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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608928

RESUMO

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a key role in the control of the reproductive axis in vertebrates, however, little is known about its function in reproductive endocrine regulation in molluscs. In the present study, RNA-seq was used to construct transcriptomes of Ruditapes philippinarum testis and ovaries of control and GnRH suppressed individuals using RNA interference. GnRH suppression caused 112 and 169 enriched KEGG pathways in testis and ovary, with 92 pathways in common in both comparisons. The most enriched KEGG pathways occurred in the "Oxidative phosphorylation", "Dorso-ventral axis formation", "Thyroid hormone synthesis" and "Oxytocin signaling pathway" etc. A total of 1838 genes in testis and 358 genes in ovaries were detected differentially expressed in GnRH suppressed clams. Among the differentially expressed genes, a suit of genes related to regulation of steroid hormones synthesis and gonadal development, were found in both ovary and testis with RNAi of GnRH. These results suggest that GnRH may play an important role in reproductive function in bivalves. This study provides a preliminary basis for studying the function and regulatory mechanism of GnRH in bivalves.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Interferência de RNA , Regulação para Baixo , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280601, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662733

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by progressive joint destruction. Green-lipped mussel (GLM) has chondro-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, but the mechanism underlying the effect of GLM on RA is unclear. To investigate the roles of GLM on the pathogenesis of RA, we examined the effects of GLM in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice and osteoclast differentiation. GLM was orally administrated CIA mice at 3 weeks after chicken type II collagen (CII) immunizations. GLM reduced arthritis severity and the histologic score of CIA mice compared to vehicle. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-17) was decreased in the ankle joints of GLM-treated CIA mice. The expression of CD4+ IL-17+ cells decreased in ex vivo splenocytes and the spleens of GLM-treated CIA mice. Moreover, GLM inhibited TRAP+ multinucleated cells among mouse bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMM), and the expression of osteoclast-related genes in mouse BMMs and human monocytes in vitro. These results suggest that GLM has potential as a therapeutic agent that can improve disease by controlling pathologic immune cells and osteoclastogenesis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Bivalves , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Osteogênese , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Bivalves/metabolismo
3.
Mar Environ Res ; 183: 105845, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525829

RESUMO

Currently, research on toxic effects of PCP Na is greatly insufficient. The aim of this study is to explore the toxic effects of PCP-Na for better conducting future work on PCP-Na toxicology. For this purpose, S. constricta adults were exposed to PCP-Na for toxicity testing. The results showed that PCP-Na could easily bioaccumulate in S. constricta and significantly affected both phrase I and II metabolism enzymes. Meanwhile, PCP-Na strongly activated antioxidant system and caused PC, LPO and DNA damage. In addition, neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity of PCP-Na was demonstrated in this study. Interestingly, we observed that PCP-Na significantly affected the expression of genes of electron transport chain and induced key enzymes of glycolysis, indicating that PCP-Na may act as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, interfering with energy supply and causing energy compensation. This study is the first to fully analyze and provide a new perspective on the toxicity of PCP-Na.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Pentaclorofenol , Animais , Pentaclorofenol/toxicidade , Pentaclorofenol/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Antioxidantes
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160796, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528093

RESUMO

In recent years recurrent bivalve mass mortalities considerably increased around the world, causing the collapse of natural and farmed populations. Venice Lagoon has historically represented one of the major production areas of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Europe. However, in the last 20 years a 75 % decrease in the annual production has been experienced. While climate change and anthropogenic interventions may have played a key role in natural and farmed stocks reductions, no studies investigated at multiple levels the environmental stressors affecting farmed Manila clam to date. In this work we carried out a long-term monitoring campaign on Manila clam reared in four farming sites located at different distances from the southern Venice Lagoon inlet, integrating (meta)genomic approaches (i.e. RNA-seq; microbiota characterization), biometric measurements and chemical-physical parameters. Our study allowed to characterize the molecular mechanisms adopted by this species to cope with the different environmental conditions characterizing farming sites and to propose hypotheses to explain mortality events observed in recent years. Among the most important findings, the disruption of clam's immune response, the spread of Vibrio spp., and the up-regulation of molecular pathways involved in xenobiotic metabolism suggested major environmental stressors affecting clams farmed in sites placed close to Chioggia's inlet, where highest mortality was also observed. Overall, our study provides knowledge-based tools for managing Manila clam farming on-growing areas. In addition, the collected data is a snapshot of the time immediately before the commissioning of MoSE, a system of mobile barriers aimed at protecting Venice from high tides, and will represent a baseline for future studies on the effects of MoSE on clams farming and more in general on the ecology of the Venice Lagoon.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Agricultura , Genômica
5.
Gene ; 854: 147112, 2023 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513188

RESUMO

In this study, we identified a total of 40 transient receptor potential genes (RpTRP) in Manila clam by genome-wide identification and classified them into four categories (TRPV, TRPA, TRPM, TRPC) based on gene structure and subfamily relationships. The protein length of RpTRP genes ranges from 281 amino acids to 1601 amino acids. Molecular weight and theoretical PI values range from 182.82 kDa to 32.43 kDa, respectively, with PI values between 5.17 and 9.25. By comparing the expression profiles of TRP genes during heat stress in Manila clams at different latitudes, we found that most genes in the TRP gene family were up-regulated in expression during heat challenge. Therefore, we determined that TRP genes have an important role in the heat stress of Manila clams. This work provides a basis for further studies on the molecular mechanisms of TRP-mediated heat tolerance in Manila clam and for explaining differences in heat tolerance in Manila clam at different latitudes through key differential TRP genes at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório , Animais , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/genética , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Genoma , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150369, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571231

RESUMO

In coastal systems, pollutants as pharmaceutical drugs exert changes from the molecular to the organism level in marine bivalves. Besides pollutants, coastal systems are prone to changes in environmental parameters, as the alteration of salinity values because of Climate Change. Together, these stressors (pharmaceutical drugs and salinity changes) can exert different threats than each stressor acting individually; for example, salinity can change the physical-chemical properties of the drugs and/or the sensitivity of the organisms to them. However, limited information is available on this subject, with variable results, and for this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the impacts of salinity changes (15, 25 and 35) on the effects of the antiepileptic carbamazepine (CBZ, 1 µg/L) and the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ, 0.6 µg/L), when acting individually and combined (CBZ + CTZ), in the edible clam Ruditapes philippinarum. After 28 days of exposure, drugs concentrations, bioconcentration factors and biochemical parameters, related to clam's metabolic capacity and oxidative stress were evaluated. The results showed that clams under low salinity suffered more changes in metabolic, antioxidant and biotransformation activities, in comparison with the remaining salinities under study. However, limited impacts were observed when comparing drug effects at low salinity. Indeed, it seemed that CTZ and CBZ + CTZ, under high salinity (salinity 35) were the worst exposure conditions for the clams, since they caused higher levels of cellular damage. It stands out that salinity changes altered the impact of pharmaceutical drugs on marine bivalves.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos , Estresse Oxidativo , Salinidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360278

RESUMO

(1) Introduction: Lucina pectinata is a clam found in sulfide-rich mud environments that has three hemoglobins believed to be responsible for the transport of hydrogen sulfide (HbILp) and oxygen (HbIILp and HbIIILp) to chemoautotrophic endosymbionts. The physiological roles and evolution of these globins in sulfide-rich environments are not well understood. (2) Methods: We performed bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses with 32 homologous mollusk globin sequences. Phylogenetics suggests a first gene duplication resulting in sulfide binding and oxygen binding genes. A more recent gene duplication gave rise to the two oxygen-binding hemoglobins. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the sequence space shows evolutionary drift of HbIILp and HbIIILp, while HbILp was closer to the Calyptogena hemoglobins. Further corroboration is seen by conservation in the coding region of hemoglobins from L. pectinata compared to those from Calyptogena. (3) Conclusions: Presence of glutamine in position E7 in organisms living in sulfide-rich environments can be considered an adaptation to prevent loss of protein function. In HbILp a substitution of phenylalanine in position B10 is accountable for its unique reactivity towards H2S. It appears that HbILp has been changing over time, apparently not subject to functional constraints of binding oxygen, and acquired a unique function for a specialized environment.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Biologia Computacional , Animais , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Hemoglobinas/genética , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Sulfetos , Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(9): 1369-1381, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208366

RESUMO

Even though bivalve molluscs are recognized as bioindicators of freshwater quality, their responses to multiple stressors are unpredictable. This study aims to elucidate the inter-population peculiarities of the effect in the sub-chronic environmentally relevant exposure to novel contaminants. The specimens of Unio tumidus from reference (Pr) and contaminated (Ct) areas were treated with ibuprofen (IBU, 0.8 µg L-1), microplastic (MP, 1.0 mg L-1, size 0.1-0.5 mm), or their combination (Mix) for 14 days. Untreated mussels (PrC- and CtC-groups) served as controls. The PrC-group had higher levels of antioxidants Mn-SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, and cholinesterase (AChE) as well as lesser levels of oxidative lesions (TBARS and protein carbonyls) in digestive glands, indicating lower environmental impact than in the CtC-group. However, lysosomal stability was similar in both control groups. Among antioxidants, Mn-SOD activity was affected most prominently, increasing in all exposed Ct-groups. TBARS level was increased only in PrMP-group compared to responsive control. IBU and Mix enhanced protein carbonyl concentration in the Pr-groups, and decreased it in the Ct-groups. AChE was induced in the CtIBU- and PrMix-groups, and lysosomal integrity increased in the CtIBU and CtMix-groups. Discriminant analyses indicated lesser differences between Pr-groups, demonstrating lower cumulative stress compared to Ct-groups. Generally, the most remarkable response was revealed in the CtIBU-group, and distortion of individual effects was established in combined exposures. The qualification of stress-neutral and stress-positive populations was proposed for Pr- and Ct-populations correspondingly. Inter-site peculiarities must be taken into consideration when the environmental impact of MP and pharmaceuticals is evaluated.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Unio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Unio/metabolismo , Microplásticos , Ibuprofeno/toxicidade , Plásticos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Biol Lett ; 18(10): 20220275, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196553

RESUMO

In 2020, the first male-type mitochondrial genome from the clam Macoma balthica was published. Apart from the unusual doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA, scientists observed a unique (over 4k bp long) extension in the middle of the cox2 gene. We have attempted to replicate these data by NGS DNA sequencing and explore further the expression of the long cox2 gene. In our study, we report an even longer cox2 gene (over 5.5 kbp) with no stop codon separating conserved cox2 domains, as well as, based on the rtPCR, a lower relative gene expression pattern of the middle part of the gene (5' = 1; mid = 0.46; 3' = 0.89). Lastly, we sequenced the cox2 gene transcript proving the excision of the intronic sequence.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Códon/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Masculino , Filogenia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089185

RESUMO

The role of insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway in the growth regulation of marine invertebrates has not been fully studied. In this study, the economically important species Ruditapes philippinarum was sacrificed to clarify the role of IGF system in the growth regulation of R. philippinarum by real-time quantitative PCR. Systematic bioinformatics analysis can identify the major genes of IGF signaling pathway and insulin-like peptide receptor (ILPR) - mediated signaling pathway in R. philippinarum. The expression levels of IGF and its downstream signaling pathway genes in larger clams were significantly higher than those in small clams, indicating that they were involved in the growth regulation of R. philippinarum. These results suggest that IGF signaling pathway and ILPR mediated signaling pathway to regulate the growth of R. philippinarum.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Somatomedinas , Animais , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Insulina/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos , Transdução de Sinais , Somatomedinas/genética , Somatomedinas/metabolismo
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129681, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104908

RESUMO

The ubiquitous presence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in ocean environments threatens marine organisms. However, its effects on immunity of marine invertebrates at environmentally realistic levels are still largely unknown. In this study, the immunotoxicity of PCP to a representative bivalve species was evaluated. In addition, its impacts on metabolism, energy supply, detoxification, and oxidative stress status were also analysed by physiological examination as well as comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to reveal potential mechanisms underpinning. Results illustrated that the immunity of blood clams was evidently hampered upon PCP exposure. Additionally, significant alterations in energy metabolism were detected in PCP-exposed clams. Meanwhile, the expressions of key detoxification genes and the in vivo contents (or activity) of key detoxification enzymes were markedly altered. Exposure to PCP also triggered significant elevations in intracellular ROS and MDA whereas evident suppression of haemocyte viability. The abovementioned findings were further supported by transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Our results suggest that PCP may hamper the immunity of the blood clam by (i) constraining the cellular energy supply through disrupting metabolism; and (ii) damaging haemocytes through inducing oxidative stress. Considering the high similarity of immunity among species, many marine invertebrates may be threatened by PCP, which deserves more attention.


Assuntos
Arcidae , Bivalves , Pentaclorofenol , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , Hemócitos , Estresse Oxidativo , Pentaclorofenol/metabolismo , Pentaclorofenol/toxicidade
12.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 3): 136474, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126739

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is a vital trace element for many living organisms inclusive of aquatic species. Although the antagonistic action of this element against other pollutants has been previously described for mammals and birds, limited information on the join effects in bivalves is available. To this end, bivalves of the species Scrobicularia plana were exposed to Se and Cd individually and jointly. Digestive glands were analysed to determine dose-dependent effects, the potential influence of Se on Cd bioaccumulationas well as the possible recover of the oxidative stress and metabolic alterations induced by Cd. Selenium co-exposure decreased the accumulation of Cd at low concentrations. Cd exposure significantly altered the metabolome of clams such as aminoacyltRNA biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid and amino acid metabolism, while Se co-exposure ameliorated several altered metabolites such asLysoPC (14:0), LysoPE (20:4), LysoPE (22:6), PE (14:0/18:0), PE (20:3/18:4) andpropionyl-l-carnitine.Additionally, Se seems to be able to regulate the redox status of the digestive gland of clams preventing the induction of oxidativedamage in this organ. This study shows the potential Se antagonism against Cd toxicity in S. plana and the importance to study join effects of pollutants to understand the mechanism underlined the effects.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Ambientais , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Bivalves/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carnitina/metabolismo , Carnitina/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Glicerofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selênio/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
13.
Gene ; 845: 146865, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067865

RESUMO

Exposure to cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal, can cause strong and toxic side effects. Cd can enter the body of organisms in several ways, leading to various pathological reactions in the body. Tegillarca granosa is a kind of bivalve shellfish favored by people in the coastal areas of China. Bivalve shellfish can easily absorb heavy metal pollutants from water bodies while filter feeding. T. granosa is considered a hyper-accumulator of Cd, and the TgABCA3 gene is highly expressed in individuals with a high content of Cd-exposed blood clam. However, it is unclear whether TgABCA3 is involved in Cd ion transport in blood clam and the molecular mechanism for the mechanism of the Cd-induced responses for maintaining cell homeostasis. In this study, the complete cDNA of the TgABCA3 gene was analyzed to provide insights into the roles of TgABCA3 in resistance against Cd in blood clam. The complete sequence of TgABCA3 showed high identity to that of TgABCA3 from other bivalves and contained some classical motifs of ATP-binding cassette transport proteins. TgABCA3 expression in different tissues was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis. The tissue-specific expression showed that TgABCA3 expression was highest in the gill tissue. The TgABCA3 expression in the gill tissue was silenced using the RNA interference technique. After TgABCA3 silencing, the TgABCA3 expression decreased, the Cd content increased, the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates increased, and the ingestion rate decreased. These results showing that the extents of Cd accumulation and resulting toxic effects are related to expression levels and activity of TgABCA3 indicate that TgABCA3 has a protective function against Cd in the clam. This increase in Cd accumulation results in serious damage to the body, leading to the enhancement of its physiological metabolism. Therefore, the findings of the study demonstrated that TgABCA3 can participate in the transport of Cd ions in the blood clam through active transport and play a vital role in Cd detoxification.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Arcidae , Bivalves , Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Arcidae/genética , Arcidae/metabolismo , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075178

RESUMO

The molluscan shell is a good model for understanding the mechanisms underlying biomineralization. It is composed of calcium carbonate crystals and many types of organic molecules, such as the matrix proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. The pen shell Atrina pectinata (Pterioida, Pinnidae) has two shell microstructures: an outer prismatic layer and an inner nacreous layer. Similar microstructures are well known in pearl oysters (Pteriidae), such as Pinctada fucata, and many kinds of shell matrix proteins (SMPs) have been identified from their shells. However, the members of SMPs that consist of the nacreous and prismatic layers of Pinnidae bivalves remain unclear. In this study, we identified 114 SMPs in the nacreous and prismatic layers of A. pectinata, of which only seven were found in both microstructures. 54 of them were found to bind calcium carbonate. Comparative analysis of nine molluscan shell proteomes showed that 69 of 114 SMPs of A. pectinata were found to have sequential similarity with at least one or more SMPs of other molluscan species. For instance, nacrein, tyrosinase, Pif/BMSP-like, chitinase (CN), chitin-binding proteins, CD109, and Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitors are widely shared among bivalves and gastropods. Our results provide new insights for understanding the complex evolution of SMPs related to nacreous and prismatic layer formation in the pteriomorph bivalves.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Nácar , Pinctada , Animais , Nácar/química , Bivalves/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Exoesqueleto/metabolismo
15.
Protein Expr Purif ; 200: 106157, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987324

RESUMO

Candidatus Vesicomyosocius okutanii is a currently uncultured endosymbiotic bacterium of Phreagena okutanii, a clam that inhabits deep-sea vent environments. The genome of Ca. V. okutanii encodes a sulfur-oxidizing (Sox) enzyme complex, presumably generating biological energy for the host from inorganic sulfur compounds. Here, Ca. V. okutanii SoxX (VoSoxX), a mono-heme cytochrome c component of the Sox complex, was shown to be phylogenetically related to its homologous counterpart (HcSoxX) from a free-living deep-sea bacterium, Hydrogenovibrio crunogenus. Both proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli co-expressing cytochrome c maturation genes for comparative biochemical analysis. The VoSoxX recombinant had significantly lower thermal stability than HcSoxX, reflecting the difference in growth conditions of the source bacteria. The endosymbiont inhabits a mild intracellular environment, whereas the free-living bacterium dwells in a harsh environment. This study represents the first successful case of heterologous expression of genes from Ca. V. okutanii, allowing further biochemical studies of the molecular mechanism of sulfur oxidation in deep-sea environments.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Gammaproteobacteria , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Citocromos c , Filogenia , Piscirickettsiaceae , Enxofre/metabolismo , Compostos de Enxofre
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985189

RESUMO

In this research, we identified genes associated with ammonia nitrogen (TAN) stress response and resistance in juveniles of the Zebra II strain and a wild population of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Both groups were subjected to a 96 h acute toxicity test using TAN concentrations of 17.617 ± 0.634 and 16.670 ± 0.7 mg/l, respectively. We then collected samples, conducted transcriptome sequencing and screened the sequences for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to TAN stress response. We identified 2908 and 2861 DEGs in the Zebra II and wild clam groups, respectively, and the two groups had 626 DEGs in common. The verified DEGs had less of a detoxification effect in the wild population than that in the Zebra II group. Gene Ontology database analysis showed that Zebra II juveniles were mainly enriched in protein phosphorylation, purine nucleoside binding, and kinase activity, whereas the wild population juveniles were primarily enriched in oxidases activity, organic acid metabolic processes, and extracellular regions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis mainly highlighted aminoacyl tRNA biosynthesis in Zebra II juveniles and sphingolipid metabolism, FOXO signaling, biosynthesis of aminoacyl tRNA, and other pathways in the wild population. These results show that the toxic effect of TAN on the Manila clam is related to a variety of pathways, which are mainly related to immune response, inflammatory response, metabolic pathways, and nerve conduction. This study provides basic data and theoretical reference for revealing the molecular regulation mechanism of the improved TAN tolerance of Zebra II strain as compared with the wild population of Ruditapes philippinarum.


Assuntos
Amônia , Bivalves , Animais , Amônia/metabolismo , Amônia/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/metabolismo , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/farmacologia , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , RNA de Transferência
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 109(5): 831-838, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951059

RESUMO

This study aims to verify the relevance of Brachidontes pharaonis to assess the ecotoxicological status of polluted sites. For this, the levels of some heavy metals (i.e. Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) and a battery of biomarkers including metallothionein (MT), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were assessed in mussels collected from the harbor of Rades (North), and the harbor of Zarzis (South). Moreover, abiotic parameters including temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen were assessed. Results from the ICP-OES showed that the southern population exhibited a higher metal pollution index with significantly higher Zn, Cu, and Pb concentrations. Moreover, the specimens from Zarzis displayed significantly higher levels of MDA, MT, GSH, GPx, SOD, and CAT reflecting higher levels of oxidative and chemical stress. These results emphasize the potential utility of B. pharaonis for the monitoring of heavily impacted sites.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Metais Pesados , Mytilidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Bioacumulação , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Bivalves/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Catalase/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914710

RESUMO

The vulnerability of bivalve mollusks to micropollutants is estimated mainly in single model exposures. However, chronic environmental stress and complex exposures can modulate their responses. To evaluate the impact of population-dependent adaptations on the ability to react to common micropollutants, we compared freshwater bivalves Unio tumidus from two distinct populations, pure (Pr) and contaminated (Ct), in their exposures to microplastics (MP, 1 mg L-1, size 0.1-0.5 mm), pharmaceutical ibuprofen (IBU, 0.8 µg L-1), or their combination (Mix) for 14 days. Control groups from both sites showed remarkable differences, with lower levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), metallothionein protein (MTSH), NADH and NAD+, cytochrome P450-related EROD, glutathione-S transferase (GST), and citrate synthase (CS) but higher levels of GSH, GSSG, caspase-3 and cathepsin D (CTD) in the Ct-control group. These data indicate a chronic stress impact in the Ct population. Under exposures, we found an almost common strategy in both populations for NAD+/NADH and MTSH suppression and CTD induction. Additionally, Mix exposure caused an increase in CS, and IBU did not change GSH in both populations. However, the expected response to IBU - the suppression of caspase-3 - was indicated only in PrIBU- and PrMix-mollusks. CTD efflux increased dramatically only in PrMP- and PrMix- groups, and suppression of EROD and GST was detected in the PrMix-group. According to discriminant analysis, exposed Pr-groups were highly differentiated from control, whereas Ct-control and exposed groups had common localization demonstrating high resistance to environmental stress. Thus, the same exposures resulted in different adverse outcome pathways depending on the population.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Unio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Ibuprofeno/toxicidade , Microplásticos , NAD/metabolismo , Plásticos , Unio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Mar Drugs ; 20(8)2022 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35892940

RESUMO

Filter-feeding bivalves can accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) produced by toxic microalgae, which may induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidases (ACOXs) are key enzymes functioning in maintaining redox and lipid homeostasis, but their roles in PST response in bivalves are less understood. Herein, a total of six and six ACOXs were identified in the Chlamys farreri and Patinopecten yessoensis genome, respectively, and the expansion of ACOX1s was observed. Gene expression analysis revealed an organ/tissue-specific expression pattern in both scallops, with all ACOXs being predominantly expressed in the two most toxic organs, digestive glands and kidneys. The regulation patterns of scallop ACOXs after exposure to different PST-producing algaes Alexandrium catenella (ACDH) and A. minutum (AM-1) were revealed. After ACDH exposure, more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in C. farreri digestive glands (three) and kidneys (five) than that in P. yessoensis (two), but the up-regulated DEGs showed similar expression patterns in both species. In C. farreri, three DEGs were found in both digestive glands and kidneys after AM-1 exposure, with two same CfACOX1s being acutely and chronically induced, respectively. Notably, these two CfACOX1s also showed different expression patterns in kidneys between ACDH (acute response) and AM-1 (chronic response) exposure. Moreover, inductive expression of CfACOXs after AM-1 exposure was observed in gills and mantles, and all DEGs in both tissues were up-regulated and their common DEGs exhibited both acute and chronic induction. These results indicate the involvement of scallop ACOXs in PST response, and their plasticity expression patterns between scallop species, among tissues, and between the exposure of different PST analogs.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Dinoflagelados , Pectinidae , Toxinas Biológicas , Acil-CoA Oxidase/genética , Acil-CoA Oxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , Coenzima A/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pectinidae/genética
20.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119710, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798193

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate biochemical and cellular responses of the freshwater mussel, Hyriopsis bialata, to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ). The mussels were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of ATZ (0, 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L) and a high concentration (2 mg/L) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Tissues comprising male and female gonads, digestive glands and gills were collected and assessed for ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR), histopathological responses, DNA fragmentation and bioaccumulation of ATZ and its transformation derivatives, desethylatrazine (DEA) and desisopropylatrazine (DIA). Additionally, circulating estradiol levels were determined. It appeared that ATZ did not cause significant changes in activities of EROD, GST and MXR. There were no apparent ATZ-mediated histopathological effects in the tissues, with the exception of the male gonads exhibiting aberrant aggregation of germ cells in the ATZ-treated mussels. Contrarily, ATZ caused significant DNA fragmentation in all tissues of the treated animals in dose- and time-dependent manners. In general, the circulating estradiol levels were higher in the females than in the males. However, ATZ-treated animals did not show significant alterations in the hormonal levels, as compared with those of the untreated animals. Herein, we showed for the first time differentially spatiotemporal distribution patterns of bioaccumulation of ATZ, DEA and DIA, with ATZ and DEA detectable in the gonads of both sexes, DEA and DIA in the digestive glands and only DEA in the gills. The differential distribution patterns of bioaccumulation of ATZ and its derivatives among the tissues point to different pathways and tissue capacity in transforming ATZ into its transformation products. Taken together, the freshwater mussel H. bialata was resistant to ATZ likely due to their effective detoxification. However, using DNA damage as a potential biomarker, H. bialata is a promising candidate for biomonitoring aquatic toxicity.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Bivalves , Herbicidas , Unionidae , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Bivalves/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Estradiol , Feminino , Água Doce , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Unionidae/metabolismo
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