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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 772, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is common in the first 2 days after major craniotomy. Inadequate analgesia may lead to an increased risk of postoperative complications. Most pain following craniotomy arises from the pericranial muscles and soft tissues of the scalp. Scalp nerve blocks with local anesthesia seem to provide effective, safe, however, transient postoperative analgesia which does not seem to meet the requirements of craniotomy. Currently, peripheral dexamethasone has been observed to significantly prolong the duration of analgesia of nerve blocks (e.g., saphenous nerve block, adductor canal block, thoracic paravertebral block, brachial plexus nerve block). On the contrary, a study reported that perineural dexamethasone did not appear to prolong the analgesic time after supratentorial craniotomy. However, all patients in this study were given 24 mg of oral or intravenous dexamethasone regularly for at least 7 days during the perioperative period, which possibly masked the role of single local low doses of perineural dexamethasone. Therefore, the analgesic effect of single dexamethasone for scalp nerve blocks without the background of perioperative glucocorticoid deserves further clarification. METHODS: The REDUCE trial is a prospective, single-center, parallel-group randomized controlled trial involving a total of 156 adults scheduled for elective craniotomy with general anesthesia. Patients will be randomly divided among two groups: the control group (n = 78) will receive scalp nerve blocks with 0.5% bupivacaine, plus normal saline with epinephrine at 1:200,000; the DEX4mg group (n = 78) will receive scalp nerve blocks with 0.5% bupivacaine, plus 4 mg dexamethasone with epinephrine at 1:200,000. The primary outcome will be the duration of analgesia, defined as the time between the performance of the block and the first analgesic request. DISCUSSION: The REDUCE trial aims to further assess the analgesic effect of single dexamethasone as an adjuvant to scalp nerve blocks for relief of postcraniotomy pain without the background of perioperative glucocorticoid. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04648358 . Registered on November 30, 2020.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Couro Cabeludo , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(11): 805-810, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738754

RESUMO

Nowadays, interscalene block is the gold standard for intra- and post-operative analgesia for shoulder surgery. It consists of distributing a sufficient volume of local anesthetics, within the interscalenic space which contains the C5 to C7 nerve roots. Due to its proximity to the area where the anesthetic is injected, the phrenic nerve can be transiently blocked causing a kind of paralysis of an hemidiaphragm. First, the use of ultrasound has reduced the incidence of diaphragmatic hemiparesis especially when the injection is performed at the C7 level rather than the C5 or C6 level. Then, decreasing the doses of local anesthetics has reduced the diffusion to the non-targeted structures, such as the phrenic nerve, causing less diaphragmatic hemiparesis. Finally, Palhais and Lee et al discovered that injecting LA at distance from the nerves roots can be useful in reducing this side effect. Based on their work, we decided to inject the local anesthetic into the muscle fascia. Our experience with this injection into the muscle itself seems to confirm the results described in the literature with less diaphragmatic hemiparesis. Further studies are needed to support our hypothesis and will be the subject of future researches in our institution.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Plexo Braquial , Anestésicos Locais , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Nervo Frênico , Ombro/cirurgia
3.
Arthroscopy ; 37(11): 3238-3240, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740403

RESUMO

Rotator cuff repair may result in significant postoperative pain. Although opioids were once the gold standard, addiction and other side effects are of significant concern. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce pain, sleep disturbance, and need for opioids, but they may impair soft tissue healing. The use of gabapentinoids is equivocal. Intralesional analgesia carries a risk of glenohumeral chondrolysis. Cryotherapy is beneficial, but it is often not covered by insurance companies. Suprascapular nerve block addresses innervation of only 70% versus interscalene block, but the latter has a higher incidence of unintended, temporary motor and sensory deficits of the upper extremity and hemidiaphragmatic paresis, despite similar pain scores. Although neurodeficits and diaphragmatic hemiparesis resolve by 3 weeks, temporary complications affect length of hospital stay, initiation of physical therapy, and patient satisfaction. These variables contribute to the challenge of postoperative pain control amid a growing wave of modalities aimed at improving the extent and duration of patient-focused analgesia, especially the application of continuous block infusions.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Anestésicos Locais , Artroscopia , Diafragma , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ombro/cirurgia
4.
Agri ; 33(4): 272-275, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671958

RESUMO

One of the most severe pains that women can experience throughout their lives is birth pain. Epidural analgesia is the ideal method to provide pain control in vaginal delivery. Horner syndrome is a rare complication of epidural analgesia. In pregnant women, Horner syndrome may be seen more frequently due to epidural analgesia. It is characterized by ptosis, myosis, enophthalmos, anisocoria, conjunctival hyperemia, flashing on the affected face and sweating record (anhydroz). It usually resolves without a permanent neurological defect. Stellate, cervical and brachial plexus blocks, thoracic, lumbar and sacral region epidural anesthesia applications are among the most common causes of Horner syndrome associated with anesthesia applications. The non-anesthetic causes of Horner syndrome include head and neck surgery, hypothalamus-thalamus and brainstem-related lesions, trauma to the head and neck, and pulmonary apical tumors associated with malignancy. In this case report, we want-ed to present Horner syndrome in vaginal delivery with epidural analgesia. All pregnant women undergoing epidural analgesia should be closely followed up, taking into account possible complications and taking necessary precautions.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural , Anestesia Epidural , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Síndrome de Horner , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Síndrome de Horner/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 30(12): 2691-2697, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pain control efficacy, postoperative opioid requirements, and costs among patients undergoing major shoulder surgery using different perioperative analgesia modalities have been topics of active debate. Several studies have compared periarticular injection (PAI) to interscalene block (ISB) in shoulder arthroplasty, but there is a paucity of data comparing them in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS: Patients aged 18-80 years with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and undergoing primary arthroscopic rotator cuff repair at 2 different shoulder centers were screened and subsequently randomized to receive either periarticular injection (PAI) of liposomal bupivacaine mixed with 0.25% bupivacaine (n = 41) or single-shot interscalene nerve block (ISB) (n = 36). Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, oral morphine equivalent (OME) use, Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) scores, and costs were collected. Differences with P <.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Day of surgery VAS score and OME usage were significantly reduced with ISB vs. PAI (0.69 vs. 4.65, P < .001, and 18.66 vs. 34.39, P < .001, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups regarding VAS score on postoperative days (PODs) 1-3; however, OME usage on PODs 1 (50.5 vs. 38.8, P = .03) and 2 (48.1 vs. 37.8, P = .04) was significantly more in the ISB group. At POD 3, VAS score (4.13 vs. 3.97, P = .60) and OME use (28.60 vs. 31.16, P = .51) were similar. At 6 and 12 weeks, there were also no significant differences between groups regarding VAS and OME use. There was no difference in SANE score at 12 weeks following surgery between groups and no difference between average 12-week cumulative OME use between groups. The average charge for the PAI was $455, and the average charge for ISB was $745. CONCLUSION: Both ISB and PAI provide acceptable pain control following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patients have less pain on the day of surgery with ISB, but rebound pain is significant after the block wears off, resulting in substantially increased opioid use in the first 2 PODs. However, cumulative opioid use between groups was similar. There were also no significant differences at the end of the 12-week episode of care in any of the other variables studied. The charge per patient for PAI is approximately $300 less than ISB. Thus, PAI may offer surgeons and patients an effective postoperative analgesic modality as an alternative to ISB.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia , Bupivacaína , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia
6.
Pain Physician ; 24(6): E693-E707, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perineural (PN) dexamethasone (DEX) administration can prolong the analgesic time of a brachial plexus block. However, its efficacy and safety are controversial due to its off-label use and different routes of administration. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of PN versus intravenous (IV) dexamethasone. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SETTING: Relevant studies were found through a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (from the inception until January 2020). METHODS: According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this meta-analysis was conducted to identify RCTs comparing PN and IV dexamethasone in brachial plexus block. A randomized effect model was used in the meta-analysis and the subgroup analysis was performed with adrenaline stratification. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were graded by GradePro version 3.6.1. RESULTS: Twelve RCTs with a total of 1,345 subjects were included. We found that PN dexamethasone could prolong the duration of analgesia (mean difference [MD]: 131.82 minutes, 95% confidence interval [CI] [38.96, 224.68], I2 = 82%, P = 0.005), motor block (MD: 218.85 minutes, 95% CI [113.65,324.05], I2 = 72%, P < 0.0001) and sensory block (MD: 209.57 minutes, 95% CI [72.64, 346.50], I2 = 87%, P = 0.003) in the main analysis with significant difference. In the absence of epinephrine, there were no significant differences between PN dexamethasone and IV dexamethasone. Except for adverse-effects, no significant differences were observed in secondary outcomes. PN dexamethasone had slightly higher adverse-effects; however, these could be altered if a sensitivity analysis was conducted. LIMITATIONS: There was high heterogeneity among included studies. CONCLUSIONS: PN dexamethasone can prolong the duration of analgesia, sensory block, and motor block, when compared with IV dexamethasone. In a subgroup analysis without epinephrine, the 2 routes of administration were equivalent to topical anesthesia. There were no differences in secondary outcomes, except for adverse effects, which could be altered if a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Therefore, despite the advantages of PN dexamethasone, caution is needed due to its off-label character. While the results of this study are promising, additional large and well-designed RCTs are needed to validate these initial findings and their implications.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Administração Intravenosa , Dexametasona , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Int J Surg ; 94: 106111, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A variety of peripheral nerve block methods are used in the clinic to enhance the effect of postoperative analgesia. In recent years, an increasing number of surgeons have considered the efficacy and safety of suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) combined with axillary nerve block (ANB) for controlling perioperative pain in shoulder arthroscopy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of SSNB + ANB and interscalene block (ISB) versus SSNB alone for shoulder arthroscopic surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: The protocol for this meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021254008). PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and CNKI were searched for RCTs from inception to April 30, 2021. A meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3 to calculate the RR or WMD of related outcome indicators. RESULTS: Nine RCTs involving 543 cases from 5 countries were included. Compared with SSNB alone, SSNB + ANB was more effective at pain relief at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h postoperatively. In terms of patient satisfaction score, scores for SSNB + ANB at 12 (WMD = 2.01, 95% CI = 0.25 to 3.78) and 24 (WMD = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.11 to 3.24) hours after the operation were higher than those of SSNB alone, but there was no significant difference at 36 and 48 h postsurgery. There was no significant difference in pain score between SSNB + ANB and ISB at 6 and 12 h after surgery or in patient satisfaction at 24 h (WMD = 0.13, 95% CI = -0.36 to 0.63) postsurgery between SSNB + ANB and ISB. In terms of safety, compared with ISB, SSNB + ANB reduced the incidence of dyspnea (RR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SSNB alone, SSNB + ANB has better advantages regarding pain relief and patient satisfaction within 24 h after surgery. Compared with ISB, SSNB + ANB shows no difference in postoperative pain relief or patient satisfaction, but SSNB + ANB can reduce the incidence of dyspnea more than ISB.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Plexo Braquial , Anestésicos Locais , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ombro/cirurgia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia
8.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 46(11): 965-970, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A single injection interscalene block (ISB) is a common regional analgesic technique in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. However, rebound pain after ISB resolution may reduce its overall benefit. Our primary aim was to assess whether perineural dexamethasone reduces the intensity and incidence of rebound pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia combined with a preoperative single injection ISB. METHODS: The patients were randomly assigned to receive single injection ISB using either 0.5% ropivacaine (control) or 0.5% ropivacaine containing 5 mg of dexamethasone. The primary outcomes were the pain score difference before and after ISB resolution, and the incidence of rebound pain. The secondary outcomes were the onset and duration of rebound pain, the presence of sleep disturbances due to postoperative pain, the first time when an analgesic was requested, and pain scores at various predefined time points. RESULTS: Pain increase following ISB resolution was lower in the dexamethasone group compared with the control group (4.5±2.4 and 6.9±2.2, respectively, p<0.001). The incidence of rebound pain was significantly lower in the dexamethasone group compared with the control group (37.1% and 82.9%, respectively, p<0.001). The controls experienced greater sleep disturbance during the postoperative period compared with those who received ISB with perineural dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS: Perineural dexamethasone added to ISB using ropivacaine led to a much smoother resolution of ISB, reflected in a significantly smaller increase in pain after block resolution, a lower incidence of rebound pain and a lower sleep disturbance during the first postoperative week. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinical Trial Registry of Korea (KCT0004418).


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Ombro , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ropivacaina
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17002, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417524

RESUMO

Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is increasingly used in preschool-age patients. However, the minimum effective volume of local anaesthetics has not been determined. With ethical committee approval and written informed consent from the guardians of all paediatric patients, we studied 27 consecutive patients aged 3 to 6 years who were scheduled for hand surgery. After general anaesthesia, eligible patients received a set volume of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. We determined the volume of 0.2% ropivacaine for consecutive patients from the preceding patient's outcome. The initial volume was 0.4 ml/kg. The testing interval was set at 0.05 ml/kg, and the lowest volume was 0.1 ml/kg. The following conditions were defined as a successful block: no heart rate changes, body movement, or ventilatory disorders during the operation; no use of fentanyl in the PACU; and a postoperative sensory block score < 3. The sequences of positive and negative blocks in consecutive patients were recorded. Using probit regression analysis, the 50% effective volume was 0.185 ml/kg (95% CI 0.123-0.234), and the 95% effective volume was 0.280 ml/kg (95% CI 0.232-0.593). EV50 and EV95 values of 0.2% ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block were 0.185 ml/kg and 0.280 ml/kg, respectively.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Ropivacaina/farmacologia , Ultrassonografia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Agulhas
10.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(5): 789-797, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomy of the brachial plexus in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), develop a blind perineural injection technique for brachial plexus blockade and evaluate the distribution of three volumes of new methylene blue dye for injection in cadavers. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded cadaveric study. ANIMALS: A total of 24 frozen-thawed box turtle cadavers; two turtles identified with shoulder injuries were subsequently excluded from the study. The remaining 22 turtles weighed 397 (190-581) g, median (range). METHODS: The brachial plexus and regional anatomy were identified by dissection of seven cadavers to determine anatomic landmarks for a perineural injection technique. This technique was tested by randomizing 15 cadavers into one of three groups to be injected bilaterally with one of three volumes (0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 mL) of methylene blue dye 1% aqueous solution. Investigators blinded to the assigned group dissected cadavers 15 minutes after injection and used staining of the four cervical spinal nerves (C5-C8; 25% for each nerve) to record a staining score of the brachial plexus (0-100%). RESULTS: Based on descriptions of the anatomy of the brachial plexus, an injection technique was designed. Injections of 0.1 mL methylene blue dye resulted in nine/10 injections with 100% nerve stained, and one/10 injection with 50% (two) nerves stained. All injections of 0.2 or 0.3 mL of methylene blue dye resulted in 100% nerves stained. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Perineural injection of the brachial plexus with 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 mL methylene blue dye was successful in 29/30 injections in box turtle cadavers weighing 190-581 g. Further studies are needed to determine the minimum volume of injectate that can be successfully used for this technique, and to evaluate its application and efficacy in live turtles.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Tartarugas , Animais , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/veterinária , Cadáver , Estudos de Viabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus block has become one of the most widely-used anaesthetic techniques in the world for upper limb anaesthesia. There are three different brachial blocks techniques: supraclavicular, infraclavicular and axillary block. However, its execution is not exempt from possible clinical complications, and it is not clear which of these is associated with a lower complication rate and greater anaesthetic success. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis following the Cochrane and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify controlled clinical trials reporting the three techniques. The main outcome was the incidence of anaesthetic complications, and the secondary ones were an anaesthetic success, time of performance and anaesthetic latency. RESULTS: 25 controlled clinical trials, with 2012 patient, were included. The methodological quality of the included studies is moderate to high. For the main outcome, the main complication reported was a vascular puncture, followed by transient neurological injury, symptomatic diaphragmatic paralysis and pneumothorax. No differences were found in complications associated with the three anaesthetic techniques. Additionally, no differences were found regarding anaesthetic success. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthetic complications associated with the three brachial block techniques are low, with no medium and long-term sequelae; however, none of the three techniques seems to be superior among them to reduce these complications. All three techniques are highly successful when performed using ultrasound imaging.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Plexo Braquial , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Axila , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/efeitos adversos , Humanos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(27): e26527, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232187

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Interscalene block (ISB) is commonly performed for regional anesthesia in shoulder surgery. Ultrasound-guided ISB enables visualization of the local anesthetic spread and a reduction in local anesthetic volume. However, little is known about the appropriate local anesthetic dose for surgical anesthesia without sedation or general anesthesia. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the appropriate local anesthetic volume by comparing intraoperative analgesics and hemodynamic changes in ISB in arthroscopic shoulder surgery.Overall, 1007 patients were divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 according to the following volume of local anesthetics: 10-19, 20-29, and 30-40 mL, respectively. The use of intraoperative analgesics and sedatives, and the reduction in intraoperative maximum blood pressure and heart rate were compared through retrospective analysis.Fentanyl was used in 55.6% of patients in group 1, which was significantly higher than in those groups 2 and 3 (22.3% and 30.7%, respectively); furthermore, it was also higher than those in groups 2 and 3 in dose-specific comparisons (P < .05). The percent of the maximum reduction in intraoperative systolic blood pressure and heart rate in group 3 was significantly higher than those in groups 1 and 2. Ephedrine administration was lower in group 2 than that in other groups (P < .05). The incidence of hypotensive bradycardic events was lowest (9.1%) at the local anesthetic volume of 24 mL as revealed by the quadratic regression analysis (R2 = 0.313, P = .003).Decreasing the local anesthetic volume to less than 20 mL for ultrasound-guided ISB as the sole anesthesia increases the opioid consumption during shoulder arthroscopic surgery. Local anesthetics >30 mL or increased opioid consumption with <20 mL of local anesthetics could increase the risk of cardiovascular instability intraoperatively. Our findings indicate that 24 mL of local anesthetic could be used to lower the incidence of hypotensive bradycardic events.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroscopia/métodos , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/métodos , Artropatias/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Anestesia Local , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
13.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 30(11): 2638-2647, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain management after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) can be challenging. Given the variety of pain management options available, the purpose of this investigation was to systematically review the literature for randomized controlled trials reporting on pain control after shoulder arthroplasty. We sought to determine which modalities are most effective in managing postoperative pain and reducing postoperative opioid use. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for Level I-II randomized controlled trials that compared interventions for postoperative pain control after TSA. Pain control measures included nerve blocks and nerve block adjuncts, local injections, patient-controlled analgesia, oral medications, and other modalities. The 2 primary outcome measures were pain level measured on a 0-10 visual analog scale and opioid use. The risk of study bias and methodologic quality were analyzed using The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. Network meta-analyses were performed for visual analog scale pain scores at postsurgical time points and opioid use using a frequentist approach and random-effects model, with heterogeneity quantified using the I2 statistic. Treatments were ranked using the P score, and statistical significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 2391 articles (695 duplicates, 1696 screened, 53 undergoing full-text review). Eighteen articles (1358 shoulders; 51% female patients; mean age range, 65-73.7 years; 4 studies with low risk of bias, 12 with some risk, and 2 with high risk) were included and analyzed. At 4 and 8 hours postoperatively, patients receiving local liposomal bupivacaine (LB) injection (P < .001 for 4 and 8 hours) or local ropivacaine injection (P < .001 for 4 hours and P = .019 for 8 hours) had significantly more pain compared with patients who received either a continuous interscalene block (cISB) or single-shot interscalene block (ssISB). No differences in opioid use (at P < .05) were detected between modalities. The P scores of treatments demonstrated that ssISBs were most favorable at time points < 24 hours, whereas pain at 24 and 48 hours after surgery was best managed with cISBs or a combination of an ssISB with a local LB injection. CONCLUSION: Interscalene blocks are superior to local injections alone at managing pain after TSA. Single-shot interscalene blocks are optimal for reducing early postoperative pain (< 24 hours), whereas pain at 24-48 hours after surgery may be best managed with cISBs or a combination of an ssISB with a local LB injection.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais , Bupivacaína , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(4): 451-453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229863

RESUMO

Peripheral Arterial Obstructive Disease (PAOD) may course with severe ischemic pain. In low-income health systems, patients may wait for vascular surgery. Continuous peripheral nerve block may be an effective alternative, with fewer side effects, in this scenario. A female patient with acute arterial obstruction of upper limb evolving with severe ischemic pain. She was submitted to a continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block, which led to a satisfying pain control until the amputation surgery. The early postoperative period evolved with good pain management. This approach may be effective and safe as an analgesia option for ischemic pain.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Feminino , Humanos , Dor , Nervos Periféricos , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia
15.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 29(2): 23094990211027974, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278884

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This randomized noninferiority trial aimed to evaluate whether combined suprascapular, axillary nerve, and the articular branch of lateral pectoral nerve block (3NB) is noninferior to interscalene nerve block (ISB) for pain control after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ASRCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients undergoing ASRCR were randomized to either 3NB (n = 43) or ISB (n = 42) group. We used 5 and 15 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine for each nerve in the 3NB and ISB groups, respectively. The primary outcome was the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score at 4 h postoperatively measured assessed on an 11-point scale (ranging from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain) that was analyzed using noninferiority testing. The secondary outcome was VAS pain scores in the recovery room and at 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h postoperatively. Rebound pain, IV-PCA usage during 48 h, dyspnea, muscle weakness, and satisfaction were evaluated. RESULTS: Regarding the primary outcome, the mean difference in VAS pain scores between the 3NB (2.5 ± 1.6) and ISB (2.2 ± 2.3) groups at 4 h postoperatively was 0.3, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -0.56 to 1.11. The upper limit of 95% CI is lower than the noninferiority margin of 1.3 (p < 0.001). At all other time points, except in the recovery room, 3NB showed noninferior to ISB. Rebound pain, IV-PCA usage during the second 24 h, and muscle weakness were lower in the 3NB group (all p < 0.005). The satisfaction was similar in both groups (p = 0.815). CONCLUSION: Combined 3NB is noninferior to ISB in terms of pain control after ASRCR; and is associated with low levels of rebound pain, IV-PCA usage, and muscle weakness. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Randomized controlled trial, Level I.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Manguito Rotador , Analgésicos , Anestésicos Locais , Artroscopia , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
16.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(4): 617-621, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop an ultrasound-guided dorsal approach to the brachial plexus and to investigate the nerve distribution and staining of a dyed injectate in common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) cadavers. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cadaver study. ANIMALS: A group of three common kestrel cadavers (six wings). METHODS: All cadavers were fresh-frozen at -20 °C and thawed for 10 hours at room temperature before the study. The cadavers were placed in sternal recumbency and their wings were abducted. A 8-13 MHz linear-array transducer was placed over the scapulohumeral joint, at the centre of a triangle formed by the scapula and the humerus. The brachial plexus was identified between the scapulohumeralis muscle and the pectoralis major muscle, as hypoechoic structures lying just cranially to the axillary vessels. After ultrasound-guided brachial plexus identification, a 22 gauge, 50 mm insulated needle was advanced in-plane using ultrasound visualization. A volume of 0.5 mL kg-1 of a 3:1 (2% lidocaine:methylene blue) solution was injected. Following cadaver dissection, the pattern of the spread was assessed, and the extent of nerve staining was measured with a calliper and deemed adequate if more than 0.6 cm of the nerve staining was achieved. RESULTS: The brachial plexus was clearly identified in all wings with the dorsal approach. After dye injection, all the branches of the brachial plexus defined as nerves 1-5 (N1, N2, N3, N4 and N5) were completely stained in five (83%) and partially stained in one (17%) of the six wings. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The ultrasound-guided dorsal approach allows a clear visualization of the brachial plexus structure. The injection of 0.5 mL kg-1of a lidocaine/dye solution produced complete nerve staining in most cases. Further in vivo studies are mandatory to confirm the clinical efficacy of this locoregional anaesthesia technique in common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus).


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Plexo Braquial , Animais , Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/veterinária , Cadáver , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
20.
Pain Physician ; 24(3): 235-242, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interscalene block is the most commonly used nerve block for shoulder surgery, and superior trunk block has been investigated as a phrenic-sparing alternative. This randomized controlled trial compared ultrasound-guided interscalene block and superior trunk block as anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to determine the superiority of anesthesia quality and compare the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis between these 2 blocks. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital. METHODS: Forty-eight patients undergoing elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery under an ultrasound guided brachial plexus block were randomized to receive either an interscalene block (ISB group, n = 24) or a superior trunk block (STB group, n = 24) for surgery. Ten milliliters of 2% lidocaine and 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine were used as local anesthesia in both brachial plexus block groups (total 20 mL). In the ISB group, the local anesthesia was injected between the C5-C6 root and at the upper part of C5 with equally divided doses. In the STB group, the local anesthesia was injected into the anterior and posterior parts of the superior trunk with equally divided doses. Sensory blockade of each trocar's insulting site (supraclavicular, axillary, and suprascapular nerve areas) and motor blockade of the axillary nerve (shoulder abduction) and the suprascapular nerve (shoulder external rotation) were assessed by a blinded observer at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes after the block. Anesthesia quality was assessed using 3 grades (excellent/insufficient/failure). The blinded investigator also assessed the grade of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (normal/partial/complete) by comparing pre- and postoperative chest radiographs. Primary outcome variables were anesthesia grade and rate of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Secondary outcome variables were performance time and anesthesia onset time. RESULTS: The anesthetic grade was significantly different between the 2 groups (22/2/0 in the ISB group vs. 16/3/5 in the STB group, P = 0.046). Both groups displayed equivalent incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (12/6/6 in the ISB group vs. 7/14/3 in the STB group, P = 0.063). No intergroup differences were found in terms of performance time and anesthesia onset time. LIMITATIONS: Our sensory and motor function test was not applied to the subscapular nerve, which serves internal rotation of the humeral head so may be difficult to evaluate in patients with rotator cuff tears. We assessed the diaphragmatic movement by chest radiographs instead of by ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS: The superior trunk block provided lower quality of surgical anesthesia than the interscalene block and did not effectively decrease the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis during arthroscopic shoulder surgery for rotator cuff syndrome.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Anestésicos Locais , Artroscopia , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Ombro/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
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