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1.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 14(1): 78-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of biotechnology has gained wide popularity by the time. There is, of course, some anecdotal evidence as to what topics are currently considered the most prominent and how they can be compared to the common perception of which research topics were considered "trendy" years ago. OBJECTIVE: A thorough search of exact time frames can help us quantitatively determine the evolution of prominent biotechnology research topics since the turn of the century. METHODS: A text data mining approach has been followed to better identify the emerging trends and perspectives in biotechnology, taking a look back at how the focus of research and innovation in biotechnology has shifted, evolved and impacted the human race over the past three decades. RESULTS: The extent of biotechnology today is vast, however, the most important newly developed research themes and patents largely influence human healthcare, affecting hundreds of millions of people who use grafts, devices, diagnostics, treatment and delivery systems. Even if biotechnology is very much focused on healthcare, there is also focus on other specialized concepts, such as biofuel, biocatalyst, food, agriculture and water purification, which have a strong influence on the research topics studied today. CONCLUSION: We are in the process of developing the practice of medicine through pioneering advances in biotechnology research and innovation. As companies continue to develop emerging treatment strategies (involving gene therapy, stem cells, nanomedicine and new drug delivery systems) that address significant unmet needs, future innovations in biotechnology research will bring exciting new advancements to help millions of more people worldwide.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/tendências , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1203: 285-312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811638

RESUMO

RNA-protein interactions are essential to a variety of biological processes. The realization that mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed brought a tidal wave of tens of thousands of newly identified long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and raised questions about their purpose in cells. The vast majority of lncRNAs have yet to be studied, and it remains to be determined to how many of these transcripts a function can be ascribed. However, results gleaned from studying a handful of these macromolecules have started to reveal common themes of biological function and mechanism of action involving intricate RNA-protein interactions. Some lncRNAs were shown to regulate the chromatin and transcription of distant and neighboring genes in the nucleus, while others regulate the translation or localization of proteins in the cytoplasm. Some lncRNAs were found to be crucial during development, while mutations and aberrant expression of others have been associated with several types of cancer and a plethora of diseases. Over the last few years, the establishment of new technologies has been key in providing the tools to decode the rules governing lncRNA-protein interactions and functions. This chapter will highlight the general characteristics of lncRNAs, their function, and their mode of action, with a special focus on protein interactions. It will also describe the methods at the disposition of scientists to help them cross this next frontier in our understanding of lncRNA biology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , RNA Longo não Codificante , Ribonucleoproteínas , Animais , Biotecnologia/tendências , Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 190, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754912

RESUMO

Microalgae present great potential to replace land crops for the efficient production of large volumes of biomass for food, feed, fuels, and chemicals, as well as to treat wastewater and capture carbon. However, the commercialization of these technologies for bulk commodities requires a great reduction in the current microalgal biomass production cost. The bioreactor is the core of bioprocess engineering and is the premise for the commercial application of certain types of biotechnology. The challenges of phototrophic cultivation are completely different from those of heterotrophic processes because the efficiency of phototrophic cultivation is limited by the energy density of the input sunlight and the inorganic carbon supply. Thus, the development of microalgae cultivation technologies with low manufacturing and operating costs is key to addressing this problem, and floating photobioreactors (PBRs) are a promising solution. PBRs are deployed on the water surface without any land requirements, and wave energy provides free mixing energy. Additionally, the surrounding water can be used to control the culture temperature and to supply nutrients for microalgae growth. In this mini-review, the development of floating PBRs and their recent progress are presented. The effect of the carbon supply approach on the mixing and scaling-up of floating PBRs are critically discussed. The limitations and challenges in commercial applications of floating PBRs are analysed, and the need for future research is proposed. Finally, it is noted that microalgae farming on the ocean is a promising solution for human society to address the challenge of land space exhaustion due to the global population boom.


Assuntos
Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotobiorreatores/tendências , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Biotecnologia/tendências , Carbono/metabolismo
5.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 777-800, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549678

RESUMO

Base editing is a newly developed precise genome editing technique based on the CRISPR/Cas system. According to different base modification enzymes, the current base editing systems can be divided into cytosine base editors (CBE) and adenine base editors (ABE). They use cytosine deaminases or artificially evolved adenine deaminases to perform single-base editing, and achieve C to T (G to A) or A to G (T to C) substitutions, respectively. Due to high efficiency, independence of DNA double-strand breaks, and no need for donor DNA, base editing systems have been successfully applied in diverse species including animals, plants and other organisms since the first report in 2016. Therefore, base editing systems will have a high prospect of providing important support for gene therapy and crop genetic improvement in the future. In this review, we describe the development and current applications of base editing systems for basic research and biotechnology, highlight the challenges, and discuss the directions for future research in this important field. The information presented may facilitate interested researchers to grasp the principles of base editing, to use relevant base editing tools in their own studies, or to innovate new versions of base editing in the future.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Edição de Genes , Adenina , Aminoidrolases , Animais , Biotecnologia/tendências , Citosina , Citosina Desaminase , Plantas
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13363-13366, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558026

RESUMO

The "Bioflavour 2018-Biotechnology of Flavors, Fragrances, and Functional Ingredients" conference was held from September 18th to 21st, 2018 at the DECHEMA house in Frankfurt, Germany. The conference attracted more than 190 participants from over 25 countries, with about 40% share from industry. Particular sessions of Bioflavour 2018 focused on "flavor perception and biotechnology", "microbial cell factories", "novel pathways, enzymes, and biocatalysts", "technological and regulatory aspects of flavor and fragrance biotechnology", "advanced analytics and novel compounds", "plant biosynthesis and plant enzymes", "modern biotechnology in the world of wine", "receptors, flavors, and bioactives", and "bioprocess development and downstream processing". At Bioflavour 2018, both cutting-edge science from renowned academic research groups and current innovation from this modern biotechnology industry were presented and discussed. This special issue highlights a selection of 12 manuscripts from oral presentations and poster contributions.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Aromatizantes/química , Humanos , Microbiologia Industrial , Plantas/química , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Vinho/análise
7.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387272

RESUMO

Enzymes are essential components of biological reactions and play important roles in the scaling and optimization of many industrial processes. Due to the growing commercial demand for new and more efficient enzymes to help further optimize these processes, many studies are now focusing their attention on more renewable and environmentally sustainable sources for the production of these enzymes. Microalgae are very promising from this perspective since they can be cultivated in photobioreactors, allowing the production of high biomass levels in a cost-efficient manner. This is reflected in the increased number of publications in this area, especially in the use of microalgae as a source of novel enzymes. In particular, various microalgal enzymes with different industrial applications (e.g., lipids and biofuel production, healthcare, and bioremediation) have been studied to date, and the modification of enzymatic sequences involved in lipid and carotenoid production has resulted in promising results. However, the entire biosynthetic pathways/systems leading to synthesis of potentially important bioactive compounds have in many cases yet to be fully characterized (e.g., for the synthesis of polyketides). Nonetheless, with recent advances in microalgal genomics and transcriptomic approaches, it is becoming easier to identify sequences encoding targeted enzymes, increasing the likelihood of the identification, heterologous expression, and characterization of these enzymes of interest. This review provides an overview of the state of the art in marine and freshwater microalgal enzymes with potential biotechnological applications and provides future perspectives for this field.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Microalgas/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biocombustíveis , Vias Biossintéticas , Biotecnologia/tendências , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 131, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432251

RESUMO

Cholesterol is a C27-sterol employed as starting material for the synthesis of valuable pharmaceutical steroids and precursors. The microbial transformations of cholesterol have been widely studied, since they are performed with high regio- and stereoselectivity and allow the production of steroidal compounds which are difficult to synthesize by classical chemical methods. In recent years, ongoing research is being conducted to discover novel biocatalysts and to develop biotechnological processes to improve existing biocatalysts and biotransformation reactions. The main objective of this review is to present the most remarkable advances in fungal and bacterial transformation of cholesterol, focusing on the different types of microbial reactions and biocatalysts, biotransformation products, and practical aspects related to sterol dispersion improvement, covering literature since 2000. It reviews the conversion of cholesterol by whole-cell biocatalysts and by purified enzymes that lead to various structural modifications, including side chain cleavage, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation/reduction, isomerization and esterification. Finally, approaches used to improve the poor solubility of cholesterol in aqueous media, such as the use of different sterol-solubilizing agents or two-phase conversion system, are also discussed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biotecnologia/tendências , Biotransformação , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(18): 7325-7354, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363825

RESUMO

Rauvolfia spp., also known as devil peppers, are a group of evergreen shrubs and trees. Among the ~ 76 various species, Rauvolfia serpentina is the most important one as it finds its use as an important medicinal plant. It is commonly known as the Indian snakeroot plant or Sarpagandha. The plant is rich in multiple secondary metabolites. Some of the well-known secondary metabolites are reserpine, ajmaline, ajmalicine, serpentine, yohimbine, etc. Alkaloids are also found in all parts of the plant but the richest sources are the roots. Since ancient times, roots (mainly due to reserpine) have been utilized in various Ayurvedic and Unani medicinal preparations for the treatment of diseases like hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and schizophrenia. Apart from this, there are many other pharmacological and ethnobotanical uses of this plant. There are a number of published reports regarding tissue culture techniques on Rauvolfia spp. The current review mainly illustrates and discusses the various in vitro biotechnological aspects such as direct regeneration, indirect regeneration via callus formation, somatic embryogenesis, synthetic seed production, hairy root culture, polyploidy induction and secondary metabolite estimation, which provides significant ideas regarding the ongoing research activities and future prospects related to the genetic improvement of this genus.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/tendências , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rauwolfia/química , Medicina Ayurvédica , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Poliploidia , Rauwolfia/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
11.
Transgenic Res ; 28(Suppl 2): 147-150, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321697

RESUMO

Argentina is a world leader in regards to regulation and adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops. As a consequence, the regulatory aspects of gene editing applied to agriculture were considered proactively by the Argentinian regulators, who implemented simple but solid pioneering regulatory criteria for gene edited crops. At present, the Argentine regulatory system is fully able to establish if a gene-edited crop should be classified (and handled) either as a GM crop or a conventional new variety. To this end, the concept of "novel combination of genetic material" derived from the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety is of decisive importance. After some pilot cases that have been managed under this criteria, now applicants appreciate the ease, speed and predictability of the regulation. Moreover, it has been considered by other countries in the course of developing their own regulations, thus acting also as a harmonization factor for the safe and effective insertion of these technologies in the global market.


Assuntos
Agricultura/tendências , Biotecnologia/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Argentina , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Transgenic Res ; 28(Suppl 2): 175-181, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321702

RESUMO

In India, genetically modified organisms and products thereof are regulated under the "Rules for the manufacture, use, import, export and storage of hazardous microorganisms, genetically engineered organisms or cells, 1989" (referred to as Rules, 1989) notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. These Rules are implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Department of Biotechnology and State Governments though six competent authorities. The Rules, 1989 are supported by series of guidelines on contained research, biologics, confined field trials, food safety assessment, environmental risk assessment etc. The definition of genetic engineering in the Rules, 1989 implies that new genome engineering technologies including gene editing technologies like CRISPR/Cas9 and gene drives may be covered under the rules. The regulatory authorities if required, may also review the experiences of other countries in dealing with such new and emerging technologies.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/tendências , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes/tendências , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Índia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Transgenic Res ; 28(Suppl 2): 183-186, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321703

RESUMO

The policy of the United States government is to seek regulatory approaches, consistent with applicable laws, that protect health and the environment while reducing unnecessary regulatory burdens and avoiding unjustifiably inhibiting innovation, stigmatizing new technologies, or creating unnecessary trade barriers [Adapted from the National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products, Product of the Emerging Technologies Interagency Policy Coordination Committee's Biotechnology Working Group (OSTP 2016)]. U.S. agencies are focused on delivering health and environmental protection based on the best available science; establishing transparent, coordinated, predictable, and efficient regulatory practices across agencies; and promoting public confidence in the oversight of the products of biotechnology through clear and transparent public engagement [Adapted from the Task Force on Agriculture and Rural Prosperity Report (USDA 2017)]. U.S. agencies that regulate the products of agricultural biotechnology discuss regulatory approaches presented during the June 2018 OECD Conference on Genome Editing Applications in Agriculture, focusing on plants developed using genome editing.


Assuntos
Agricultura/tendências , Biotecnologia/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Edição de Genes/métodos , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(16): 6393-6405, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236614

RESUMO

Nitrilase-mediated biocatalysis reactions have been continuously arousing wide interests by scholars and entrepreneurs in organic synthesis over the past six decades. Since regioselective nitrilases could hydrolyze only one cyano group of dinitriles into corresponding cyanocarboxylic acids, which are virtually impossible by chemical hydrolysis and of interest for a variety of applications, it becomes particularly appealing to synthetic chemists. The aim of the current review is to summarize the recent advancements on regioselective nitrilases concerning their fundamental researches and applications in synthesis of a series of high-value fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Carbon chain lengths and substituent group positions of substrates are found to be two crucial factors in affecting regioselectivity of nitrilase. Practical applications of regioselective nitrilases in synthesis of 1,5-dimethyl-2-piperidone (1,5-DMPD), atorvastatin, gabapentin, (R)-baclofen, and (S)-pregabalin were systematically reviewed. Future perspectives clearly elucidating the mechanism of regioselectivity and further molecular modifications of regioselective nitrilases integrating within silico technology for industrial applications were discussed.


Assuntos
Aminoidrolases/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Biotecnologia/métodos , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Especificidade por Substrato , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/tendências
17.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(6): 571, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164745

RESUMO

Systematic gathering of detailed demographic data on the workforce is needed to ensure continued progress in diversifying biotech.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/tendências , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
18.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 29(1): 51-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080177

RESUMO

LeRoy Walters was at the center of public debate about emerging biological technologies, even as "biotechnology" began to take root. He chaired advisory panels on human gene therapy, the human genome project, and patenting DNA for the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. He chaired the subcommittee on Human Gene Therapy for NIH's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. He was also a regular advisor to Congress, the executive branch, and academics concerned about policy governing emerging biotechnologies. In large part due to Prof. Walters, the Kennedy Institute of Ethics was one of the primary sources of talent in bioethics, including staff who populated policy and science agencies dealing with reproductive and genetic technologies, such as NIH and OTA. His legacy lies not only in his writings, but in those people, documents, and discussions that guided biotechnology policy in the United States for three decades.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Bioética , Biotecnologia/ética , Genética/ética , Academias e Institutos/ética , Comitês Consultivos/ética , Comitês Consultivos/história , Comitês Consultivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/história , Biotecnologia/tendências , DNA Recombinante/história , Governo Federal , Terapia Genética/ética , Terapia Genética/história , Terapia Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Guias como Assunto , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Projeto Genoma Humano/ética , Projeto Genoma Humano/história , Projeto Genoma Humano/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação como Assunto , Masculino , Política Pública/história , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
20.
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