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1.
Gene ; 745: 144640, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247037

RESUMO

Codon usage bias is an important genomic phenomenon, where highly expressed genes use optimal codons for smoother translation with high yield, facilitated by the cognate tRNAs. Here, we presented the tRNA co-adaptation index (co-AI) by correlating tRNA gene copy number and codon composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that this co-AI is positively correlated with protein abundance and translation rate. Considering nucleotide substitutions, co-AI influences synonymous substitutions more than gene expression and protein abundance, the most important determinants of evolutionary rate. Co-AI correlates positively with mRNA secondary structure stability and mRNA half-life, which may lead to protein accumulation under high co-AI. However, the highly expressed proteins encoded by high co-AI genes are assisted by molecular chaperones to attain their proper functional conformation and prevent accumulation.


Assuntos
Dosagem de Genes , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Mutação Silenciosa , Uso do Códon , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
2.
Science ; 367(6482): 1140-1146, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139545

RESUMO

Ribosome profiling has revealed pervasive but largely uncharacterized translation outside of canonical coding sequences (CDSs). In this work, we exploit a systematic CRISPR-based screening strategy to identify hundreds of noncanonical CDSs that are essential for cellular growth and whose disruption elicits specific, robust transcriptomic and phenotypic changes in human cells. Functional characterization of the encoded microproteins reveals distinct cellular localizations, specific protein binding partners, and hundreds of microproteins that are presented by the human leukocyte antigen system. We find multiple microproteins encoded in upstream open reading frames, which form stable complexes with the main, canonical protein encoded on the same messenger RNA, thereby revealing the use of functional bicistronic operons in mammals. Together, our results point to a family of functional human microproteins that play critical and diverse cellular roles.


Assuntos
Fases de Leitura Aberta , Peptídeos/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Humanos , Óperon , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
3.
Nature ; 579(7798): 291-296, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103174

RESUMO

The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which comprises the KU heterodimer and a catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), is a classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ) factor1. KU binds to DNA ends, initiates cNHEJ, and recruits and activates DNA-PKcs. KU also binds to RNA, but the relevance of this interaction in mammals is unclear. Here we use mouse models to show that DNA-PK has an unexpected role in the biogenesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and in haematopoiesis. The expression of kinase-dead DNA-PKcs abrogates cNHEJ2. However, most mice that both expressed kinase-dead DNA-PKcs and lacked the tumour suppressor TP53 developed myeloid disease, whereas all other previously characterized mice deficient in both cNHEJ and TP53 expression succumbed to pro-B cell lymphoma3. DNA-PK autophosphorylates DNA-PKcs, which is its best characterized substrate. Blocking the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at the T2609 cluster, but not the S2056 cluster, led to KU-dependent defects in 18S rRNA processing, compromised global protein synthesis in haematopoietic cells and caused bone marrow failure in mice. KU drives the assembly of DNA-PKcs on a wide range of cellular RNAs, including the U3 small nucleolar RNA, which is essential for processing of 18S rRNA4. U3 activates purified DNA-PK and triggers phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at T2609. DNA-PK, but not other cNHEJ factors, resides in nucleoli in an rRNA-dependent manner and is co-purified with the small subunit processome. Together our data show that DNA-PK has RNA-dependent, cNHEJ-independent functions during ribosome biogenesis that require the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs and its phosphorylation at the T2609 cluster.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Hematopoese/genética , Autoantígeno Ku/metabolismo , Linfoma/enzimologia , Linfoma/fisiopatologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Domínio Catalítico/fisiologia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Ativação Enzimática/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Linfoma/genética , Modelos Animais , Mutação , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/metabolismo
4.
Nat Protoc ; 15(4): 1371-1398, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076351

RESUMO

mRNA translation is a key step in gene expression. Proper regulation of translation efficiency ensures correct protein expression levels in the cell, which is essential to cell function. Different methods used to study translational control in the cell rely on population-based assays that do not provide information about translational heterogeneity between cells or between mRNAs of the same gene within a cell, and generally provide only a snapshot of translation. To study translational heterogeneity and measure translation dynamics, we have developed microscopy-based methods that enable visualization of translation of single mRNAs in live cells. These methods consist of a set of genetic tools, an imaging-based approach and sophisticated computational tools. Using the translation imaging method, one can investigate many new aspects of translation in single living cells, such as translation start-site selection, 3'-UTR (untranslated region) translation and translation-coupled mRNA decay. Here, we describe in detail how to perform such experiments, including reporter design, cell line generation, image acquisition and analysis. This protocol also provides a detailed description of the image analysis pipeline and computational modeling that will enable non-experts to correctly interpret fluorescence measurements. The protocol takes 2-4 d to complete (after cell lines expressing all required transgenes have been generated).


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(1): e1007625, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004313

RESUMO

Ribosome profiling, an application of nucleic acid sequencing for monitoring ribosome activity, has revolutionized our understanding of protein translation dynamics. This technique has been available for a decade, yet the current state and standardization of publicly available computational tools for these data is bleak. We introduce XPRESSyourself, an analytical toolkit that eliminates barriers and bottlenecks associated with this specialized data type by filling gaps in the computational toolset for both experts and non-experts of ribosome profiling. XPRESSyourself automates and standardizes analysis procedures, decreasing time-to-discovery and increasing reproducibility. This toolkit acts as a reference implementation of current best practices in ribosome profiling analysis. We demonstrate this toolkit's performance on publicly available ribosome profiling data by rapidly identifying hypothetical mechanisms related to neurodegenerative phenotypes and neuroprotective mechanisms of the small-molecule ISRIB during acute cellular stress. XPRESSyourself brings robust, rapid analysis of ribosome-profiling data to a broad and ever-expanding audience and will lead to more reproducible and accessible measurements of translation regulation. XPRESSyourself software is perpetually open-source under the GPL-3.0 license and is hosted at https://github.com/XPRESSyourself, where users can access additional documentation and report software issues.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , RNA/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Software , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células HEK293 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Internet , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(6): 2924-2941, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996893

RESUMO

WDR5 is a highly-conserved nuclear protein that performs multiple scaffolding functions in the context of chromatin. WDR5 is also a promising target for pharmacological inhibition in cancer, with small molecule inhibitors of an arginine-binding pocket of WDR5 (the 'WIN' site) showing efficacy against a range of cancer cell lines in vitro. Efforts to understand WDR5, or establish the mechanism of action of WIN site inhibitors, however, are stymied by its many functions in the nucleus, and a lack of knowledge of the conserved gene networks-if any-that are under its control. Here, we have performed comparative genomic analyses to identify the conserved sites of WDR5 binding to chromatin, and the conserved genes regulated by WDR5, across a diverse panel of cancer cell lines. We show that a specific cohort of protein synthesis genes (PSGs) are invariantly bound by WDR5, demonstrate that the WIN site anchors WDR5 to chromatin at these sites, and establish that PSGs are bona fide, acute, and persistent targets of WIN site blockade. Together, these data reveal that WDR5 plays a predominant transcriptional role in biomass accumulation and provide further evidence that WIN site inhibitors act to repress gene networks linked to protein synthesis homeostasis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Transcrição Genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(4): 1607-1626, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984425

RESUMO

7-Methylguanosine 5' cap on mRNA is necessary for efficient protein expression in vitro and in vivo. Recent studies revealed structural diversity of endogenous mRNA caps, which carry different 5'-terminal nucleotides and additional methylations (2'-O-methylation and m6A). Currently available 5'-capping methods do not address this diversity. We report trinucleotide 5' cap analogs (m7GpppN(m)pG), which are utilized by RNA polymerase T7 to initiate transcription from templates carrying Φ6.5 promoter and enable production of mRNAs differing in the identity of the first transcribed nucleotide (N = A, m6A, G, C, U) and its methylation status (±2'-O-methylation). HPLC-purified mRNAs carrying these 5' caps were used to study protein expression in three mammalian cell lines (3T3-L1, HeLa and JAWS II). The highest expression was observed for mRNAs carrying 5'-terminal A/Am and m6Am, whereas the lowest was observed for G and Gm. The mRNAs carrying 2'-O-methyl at the first transcribed nucleotide (cap 1) had significantly higher expression than unmethylated counterparts (cap 0) only in JAWS II dendritic cells. Further experiments indicated that the mRNA expression characteristic does not correlate with affinity for translation initiation factor 4E or in vitro susceptibility to decapping, but instead depends on mRNA purity and the immune state of the cells.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Capuzes de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/isolamento & purificação , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metilação , Nucleotídeos/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
8.
Nat Protoc ; 15(2): 338-363, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915386

RESUMO

Gene expression is regulated by multiple processes, and the translation of mRNAs into proteins is an especially critical step. Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are widespread cis-elements in eukaryotic genes that usually suppress the translation of downstream primary ORFs (pORFs). Here, we describe a protocol for fine-tuning gene translation in plants by editing endogenous uORFs with the CRISPR-Cas9 system. The method we present readily yields transgene-free uorf mutant offspring. We provide detailed protocols for predicting uORFs and testing their effects on downstream pORFs using a dual-luciferase reporter system, designing and constructing single guide RNA (sgRNA)-Cas9 vectors, identifying transgene-free uorf mutants, and finally comparing the mRNA, protein and phenotypic levels of target genes in uorf mutants and controls. Predicting uORFs and confirming their effects in protoplasts takes only 2-3 weeks, and transgene-free mutants with edited target uORFs controlling different levels of pORF translation can be obtained within 4 months. Unlike previous methods, our strategy achieves fine-tuning of gene translation in transgene-free derivatives, which accelerates the analysis of gene function and the improvement of crop traits.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Plantas/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Transcrição Genética
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0217255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931516

RESUMO

Natural competence allows bacteria to respond to environmental and nutritional cues by taking up free DNA from their surroundings, thus gaining both nutrients and genetic information. In the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, the genes needed for DNA uptake are induced by the CRP and Sxy transcription factors in response to lack of preferred carbon sources and nucleotide precursors. Here we show that one of these genes, HI0659, encodes the antitoxin of a competence-regulated toxin-antitoxin operon ('toxTA'), likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer from a Streptococcus species. Deletion of the putative toxin (HI0660) restores uptake to the antitoxin mutant. The full toxTA operon was present in only 17 of the 181 strains we examined; complete deletion was seen in 22 strains and deletions removing parts of the toxin gene in 142 others. In addition to the expected Sxy- and CRP-dependent-competence promoter, HI0659/660 transcript analysis using RNA-seq identified an internal antitoxin-repressed promoter whose transcription starts within toxT and will yield nonfunctional protein. We propose that the most likely effect of unopposed toxin expression is non-specific cleavage of mRNAs and arrest or death of competent cells in the culture. Although the high frequency of toxT and toxTA deletions suggests that this competence-regulated toxin-antitoxin system may be mildly deleterious, it could also facilitate downregulation of protein synthesis and recycling of nucleotides under starvation conditions. Although our analyses were focused on the effects of toxTA, the RNA-seq dataset will be a useful resource for further investigations into competence regulation.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Streptococcus/genética , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Antitoxinas/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal/genética , Óperon/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA-Seq , Transativadores/genética , Transformação Bacteriana/genética
10.
N Biotechnol ; 54: 28-33, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425885

RESUMO

Stable cell lines can continuously produce a recombinant protein without the need to repeatedly engineer the genome. In a previous study HIPK1, Homeodomain-interacting Protein Kinase 1, was found to be a target of the microRNA miR-22 that, when repressed, improved expression of both an intracellular and a secreted protein. In this report, HEK293 cells stably over-expressing miR-22 were compared with HEK293 with knockout of HIPK1, executed by CRISPR/Cas9, for their ability to improve recombinant protein expression. In this model case of luciferase, over-expression of miR-22 improved overall activity 2.4-fold while the HIPK1 knockout improved overall activity 4.7-fold.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(4): 1954-1968, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863578

RESUMO

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most ribosomal proteins are synthesized from duplicated genes, increasing the potential for ribosome heterogeneity. However, the contribution of these duplicated genes to ribosome production and the mechanism determining their relative expression remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that in most cases, one of the two gene copies generate the bulk of the active ribosomes under normal growth conditions, while the other copy is favored only under stress. To understand the origin of these differences in paralog expression and their contribution to ribosome heterogeneity we used RNA polymerase II ChIP-Seq, RNA-seq, polyribosome association and peptide-based mass-spectrometry to compare their transcription potential, splicing, mRNA abundance, translation potential, protein abundance and incorporation into ribosomes. In normal conditions a post-transcriptional expression hierarchy of the duplicated ribosomal protein genes is the product of the efficient splicing, high stability and efficient translation of the major paralog mRNA. Exposure of the cell to stress modifies the expression ratio of the paralogs by repressing the expression of the major paralog and thus increasing the number of ribosomes carrying the minor paralog. Together the data indicate that duplicated ribosomal protein genes underlie a modular network permitting the modification of ribosome composition in response to changing growth conditions.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Polirribossomos/genética , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(4): 1969-1984, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863585

RESUMO

One of the key roles of the 12-subunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is to promote the formation of the 43S and 48S pre-initiation complexes (PICs). However, particular contributions of its individual subunits to these two critical initiation reactions remained obscure. Here, we adapted formaldehyde gradient cross-linking protocol to translation studies and investigated the efficiency of the 43S and 48S PIC assembly in knockdowns of individual subunits of human eIF3 known to produce various partial subcomplexes. We revealed that eIF3d constitutes an important intermolecular bridge between eIF3 and the 40S subunit as its elimination from the eIF3 holocomplex severely compromised the 43S PIC assembly. Similarly, subunits eIF3a, c and e were found to represent an important binding force driving eIF3 binding to the 40S subunit. In addition, we demonstrated that eIF3c, and eIF3k and l subunits alter the efficiency of mRNA recruitment to 43S PICs in an opposite manner. Whereas the eIF3c knockdown reduces it, downregulation of eIF3k or eIF3l increases mRNA recruitment, suggesting that the latter subunits possess a regulatory potential. Altogether this study provides new insights into the role of human eIF3 in the initial assembly steps of the translational machinery.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/genética
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(4): 1985-1999, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875230

RESUMO

A number of regulatory nascent peptides have been shown to regulate gene expression by causing programmed ribosome stalling during translation. Nascent peptide emerges from the ribosome through the exit tunnel, and one-third of the way along which ß-loop structures of ribosomal proteins uL4 and uL22 protrude into the tunnel to form the constriction region. Structural studies have shown interactions between nascent peptides and the exit tunnel components including the constriction region. In eukaryotes, however, there is a lack of genetic studies for the involvement of the constriction region in ribosome stalling. Here, we established transgenic Arabidopsis lines that carry mutations in the ß-loop structure of uL4. Translation analyses using a cell-free translation system derived from the transgenic Arabidopsis carrying the mutant ribosome showed that the uL4 mutations reduced the ribosome stalling of four eukaryotic stalling systems, including those for which stalled structures have been solved. Our data, which showed differential effects of the uL4 mutations depending on the stalling systems, explained the spatial allocations of the nascent peptides at the constriction that were deduced by structural studies. Conversely, our data may predict allocation of the nascent peptide at the constriction of stalling systems for which structural studies are not done.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Ribossomos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Sistema Livre de Células , Células Eucarióticas/química , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Genética Reversa , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Ribossomos/química
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1203: 149-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811634

RESUMO

Most eukaryotic mRNAs maintain a 5' cap structure and 3' poly(A) tail, cis-acting elements that are often separated by thousands of nucleotides. Nevertheless, multiple paradigms exist where mRNA 5' and 3' termini interact with each other in order to regulate mRNA translation and turnover. mRNAs recruit translation initiation factors to their termini, which in turn physically interact with each other. This physical bridging of the mRNA termini is known as the "closed loop" model, with years of genetic and biochemical evidence supporting the functional synergy between the 5' cap and 3' poly(A) tail to enhance mRNA translation initiation. However, a number of examples exist of "non-canonical" 5'-3' communication for cellular and viral RNAs that lack 5' cap structures and/or poly(A) tails. Moreover, in several contexts, mRNA 5'-3' communication can function to repress translation. Overall, we detail how various mRNA 5'-3' interactions play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation, wherein depending on the protein factors involved can result in translational stimulation or repression.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro , Células Eucarióticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo
15.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(6): 883-898, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876270

RESUMO

In the cell, protein folding begins during protein synthesis/translation and thus is a co-translational process. Co-translational protein folding is tightly linked to translation elongation, which is not a uniform process. While there are many reasons for translation non-uniformity, it is generally believed that non-uniform synonymous codon usage is one of the key factors modulating translation elongation rates. Frequent/optimal codons as a rule are translated more rapidly than infrequently used ones and vice versa. Over 30 years ago, it was hypothesized that changes in synonymous codon usage affecting translation elongation rates could impinge on co-translation protein folding and that many synonymous codons are strategically placed within mRNA to ensure a particular translation kinetics facilitating productive step-by-step co-translational folding of proteins. It was suggested that this particular translation kinetics (and, specifically, translation pause sites) may define the window of opportunity for the protein parts to fold locally, particularly at the critical points where folding is far from equilibrium. It was thus hypothesized that synonymous codons may provide a secondary code for protein folding in the cell. Although, mostly accepted now, this hypothesis appeared to be difficult to prove and many convincing results were obtained only relatively recently. Here, I review the progress in the field and explain, why this simple idea appeared to be so challenging to prove.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon , Códon/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/química
16.
Elife ; 82019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855182

RESUMO

mRNA translation and decay appear often intimately linked although the rules of this interplay are poorly understood. In this study, we combined our recent P-body transcriptome with transcriptomes obtained following silencing of broadly acting mRNA decay and repression factors, and with available CLIP and related data. This revealed the central role of GC content in mRNA fate, in terms of P-body localization, mRNA translation and mRNA stability: P-bodies contain mostly AU-rich mRNAs, which have a particular codon usage associated with a low protein yield; AU-rich and GC-rich transcripts tend to follow distinct decay pathways; and the targets of sequence-specific RBPs and miRNAs are also biased in terms of GC content. Altogether, these results suggest an integrated view of post-transcriptional control in human cells where most translation regulation is dedicated to inefficiently translated AU-rich mRNAs, whereas control at the level of 5' decay applies to optimally translated GC-rich mRNAs.


Assuntos
Composição de Bases/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro Estocado/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro Estocado/química , Transcriptoma/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5760, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848346

RESUMO

Feedback mechanisms play a critical role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties. Motivated by the need to tune the dynamics and improve the robustness of gene circuits, biological engineers have proposed various designs that mimic natural molecular feedback control mechanisms. However, practical and predictable implementations have proved challenging because of the complexity of synthesis and analysis of complex biomolecular networks. Here, we analyze and experimentally validate a synthetic biomolecular controller executed in vitro. The controller ensures that gene expression rate tracks an externally imposed reference level, and achieves this goal even in the presence of certain kinds of disturbances. Our design relies upon an analog of the well-known principle of integral feedback in control theory. We implement the controller in an Escherichia coli cell-free transcription-translation system, which allows rapid prototyping and implementation. Modeling and theory guide experimental implementation with well-defined operational predictability.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Homeostase/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Transcrição Genética/genética
18.
Mol Cell Biol ; 39(24)2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591142

RESUMO

The eukaryotic cytosol contains multiple RNP granules, including P-bodies and stress granules. Three different methods have been used to describe the transcriptome of stress granules or P-bodies, but how these methods compare and how RNA partitioning occurs between P-bodies and stress granules have not been addressed. Here, we compare the analysis of the stress granule transcriptome based on differential centrifugation with and without subsequent stress granule immunopurification. We find that while differential centrifugation alone gives a first approximation of the stress granule transcriptome, this methodology contains nonspecific transcripts that play a confounding role in the interpretation of results. We also immunopurify and compare the RNAs in stress granules and P-bodies under arsenite stress and compare those results to those for the P-body transcriptome described under nonstress conditions. We find that the P-body transcriptome is dominated by poorly translated mRNAs under nonstress conditions, but during arsenite stress, when translation is globally repressed, the P-body transcriptome is very similar to the stress granule transcriptome. This suggests that translation is a dominant factor in targeting mRNAs into both P-bodies and stress granules, and during stress, when most mRNAs are untranslated, the composition of P-bodies reflects this broader translation repression.


Assuntos
Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citosol/metabolismo , Células Eucarióticas , Humanos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109794, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629188

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are widely-used agricultural chemicals, bringing potential detriments to aquatic organisms. Currently, our understanding of sublethal effects and underlying toxicologic mechanisms of GBHs are still limited, especially in amphibians. Here, the sublethal effects of a commercial GBH (KISSUN®) on tadpoles of a farmland dwelling frog, Microhyla fissipes, were investigated. The 10-d LC50 of "KISSUN®" GBH was 77.5 mg/L. Tadpoles exposed to 60-120 mg/L showed increased preference to higher temperature. After 10 days exposure, obvious growth suppression was observed in survived GBH-stressed tadpoles, characterized by dosage depended decrement in body mass, body width, total length, etc. GBH-stressed tadpoles also showed decreased tail length/snout-vent length ratio and smaller tail muscle fiber diameter. Comparative transcriptomics (control, 60 mg/L and 90 mg/L groups) was conducted to analyze the underlying molecular processes. GBH-stressed tadpoles showed downregulated transcription of ribosomal proteins and cytoskeleton proteins, which could explain their suppressed whole body and tail muscle growth. Moreover, GBH-stressed tadpoles showed transcriptional downregulation of carbohydrate and lipid catabolism, but upregulation of amino acid catabolism. It suggested a metabolic switch from carbohydrate and lipid to amino acid in these tadpoles. Accordingly, there was a trade-off between protein synthesis and energy production in respect to amino acid allocation, and it provided a metabolic explanation for why protein synthesis was downregulated and growth was suppressed in GBH-stressed tadpoles. In combination with existing literatures, we speculated that GBH might directly target the enzymes in carbohydrate and lipid catabolism, and this metabolic effect of GBH might be common to fish and amphibians. In conclusion, our study provided a systematic insight into the sublethal symptoms of GBH-stressed tadpoles, and a metabolic switch from carbohydrate and lipid to amino acid likely underlay some common toxic symptoms of GBHs on both fish and tadpoles.


Assuntos
Anuros/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Glicina/toxicidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(19): 10267-10281, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665743

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional RNA modifications, the epitranscriptome, play important roles in modulating the functions of RNA species. Modifications of rRNA are key for ribosome production and function. Identification and characterization of enzymes involved in epitranscriptome shaping is instrumental for the elucidation of the functional roles of specific RNA modifications. Ten modified sites have been thus far identified in the mammalian mitochondrial rRNA. Enzymes responsible for two of these modifications have not been characterized. Here, we identify METTL15, show that it is the main N4-methylcytidine (m4C) methyltransferase in human cells and demonstrate that it is responsible for the methylation of position C839 in mitochondrial 12S rRNA. We show that the lack of METTL15 results in a reduction of the mitochondrial de novo protein synthesis and decreased steady-state levels of protein components of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Without functional METTL15, the assembly of the mitochondrial ribosome is decreased, with the late assembly components being unable to be incorporated efficiently into the small subunit. We speculate that m4C839 is involved in the stabilization of 12S rRNA folding, therefore facilitating the assembly of the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunits. Taken together our data show that METTL15 is a novel protein necessary for efficient translation in human mitochondria.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/química , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Citidina/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Mitocôndrias/química , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Dobramento de RNA/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Ribossômico/química
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