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1.
J Homosex ; 68(4): 692-708, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528316

RESUMO

Physical distancing measures, designed to limit the spread of COVID-19, have been implemented globally. We sought to understand how physical distancing impacts gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), a group disproportionately affected by poor health outcomes. A cross-sectional online survey on Hornet, a networking application (N = 10,079), measured sociodemographics, physical distancing, mental health outcomes, and sexual behavior. Nearly two-thirds of participants (63%) reported only leaving their home for essentials. Those who practiced physical distancing were more likely to feel anxious (aOR = 1.37), feel lonely (aOR = 1.36), to report their sex life being impacted (aOR = 2.95), and less likely to be satisfied with their current sex life (aOR = 0.76). Those who practiced physical distancing were more likely to use social technologies to stay in touch with others. Risk reduction and telehealth opportunities may alleviate health challenges for GBMSM in the COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Saúde Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(1): 62-72, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617321

RESUMO

We have tracked belief in the effectiveness of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) among Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM) since 2013. National, online cross-sectional surveys of GBM were conducted every 2 years during 2013-2019. Trends and associations were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Data from 4,903 survey responses were included. Belief that HIV treatment prevents transmission increased from 2.6% in 2013 to 34.6% in 2019. Belief in the effectiveness of TasP was consistently higher among HIV-positive participants than other participants. In 2019, higher levels of belief in TasP were independently associated with university education, being HIV-positive, using pre-exposure prophylaxis, knowing more HIV-positive people, being recently diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and use of post-exposure prophylaxis. Belief that HIV treatment prevents transmission has increased substantially among Australian GBM, but remains concentrated among HIV-positive GBM, those who know HIV-positive people, and GBM who use antiretroviral-based prevention.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção
3.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(1): 9-14, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347344

RESUMO

Young Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YB-GBMSM) face multiple psychosocial stressors, and are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Mental health care engagement is a promising avenue for addressing these disparities. To date, rates of mental health service utilization have not been examined specifically in this population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among YB-GBMSM receiving care in a Ryan White-funded HIV care center that includes co-located HIV and mental health services. Of 435 unique YB-GBMSM patients, mental health concerns were identified in n = 191 (43.9%). Depressive symptoms were the most common concerns identified, followed by substance use, anxiety, and trauma. Among patients with identified mental health concerns who were not previously in mental health care, 79.1% were referred to mental health care, 56.3% set an appointment with a mental health provider, 40.5% were linked to mental health care (attended an initial visit), and 19.6% remained engaged in mental health care. Younger YB-GBMSM (age 18-24 years), who received care in a more integrated pediatric/adolescent part of the center, were more likely to have an appointment set once a concern was identified (χ2 = 7.17; p = 0.007). Even in a setting with co-located HIV and mental health care services, we found significant gaps in engagement at each stage of a newly described mental health care continuum. Implications for intervention at the provider and systems levels are discussed.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Idoso , Bissexualidade/etnologia , Criança , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Homosex ; 68(1): 70-87, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194923

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among Korean lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals and explored the role of community connectedness in that association. We analyzed a nationwide cross-sectional survey of 2,162 LGB adults in Korea. Discrimination based on its types, including sexual orientation, over the past 12 months was classified into four categories: (1) 'never experienced discrimination,' experienced (2) 'only sexual orientation discrimination,' (3) 'any of the other types of discrimination,' and (4) 'both sexual orientation discrimination and any of the other types of discrimination.' Our findings suggest that there was a statistically significant association between 'only sexual orientation discrimination' and depressive symptoms among LGB individuals with a low-level of community connectedness, but not among those with a high-level. In the other two categories of discrimination, which included the other types of discrimination, the associations were statistically significant, regardless of the level of community connectedness.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Homofobia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Características de Residência , Sexismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e179, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153509

RESUMO

AIMS: Compared to their heterosexual peers, youth who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) tend to suffer higher rates of peer victimisation from bullying. However, studies of LGB adolescents' participation as bullies are scarce. We aimed to examine the possible association of sexual minority identity and the heightened risk of not only being bullied but bullying others as well. We also explored the effect of one's sexual identity on their involvement in bullying through the mediation of coping strategies and mood states. METHODS: A total of 12 218 students were recruited from 18 secondary schools in China. The demographic information, positive and negative coping strategies, mood state (anxiety, depression and hypomania) and information related to bullying and being bullied were collected. Multinomial regression was used to assess the heightened risk of sexual minority groups in comparison to their heterosexual adolescents' counterparts. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the mediating role of coping strategy and mood state between one's sex, sexual identity and bullying experience. RESULTS: Two trends could be observed: (1) LGB groups reported heightened risks of being bullied and bullying others at school than heterosexual peers. However, being a sexual-undeveloped girl seemed to have a protective effect on bullying-related problems. (2) Birth-assigned males were more likely to be bullied as well as bullying others at school when compared to birth-assigned females. SEM analysis revealed that being a sexual minority was directly associated with a higher frequency of being bullied (B = 0.16, 95% CI [0.10, 0.22], p < 0.001) but not bullying others (B = 0.02, 95% CI [-0.02, 0.06], p = 0.398) when compared to the heterosexual group. Negative coping, hypomania, anxiety and depression were associated with a higher frequency of being bullied, while positive coping was associated with a lower frequency of being bullied. Moreover, negative coping, hypomania and depression were associated with a higher frequency of bullying others, while positive coping was associated with a reduced likelihood of bullying others. In addition, being bullied and bullying others were significantly correlated in the SEM model. CONCLUSIONS: This novel research investigated the dynamic nature of the interaction between victim and bullying of LGB school adolescents in China, with a specific exploration of the psychological mechanism behind the pattern of being bullied and bullying others. School-level interventions aimed at teaching positive coping strategies to lower psychological distress are recommended to support sexual minority students.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Bissexualidade/etnologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(3): 309-315, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, Australian state and federal governments introduced physical distancing measures alongside widespread testing to combat COVID-19. These measures may decrease people's sexual contacts and thus reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs). We investigated the impact of physical distancing measures due to COVID-19 on the sexual behavior of gay and bisexual men in Australia. METHODS: Between April 4, 2020, and April 29, 2020, 940 participants in an ongoing cohort study responded to questions to measure changes in sexual behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Men reported the date they become concerned about COVID-19 and whether they engaged in sexual behavior with regular or casual partners or "fuckbuddies" in the 6 months before becoming concerned about COVID-19 (hereafter referred to as "before COVID-19"), and following the date, they become concerned about COVID-19 (hereafter referred to as "since COVID-19"). Before and since COVID-19 was based on individual participants' own perceived date of becoming concerned about COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean age of was 39.9 years (SD: 13.4). Most participants (88.3%) reported sex with other men during the 6 months before COVID-19. Of the 587 men (62.4%) who reported sex with casual partners before COVID-19, 93 (15.8%) continued to do so in the period since COVID-19, representing a relative reduction of 84.2%. CONCLUSION: Gay and bisexual men in Australia have dramatically reduced their sexual contacts with other men since COVID-19. These behavioral changes will likely result in short-term reductions in new HIV and STI diagnoses. If sexual health screenings are undertaken before resuming sexual activity, this could present a novel opportunity to interrupt chains of HIV and STI transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Bissexualidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/classificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 292: 113365, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862107

RESUMO

The impact of COVID-19 on mental health has begun to be widely recognized, but there is an absence of studies on how the mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 857 LGB people in Hong Kong participated in a community-based survey study. Over one-fourth of them met the criteria for probable clinical depression (31.5%) and generalized anxiety disorder (27.9%). Besides general stressors, we identified sexual minority-specific stressors during the pandemic. 4.2% of the participants indicated that they had frequently experienced family conflict related to sexual orientation. One-third responded that they had largely reduced connection to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender plus (LGBT+) community (34.7%). The results showed that sexual minority-specific COVID-19-related stressors explained significant variance in depressive and anxiety symptoms, above and beyond the contribution of general COVID-19-related stressors. Since LGB people are particularly vulnerable to poor mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, LGB people-targeting organizations need to understand more about family, space, and privacy concerns in order to provide better support, and LGB safe spaces and shelters may be needed as a policy response.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina , Homossexualidade Masculina , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Estigma Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual identity is a significant risk factor for triggering symptoms of depression, as well as for suicide attempts in lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) population compared to the heterosexual population. To the best of our knowledge, data on the mental health of LGB persons in Serbia are lacking, and this is the first study to address this problem. The aim of the study was to examine the association between selected determinants and depression, and selected determinants and suicide attempts in LGB and heterosexual populations in the Republic of Serbia, as well as, their differences. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2015 of 264 heterosexual and LGB respondents using the "snowball sampling" method. We used linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between socio-demographic variables and different sexual identity categories with PHQ-9 scores. We assessed associations between suicide attempts, and socio-demographic characteristics, sexual identity, depression, and suicidal thoughts using logistic regression. RESULTS: Depression symptoms were higher in female relative to male participants, in participants who were single, divorced or widowed in comparison to currently married, among people with a middle level of education compared to highly educated, and in respondents identified as bisexual or homosexual in comparison to heterosexual. Homosexual and bisexual participants reported suicidal attempts 27 [Odds Ratio (OR) = 27.31] and six times (OR = 6.40) more often than did heterosexual respondents, respectively. Suicide attempts were less frequently reported by single, divorced or widowed participants in comparison to married (OR = 0.25) and those with middle education (OR = 0.38) compared to highly educated. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that LGB persons in Serbia have significantly more symptoms of depression and suicide attempts compared to heterosexuals. Public health interventions should focus on the early detection of depression and on overcoming prejudicial and discriminatory attitudes. Also, intervention should emphasize that homosexuality and bisexuality are normal, equal and morally acceptable expressions of human sexuality.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(7): 597-612, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We explored the internal structure of within-group variation in the syndemic construct among bisexual adolescents, an understudied and highly vulnerable population known to experience health disparities compared with monosexuals (those attracted to a single gender). We sought to identify patterns of co-occurrence among three domains of high priority behavioral risks-sexual risk factors, substance use, and victimization-and their implications for suicidality. METHOD: We used a national sample of 1,053 ethnically/racially diverse, high school age bisexual adolescents drawn from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to 15 indicators measuring the three aforementioned domains and modeled predictors and an outcome of class membership. RESULTS: Within-group variation in the syndemic construct appears categorical, systematic, and comprised of Low Risk (38%), Alcohol Use (20%), Peer-victimization (14%), Sexually Active (11%), Syndemic (11%), and Risk-taking (7%) classes. Classes were well-separated per classification statistics. The proportions of bisexual identification, sex, and race varied significantly across classes. Syndemic and Peer-victimization classes were equivalent and elevated in their suicidality risk, out of all classes. CONCLUSIONS: Results revealed multiple and diverging forms of conjoint behavioral risk that conferred differential health implications; illuminated the shape and functional form of the syndemic construct among bisexual adolescents; and illustrated the utility of LCA for classifying typologies of risky and normative health behavior patterns. Psychologists are recommended to carefully consider the comorbidly operant nature of behavioral risks in this population. Future directions include addressing replication, multiple-group invariance, additional auxiliary variables, and alternative mixture techniques. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Assunção de Riscos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino
10.
Psico USF ; 25(2): 207-222, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, il
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1135719

RESUMO

O modelo do Estresse de Minoria (EM) propõe a existência de estressores específicos que levam pessoas lésbicas, gays e bissexuais (LGB) à posição de maior vulnerabilidade social. O EM é composto por homonegatividade internalizada, a ocultação da sexualidade e as experiências de estigma. Embora o modelo tenha recebido suporte empírico, não há instrumentos adaptados para sua avaliação no contexto brasileiro. Portanto, este estudo objetiva a adaptação transcultural e a produção de evidências de validade para o contexto brasileiro de um protocolo para avaliação do EM em LGBs (PEM-LGB-BR). A amostra foi de 1451 participantes que responderam a Escala de Homonegatividade Internalizada, a Escala de Revelação da Sexualidade e a Escala de Experiências de Estigma. As análises fatoriais exploratórias e confirmatórias sugerem a estrutura de três fatores do PEM-LGB-BR como a mais adequada. Tal resultado é coerente com a teoria, tornando o protocolo válido para ser utilizado no contexto brasileiro. (AU)


The Minority Stress (MS) model proposes the existence of specific stressors that make lesbian, gay and bisexual people (LGB) more socially vulnerable. MS is composed of internalized homonegativity, concealment of sexuality, and stigma experiences. Although the model has received empirical support, there are no instruments adapted for its assessment in the Brazilian context. Therefore, this study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and assess validity evidences for the Brazilian context of a protocol for the assessment of MS in LGBs (PEM-LGB-BR). The sample consisted of 1451 participants who answered the Internalized Homonegativity Scale, the Outness Inventory, and the Stigma Experience Scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest the three-factor structure of PEM-LGB-BR as the most adequate. This result is consistent with the theory, making the protocol valid for use in the Brazilian context. (AU)


El modelo de Estrés de Minoría (EM) propone la existencia de estresores específicos que llevan a personas lesbianas, gays y bisexuales (LGB) a posiciones de mayor vulnerabilidad social. El EM se compone de homonegatividad internalizada, ocultamiento de sexualidad y experiencias de estigma. Aunque el modelo haya recibido soporte empírico, no hay instrumentos adaptados para su evaluación en el contexto brasileño. Por lo tanto, este estudio tiene por objetivo la adaptación transcultural y producción de evidencias de validez en el contexto brasileño de un protocolo para evaluación del EM en LGBs (PEM-LGB-BR). La muestra fue de 1451 participantes que respondieron la Escala de Homonegatividad Internalizada, Escala de Revelación de Sexualidad, y Escala de Experiencias de Estigma. Los análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios sugieren la estructura de tres factores del PEM-LGB-BR como la más adecuada. Este resultado es coherente con la teoría, tornando el protocolo válido para ser utilizado en el contexto brasileño. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estresse Psicológico , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Vulnerabilidade Social , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estereotipagem de Gênero , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Transfusion ; 60(5): 965-973, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men in Australia are currently ineligible to donate blood (are "deferred") for 12 months since last oral or anal sexual contact with another man. In Australia and overseas, there has been limited research on attitudes and perceptions related to blood donation in this population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Questions on blood donation histories and attitudes toward the deferral policy were included in the questionnaire of an online prospective cohort of gay and bisexual men (GBM) living in Australia. RESULTS: In 2018, 1595 GBM responded to the survey. In this sample, 28.7% reported previously donating blood. Among the remaining men who had never donated blood, 64.5% expressed an interest in doing so. Nearly all men indicated they were not willing to abstain from sex with another man for 12 months in order to donate, and the vast majority believed the rule was unfair, too strict, and homophobic. Three-quarters (77.7%) said that if the policy changed, they would likely donate blood. Age and openness about one's sexuality were independently associated with one's willingness to donate blood in the absence of the deferral. CONCLUSION: There was a high level of willingness and desire to donate blood among GBM. However, rather than abstaining from sex in order to donate, many men comply with the deferral policy and do not donate. A less conservative deferral policy may increase donations from GBM.


Assuntos
Atitude , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Seleção do Doador/legislação & jurisprudência , Seleção do Doador/normas , Seleção do Doador/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Política de Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Volição , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(5): 1783-1798, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378076

RESUMO

Bisexual individuals experience unique forms of discrimination related to their sexual orientation (e.g., anti-bisexual prejudice), which occurs from both heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Bisexual individuals may experience stigma differently depending on the gender of their relationship or sexual partners, because they may be perceived as heterosexual if they have a partner of a different gender and as gay/lesbian if they have a partner of the same gender. The present longitudinal study investigated within-persons differences in anti-bisexual experiences, internalized binegativity, and bisexual identity affirmation based on the gender of participants' serious relationship partners and gender of sex partners in a sample of 180 young bisexual men. Results indicated that young bisexual men experienced more interpersonal hostility from both heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals when their serious relationship partner was female. No significant differences were found in other types of anti-bisexual prejudice, internalized binegativity, or bisexual identity affirmation by serious partner gender. For sexual partner gender, men who had only male sex partners experienced more sexual orientation instability attitudes from heterosexual and lesbian/gay individuals; men with only female sex partners experienced more sexual irresponsibility attitudes from heterosexuals, but not from lesbian/gay individuals; and, like those with female serious relationship partners, men with only female sex partners had more frequent experiences of interpersonal hostility from heterosexual and lesbian/gay individuals. Results indicate that bisexual men experience unique forms of prejudice based on the gender of their relationship and sexual partners. Implications for the mental health of bisexual men are discussed.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422918

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the change in mental health (depression and anxiety) among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (GBM) one year after diagnosis and the disparities in trajectories of mental health between them. The potential factors contributing to the disparities were also investigated. This was a one-year follow-up study focusing on the mental health of newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals. Participants rated their depression, anxiety, stress, and social support levels at baseline and one year later. Information on the utilization of mental healthcare and the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) after diagnosis was collected at one-year follow-up. A total of 171 and 87 HIV-positive gay and bisexual men, respectively, completed two-time points surveys in this study. The depressive and anxiety symptoms experienced by HIV-positive GBM improvement one year after diagnosis. These improvements tended to be smaller in gay participants. Other factors including mental health care utilization and ART status during the one-year follow-up period, changes in social stress scores and objective social support scores were also associated with the changes in depression and anxiety, and all these factors, except for change in objective support, were found to be statistically different between HIV-positive GBM. Special attention should be given to the mental health of HIV-positive gay men. Promoting HIV-positive gay men to assess to mental health services and ART may be important for these populations to improve mental health. Enhancing social support and reducing stress levels may also be necessary for the vulnerable HIV-positive sexual minority groups.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade , Infecções por HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Saúde Mental , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Bissexualidade/psicologia , China , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 669, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has the world's largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population. This study assessed the discrimination experienced by LGBT individuals in China in a comprehensive way, covering discrimination perpetrated by family, media, medical services, religious communities, schools, social services, and in the workplace. METHODS: The current study involved a national survey of 31 provinces and autonomous regions. Discrimination was measured both in terms of heterosexual participants' attitudes towards LGBT individuals, and LGBT participants' self-perceived discrimination. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the difference between heterosexual participants' attitudes towards LGBT individuals and LGBT participants' self-perceived discrimination. Linear regression was used to investigate the association between gross domestic product per capita and discrimination. RESULTS: Among 29,125 participants, 2066 (7.1%) identified as lesbian, 9491 (32.6%) as gay, 3441 (11.8%) as bisexual, 3195 (11.0%) as transgender, and 10,932 (37.5%) as heterosexual. Heterosexual people were generally friendly towards the LGBT community with a mean score of 21.9 (SD = 2.7, total scale score = 100) and the grand averaged score of self-perceived discrimination by LGBT participants was 49.9 (SD = 2.5). Self-perceived discrimination from family and social services is particularly severe. We created a series of provincial level choropleth maps showing heterosexual participants' acceptance towards the LGBT community, and self-perceived discrimination reported by members of the LGBT community. We found that a higher level of economic development in provinces was associated with a decrease in discrimination, and we identified that every 100 thousand RMB increase in per capita GDP lead to a 6.4% decrease in discriminatory events perpetrated by heterosexuals. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese LGBT groups consistently experience discrimination in various aspects of their daily lives. The prevalence of this discrimination is associated with the economic development of the province in which it occurs. In order to reduce discrimination, it is important for future studies to discover the underlying reasons for discrimination against LGBT individuals in China.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Transexualidade/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(5): 1769-1782, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285312

RESUMO

Chinese Confucian filial piety posits that getting married and having children to maintain family bloodlines is a fundamental duty of children to their parents. Chinese lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals experience added stresses because of the pressure to get married from parents, social environments, and themselves. However, no research thus far has examined the influence of this added stressor, called "pressure to get married," on the mental health of LGB individuals in China. This study examined the influence of sexual orientation-based stresses (i.e., LGB minority stress and perceived pressure to get married) on mental health among 543 Chinese single LGB individuals (259 gay men, 161 lesbians, 68 bisexual men, and 55 bisexual women). We developed a new measure of stress based on perceived pressure to get married and found three factors based on pressure sources: social pressure, parental pressure, and internalized pressure. Both minority stress and perceived pressure to get married were associated with worse mental health. Minority stress and perceived external pressure (i.e., perceived social and parental pressure) were found to be components of a second-order latent variable, called sexual orientation-based stress, which was associated with worse mental health. Sexual orientation-based stress is associated with mental health through coping/emotion and cognitive, but not social, processes. The results indicate that the pressure to get married experienced by Chinese LGB individuals need to be examined further. The findings indicated that the perceived pressure to get married was another significant stressor based on sexual orientation and minority stress, and was associated with mental health among Chinese LGB individuals.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 299, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexualized drug use (SDU) refers to use of any psychoactive substance before/during sexual intercourse. Chemsex is a subset of SDU, which is defined as the use of some specific psychoactive substances (methamphetamine, mephedrone, γ-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine and cocaine) before/during sexual intercourse. SDU and chemsex are prevalent among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). This study investigated uptake and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among a sample of GBMSM in Hong Kong with experience of SDU in the past year. METHODS: A total of 600 GBMSM were recruited by convenient sampling through outreaching in gay venues, online recruitment and peer referral. Participants completed a cross-sectional anonymous telephone interview. This study was based on a subsample of 580 GBMSM self-reported as HIV negative/unknown sero-status. RESULTS: Of the participants, 82 (14.1%) and 37 (6.4%) had experience of SDU and chemsex in the past year. The prevalence of PrEP uptake was 4.0% among all participants and 14.6% among those with experience of SDU in the past year. Among GBMSM with experience of SDU in the past year who were not on PrEP (n = 70), 67.1% were willing to use daily oral PrEP in the next 6 months. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that positive attitudes toward PrEP (AOR: 2.37, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.82), perceived support from significant others to use PrEP (AOR: 9.67, 95%CI: 2.95, 31.71), and perceived behavioral control of using PrEP (AOR: 19.68, 95%CI: 5.44, 71.26) were significantly associated with higher willingness to use PrEP. CONCLUSION: GBMSM with experience of recent SDU are potentially good candidates of PrEP implementation. This group of GBMSM reported high prevalence of uptake and willingness to use PrEP. Perceptions related to PrEP based on the Theory of Planned Behavior were significantly associated with willingness to use PrEP.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Volição , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Volição/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(5): 1671-1682, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335792

RESUMO

Research on structural stigma has associated the poor mental health status among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people with discriminatory institutions. Yet, less is known about the role of LGB adults' perceptions of social attitudes toward LGB issues. Moreover, the psychological mediation framework posits LGB people's self-acceptance as a mediator between a stigmatizing environment and individual mental health. This study investigated: (a) how perceived attitudes toward LGB issues from different social realms (society, heterosexual friends, and family members) were associated with LGB people's mental health; and (b) whether self-acceptance mediated the effects of perceived attitudes. In this cross-sectional study, 1527 Taiwanese LGB adults (812 men; 715 women) aged between 20 and 62 years were recruited via Facebook to complete an online survey. The majority of respondents self-identified as homosexual (1129) and 399 as bisexual. The survey consisted of assessment of respondents' mental health and questions to rate individual self-acceptance and perceptions of social attitudes. Path analysis showed that self-acceptance partially mediated the association between mental health and perceived societal acceptance of homosexuality and fully mediated the effect of perceptions of friends' acceptance of homosexuality on mental health. Self-acceptance fully mediated the effects of perceived support for same-sex marriage from friends and families. This research yielded evidence about the interplay between perceived social stigma, self-acceptance, and mental health, particularly in the context of public debate about same-sex marriage. The effects of public discourse about sexual diversity and marriage equality on LGB adults' mental health should be addressed by affirmative policies and practices.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163450

RESUMO

Borrowing concepts from public health, we examined the association of several social determinants with the mental health of middle-aged and older queer men in India by combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies. A cross-sectional survey guided by Meyer's Minority Stress Model was carried out to assess the links between minority stressors (internalized homophobia and degree of closetedness), age-related stressors (ageism and fear of ageing) and psychological wellbeing (loneliness, depressive symptoms and sexual compulsivity) among 207 Indian men (aged 40 years and above) who identified themselves as non-heterosexuals. Results from simple and multivariable linear regression models showed significant positive associations of ageism, internalized homophobia, and fear of ageing with loneliness, even after accounting for sociodemographic and stress mitigating factors. Ageism was not significantly related to depressive symptoms. However, fear of ageing and internalized homophobia was positively associated with depressive symptoms after accounting for covariates. Further, regression models demonstrated a consistent and statistically significant inverse association between income and adverse psychological outcomes suggesting the centrality of social class in the lived experience of Indian gay and bisexual men. The qualitative inquiry addressed the same research questions as the quantitative survey through in-depth interviews of thirty middle-aged and older gay and bisexual men in Mumbai. We found that older and midlife gay and bisexual men with higher income (a proxy for social class) found ways to manage their masculinities with no discernible adverse psychological outcomes. Depressive symptoms and loneliness in this population made them further vulnerable to excessive sexual impulses, especially in the older queer men who were passing off as heterosexuals. Overall, the theory-driven empirical findings suggest that even in India, where family and friends are social insurance for later life, the issues of ageism and internalized homophobia have the potential to lead to worse mental health outcomes among older queer men.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ageismo/psicologia , Ageismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Homofobia/psicologia , Homofobia/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
19.
AIDS Care ; 32(sup2): 142-147, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192368

RESUMO

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are a key population that is disproportionately affected by HIV. However, few studies have explored how and why disclosure of HIV status occurs in this population. To understand disclosure in the context of other socioecological factors, we conducted a qualitative study among 24 self-identified HIV-positive GBMSM, aged 21 and above, and who were Singaporean residents. Analysis of participants' interviews revealed that disclosure of HIV status was not a binary event; rather, each type of disclosure held varying degrees of positive and negative ramifications. Disclosure and self-acknowledgement of HIV status at each time point also had different consequences for participants' quality of life. Suggested potential interventions include increasing training for medical professionals and public awareness surrounding issues relating to HIV. Findings from this study provide a framework to describe the complexities that accompany serostatus disclosure in a setting where there are prevalent "shame-based", negative attitudes towards HIV. As such, this framework can also be utilized in the future planning and organization of services for this target population in similar contexts.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual , Vergonha , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214323

RESUMO

There has recently been growing attention and concern in the U.S. on the detrimental drug use and related health conditions impacting diverse sexual minority populations. While some evidence indicates that bisexual women are at increased risk of substance use, little attention has been given to disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority bisexual women, who are particularly vulnerable to a complexity of stressors and risk. Using data from a 15-year longitudinal study in San Antonio, Texas, the current study examines drug use, incarceration histories, stressful life events, and infections among 206 young adult Mexican-American women who report engaging in sex with both men and women (WSWM) (n = 61) and those indicating having exclusively male sex partners (WSM) (n = 145). A bivariate analysis finds that WSWM experienced more frequent (p = 0.001) and longer total time incarcerated (p = 0.001), as well as exposure to more stressful life events (p = 0.003). WSWM also have higher rates of past 30 day injection drug use (p = 0.026) and related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection (p = 0.001), as well as greater symptomatology associated with depression (p = 0.014), PTSD (p = 0.005), and suicidal ideation (p = 0.036). Findings indicate a significantly elevated risk profile for socio-economically marginalized WSWM. This knowledge is timely and central to policy discourse to develop interventions and health campaigns aimed at reducing and/or preventing further health disparities among this highly susceptible population of minority women.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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