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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 723, 2022 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031653

RESUMO

Behavioral laterality-typically represented by human handedness-is widely observed among animals. However, how laterality is acquired during development remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of behavioral experience on the acquisition of lateralized predation at different developmental stages of the scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis. Naïve juvenile fish without previous scale-eating experience showed motivated attacks on prey goldfish and an innate attack side preference. Following short-term predation experience, naïve juveniles learned a pronounced lateralized attack using their slightly skewed mouth morphology, and improved the velocity and amplitude of body flexion to succeed in foraging scales during dominant-side attack. Naïve young fish, however, did not improve the dynamics of flexion movement, but progressively developed attack side preference and speed to approach the prey through predation experience. Thus, the cichlid learns different aspects of predation behavior at different developmental stages. In contrast, naïve adults lost the inherent laterality, and they neither developed the lateralized motions nor increased their success rate of predation, indicating that they missed appropriate learning opportunities for scale-eating skills. Therefore, we conclude that behavioral laterality of the cichlid fish requires the integration of genetic basis and behavioral experiences during early developmental stages, immediately after they start scale-eating.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Lateralidade Funcional , Aprendizagem , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Boca/fisiologia
2.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 295: 103784, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517114

RESUMO

The influences of the profiles and cross-sectional areas of glottal aperture on the upper respiratory airway are investigated using an idealized cast-based mouth-throat model and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The open source CFD code OpenFOAM is employed. The transient flows are modeled using the very-large eddy simulation with the Smagorinsky sub-grid scale (SGS) model. Five different shapes of glottis are considered, including circular glottis with 100 %, 75 % and 50 % cross-sectional area and elliptic glottis with 75 % and 50 % cross-sectional area. Both instantaneous and averaged flow fields are analyzed. It is found that the variations of glottis have great impacts on the properties of downstream flow fields such as the secondary flow, laryngeal jet, recirculation zone, turbulent kinetic energy, and vortex. Evident impacts are observed in the region within 6 tracheal diameters downstream of the glottis. The profile of the glottis has more impacts on the laryngeal shape, while the cross-sectional area has more impacts on velocity of the laryngeal jet and turbulent intensity. It is concluded that both the glottal areas and profiles are critical for an idealized geometrical mouth-throat model.


Assuntos
Glote/anatomia & histologia , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Biológicos , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Faringe/anatomia & histologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Traqueia/anatomia & histologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
3.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(5): 397-404, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664914

RESUMO

Vulnerability of animals immediately after hatching may induce plasticity in early ontology that becomes important for subsequent survival and growth. Ezo salamanders (Hynobius retardatus) are amphibians inhabiting ponds in Hokkaido, Japan where ezo brown frogs (Rana pirica) spawn on occasion. The salamander larvae must achieve sufficient size in order to successfully capture frog tadpoles, and we examined whether the presence of tadpoles causes development of greater body and/or gape size in newly hatched salamander larvae, which will in turn result in advantageous future prey-predator interactions. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted three laboratory experiments to demonstrate the phenotypic plasticity of salamander hatchlings in response to the presence or absence of frog tadpoles and to screen the type of signals involved in the expression of the phenotypic plasticity. First, salamander hatchlings were reared alone or with tadpoles, and the growth and morphological traits of the hatchlings were compared. The results showed that hatchling larvae grew faster with a more developed gape in the presence of tadpoles. Next, to identify the type of signals inducing this plasticity, two separate experiments with manipulated chemical and visual signals from tadpoles were conducted. The findings showed that faster growth and a more developed gape were induced by chemical but not visual signals. This plasticity may be an adaptive strategy because it increases the likelihood of preying on tadpoles in future prey-predator interactions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Urodelos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Boca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Predatório , Ranidae , Urodelos/fisiologia , Água/química
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5477, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531386

RESUMO

Evolutionary constraints may significantly bias phenotypic change, while "breaking" from such constraints can lead to expanded ecological opportunity. Ray-finned fishes have broken functional constraints by developing two jaws (oral-pharyngeal), decoupling prey capture (oral jaw) from processing (pharyngeal jaw). It is hypothesized that the oral and pharyngeal jaws represent independent evolutionary modules and this facilitated diversification in feeding architectures. Here we test this hypothesis in African cichlids. Contrary to our expectation, we find integration between jaws at multiple evolutionary levels. Next, we document integration at the genetic level, and identify a candidate gene, smad7, within a pleiotropic locus for oral and pharyngeal jaw shape that exhibits correlated expression between the two tissues. Collectively, our data show that African cichlid evolutionary success has occurred within the context of a coupled jaw system, an attribute that may be driving adaptive evolution in this iconic group by facilitating rapid shifts between foraging habitats, providing an advantage in a stochastic environment such as the East African Rift-Valley.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ciclídeos/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Faringe/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Ecossistema , Feminino , Escore Lod , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
5.
Sci Robot ; 6(50)2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043578

RESUMO

The biomechanics underlying the predatory strike of dragonfly larvae is not yet understood. Dragonfly larvae are aquatic ambush predators, capturing their prey with a strongly modified extensible mouthpart. The current theory of hydraulic pressure being the driving force of the predatory strike can be refuted by our manipulation experiments and reinterpretation of former studies. Here, we report evidence for an independently loaded synchronized dual-catapult system. To power the ballistic movement of a single specialized mouthpart, two independently loaded springs simultaneously release and actuate two separate joints in a kinematic chain. Energy for the movement is stored by straining an elastic structure at each joint and, possibly, the surrounding cuticle, which is preloaded by muscle contraction. As a proof of concept, we developed a bioinspired robotic model resembling the morphology and functional principle of the extensible mouthpart. Understanding the biomechanics of the independently loaded synchronized dual-catapult system found in dragonfly larvae can be used to control the extension direction and, thereby, thrust vector of a power-modulated robotic system.


Assuntos
Odonatos/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Materiais Biomiméticos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Boca/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Odonatos/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Robótica/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Oral Oncol ; 117: 105269, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present an anatomical cadaver dissection study and our preliminary surgical experience with endoscopic-assisted multi-portal compartmental resection of the masticatory space (MS) in locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of the retromolar area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two fresh-frozen cadaver heads were dissected in the Laboratory of Anatomy to define the surgical steps of an endoscopic-assisted multi-portal compartmental approach to the MS. After this preclinical anatomical study, patients affected by locally advanced OSCC originating from the retromolar area with extension to the MS were prospectively enrolled and operated at two Italian referral centers for head and neck cancer between October 2019 and May 2020. RESULTS: Surgical technique of endoscopic-assisted multi-portal compartmental resection of the MS was preclinically defined step by step in 3 phases: transnasal, transoral/trancervical, and multi-portal. Compartmental resection of the MS was successfully completed in all specimens (4 MSs dissected). The surgical technique was subsequently applied in 3 patients affected by primary OSCC of the retromolar area, providing satisfactory results in terms of negative resection margins and local control. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-portal compartmental resection of the MS combining the transnasal and transoral/transcervical corridors is technically feasible. Such an approach to the MS in locally advanced OSCC provides different angles of incidence to the target and full control of tumor margins.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Cadáver , Endoscopia , Humanos , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4964(1): zootaxa.4964.1.12, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903537

RESUMO

The Neotropical genus Scinax Wagler currently comprises 127 species of small treefrogs distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina and Uruguay, including some islands such as Trinidad and Tobago, and St. Lucia (Frost 2020). Two major clades are recognized within Scinax, the S. catharinae and the S. ruber clades. The former is composed of two species groups, the S. catharinae and the S. perpusillus groups (Faivovich 2002; Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. perpusillus species group currently comprises 13 species: S. alcatraz (Lutz); S. arduous Peixoto; S. atratus (Peixoto); S. belloni Faivovich, Gasparini Haddad; S. cosenzai Lacerda, Peixoto Feio; S. faivovichi Brasileiro, Oyamaguchi Haddad; S. insperatus Silva Alves-Silva; S. littoreus (Peixoto); S. melloi (Peixoto), S. peixotoi Brasileiro, Haddad, Sawaya Martins; S. perpusillus (Lutz Lutz); S. tupinamba Silva Alves-Silva; and S. v-signatus (Lutz). These species are endemic of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and are recognized by their intimate association with bromeliads (Fig. 1), in which adults breed and lay their eggs, and tadpoles develop (Peixoto 1987, 1995; Alves-Silva Silva 2009).


Assuntos
Anuros , América , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/classificação , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Faringe/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7191, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785856

RESUMO

We asked how dynamic facial features are perceptually grouped. To address this question, we varied the timing of mouth movements relative to eyebrow movements, while measuring the detectability of a small temporal misalignment between a pair of oscillating eyebrows-an eyebrow wave. We found eyebrow wave detection performance was worse for synchronous movements of the eyebrows and mouth. Subsequently, we found this effect was specific to stimuli presented to the right visual field, implicating the involvement of left lateralised visual speech areas. Adaptation has been used as a tool in low-level vision to establish the presence of separable visual channels. Adaptation to moving eyebrows and mouths with various relative timings reduced eyebrow wave detection but only when the adapting mouth and eyebrows moved asynchronously. Inverting the face led to a greater reduction in detection after adaptation particularly for asynchronous facial motion at test. We conclude that synchronous motion binds dynamic facial features whereas asynchronous motion releases them, allowing adaptation to impair eyebrow wave detection.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Adulto , Sobrancelhas/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Movimento , Percepção
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(7)2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526593

RESUMO

Changes to feeding structures are a fundamental component of the vertebrate transition from water to land. Classically, this event has been characterized as a shift from an aquatic, suction-based mode of prey capture involving cranial kinesis to a biting-based feeding system utilizing a rigid skull capable of capturing prey on land. Here we show that a key intermediate, Tiktaalik roseae, was capable of cranial kinesis despite significant restructuring of the skull to facilitate biting and snapping. Lateral sliding joints between the cheek and dermal skull roof, as well as independent mobility between the hyomandibula and palatoquadrate, enable the suspensorium of T. roseae to expand laterally in a manner similar to modern alligator gars and polypterids. This movement can expand the spiracular and opercular cavities during feeding and respiration, which would direct fluid through the feeding apparatus. Detailed analysis of the sutural morphology of T. roseae suggests that the ability to laterally expand the cheek and palate was maintained during the fish-to-tetrapod transition, implying that limited cranial kinesis was plesiomorphic to the earliest limbed vertebrates. Furthermore, recent kinematic studies of feeding in gars demonstrate that prey capture with lateral snapping can synergistically combine both biting and suction, rather than trading off one for the other. A "gar-like" stage in early tetrapod evolution might have been an important intermediate step in the evolution of terrestrial feeding systems by maintaining suction-generation capabilities while simultaneously elaborating a mechanism for biting-based prey capture.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cordados/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cordados/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Boca/anatomia & histologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1927, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479387

RESUMO

Faces can be categorized in various ways, for example as male or female or as belonging to a specific biogeographic ancestry (race). Here we tested the importance of the main facial features for race perception. We exchanged inner facial features (eyes, mouth or nose), face contour (everything but those) or texture (surface information) between Asian and Caucasian faces. Features were exchanged one at a time, creating for each Asian/Caucasian face pair ten facial variations of the original face pair. German and Korean participants performed a race classification task on all faces presented in random order. The results show that eyes and texture are major determinants of perceived biogeographic ancestry for both groups of participants and for both face types. Inserting these features in a face of another race changed its perceived biogeographic ancestry. Contour, nose and mouth, in that order, had decreasing and much weaker influence on race perception for both participant groups. Exchanging those features did not induce a change of perceived biogeographic ancestry. In our study, all manipulated features were imbedded in natural looking faces, which were shown in an off-frontal view. Our findings confirm and extend previous studies investigating the importance of various facial features for race perception.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , /genética , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Percepção Visual/genética , /genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Morphol ; 282(3): 472-484, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399244

RESUMO

The external morphology, internal oral morphology, the chondrocranium and the hyobranchial apparatus of Elachistocleis bumbameuboi, E. cf. piauiensis, E. cesarii and E. bicolor are described and compared with each other and with other species of microhylids using available descriptions from the literature. The general morphology of Elachistocleis species is conservative in many aspects. Differences between species are subtle and are found in the body shape, the edge of the snout, fin height, if the lateral line is evident, the presence of regular pustules in the buccal roof arena, the posterolateral edge of the cartilago suprarostralis, the shape of the fenestra in the occipital region, presence or absence of fenestra hypophysea, the margin of the processus antorbitalis, expansions in the ventrolateral process, the shape and inclination of the fenestra subocularis, whether the subotic process is single or slightly bifid, and the inclination of the processus anterolateralis hyalis.


Assuntos
Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Animais , Larva/anatomia & histologia
12.
J Fish Biol ; 98(1): 142-153, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981058

RESUMO

A new species of Eigenmannia is described from the Rio Paraná (the Grande, Paranapanema and Tietê basins). This new species is distinguished from all congeners by colouration pattern, position of the mouth, relative depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1 + 2, number of teeth, osteological features, number of rows of scales above lateral line (LL) and morphometric data. Comments on the widened cephalic lateral-line canals of Sternopygidae and a dichotomous key to the species of Eigenmannia from the Rio Paraná Basin are provided.


Assuntos
Gimnotiformes/anatomia & histologia , Gimnotiformes/classificação , Sistema da Linha Lateral/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Brasil , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
J Anat ; 238(2): 288-307, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107039

RESUMO

The anatomy of the feeding apparatus of the snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis elongata (Klunzinger, 1871) is illustrated in detail from the dissection of three heads. Two new muscles are described: the Adductor mandibularis internus and the Levator mandibularis. A subdivision of the Levator palatoquadrati is described and named the Pronator subdivision of the Levator palatoquadrati. Also, eight new anatomical features associated with the mandibular arch and with the chondrocranium (CR) are described. Three are cartilages: the suprapalatine cartilages, the craniopalatoquadrate cartilage and the calcified Meckelian dental fold. The remaining five features are processes: the Pronator process of the palatoquadrate (PQ), the Levator palatoquadrati alpha process, the proquadrate process, the ectorbital process (ECP) and the Meckelian Intermandibularis ridge. Some of them are not restricted to H.elongata. The function of these new muscles and anatomical features is discussed and a hypothesis about the functional morphology of the feeding apparatus of the snaggletooth shark is proposed. The extent and the assumptive importance of the pronation of the mandibular arch in the snaggletooth shark feeding behaviour is described and discussed. An alternative for the main function of the Levator palatoquadrati as hypothesized by Motta et al. (1997) and Wilga et al. (2001) is proposed for the families Hemigaleidae, Carcharhinidae and Sphyrnidae. We anticipate this muscle is more involved in the pronation rather than in the protrusion of the mandibular arch.


Assuntos
Boca/anatomia & histologia , Tubarões/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Masculino , Boca/fisiologia , Tubarões/fisiologia
14.
Micron ; 140: 102976, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221524

RESUMO

The Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus, is a severe pest of larches in Northeastern China. The gustatory and olfactory systems of I. subelongatus play important roles in host location, mating, and feeding. In this study, we examined the types, distributions, and abundances of various sensilla associated with the mouthparts and antennae of I. subelongatus using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the mouthparts, five types of sensilla are present: sensilla trichodea (S.t.1-3), sensilla chaetica (S.c.1-3), sensilla basiconica (S.b.1-2), sensilla twig basiconica (S.tb.1-3), and sensilla placodea (S.p). S.t.3 are the most abundant sensilla subtype on the mouthparts in both sexes, while S.b.1 are the least abundant. Most sensilla on the mouthparts are located on the maxillae and labium, and the apex of each maxillary and labial palp carry the same sensilla subtypes (S.b.2 and S.tb.1-3). However, the total number of sensilla on the apex of each maxillary palp is higher than that on the labial palp. On the antennae, five types of sensilla are present: sensilla trichodea (S.t.1-3), sensilla chaetica (S.c.1-2), sensilla basiconica (S.b.1-3), Böhm bristles (B.b), and sensilla coeloconica (S.co). Antennal sensilla are mostly situated on the anterior surface of the antennal club, particularly on the two dense sensory bands. S.b.1 are the most abundant sensilla subtype on the antennae in both sexes, while S.t.1 are the least abundant. No sexual dimorphism in sensilla type or distribution on the mouthparts or antennae is observed between the sexes of I. subelongatus. However, S.t.3 (on mouthparts) and S.c.1 (on antennae) were significantly more abundant in males than in females, while more S.t.1 (on mouthparts) were observed in females than in males. Finally, the putative functions of each kind of sensilla with respect to their fine structures, distributions, and abundances on the mouthparts and antennae are discussed.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/ultraestrutura , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Larix , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Sensilas/ultraestrutura , Animais , China , Besouros/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Masculino , Boca/ultraestrutura , Sensilas/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
J Morphol ; 282(1): 115-126, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078885

RESUMO

The genus Edalorhina consists of two species of small forest-floor frogs inhabiting the Amazon basin. The tadpole of Edalorhina perezi, the most widely distributed species, was previously described based on a single and early stage (Gosner 25) individual. Herein, we provide a description of the tadpole in Gosner stages 35-36 including internal morphology data (i.e., buccopharyngeal cavity and larval skeleton) based on samples from two populations from Ecuador. Edalorhina shares a generalized morphology with most members of its closely related taxa; however, it is distinguished from the other species by having an almost terminal oral disc. The presence of a dextral vent tube is considered a synapomorphy for the clade consisting of Edalorhina, Engystomops, and Physalaemus. Within this clade, the combination of two lingual papillae, a filiform median ridge, and the lack of buccal roof papillae are diagnostic of E. perezi and putative autapomorphies of Edalorhina. Chondrocranial anatomy provides characteristics, that is, presence of and uniquely shaped processus pseudopterygoideus and cartilago suprarostralis with corpora and alae joined by dorsal and ventral connections that readily differentiates the genus from other Leiuperinae.


Assuntos
Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Brasil , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Boca/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , Crânio/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of an orofacial trauma can originate health, social, economic and professional problems. A 13-year boy suffered the avulsion of tooth 11 and 21, lost at the scenario. METHODS: Three intraoral appliances were manufactured: A Hawley appliance with a central expansion screw and two central incisors (1), trumpet edentulous anterior tooth appliance (2) and a customized splint (3) were designed as part of the rehabilitation procedure. Objectively assessing the sound quality of the trumpet player with these new devices in terms of its spectral, temporal, and spectro-temporal audio properties. A linear frequency response microphone was adopted for precision measurement of pitch, loudness, and timbre descriptors. RESULTS: Pitch deviations may result from the different intra-oral appliances due to the alteration of the mouth cavity, respectively, the area occupied and modification/interaction with the anatomy. This investigation supports the findings that the intra-oral appliance which occupies less volume is the best solution in terms of sound quality. CONCLUSIONS: Young wind instrumentalists should have dental impressions of their teeth made, so their dentist has the most reliable anatomy of the natural teeth in case of an orofacial trauma. Likewise, the registration of their sound quality should be done regularly to have standard parameters for comparison.


Assuntos
Incisivo/lesões , Ortodontia , Avulsão Dentária/reabilitação , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Radiografia Panorâmica , Dente , Avulsão Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Avulsão Dentária/terapia
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1837-1841, Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134517

RESUMO

RESUMEN: La disposición anatómica de los músculos faciales es de una notable complejidad y requiere de un estudio pormenorizado para lograr su reconomiento preciso. La comprensión de la disposición morfológica y la funcionalidad del modiolo del ángulo oral (Modiolus angulis oris) es de gran relevancia al momento de analizar la constitución muscular de la comisura labial, y para comprender clínicamente las lesiones del ángulo de la cavidad oral, lo que permitirá un abordaje terapéutico adecuado, crucial para la preservación y reconstitución de la armonía facial.


SUMMARY: The anatomical arrangement of the facial muscles is of considerable complexity and requires a detailed study to achieve its precise recognition. The understanding of the morphological disposition and the functionality of the angle of the mouth (Modiolus angulis oris) is of great relevance when analyzing the muscular constitution of the labial commissure, and to understand clinically the injuries of the angulus oris, what that will allow an adequate therapeutic approach, crucial for the preservation and reconstitution of facial harmony.


Assuntos
Músculos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/anatomia & histologia
18.
Zoology (Jena) ; 143: 125850, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130490

RESUMO

Nudibranch molluscs represent an interesting model group to study the evolution of feeding apparatus and feeding modes, being characterized by specialized buccal complex in combination with extremely diverse dietary preferences and multiply prey shifts in evolutionary history. However, the plasticity of the buccal complex morphology in response to diet and specific feeding modes remains understudied. Here we study the general morphology and ontogenesis of the buccal complex in Eubranchus rupium (Nudibranchia: Fionidae). Specific goals are to provide a detailed description of buccal structures morphology in post-larval stages, suggest the feeding mechanism and discuss the phylogenetic value of the morphological characteristics of buccal armature within the genus Eubranchus. Methods included in vivo observations of the feeding process for E. rupium, light microscopic methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM). According to our results, E. rupium is a mechanical driller, boring holes in hydrozoan perisarc and sucking internal content. The mechanical drilling is supplied by functionally uniserial radula with plate-like laterals teeth of exclusively supportive function and by massive buccal musculature. Comparative phylogeny-based analysis suggests that the drilling feeding mode is common for the genus Eubranchus and indicates radular characters may have a high phylogenetic signal. The buccal complex morphology and feeding mode were found to be similar in both adults and post-metamorphic specimens, its general structures occur even in settled veligers. Juveniles and adults compete for food source, but the competition is smoothed due to characteristics of prey species growth and life cycle.


Assuntos
Moluscos/anatomia & histologia , Moluscos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Boca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Larva , Moluscos/genética , Filogenia
19.
J Neurogenet ; 34(3-4): 404-419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054476

RESUMO

The related nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans both eat bacteria for nutrition and are therefore competitors when they exploit the same bacterial resource. In addition to competing with each other, P. pacificus is a predator of C. elegans larval prey. These two relationships together form intraguild predation, which is the killing and sometimes eating of potential competitors. In killing C. elegans, the intraguild predator P. pacificus may achieve dual benefits of immediate nutrition and reduced competition for bacteria. Recent studies of P. pacificus have characterized many aspects of its predatory biting behaviour as well as underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms. However, little has been explored regarding the potentially competitive aspect of P. pacificus biting C. elegans. Moreover, aggression may also be implicated if P. pacificus intentionally bites C. elegans with the goal of reducing competition for bacteria. The aim of this review is to broadly outline how aggression, predation, and intraguild predation relate to each other, as well as how these concepts may be applied to future studies of P. pacificus in its interactions with C. elegans.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias , Mordeduras e Picadas , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 62(3): 572-577, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After a century of controversies, we are still not certain on the relationship between airway volume and facial morphology. OBJECTIVE: To measure nasopharyngeal airway volume and compare it among different skeletal patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty five CBCT scans of patients between sixteen to twenty five years were used in the study. The nasopharyngeal airway was divided into upper, middle and lower segments. CBCT images were grouped into skeletal class I, class II and class III. RESULTS: There was highly significant difference in upper (p=0.001) and middle pharyngeal airway volume (p<0.001) among 3 skeletal groups. Lower pharyngeal airway volume was also statistically significant (p=0.051) among 3 groups. Total pharyngeal airway volume did not show any significant correlation. CONCLUSION: Nasopharyngeal airway volume seems to play a role in different skeletal patterns.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Boca/diagnóstico por imagem , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Faringe/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
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