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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672772

RESUMO

Despite barrier measures and physical distancing tailored by the populations worldwide, coronavirus continues to spread causing severe health and social-economic problems. Therefore, researchers are focusing on developing efficient detection and therapeutic platforms for SARS-CoV2. In this context, various biotechnologies, based on novel molecules targeting the virus with high specificity and affinity, have been described. In parallel, new approaches exploring nanotechnology have been proposed for enhancing treatments and diagnosis. We discuss in the first part of this review paper, the different biosensing and rapid tests based on antibodies, nucleic acids and peptide probes described since the beginning of the pandemic. Furthermore, given their numerous advantages, the contribution of nanotechnologies is also highlighted.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/tendências , /terapia , Nanotecnologia/tendências , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Humanos
2.
Nature ; 590(7844): 47-56, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536649

RESUMO

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, found in trees, waste from agricultural crops and other biomass. The fibres that comprise cellulose can be broken down into building blocks, known as fibrillated cellulose, of varying, controllable dimensions that extend to the nanoscale. Fibrillated cellulose is harvested from renewable resources, so its sustainability potential combined with its other functional properties (mechanical, optical, thermal and fluidic, for example) gives this nanomaterial unique technological appeal. Here we explore the use of fibrillated cellulose in the fabrication of materials ranging from composites and macrofibres, to thin films, porous membranes and gels. We discuss research directions for the practical exploitation of these structures and the remaining challenges to overcome before fibrillated cellulose materials can reach their full potential. Finally, we highlight some key issues towards successful manufacturing scale-up of this family of materials.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Celulose/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Géis/química , Humanos , Porosidade
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374628

RESUMO

Lignin, the term commonly used in literature, represents a group of heterogeneous aromatic compounds of plant origin. Protolignin or lignin in the cell wall is entirely different from the commercially available technical lignin due to changes during the delignification process. In this paper, we assess the status of lignin valorization in terms of commercial products. We start with existing knowledge of the lignin/protolignin structure in its native form and move to the technical lignin from various sources. Special attention is given to the patents and lignin-based commercial products. We observed that the technical lignin-based commercial products utilize coarse properties of the technical lignin in marketed formulations. Additionally, the general principles of polymers chemistry and self-assembly are difficult to apply in lignin-based nanotechnology, and lignin-centric investigations must be carried out. The alternate upcoming approach is to develop lignin-centric or lignin first bio-refineries for high-value applications; however, that brings its own technological challenges. The assessment of the gap between lab-scale applications and lignin-based commercial products delineates the challenges lignin nanoparticles-based technologies must meet to be a commercially viable alternative.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Economia , Lignina/química , Algoritmos , Biotecnologia/economia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Economia/tendências , Hidrólise , Lignina/análogos & derivados , Lignina/classificação , Lignina/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Teóricos , Plantas/química
8.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 511-521, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008500

RESUMO

The age of immuno-oncology has ushered in a rush within the biopharmaceutical industry. This intense focus has been characterized as a frenzy or overhyped, but represents a substantial investment in new products that hope to harness the immune system against cancer. Such agents include next-generation checkpoint antagonists, immune costimulatory agonists, and a diverse array of novel mechanisms of action and therapeutic modalities targeting immune cell types and the interplay of the host and tumor at the immune synapse. This article surveys the clinical development and investment activity with Immuno-Oncology, specifically prostate, kidney, and bladder cancers.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Biotecnologia/tendências , Imunoterapia/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/imunologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/terapia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Urogenitais/patologia
9.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(8): 1528-1535, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924351

RESUMO

The advent of the bioeconomy era is triggers a new wave of technology and industrial revolution. Bioeconomy has become the commanding heights that major developed countries and emerging economies try to seize. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics of global bioindustry development from four perspectives: biomedical industry, genetically modified crop planting industry, bioenergy industry, and bio-based chemical industry. Then it summarizes the main characteristics of the development of the global bioindustry, and further put forward policy recommendations for the bottleneck problems in the development of China's bioindustry, which can guide the future development of China's bioeconomy.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Indústrias , Políticas , Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Biotecnologia/tendências , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Indústrias/economia
10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(7): 1293-1304, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748587

RESUMO

Cordycepin as the main active ingredient of Cordyceps militaris, a traditional medicinal fungus in China, has many physiological functions such as anti-cancer, anti-tumor and anti-virus activity. The most potential route for effective cordycepin production has been considered as liquid fermentation of C. militaris though with low productivity at present. Thus, it is urgent to apply both process engineering strategy and metabolic engineering strategy to enhance the productivity of cordycepin. In this review, the effects of medium components (i.e. the carbon/nitrogen source, precursor substances and metal ions) and operation factors (i.e. pH, dissolved oxygen and light) on cordycepin biosynthesis in liquid fermentation system are summarized. Besides, separation of cordycepin, the gene cluster involved and predicted biosynthesis pathways of cordycepin are also discussed, providing possible solutions of finally realizing efficient production of cordycepin.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Cordyceps , Desoxiadenosinas , Biotecnologia/tendências , China , Desoxiadenosinas/biossíntese , Desoxiadenosinas/genética , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica/tendências
11.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(7): 674-682, jul. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194129

RESUMO

Las tentadoras promesas del transhumanismo parecen estar cada vez más cerca, pero cabe preguntarse si no resultarán contraproducentes en algún sentido. El profesor Sandel expone los problemas sociales que conllevaría el desarrollo de seres humanos mejorados en nuestra concepción del mérito, la libertad y responsabilidad, el aprecio de la vida como un don, la inclinación a compartir nuestro destino con el de los demás y la concepción de los derechos individuales


The tempting promises of transhumanism seem to be getting closer and closer, but in some way counterproductive in some way. Professor Sandel presents the social problems that the development of improved human beings would entail in our understanding of merit, freedom and responsibility, the appreciation of life as a gift, the inclination to share our destiny with others and the conception of individual rights


Assuntos
Humanos , Humanismo , Ética Baseada em Princípios , Melhoramento Biomédico/ética , Melhoramento Genético/ética , Genética Humana/tendências , Biotecnologia/tendências , Responsabilidade Civil , Seleção Genética
12.
Eur J Protistol ; 75: 125720, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569992

RESUMO

For hundreds of years, mankind has benefited from the natural metabolic processes of microorganisms to obtain basic products such as fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. More recently, microorganisms have been exploited for the production of antibiotics, vitamins and enzymes to be used in medicine and chemical industries. Additionally, several modern drugs, including those for cancer therapy, are natural products or their derivatives. Protists are a still underexplored source of natural products potentially of interest for biotechnological and biomedical applications. This paper focuses on some examples of bioactive molecules from protists and associated bacteria and their possible use in biotechnology.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Biotecnologia/tendências , Eucariotos/química , Animais
13.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(7): 788-789, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555347
15.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(3): e287216, May-June 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127228

RESUMO

RESUMEN Hace unos cuantos siglos, en la materia médica de los nahuas prehispánicos se incluían alimentos curativos. En la actualidad, legitimado por las ciencias experimentales, nace el nutracéutico como un alimento con propiedades curativas que se utiliza en los modelos de salud preventivos del cáncer. En este artículo, comienzo por proponer que el conocimiento prehispánico puede ser validado epistémica y metodológicamente, si se apela al particular marco conceptual de los prehispánicos. Después, arguyo que el consumo de nutracéticos, como anticancerígenos, puede pensarse como parte de medidas preventivas primarias y secundarias, así como en la comprensión de las prácticas de autocuidado en el marco de la ética contemporánea del cáncer. Concretamente, que el consumo de nutracéticos y los alimentos prehispánicos mexicanos pueden legitimarse como prácticas de bienestar y prevención cada vez más pertinentes, en la intersección de la experiencia del enfermo y de su contexto. La responsabilidad de quien padece, dentro de un contexto sociopolítico cada vez más estructurado por las exigencias de vulnerabilidad del mercado terapéutico y de las estrategias confesionarias que otorgan verdad y validez a las figuras de autoridad, se gana en la práctica de conocerse y entenderse a sí mismo en la intersubjetividad contextual.(AU)


ABSTRACT The pre-Hispanic Nahuas had a medical system that included healing foods among their therapeutic practices. Nowadays, a new knowledge is born, legitimated by experimental sciences: the nutraceutical, a food with curative properties used in cancer preventive health models. In this article, I begin by proposing that pre-Hispanic knowledge can be validated epistemically and methodologically, if we appeal to the particular conceptual framework of the pre-Hispanic. Later, that the consumption of nutraceuticals, as anti-cancer drugs, can be thought of as part of primary and secondary preventive measures, as well as in the understanding of self-care practices in the framework of contemporary cancer bioethics. Specifically, that the consumption of nutraceuticals and Mexican pre-Hispanic foods can be legitimized as increasingly relevant wellness and prevention practices, at the intersection of the patient's experience and his or her context. The responsibility of those who suffer, within a sociopolitical context that is increasingly structured by the demands of vulnerability of the therapeutic market and the confessional strategies that give truth and validity to the figures of authority over whom they suffer, is gained in the practice of knowing and understanding oneself within contextual intersubjetivity.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Materia Medica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Suplementos Nutricionais/provisão & distribução , Licopeno/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
17.
Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol ; 174: 43-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313965

RESUMO

Impedimetric aptamer-based biosensors show high potential for handheld devices and point-of-care tests. In this review, we report on recent advances in aptamer-based impedimetric biosensors for applications in biotechnology. We detail on analytes relevant in medical and environmental biotechnology as well as food control, for which aptamer-based impedimetric biosensors were developed. The reviewed biosensors are examined for their performance, including sensitivity, selectivity, response time, and real sample validation. Additionally, the benefits and challenges of impedimetric aptasensors are summarized.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/normas , Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , Biotecnologia/tendências
19.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 54(1): 137-145, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163397

RESUMO

Bacillus subtilis bacteria play an important role in veterinary medicine, medicine, and biotechnology, and the permanently growing demand for biotechnological products fuels the improvement of the properties of biotechnological strains. B. subtilis strains with improved characteristics maybe obtained by rational design and the directed evolution technologies, or be found among newly described strains. In the course of the long-term microbiome composition studies in the Russian segment of the International Space Station, the B. subtilis 20 strain was isolated, this strain shows the capacity for rapid growth and considerable biomass accumulation, as well as increased resistance to acidification of the environment in comparison to the "terrestrial" B. subtilis 168 strain. What is more, B. subtilis 20 is hyperresistant to the DNA and protein damaging factors that are linked to the overexpression of the genes controlling DNA repair, hydrogen sulfide production, and reactive oxygen species neutralization. The described properties of B. subtilis 20 are indicative of its considerable potential as a promising producer of biologically active compounds.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/classificação , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Biotecnologia/tendências , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/isolamento & purificação
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