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2.
Europace ; 23(3): 451-455, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432349

RESUMO

AIMS: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has shown the potential to significantly affect the cardiovascular system. Cardiac arrhythmias are commonly reported complications in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: While tachyarrhythmias seem most common, we describe four cases of COVID-19 patients who developed a transient high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block during the course of their hospitalization. All four patients who developed a high-degree AV block during their hospitalization with COVID-19 did not require permanent pacing. CONCLUSION: Similarly to most AV blocks associated with infectious organisms and given its transient nature, this case series suggests that conservative management strategies should be preferred in COVID-19 patients who develop complete heart block.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Nó Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Potenciais de Ação , Adulto , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , /terapia , Tratamento Conservador , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370998

RESUMO

Coronary artery fistulas are abnormal vascular conduits, rarely related to atrioventricular conduction abnormalities. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with dyspnoea on exertion. Her ECG revealed advanced atrioventricular block and left bundle branch block. CT scans confirmed two fistulas, from the conus branch of right coronary artery and from the left anterior descending coronary artery, into the pulmonary artery. The patient underwent pacemaker implantation. To date, only nine patients with different degrees of heart blocks associated with coronary artery fistulas have been reported. Herein, we review and summarise previously reported cases of different degrees of heart blocks associated with coronary artery fistulas.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/complicações , Fístula/complicações , Marca-Passo Artificial , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Bloqueio de Ramo/etiologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/terapia , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Fístula/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1059-1069, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921666

RESUMO

Because of its rigidity and non-steerability, the presence of a horizontal aortic root poses a major anatomical issue during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with Evolut self-expanding valve. Previous studies have elucidated the difficulties of coaxial implantation of the self-expanding valve in patients with horizontal aorta, often resulting in increased complications and a lower device success rate. To date, most patients with extremely horizontal aorta (aortic root angle ≥ 70°) have been excluded from major TAVR clinical trials. Therefore, available data on TAVR with Evolut in this challenging anatomy are limited, and standardized treatment strategies and clinical results remain unknown. Herein, we report a clinical case series of TAVR with Evolut in extremely horizontal aorta. Among seven patients (aged 80-92 years; STS score, 12.6% ± 7.9%) who underwent TAVR with Evolut system, aortic root angle ranged from 71° to 83° (mean, 75.1°± 4.5°). All patients achieved device success with dedicated strategies and were clinically stable at 3-month follow-up. None of the patients had more than mild paravalvular leakage (PVL) at any point during follow-up.Complications in three patients included complete atrioventricular block requiring a permanent pacemaker implantation, cerebral infarction because of atrial fibrillation 3 days after TAVR, and cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis. In this case series, Evolut self-expanding TAVR in extremely horizontal aorta was effective and feasible with a high device success rate. Based on anatomical features, some dedicated strategies majorly contribute to the success of this procedure. Large-scale multicenter studies are required to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Tamponamento Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Marca-Passo Artificial , Pericardiocentese , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21097, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Substantial advances in cardiac pacing technology have been developed in the past decades. However, efforts to improve pacing technology to achieve physiological electrical activity, such as with cardiac resynchronization therapy, are underway. Permanent His bundle pacing, which directly stimulates the His-Purkinje network and electrically activates both ventricles, simulates physiological electric activity in the heart, and has been considered an ideal pacing strategy to treat arrhythmias. For patients with atrial fibrillation complicated by third-degree atrioventricular block (AVB), permanent His bundle pacing is a better option than conventional right ventricular apical or septal pacing, the latter of which may be associated with risks, such as heart failure. However, His bundle pacing exhibits some shortcomings, including elevated pacing threshold, dislocation, and abnormal sensing. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old female patient who had atrial fibrillation (AF) complicated by third-degree AVB and who was treated with permanent His bundle pacing combined with left bundle branch pacing. DIAGNOSIS: AF complicated by third-degree AVB. INTERVENTIONS: We used the left bundle branch as a backup pacing site to overcome any shortcomings related to permanent His bundle pacing. OUTCOMES: The patient recovered well without any events. CONCLUSION: We selected His bundle pacing as the primary pacing, but also used left bundle branch pacing as a backup approach. If His bundle pacing results in an increased sensing threshold, pacing threshold changes, or dislocations, left bundle branch pacing can compensate for dysfunction of permanent deficiencies in His bundle pacing, preserving physiological pacing.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/complicações , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Fascículo Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21602, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that His-bundle pacing could be an alternative in patients requiring cardiac resynchronization therapy as it is comparable or better in terms of amelioration of ventricular activation, narrowing of the QRS complex, or clinical outcomes. However, in case of high threshold at the level of His-bundle or inability to correct conduction through a diseased His-Purkinje system other option should be searched like left bundle pacing. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 77-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department for dizziness and dizziness and lightheadedness due to an intermittent 2:1 atrioventricular block with a QRS complex morphology of a major left branch block. DIAGNOSIS: Given the documented symptomatic 2:1 AV block, according to the European Guideliness the patient was considered to have a class 1 indication of permanent double chamber cardiostimulation. INTERVENTIONS: A lead delivery system with a C315 His catheter and a Select Secure 3830 69 cm pacing lead were placed at the His bundle area with important narrowing of the QRS complex but with an unacceptable high threshold. The delivery system was moved towards the apex 1,5 cm and the lead screwed deep into the septum until capture of the left bundle branch was achieved with complete normalization of the conduction troubles. OUTCOMES: At 3 month follow-up the patient was asymptomatic and the pacing and sensing thresholds remained at same values as during implantation: 0.75/0.4 ms and 14 mV respectively. CONCLUSION: Left bundle-pacing represents the next step of His-Purkinje system pacing to overcome all difficulties related to His-bundle pacing.


Assuntos
Fascículo Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/métodos , Idoso , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Fascículo Atrioventricular/anormalidades , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/normas , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Humanos
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 140-146, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650908

RESUMO

Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) is an increasingly recognized infiltrative cardiomyopathy in which conduction system disease is common. The aim of our study was to define the incidence and prevalence of high-grade atrioventricular (AV) block requiring pacemaker implantation in our quaternary referral center. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of 369 consecutive patients with ATTR-CA who underwent 12-lead electrocardiogram at the time of ATTR-CA diagnosis. During a mean follow-up of 28 months, serial ECGs and the electronic medical record were examined for the development of high-grade AV block and pacemaker implantation. Wild-type ATTR-CA (wtATTR-CA) was diagnosed in 261 patients and 108 had hereditary ATTR-CA (hATTR-CA). A total of 35 (9.5%) had high-grade AV block requiring pacemaker implantation at the time of diagnosis of ATTR-CA. The most common conduction abnormalities evident on the baseline ECG were a wide QRS complex, present in 51% with wtATTR-CA and 48% with hATTR-CA (p = 0.62), followed by first-degree AV block, which was present in 49% with wtATTR-CA and 43% with hATTR-CA (p = 0.31). During follow-up, high-grade AV block developed in 10% of those with hATTR-CA and 12% of patients with wtATTR-CA (p = 0.64). On multivariable models, high-grade AV block was not significantly associated with increased mortality. More advanced ATTR-CA stage and a history of obstructive coronary artery disease were associated with increased mortality on multivariable models. In conclusion, the incidence and prevalence of high-grade AV block is high in patients with ATTR-CA. Patients with ATTR-CA require close monitoring during follow-up for the development of conduction system disease.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/complicações , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/genética , Amiloidose/complicações , Amiloidose/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Bloqueio de Ramo/epidemiologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/etiologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Marca-Passo Artificial , Pré-Albumina/genética , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/etiologia
9.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 174-180, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650916

RESUMO

Patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection function (EF) and atrioventricular block (AVB) who are anticipated for high-burden of right ventricular (RV) pacing possess a risk to develop pacing-induced cardiomyopathy (PIC) and adverse clinical outcomes. Hence, the aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence, predictors, and clinical outcomes of RV PIC in patients with preserved LVEF, AVB, and high-burden of RV pacing. One thousand and thirteen patients with second or third-degree AVB underwent first time pacemaker implantation between January 2002 and August 2016. A total of 203 patients with a newly implanted pacemaker, normal baseline LVEF, and high burden of RV pacing were included in the present study. Follow-up echocardiography was examined for a new decrease in LVEF of 10% or higher. Alternative causes for cardiomyopathy were ruled out. Patient characteristics, echocardiographic measurements, device clinic data, mortality, and hospitalizations for heart failure were collected and compared between the PIC and the non-PIC groups. Fifty-one patients (25%) developed LV dysfunction with 22 patients (11%), showing LVEF < 40%. During a mean follow-up of 49.2 months, the risk of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the PIC group versus non-PIC group (35.3% vs 19.1%, p = 0.009). In conclusion the incidence of PIC in patients with normal LVEF and AVB, who are anticipated for high-burden of RV pacing is high. PIC in patients with a previously normal LV function is associated with unfavorable long-term clinical outcomes, including higher rates of heart failure hospitalizations and all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Análise Multivariada , Marca-Passo Artificial , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
10.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 16(2): 162-166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670478

RESUMO

Cardiac involvement of infiltrative disease, such as systemic sclerosis, carries significant morbidity and mortality. All parts of the heart may be affected, although the conduction system is less commonly involved. We report a rare case of systemic sclerosis causing third-degree atrioventricular block and the first known reported case to use cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as a diagnostic and prognostic instrument. It is not known whether using cardiac CMR in systemic sclerosis with cardiac involvement could lead to earlier intervention with escalation of medical therapy or earlier referral for transplant evaluation.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Adulto , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Fatal , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(7): 554-560, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197835

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo auriculoventricular (BAV) en presencia de fármacos bradicardizantes (FBZ) puede ser reversible, y está en controversia el implante de marcapasos. El objetivo es analizar la necesidad de tratamiento con marcapasos a medio plazo, tras la suspensión de los FBZ, e identificar factores predictores. MÉTODOS: Se estudió a una cohorte de pacientes que acudieron a urgencias con BAV de alto grado mientras tomaban FBZ. Se estudió la persistencia de BAV tras la interrupción del fármaco, la recurrencia en los pacientes con resolución del BAV y las variables predictoras asociadas con la necesidad de marcapasos a los 3 años de seguimiento. RESULTADOS: De 127 pacientes (edad, 79 [71-83] años), en 60 (47,2%) se resolvió el BAV; de estos, en 40 (66,6%) el BAV recurrió en los 24 meses de seguimiento medio; 107 pacientes (84,3%) tuvieron indicación de implante de marcapasos pese a suspenderse los FBZ. Las variables asociadas con la necesidad de marcapasos a los 3 años en el multivariable fueron: frecuencia cardiaca<35 lpm (OR=8,12; IC95%, 1,82-36,17); síntomas diferentes del síncope (OR=4,09; IC95%, 1,18-14,13) y QRS ancho (OR=5,65; IC95%, 1,77-18,04). El tratamiento con antiarrítmicos no se asoció con necesidad de marcapasos (OR=0,12; IC95%, 0,02-0,66). CONCLUSIONES: Más del 80% de los pacientes con BAV secundario a FBZ precisan implante de marcapasos a pesar de suspenderlos; los predictores son el QRS ancho, la frecuencia cardiaca <35 lpm y la presentación clínica distinta del síncope


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Atrioventricular block (AVB) in the presence of bradycardic drugs (BD) can be reversible, and pacemaker implantation is controversial. Our objective was to analyze the pacemaker implantation rate in the mid-term, after BD suspension, and to identify predictive factors. METHODS: We performed a cohort study that included patients attending the emergency department with high-grade AVB in the context of BD. We studied the persistence of AVB after BD discontinuation, recurrence in patients with AVB resolution, and the predictive variables associated with pacemaker requirement at 3 years. RESULTS: Of 127 patients included (age, 79 [71-83] years), BAV resolved in 60 (47.2%); among these patients, recurrence occurred during the 24-month median follow-up in 40 (66.6%). Pacemaker implantation was required in 107 patients (84.3%), despite BD discontinuation. On multivariable analysis, the variables associated with pacemaker need at 3 years were heart rate <35 bpm (OR, 8.12; 95%CI, 1.82-36.17), symptoms other than syncope (OR, 4.09; 95%CI, 1.18-14.13), and wide QRS (OR, 5.65; 95%CI, 1.77-18.04). Concomitant antiarrhythmic treatment was associated with AVB resolution (OR, 0.12; 95%CI, 0.02-0.66). CONCLUSIONS: More than 80% of patients with AVB secondary to BD require pacemaker implantation despite drug discontinuation. Predictive variables were wide QRS, heart rate <35 bpm, and clinical presentation other than syncope


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Marca-Passo Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Conduta Expectante/tendências , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/induzido quimicamente , Síncope/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Immunol Med ; 43(4): 171-178, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374660

RESUMO

We report a case of incipient systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that rapidly progressed to complete atrioventricular block (cAVB). A 20-year-old man was admitted with facial erythema, painless oral aphtha, polyarthritis, and myalgia of each extremity. On admission, he developed first-degree atrioventricular block, pericarditis, pleuritis, renal failure, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, neurophychiatric SLE (left cerebellar infarction), and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. He was subsequently diagnosed with SLE based on several positive findings on immunological tests (including positive for antinuclear antibody). Despite immediate glucocorticoid pulse therapy and plasma exchange (PE) along with antibiotic, he developed cAVB that required temporary pacing on day 2. Because it was thought that hypercytokinemia exacerbated pericarditis, which progressed to myocarditis and cAVB, we decided to PE and cytokine-adsorbing therapy with AN69ST-continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF). Other than renal failure, his organ dysfunctions improved with the multidisciplinary therapy. CAVB improved and temporary pacing was no longer required on day 11. Even a first-degree atrioventricular block can rapidly progress to cAVB; therefore, strict attention to electrocardiogram is necessary in severe SLE cases. When presenting with organ dysfunctions caused by hypercytokinemia such as severe SLE cases or SLE with severe infection cases, use of the combination of PE and AN69ST-CHDF might be beneficial.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/isolamento & purificação , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Masculino , Desintoxicação por Sorção/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(9): 1046-1054, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of rapid atrial pacing immediately after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) to predict the need for permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI). BACKGROUND: Risk stratification for patients without high-grade atrioventricular block (AVB) after TAVR is imprecise and based on anatomic considerations, electrocardiographic characteristics, and clinical suspicion. A more reliable assessment is necessary to minimize inpatient rhythm monitoring and/or reduce unnecessary PPI. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing TAVR at 2 centers were included. After valve implantation in patients without pacemakers who did not have complete heart block or atrial fibrillation, the temporary pacemaker was withdrawn from the right ventricle and placed in the right atrium. Rapid atrial pacing was performed from 70 to 120 beats/min, and patients were assessed for the development of Wenckebach AVB. Patients were then followed for clinical outcomes, including PPI. RESULTS: A total of 284 patients were included. Of these, 130 (45.8%) developed Wenckebach AVB. There was a higher rate of PPI within 30 days of TAVR among the patients who developed Wenckebach AVB (13.1% vs. 1.3%; p < 0.001), with a negative predictive value for PPI in the group without Wenckebach AVB of 98.7%. A greater percentage of patients receiving self-expanding valves required PPI than those receiving a balloon-expandable valves (15.9% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.001), though these rates were still relatively low among patients who did not develop Wenckebach AVB (2.9% and 0.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Atrial pacing post-TAVR is easily performed and can help identify patients who may benefit from extended rhythm monitoring. Patients who did not develop pacing-induced Wenckebach AVB demonstrated an extremely low likelihood of PPI.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Ohio , Marca-Passo Artificial , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Desnecessários
14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 69, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complete heart blocks underwent to permanent pacemaker placement are a common complication of tricuspid valve replacement (TVR). If indicated, endocardial placement of a right ventricular (RV) lead is precluded in the presence of mechanical TVR. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old female patient firstly underwent metallic prosthetic valve operation with tricuspid valve endocarditis in 2014. Three years after the operation, echocardiography revealed dysfunction of the prosthetic valve thus reoperation was decided. In the second operation, the patient underwent a bioprosthesis valve and AV complete block developed in the postoperative period. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was 45% was found on echocardiography. Pacemaker dependence of the patient, it was aimed to place two electrodes into the left ventricle. Electrodes were placed the target two branches in coronary sinus (CS) and right atrium. Univentricular bifocal pacing was enabled to work. CONCLUSION: Electrode placement in the CS is a very good alternative to epicardial surgical lead placement in cases where endocardial lead placement from the right atrium to the RV is contraindicated. In patients with lower left ventricular EF who will be pacemaker dependent, the insertion of two electrodes into the CS to prevent pacemaker is a safe and effective treatment.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Seio Coronário/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Potenciais de Ação , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229092, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040499

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sheep have been adopted as a pre-clinical large animal for scientific research as they are good models of cardiac anatomy and physiology, and allow for investigation of pathophysiological processes which occur in the large mammalian heart. There is, however, no defined model of atrioventricular block in sheep to allow for pre-clinical assessment of new cardiac treatment options. We therefore aimed to develop an adult sheep model of atrioventricular block with the focus on future novel applications. METHODS AND RESULTS: We utilized six sheep to undergo two procedures each. The first procedure involved implantation of a single chamber pacemaker into the right ventricular apex, for baseline assessment over four weeks. The second procedure involved creating atrioventricular block by radiofrequency ablation of the His bundle, before holding for a further four weeks. Interrogation of pacemakers and electrocardiograms determined the persistence of atrioventricular block during the follow up period. Pacemakers were inserted, and atrioventricular block created in 6 animals using a conventional approach. One animal died following ablation of the His bundle, due to procedural complications. Four unablated sheep were assessed for baseline data over four weeks and showed 5.53 ± 1.28% pacing reliance. Five sheep were assessed over four weeks following His bundle ablation and showed continuous (98.89 ± 0.81%) ventricular pacing attributable to persistent atrioventricular block, with no major complications. CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed, characterized and validated a large animal model of atrioventricular block that is stable and technically feasible in adult sheep. This model will allow for the advancement of novel therapies, including the development of cell and gene-based therapies.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Fascículo Atrioventricular/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Fascículo Atrioventricular/fisiologia , Ablação por Cateter , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Marca-Passo Artificial , Ovinos
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(1): 107-113, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732136

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the long-term (>1 year) electrocardiographic (ECG) and clinical outcomes of patients without significant changes in their electrocardiogram after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI; including patients with pre-existing ECG abnormalities). Among 772 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI in our institution, 397 patients (51%) without new ECG changes were included. TAVI patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of pre-existing ECG-conduction disturbances (ECG-CD: 140 patients, non-ECG-CD: 257 patients). Clinical follow-up (median: 35 [22 to 57] months) was complete in all patients but 5 (1.2%), and ECG data were available in 291 patients (84.3% of patients at risk) at a median of 29 (20 to 50) months. In the non-ECG-CD group, most patients (79.8%) remained without significant ECG changes at follow-up, and 16.9% developed first-degree atrioventricular block and/or bundle branch block over time. The rate of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation at follow-up was 3.5% (1.1%/year) in the non-ECG-CD group versus 15.7% (5.5%/year) in the ECG-CD group (p <0.001). The presence of pre-existing CD was an independent predictor of PPM at follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 4.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15 to 10.16, p <0.001). The ECG-CD group exhibited a higher risk of heart failure hospitalization (non-ECG-CD: 25%, ECG-CD: 29%, log-rank p = 0.01), but not mortality (non-ECG-CD: 50%, ECG-CD: 46%, log-rank p = 0.60) at 5-year follow-up. In conclusion, the ECG remained unchanged in most TAVI recipients without new postprocedural CD. Pre-existing ECG-CD was associated with an increased risk of PPM and heart failure hospitalization at long-term follow-up. These results provide reassuring data in the era of TAVI expanding toward candidates with a longer life expectancy, and highlight the importance of a closer follow-up of those patients with pre-existing ECG-CDs.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/complicações , Bloqueio de Ramo/complicações , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Bloqueio de Ramo/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 54(3): 186-191, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809597

RESUMO

Introduction: Atrioventricular (AV) node conduction disturbances are common following surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), and in some cases the patient needs a permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation before discharge from hospital. Little is known about the long-term need for PPM and the PPM dependency of these individuals. We determined the incidence of PPM implantation before and after discharge in SAVR patients. Methods: We studied 557 consecutive patients who underwent SAVR for aortic stenosis in Iceland between 2002 and 2016. Timing and indication for PPM were registered, with a new concept, ventricular pacing proportion (VPP), defined as ventricular pacing ≥90% of the time, being used to approximate pacemaker dependency. The median follow-up time was 73 months. We plotted the cumulative incidence of pacemaker implantation, treating death as a competing risk. Results: Of the 557 patients, 22 (3.9%) received PPM in the first 30 days after surgery, most commonly for complete AV block (n = 14) or symptomatic bradycardia (n = 8); Thirty-eight other patients (6.8%) had a PPM implanted >30 days postoperatively, at a median of 43 months after surgery (range 0‒181), most often for AV block (n = 13) or sick-sinus syndrome (n = 10). The cumulative incidence of PPM implantation at 1, 5, and 10 years postoperatively was 5.0%, 9.2%, and 12.3%, respectively. During follow-up, 45.0% of the 60 patients had VPP ≥90%. Conclusion: The cumulative incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation following SAVR was about 12% at 10 years, with every other patient having VPP ≥90% during follow-up. This suggests that AV node conduction disturbances extend significantly beyond the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Marca-Passo Artificial , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 95(5): 982-990, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conduction disturbances are the most frequent complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). However, no data exists regarding the outcomes of intraprocedural high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) or complete heart block (CHB) in patients without previous conduction disturbances. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of intraprocedural-HAVB/CHB in patients without previous intraventricular conduction disturbances. METHODS: The occurrence of intraprocedural-HAVB/CHB was assessed in 676 consecutive patients undergoing TAVR, and two groups were established according to its duration: persistent-HAVB/CHB (PHAVB/CHB) and transient-HAVB/CHB (THAVB/CHB), not present at the end of the procedure. RESULTS: Intraprocedural-HAVB/CHB occurred in 50 patients (7.4%), being persistent in 32 (64.0%), and transient in 18 (36.0%). The use of Medtronic Corevalve Revalving System (MCRS) and a greater oversizing of the valve increased the risk of intraprocedural-HAVB/CHB (p < 0.001). Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) was more frequent in the PHAVB/CHB than in the THAVB/CHB group (96.9% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001). At 1-month follow-up, the PHAVB/CHB group showed a 98% ventricular pacing rate (VPR) compared to 16% in the THAVB/CHB group (p < 0.001), and similar VPR were observed at 1-year follow-up (98% vs. 37%, p < 0.001). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased at 1-year follow-up in patients with PHAVB/CHB (-3.9 ± 1.8%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In TAVR recipients with no prior intraventricular conduction disturbances, intraprocedural-HAVB/CHB occurred in 7.4% of cases. HAVB/CHB was persistent in most cases and determined a high rate of PPI post-TAVR. Very high VPR at 1- and 12-month follow-up were observed, which in turn was associated with a negative effect on LVEF. These results support early PPI and close follow-up in patients developing intraprocedural-PHAVB/CHB.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Feminino , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Marca-Passo Artificial , Quebeque , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Espanha , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
20.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 30(5): 265-272, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311698

RESUMO

Bradycardia is a commonly observed arrhythmia and a frequent occasion for cardiac consultation. Defined as a heart rate of less than 50-60 bpm, bradycardia can be observed as a normal phenomenon in young athletic individuals, and in patients as part of normal aging or disease (Table 1). Pathology that produces bradycardia may occur within the sinus node, atrioventricular (AV) nodal tissue, and the specialized His-Purkinje conduction system. Given the overlap of heart rate ranges with non-pathologic changes, assessment of symptoms is a critical component in the evaluation and management of bradycardia. Treatment should rarely be prescribed solely on the basis of a heart rate lower than an arbitrary cutoff or a pause above certain duration. In the 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline on the Evaluation and Management of Patients with Bradycardia and Cardiac Conduction Delay (referred to hereafter as the 2018 Bradycardia Guideline), there was a significant shift in emphasis from prior guidelines that emphasized device-based implantation recommendations to a focus on evaluation and management of disease states [1,2]. In this review, we will highlight the changes in the new guideline as well as describe the key elements in evaluation and management of patients presenting with bradycardia.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Bradicardia/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Marca-Passo Artificial , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/terapia , Potenciais de Ação , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bradicardia/diagnóstico , Bradicardia/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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