics of soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient. Soil water content could explain 66%-83% and 54%-69% of the variation of soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient, respectively. Soil temperature could explain 71%-86% and 67%-76% of the variation of soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient in ant nests and the reference soils, respectively. 4) Changes in soil physicochemical properties induced by ant nesting had significant effect on the soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient. There were positive correlations of soil microbial biomass carbon to soil organic carbon, soil temperature, total nitrogen and soil water content, and to bulk density, nitrate nitrogen and hydrolyzed nitrogen; whereas a negative correlation of them was observed with soil pH. Soil pH was positively and other soil physicochemical properties were negatively correlated with microbial biomass quotient. Total organic carbon, total nitrogen and soil temperature had greater contribution to microbial biomass carbon, while total organic carbon and total nitrogen had the least negative effect on microbial biomass quotient. Therefore, ant nesting could modify microhabitats (e.g., soil water and soil temperature) and soil physicochemical properties (e.g., total organic carbon and total nitrogen), thereby regulating the spatiotemporal variation in soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient in tropical forests.


Assuntos
Formigas , Florestas , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Animais , Biomassa , Carbono , China , Nitrogênio
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