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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10506-10513, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521360

RESUMO

Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen often found in animal feedstuffs. Although it reportedly impairs development of the preimplantation pig embryo, it is not known whether it adversely affects development of the preimplantation bovine embryo. We conducted 3 experiments to investigate this possibility and determine whether deleterious effects of aflatoxin were caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Experiments were conducted with embryos produced in vitro and cultured after fertilization with various concentrations of aflatoxin. For experiment 1, embryos were treated with 0 (control), 40, 400, or 4,000 µg/L of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Treatment at all concentrations of AFB1 tended to reduce cleavage rate, with the 2 highest concentrations having significant effects. As compared with the control, 40 µg/L AFB1 reduced the percentage of oocytes becoming blastocysts and the percentage of cleaved embryos becoming blastocysts (19.7 vs. 8.1% and 30.3 vs. 14.3%, respectively). Complete inhibition of blastocyst formation occurred at concentrations of 400 and 4,000 µg/L of AFB1. Experiments 2 and 3 involved a 2 × 2 factorial design with effects of AFB1 (0 and 40 µg/L), the antioxidant Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid, a water-soluble analog of vitamin E; 0 and 5 µM), and their interaction on production of ROS in putative zygotes (experiment 2) and development to the blastocyst stage (experiment 3). Production of ROS was increased by AFB1, and this effect was reversed by Trolox. However, Trolox did not prevent the reduction in development to the blastocyst stage caused by AFB1. Thus, the anti-developmental effects of AFB1 are not caused solely by increased ROS production. Rather, other underlying mechanisms exist for the adverse effects of aflatoxin on embryonic development. Overall, results indicate the potential for feeding aflatoxin-contaminated feed to cause embryonic loss in cattle.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Feminino , Oócitos , Oxigênio , Gravidez , Suínos
2.
Zygote ; 27(5): 279-284, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412960

RESUMO

Vitrification is a highly efficient technique for the cryopreservation of the human embryo. The effect of delayed blastulation may be responsible for implantation failures and negatively affects in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. The current literature displays discordant results; some studies have announced higher pregnancy rates after day 5 (D5) transfer compared with day 6 (D6) transfer, while others have shown equivalent outcomes. In the present study an investigation into the clinical implications of delayed blastulation (D5 versus D6) was carried out. We performed a retrospective study comparing clinical pregnancies and implantation rates following warmed single blastocyst transfer (WSBT). All patients coming for a programmed warmed transfer at Edinburgh Assisted Conception Programme, EFREC, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, were included in this study and divided in two groups according to the day of blastocyst vitrification: D5 (n = 1563) and D6 (n = 517). The overall survival rate was 95.0% (1976/2080) with no significant difference between the D5 and D6 groups: 95.3% (1489/1563) and 94.2% (487/517) respectively. WSBT of D6 blastocysts resulted in a lower implantation and clinical pregnancy compared with D5 embryos. The implantation rate (IPR) and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) were respectively 49.4% and 42.6% for the D5 and 37.4% and 32.2% for the D6 embryos, which was statistically significant. The multiple pregnancy rate was 1.32% (1.14% for D5 vs 1.84% for D6). Although the transfer of D6 vitrified-warmed blastocyst remains a reasonable option, priority to a D5 embryo would reduce the time to successful pregnancy.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez , Vitrificação , Adulto , Criopreservação , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Zygote ; 27(5): 321-328, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412962

RESUMO

Around 60-80% of oocytes maturated in vivo reached competence, while the proportion of maturation in vitro is rarely higher than 40%. In this sense, butafosfan has been used in vivo to improve metabolic condition of postpartum cows, and can represent an alternative to increase reproductive efficiency in cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of increasing doses of butafosfan during oocyte maturation in vitro on the initial embryo development in cattle. In total, 1400 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were distributed in four groups and maturated according to supplementation with increasing concentrations of butafosfan (0 mg/ml, 0.05 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml and 0.2 mg/ml). Then, 20 oocytes per group were collected to evaluate nuclear maturation and gene expression on cumulus cells and oocytes and the remaining oocytes were inseminated and cultured until day 7, when blastocysts were collected for gene expression analysis. A dose-dependent effect of butafosfan was observed, with decrease of cleavage rate and embryo development with higher doses. No difference between groups was observed in maturation rate and expression of genes related to oocyte quality. Our results suggest that butafosfan is prejudicial for oocytes, compromising cleavage and embryo development.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Butilaminas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Fosfínicos/farmacologia , Animais , Butilaminas/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Ácidos Fosfínicos/administração & dosagem
4.
Zygote ; 27(5): 350-354, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411131

RESUMO

Activated pERK1/2 and pAKT are key players in supporting cell survival and proliferation pathways. Translocation of pERK1/2 into the nucleus, where it interacts with transcription factors and DNA itself, is instrumental in exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. In this study, pAKT levels, pERK1/2 nuclear localization and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in cumulus cells of single cumulus-oocyte complexes of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization programmes were evaluated and correlated with the clinical outcome of the related embryos. For a positive clinical outcome of blastocyst development, pERK1/2 nuclear localization and DFI value had a significant inverse relationship, whereas the former and the intracellular accumulation of pAKT had a significant direct relationship. This relationship was not observed for the negative clinical outcome of the arrested embryos. Moreover, intracellular accumulation of pAKT and DFI value had a significant inverse relationship in all samples examined. The obtained data suggest that the intranuclear relocation of pERK1/2, along with an enhanced intracellular accumulation of pAKT, may exert a survival effect and increase cell viability, therefore providing a novel marker tool to choose the best oocyte to be fertilized and submitted to an intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle.


Assuntos
Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Fragmentação do DNA , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oócitos/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Oócitos/citologia , Indução da Ovulação , Fosforilação , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas
5.
Zygote ; 27(5): 337-346, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405390

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different timing for frozen-thawed bovine ampullary epithelial cell (BAEC) and bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture on the development and quality of bovine embryos produced in vitro. Embryo development was assessed by day 8 blastocyst yield, whereas embryo quality was determined using blastocyst differential cell count, cryotolerance and the expression of selected genes related to embryo quality. The results showed that the presence of BAECs during the last 6 h of in vitro maturation (IVM) increased blastocyst yield and survival of the vitrified-warmed blastocysts. In addition, embryos produced in the presence of BAECs during the last 6 h of IVM or in the presence of BOECs during the first 4 days of in vitro culture (IVC) showed a greater number of trophectoderm cells and a greater inner cell mass. In terms of gene expression, IFN-T was downregulated and PLAC8, AQP3 and ATP1A1 were upregulated in the presence of the BAECs during the last 6 h of the IVM and/or in the presence of BOECs during the first 4 days of IVC. In conclusion, co-culturing bovine oocytes with a frozen-thawed ampullary cell monolayer during the last 6 h of maturation increased blastocyst yield and quality.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Criopreservação , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/métodos , Oviductos/citologia , Animais , Aquaporina 3/genética , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Masculino , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
6.
Zygote ; 27(5): 347-349, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405397

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate if there is an adverse effect of multiple controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) on the maturity of oocytes (MI and MII), fertilization rate, embryo developmental qualities and clinical pregnancy rates in donation cycles. In total, 65 patients undergoing oocyte donation cycles multiple times were included in this study. Patients were grouped as group A that consisted of donors with ≤2 stimulation cycles while B consisted of donors with ≥3 stimulation cycles; and group C included donors who had ≤15 oocytes, while group D had donors with ≥16 oocytes. Numbers of oocytes obtained, MI and MII oocytes, fertilization, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy outcomes were compared. Significant statistical differences were observed in total number of oocytes obtained, maturity of oocytes (MI and MII), fertilization rate, embryo qualities and clinical pregnancy outcomes of donors in groups A-D. Donors with ≤2 ovarian stimulation cycles had lower numbers of immature oocytes than donors with three or more stimulation cycles. However, donors with ≥3 stimulation cycles had higher numbers of mature oocytes, zygotes, with better day 3 embryo qualities and higher clinical pregnancy rates than donors with ≤2 stimulation cycles. Repeated COS does not seem to have any adverse effect on ovarian response to higher dose of artificial gonadotropin, as quality of oocytes collected and their embryological developmental potential were not affected by the number of successive stimulation cycles. The effect of multiple COS on the health of the oocyte donor needs to be assessed for future purpose.


Assuntos
Doação de Oócitos/métodos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Gonadotropinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Doação de Oócitos/efeitos adversos , Oócitos/citologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
7.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 54, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) in body fluids has attracted much attention for the purpose of monitoring disease because of the clinical advantages. This study investigated whether the cf-mtDNA content in human follicular fluid samples was associated with oocyte and embryo developmental competence. METHODS: We collected 225 individual follicular fluid samples from 92 patients undergoing conventional in vitro fertilization (n = 53) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (n = 39). cf-mtDNA and cell-free nuclear DNA (cf-nDNA) were measured using real-time quantitative PCR for the ND1 and ß-globin genes. Multivariate logistic regression and linear regression were used to analyze data. RESULTS: The relative cf-mtDNA content (cf-ND1/cf-ß-globin ratio) in follicular fluid was significantly lower in the group showing blastocyst development than in the non-blastocyst group (P = 0.030). Additionally, the relative cf-mtDNA content was significantly and positively correlated with the age of the female patient (P = 0.009), while the relative cf-mtDNA content for older women (≥38 years old) with anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ≤1.1 ng/ml was significantly higher than in those with AMH > 1.1 ng/ml (P <0.05). The cf-nDNA content was significantly positively correlated with the antral follicle count (P = 0.012), and significantly negatively correlated with both the number of days of stimulation and the total dose of gonadotropin administration (P = 0.039 and P = 0.015, respectively). Neither cf-mtDNA nor cf-nDNA levels in follicular fluid were associated with oocyte maturation, fertilization, or Day 3 embryo morphological scoring. CONCLUSIONS: The relative cf-mtDNA content in human follicular fluid was negatively correlated with blastulation and positively correlated with the patient age, indicating that it is a promising bio-marker to evaluate oocyte developmental competence.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Adulto , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oócitos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(6): 1251-1261, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to study whether application of femtosecond laser pulses for alphanumeric code marking in the volume of zona pellucida (ZP) could be effective and reliable approach for direct tagging of preimplantation embryos. METHODS: Femtosecond laser pulses (wavelength of 514 nm, pulse duration of 280 fs, repetition rate of 2.5 kHz, pulse energy of 20 nJ) were applied for precise alphanumeric code engraving on the ZP of mouse embryos at the zygote stage for individual embryo marking and their accurate identification. Embryo quality assessment every 24 h post laser-assisted marking as well as immunofluorescence staining (for ICM/TE cell number ratio calculation) were performed. RESULTS: Initial experiments have started with embryo marking in a single equatorial plane. The codes engraved could be clearly recognized until the thinning of the ZP prior to hatching. Since embryo may change its orientation during the ART cycle, multi-plane code engraving seems to be more practical for simplifying the process of code searching and embryo identification. We have marked the ZP in three planes, and no decrease in developmental rates as well as no morphological changes of embryos post laser-assisted engraving have been observed as compared to control group embryos. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the suitability of femtosecond laser as a novel tool for noninvasive embryo tagging, enabling embryo identification from day 0.5 post coitum to at least early blastocyst stage. Thus, the versatility and the potential use of femtosecond lasers in the field of developmental biology and assisted reproduction have been shown.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Zona Pelúcida/fisiologia , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers , Camundongos , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Reprod Biol ; 19(2): 158-164, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196737

RESUMO

There is a large body of animal experimental data about assisted reproductive techniques that could be applied to improve clinical outcomes. The great part of this information was obtained from research on in vivo-derived embryos. But whether these results are always similar with those we expect from embryos having in vitro origin in the clinical cases is a critical question. The present study was designed to compare the effects of vitrification (VIT) and artificial collapse (AC) as two commonly used techniques on in vivo- and in vitro-derived mouse embryos. In this regard, both origins of blastocysts were produced and randomly divided into three experimental groups, including control (non-vitrified), VIT, and AC-VIT. The survival and hatching rates and the expression of development-related genes were assessed in all groups and compared with their control counterpart. According to our results, although in vivo and in vitro origins followed the same pattern in the hatching rate, the real-time PCR data showed two distinct patterns of gene expression. Compared to the control, vitrification increased the expression of pluripotency genes in in vivo group. While in vitro vitrified blastocysts showed a significant reduction in the transcripts of these genes. More interestingly, although AC resulted in a sharp decrease of Gata6 and Grb2 in post warmed in vivo blastocysts, it could not affect the vitrified IVP ones. In conclusion, it seems that vitrification and artificial collapse techniques have different effects on embryo fate depending on in vivo or in vitro origins of the embryos.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Criopreservação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Preservação de Tecido/métodos , Vitrificação , Animais , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Camundongos
10.
Reprod Biol ; 19(2): 204-209, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196738

RESUMO

As a common disease of cows occurring during their perinatal period, endometritis is known to affect fertility. At present, the studies on endometritis mainly focus on preventing microbial invasion. However, the mechanism that uterine inflammation affects embryo activity and implantation is unclear. Mainly containing lipids, proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs, exosomes widely exist in various tissues and body fluids. Exosome extractions were used by commercial kits and confirmed through morphological examinations and Western blot. After exosomes' mRNA profiles were generated using RNA sequencing, it was investigated how uterine cavity fluid exosomes affect the developmental competence of in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos in case of endometritis. In this study, the isolated exosomes were spherical particles with a diameter of 30-150 nm according to the transmission electron microscopy. Identified with Western blotting, positive CD63 and CD9 expressions showed that the isolated exosomes could be used for the subsequent tests. We found 118 differentially expressed miRNAs in the exosomes of the uterine cavity fluid in healthy cows and those with endometritis, among which, 52 miRNAs were down regulated and 66 up regulated. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR results confirmed the up-regulation of three miRNAs and down-regulation of six miRNAs, which were consistent with the deep sequencing results. IVF embryos co-incubated with the endometritis exosomes significantly decreased the blastocyst formation rate in comparison with those co-incubated with the healthy exosomes (21.84+3.17 vs. 32.37+2.69). Therefore, exosome miRNAs may be a cause of infertility in cows with endometritis.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Endometrite/veterinária , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Líquidos Corporais , Bovinos , Meios de Cultura , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Endometrite/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética
11.
Theriogenology ; 135: 46-55, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200096

RESUMO

Short- and medium-term storage of pig embryos has become relevant for commercial application of non-surgical deep uterine embryo transfer (NsDU-ET) in the light of the strict legal and administrative requirements posed by the International Association for Air Transport (IATA) to allow shipment of liquid nitrogen (LN2) containers and the technical drawbacks when using vitrified embryos. Therefore, this study developed an efficient method for the liquid storage of in vivo-derived porcine blastocysts for a moderate duration (48 h) without controlled CO2 gassing. We evaluated two storage temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) and three HEPES-supplemented media: the chemically defined media TL-PVA and NCSU-PVA and the semi-defined medium NCSU-BSA. We observed no differences in survival, hatching rate or final developmental stage between the two temperatures, but storage at 25 °C was more efficient to preserve zona pellucida (ZP) integrity. Blastocysts were successfully stored for 24 h in a chemically defined medium. Yet, only 48 h storage in NCSU-BSA medium supported blastocyst development. Although all storage conditions resulted in an embryonic developmental delay, blastocysts stored in NCSU-BSA at either tested temperature could hatch and attain the same final developmental stage as control blastocysts when cultured under standard conditions after storage. Moreover, blastocysts stored at 25 °C for 48 h in NCSU-BSA medium could produce pregnancies after surgical transfer. In conclusion, porcine blastocysts maintain their viability and developmental potential after storage in the semi-defined medium NCSU-BSA for at least 48 h at 25 °C.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Suínos/embriologia , Animais , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 203, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is an important component for the physiology of female reproductive processes. In the literature, the data pertaining to the synthesis and action of PGF2α in early embryonic bovine development are limited. In our study, we used the bovine in vitro culture model based on the time of first cleavage to determine the mRNA expression and immunolocalization of PGF2α synthase and its receptor in bovine embryos from the 2-cell stage to the hatched blastocyst stage. We also evaluated PGF2α production at 2, 5 and 7 days of in vitro culture. RESULTS: We found a significantly higher proportion of blastocysts obtained from the early-cleaved embryos than from the late-cleaved embryos (37.7% vs. 26.1% respectively, P < 0.05). The PGFS mRNA expression was significantly higher in the late-cleaved group than in the early-cleaved group at the 2-, 4- and 16-cell stages (P < 0.05). For PTGFR, we observed that within the late-cleaved group, the mRNA abundance was significantly higher in embryos at the 2- and 16-cell stages than in embryos at the 4- and 8-cell stages (P < 0.05). We observed that PTGFR mRNA expression was significantly higher in the 2- and 16-cell embryos in the late-cleaved group than that in the early-cleaved group embryos (P < 0.05). Among the blastocysts, the PGFS and PTGFR expression levels showed a trend towards higher mRNA expression in the late-cleaved group than in the early-cleaved group. Analysis of PGF2α production showed that within the early-cleaved group, the content of PGF2α in the in vitro culture medium was significantly higher on day 7 than it was on day 2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA expression levels of PGF2α synthase and its receptor depend on the developmental stage and the embryo quality. Analyses of PGFS and PTGFR expression in bovine blastocysts and of PGF2α embryo production suggest that prostaglandin F2α can act in an autocrine and paracrine manner in bovine in vitro-produced preimplantation embryos. Moreover, the tendency of PTGFR and PGFS mRNA expression to be upregulated in embryos with low developmental potential can indicate a compensation mechanism related to high PGFS and PTGFR mRNA expression levels in low-quality embryos.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Prostaglandinas F/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina/metabolismo , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina/genética
13.
Syst Biol Reprod Med ; 65(4): 312-325, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244343

RESUMO

A systematic review of the literature showed that trophectoderm biopsy could assist in the selection of healthy embryos for uterine transfer without affecting implantation rates. However, previous studies attempting to establish the relationship between trophectoderm gene expression profiles and implantation competency using either microarrays or RNA sequencing strategies, were not sufficiently optimized to handle the exceptionally low RNA inputs available from biopsied material. In this pilot study, we report that differential gene expression in human trophectoderm biopsies assayed by an ultra-sensitive next generation RNA sequencing strategy could predict blastocyst implantation competence. RNA expression profiles from isolated human trophectoderm cells were analysed with established clinical pregnancy being the primary endpoint. Following RNA sequencing, a total of 47 transcripts were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the trophectoderm cells from successfully implanted (competent) versus unsuccessful (incompetent) blastocysts. Of these, 36 transcripts were significantly down-regulated in the incompetent blastocysts, including Hydroxysteroid 17-Beta Dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1) and Cytochrome P450 Family 11 Subfamily A Member 1 (CYP11A1), while the remaining 11 transcripts were significantly up-regulated, including BCL2 Antagonist/Killer 1 (BAK1) and KH Domain Containing 1 Pseudogene 1 (KHDC1P1) of which the latter was always detected in the incompetent and absent in all competent blastocysts. Ontological analysis of differentially expressed RNAs revealed pathways involved in steroidogenic processes with high confidence. Novel differentially expressed transcripts were also noted by reference to a de novo sequence assembly. The selection of the blastocyst with the best potential to support full-term pregnancy following single embryo transfer could reduce the need for multiple treatment cycles and embryo transfers. The main limitation was the low sample size (N = 8). Despite this shortcoming, the pilot suggests that trophectoderm biopsy could assist with the selection of healthy embryos for embryo transfer. A larger cohort of samples is needed to confirm these findings. Abbreviations: AMA: advanced maternal age; ART: assisted reproductive technology; CP: clinical pregnancy; DE: differential expression; FDR: false discovery rate; IVF: in vitro fertilization; LD PCR: long distance PCR; qRT-PCR: quantitative real-time PCR; SET: single embryo transfer; TE: trophectoderm.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Implantação do Embrião/genética , RNA , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Adulto , Aneuploidia , Biópsia , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Idade Materna , Metabolômica , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
14.
Int J Dev Biol ; 63(6-7): 287-293, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250912

RESUMO

During somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), egg activation is required to initiate embryonic development. In zebrafish cloning, the reconstructed egg is activated by exposing it to hypotonic water. Egg activation using water-only is not capable of activating the same intracellular calcium release as fertilization which is required for proper embryonic development. Here we test whether the use of soluble sperm extract (SSE) can properly modulate the activation of reconstructed eggs during SCNT. We microinjected SSE from genomic-inactivated zebrafish sperm into unfertilized eggs and reconstructed eggs right after somatic cell nuclear transfer. We also evaluated the most effective approach for SSE microinjection. Microinjection of SSE (with 0.68 mg/ml of protein concentration) into non-activated eggs through the micropyle induced parthenogenetic development beyond the blastula stage, whereas all water-only activated eggs failed to enter the cleavage period. Microinjection of SSE at 1 mg/ml of protein concentration into non-activated reconstructed egg improved the developmental rate of cloned embryos in comparison to non-injected control clones. The cumulative survival time of cloned embryos injected with SSE was significantly longer than reconstructed eggs activated following sham injection (P<0.01). No significant difference was found among controls (P=0.32). SSE benefits both parthenogenesis and the survival cloned embryos which have never been reported in zebrafish. Further work is necessary to define the functional component(s) of SSE as well as the physiological pathway, to understand its principle of action and advance the utilization of SSE in cloning.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Óvulo/citologia , Partenogênese , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Espermatozoides/citologia , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Masculino , Óvulo/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Theriogenology ; 135: 115-120, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207472

RESUMO

The effect of extracellular sperm ubiquitination was examined from many aspects and the majority of existing studies negatively correlated the amount of highly ubiquitinated sperm cells in the sample with the ejaculate quality and the fertilization success rate. In the present study, we compared an early embryonic development up to blastocyst stage in the pig using two defined sperm cell populations sorted by flow cytometry (FACS) based on the rate of the extracellular ubiquitination. This novel approach allows studying the direct effect of extracellular ubiquitin (eUb), which is a marker for epididymal recognition and degradation of defective sperm cells. We further examined the hypothesis that eUb could be recognized directly in the ooplasm. In the porcine model, the significance of results might be seriously affected by a high variability among sperm cell doses from individual boars as well as by the variability among separate sample collections. To overcome this obstacle, we used cryopreserved sperm cells from a single dose. Comparison of an early embryonic development employing intracytoplasmic sperm cell injection (ICSI) with cryopreserved (frozen/thawed, F/T) and fresh sperm cells did not reveal significant difference regarding blastocyst formation rate. We also observed no difference in the male and female pronuclei formation and the first zygote cleavage after fertilization of oocytes with high or non-ubiquitinated sperm cells sorted by FACS. However, results of the early embryonic development to the blastocyst stage showed the difference between both experimental groups (16.67% of blastocysts in non-ubiquitinated group vs. 6.20% of blastocyst in the high-ubiquitinated group, P < 0.001). We further confirmed the negative effect of eUb by the masking of Ub epitopes with the appropriate primary antibody in fresh sperm cells prior to ICSI. This procedure improved the blastocyst formation rate from 14.19% in the untreated group to 24.03% concerning antibody masked sperms (P < 0.01). We conclude our results support a generally accepted hypothesis concerning the negative correlation of the presence of eUb on the sperm cell membrane and developmental competence of fertilized oocytes. However, experiments with masking Ub antibody indicate the direct negative effect of the membrane ubiquitin rather than sperm cell quality on the early embryonic development to the blastocyst stage, at least in the porcine model.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Suínos , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia , Animais , Criopreservação/veterinária , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Masculino , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária
16.
Theriogenology ; 135: 164-168, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216507

RESUMO

Though blastocyst production in vitro has been successful in several animal species, a culture system to produce viable and normal canine blastocysts in vitro remains to be established. In this study, we report the development of an in vitro culture system for canine preimplantation embryos produced via parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT). Our results show that the medium developed by us, named "Qingdao Agricultural University's (QAU)-4 medium", successfully breaks the developmental arrest observed at the eight-cell stage in canine embryos grown in other culture systems. The blastocysts produced in QAU-4 displayed normal blastocyst structures, including a clear inner cell mass and blastocyst cavity. We also found that blastocyst formation in PA embryos cultured in QAU-4 medium was quite high, though this was not so in the case of SCNT embryos. However, supplementation of QAU-4 medium with 100 nM of scriptaid caused a sharp increase in blastocyst formation in SCNT embryos. After culture, hatched blastocysts were also observed to successfully adhere to collagen-coated dishes, where further growth and differentiation occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first in vitro canine preimplantation embryo culture system that can successfully produce canine blastocysts.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Cães/embriologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores , Sobrevivência Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Partenogênese
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 397-405, June 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002234

RESUMO

Un embarazo exitoso requiere de una serie de interacciones mediadas por factores hormonales, moleculares y fenómenos de inmunomodulación. Una de estas interacciones es la que ocurre entre el endometrio y el blastocito, previo y durante el proceso de implantación. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es complementar lo descrito en la literatura clásica de embriología humana sobre interacción de endometrio-blastocito. La búsqueda bibliográfica se realizó en la base de datos MEDLINE usando los términos en inglés "implantation", "endometrium" y "embryo"; además se realizó una búsqueda manual, que incluyó artículos de revistas no indexadas, libros de texto y atlas. Se consideraron criterios de inclusión y exclusión para la selección de los artículos y otros recursos bibliográficos. Entre los criterios de inclusión se consideraron estudios realizados en humanos, artículos de revisión y experimentación, publicados en los últimos 5 años. Como criterios de exclusión se consideraron artículos que utilizaran animales, estudios sobre fertilidad in vitro, patologías asociadas y artículos no relacionados al tema. Una vez completada la selección, se examinaron los textos completos, en los cuales se aplicaron nuevamente los criterios de exclusión. La búsqueda arrojó un total de 560 artículos, cuyo análisis de los títulos y resúmenes resultó en 475 trabajos excluidos, a partir de los diferentes criterios de exclusión antes descritos. Por lo tanto, se obtuvieron 85 artículos, en los cuales se realizó el análisis del texto completo. De estos artículos, se obtuvieron un total de 34 estudios y los contenidos seleccionados en esta revisión fueron: Endometrio, Interacción endometrio trofoblasto, Aposición, Adhesión y Migración-Invasión. Durante la implantación se genera una interacción entre el endometrio y el trofoblasto, con la participación de moléculas reguladoras de proliferación y diferenciación, como factores hormonales, moleculares y de expresión génica. Sin embargo, los mecanismos específicos de acción e interacción deben continuar siendo investigados, para responder interrogantes en el ámbito del crecimiento y desarrollo humano.


A successful pregnancy requires a series of interactions, mediated by hormonal, molecular and immunomodulation phenomena. One of these interactions is between the endometrium and the blastocyst, before and during the implantation process. The objective of this literature review is to complement what is described in the classic human embryology literature on endometrial-blastocyst interaction. The bibliographic search was carried out in the MEDLINE database using the terms "implantation", "endometrium" and "embryo", and a manual search was carried out, which included articles from non-indexed journals, textbooks and atlases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered for the selection of articles and other bibliographic resources, including human studies, review and experimentation articles, published in the last 5 years. Articles with animals as experimental subjects, in vitro fertility studies, associated pathologies and articles not related to the subject were excluded. When the selection was completed, the complete texts were examined, in which the exclusion criteria were applied again The search yielded a total of 560 articles, whose analysis of titles and abstracts resulted in 475 excluded works, in relation to different exclusion criteria described above. Therefore, 85 articles were obtained, in which the complete text analysis was performed. From these articles, a total of 34 studies were obtained and the contents selected in this review were: Endometrium, Endometrium trophoblast, Aposition, Adhesion and Migration-Invasion. During the implantation, aninteraction between the endometrium and the trophoblast is generated, with the participation of regulatory molecules of proliferation and differentiation, such as hormonal, molecular and gene expression factors. However, the specific mechanisms of action and interaction must continue to be investigated, to answer questions in the field of human growth and development.


Assuntos
Humanos , Implantação do Embrião , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Endométrio/fisiologia , Trofoblastos/fisiologia
18.
Anim Sci J ; 90(7): 849-856, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067600

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of cryopreservation by slow freezing on the mitochondrial function, DNA integrity, and developmental ability of bovine embryos and examined whether resveratrol treatment of the frozen-thawed blastocysts improved embryonic viability. In vitro produced bovine embryos were subjected to slow freezing. After thawing, the ATP content and mitochondrial DNA integrity (mtDNA), determined by real-time PCR targeting short and long mitochondrial sequences, was found to be lower in frozen-thawed embryos than in fresh embryos, and mtDNA copy number was significantly reduced during the 24-hr incubation post warming. Furthermore, immunostaining against double-strand DNA revealed DNA damage in frozen-thawed embryos. When frozen-thawed embryos were incubated in the medium containing 0.5 µM resveratrol, SIRT1 expression, and survival rate of the embryos significantly improved compared with the vehicle-treated embryos. In addition, cell-free mtDNA content in medium was higher in case of resveratrol-treated embryos than of vehicle-treated embryos. In conclusion, slow freezing affects mitochondrial integrity and function in the blastocysts. In the frozen-thawed embryos, mitochondria were removed during post-thawing incubation and resveratrol enhanced the process, resulting in improved survivability of the embryos.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Preservação de Tecido/métodos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Feminino , Mitocôndrias/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035421

RESUMO

Embryo implantation in the mink follows the pattern of many carnivores, in that preimplantation embryo diapause occurs in every gestation. Details of the gene expression and regulatory networks that terminate embryo diapause remain poorly understood. Illumina RNA-Seq was used to analyze global gene expression changes in the mink uterus during embryo diapause and activation leading to implantation. More than 50 million high quality reads were generated, and assembled into 170,984 unigenes. A total of 1684 differential expressed genes (DEGs) in uteri with blastocysts in diapause were compared to the activated embryo group (p < 0.05). Among these transcripts, 1527 were annotated as known genes, including 963 up-regulated and 564 down-regulated genes. The gene ontology terms for the observed DEGs, included cellular communication, phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix and G-protein couple receptor activity. The KEGG pathways, including PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, focal adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions were the most enriched. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and hub nodes such as VEGFA, EGF, AKT, IGF1, PIK3C and CCND1 with high degrees of connectivity represent gene clusters expected to play an important role in embryo activation. These results provide novel information for understanding the molecular mechanisms of maternal regulation of embryo activation in mink.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Vison , Gravidez , Transcriptoma/genética , Útero/fisiologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052401

RESUMO

Reproduction, the ability to generate offspring, represents one of the most important biological processes, being essential for the conservation of the species. In mammals, it involves different cell types, tissues and organs, which, by several signaling molecules, coordinate the different events such as gametogenesis, fertilization and embryo development. In the last few years, the role of Extracellular Vesicles, as mediators of cell communication, has been investigated in every phase of these complex processes. Microvesicles and exosomes, identified in the fluid of ovarian follicles during egg maturation, are involved in communication between the developing oocyte and the somatic follicular cells. More recently, it has been demonstrated that, during implantation, Extracellular Vesicles could participate in the complex dialog between the embryo and maternal tissues. In this review, we will focus our attention on extracellular vesicles and their cargo in human female reproduction, mainly underlining the involvement of microRNAs in intercellular communication during the several phases of the reproductive process.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Oogênese , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/fisiologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
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