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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2588: 187-199, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418689

RESUMO

It is well-recognized that oral biofilms that occur in health and disease have a polymicrobial composition, though these are poorly reflected in the literature, with many studies focussing on simple mono-species biofilm model systems. The utility of polymicrobial biofilm model systems is that they more accurately reflect the oral cavity and allow researchers to ask relevant questions in basic science studies, pharmaceutical screening, and investigating inflammatory interactions. Here we describe the detailed methodology of how to sequentially construct and maintain polymicrobial biofilm models pertinent to caries, periodontal disease, and denture stomatitis.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Microbiota , Bactérias , Boca/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos
2.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 8(1): 91, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400799

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests altered oral and gut microbiota in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the alterations and roles of phages, especially within the oral microbiota in ASD subjects. We enrolled ASD (n = 26) and neurotypical subjects (n = 26) with their oral hygiene controlled, and the metagenomes of both oral and fecal samples (n = 104) are shotgun-sequenced and compared. We observe extensive and diverse oral phageome comparable to that of the gut, and clear signals of mouth-to-gut phage strain transfer within individuals. However, the overall phageomes of the two sites are widely different and show even less similarity in the oral communities between ASD and control subjects. The ASD oral phageome exhibits significantly reduced abundance and alpha diversity, but the Streptococcal phages there are atypically enriched, often dominating the community. The over-representation of Streptococcal phages is accompanied by enriched oral Streptococcal virulence factors and Streptococcus bacteria, all exhibiting a positive correlation with the severity of ASD clinical manifestations. These changes are not observed in the parallel sampling of the gut flora, suggesting a previously unknown oral-specific association between the excessive Streptococcal phage enrichment and ASD pathogenesis. The findings provide new evidence for the independent microbiome-mouth-brain connection, deepen our understanding of how the growth dynamics of bacteriophages and oral microbiota contribute to ASD, and point to novel effective therapeutics.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Bacteriófagos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fagos de Streptococcus , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Bacteriófagos/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362445

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is transmitted primarily through the oral-oral route and fecal-oral route. The oral cavity had therefore been hypothesized as an extragastric reservoir of H. pylori, owing to the presence of H. pylori DNA and particular antigens in distinct niches of the oral cavity. This bacterium in the oral cavity may contribute to the progression of periodontitis and is associated with a variety of oral diseases, gastric eradication failure, and reinfection. However, the conditions in the oral cavity do not appear to be ideal for H. pylori survival, and little is known about its biological function in the oral cavity. It is critical to clarify the survival strategies of H. pylori to better comprehend the role and function of this bacterium in the oral cavity. In this review, we attempt to analyze the evidence indicating the existence of living oral H. pylori, as well as potential survival strategies, including the formation of a favorable microenvironment, the interaction between H. pylori and oral microorganisms, and the transition to a non-growing state. Further research on oral H. pylori is necessary to develop improved therapies for the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Periodontite , Humanos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Estômago/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(46): e30517, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401454

RESUMO

Frequently, periodontal health and it's associated oral biofilm has not been addressed in those patients who have systemic health issues, especially those who are not responding to medical treatment via their physician. Oral biofilm may be present in the periodontal sulcus in the absence of clinical disease of periodontal disease (bleeding on probing, gingival inflammation) and periodontal reaction is dependent on the patient's immune response to the associated bacterial and their byproducts. Increasing evidence has been emerging the past decade connecting oral biofilm with systemic conditions, either initiating them or complicating those medical conditions. The patient's health needs to be thought of as a whole-body system with connections that may originate in the oral cavity and have distant affects throughout the body. To maximize total health, a coordination in healthcare needs to be a symbiosis between the physician and dentist to eliminate the oral biofilm and aid in prevention of systemic disease or minimize those effects to improve the patient's overall health and quality of life. Various areas of systemic health have been associated with the bacteria and their byproducts in the oral biofilm. Those include cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, pulmonary disease, prostate cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, pre-term pregnancy, erectile dysfunction Alzheimer's disease and Rheumatoid arthritis. This article will discuss oral biofilm, its affects systemically and review the medical conditions associated with the oral systemic connection with an extensive review of the literature.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Biofilmes , Boca/microbiologia , Imunoterapia , Bactérias
5.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(10): 588-593, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315174

RESUMO

The widespread use of traditional removable prosthetics is explained by the relative simplicity of the technological stages of manufacture and determines its availability. The development of prosthetic stomatitis of the oral cavity is facilitated by poor fixation and stabilization of removable orthopedic structures. Microbiome biofilms formed on the surface of dental orthopedic structures can help reduce their service life and cause an inflammatory process of the oral cavity of microbial etiology during dental prosthetics in the process of orthopedic rehabilitation. The purpose of the study: to assess the level of adaptation of patients during orthopedic rehabilitation based on the study of the microbiome and the assessment of the degree of fixation of removable lamellar dentures. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the microbiome of prostheses at the stages of orthopedic pealitation were assessed; facultative anaerobic species belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella prevailed;noted the elimination of microorganisms of the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacterium, yeast-like fungi of the species Candida albicans were isolated. An analysis of the index of fixation of prostheses showed an increase depending on the duration of use; a good level of fixation of prostheses was established in groups of patients.


Assuntos
Prótese Parcial Removível , Microbiota , Humanos , Prótese Parcial Removível/microbiologia , Boca/cirurgia , Boca/microbiologia , Candida albicans , Biofilmes
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2209589119, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197997

RESUMO

Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is an inflammatory syndrome postulated to contribute to stunted child growth and to be associated with intestinal dysbiosis and nutrient malabsorption. However, the small intestinal contributions to EED remain poorly understood. This study aimed to assess changes in the proximal and distal intestinal microbiota in the context of stunting and EED and to test for a causal role of these bacterial isolates in the underlying pathophysiology. We performed a cross-sectional study in two African countries recruiting roughly 1,000 children aged 2 to 5 years and assessed the microbiota in the stomach, duodenum, and feces. Upper gastrointestinal samples were obtained from stunted children and stratified according to stunting severity. Fecal samples were collected. We then investigated the role of clinical isolates in EED pathophysiology using tissue culture and animal models. We find that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is extremely common (>80%) in stunted children. SIBO is frequently characterized by an overgrowth of oral bacteria, leading to increased permeability and inflammation and to replacement of classical small intestinal strains. These duodenal bacterial isolates decrease lipid absorption in both cultured enterocytes and mice, providing a mechanism by which they may exacerbate EED and stunting. Further, we find a specific fecal signature associated with the EED markers fecal calprotectin and alpha-antitrypsin. Our study shows a causal implication of ectopic colonization of oral bacterial isolated from the small intestine in nutrient malabsorption and gut leakiness in vitro. These findings have important therapeutic implications for modulating the microbiota through microbiota-targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos do Crescimento , Intestino Delgado , Lipídeos , Boca , Animais , Bactérias , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndromes de Malabsorção , Camundongos , Modelos Teóricos , Boca/microbiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115554

RESUMO

We report here the community structure and functional analysis of the microbiome of the Alligator mississippiensis GI tract from the oral cavity through the entirety of the digestive tract. Although many vertebrate microbiomes have been studied in recent years, the archosaur microbiome has only been given cursory attention. In the oral cavity we used amplicon-based community analysis to examine the structure of the oral microbiome during alligator development. We found a community that diversified over time and showed many of the hallmarks we would expect of a stable oral community. This is a bit surprising given the rapid turnover of alligator teeth but suggests that the stable gumline microbes are able to rapidly colonize the emerging teeth. As we move down the digestive tract, we were able to use both long and short read sequencing approaches to evaluate the community using a shotgun metagenomics approach. Long read sequencing was applied to samples from the stomach/duodenum, and the colorectal region, revealing a fairly uniform and low complexity community made up primarily of proteobacteria at the top of the gut and much more diversity in the colon. We used deep short read sequencing to further interrogate this colorectal community. The two sequencing approaches were concordant with respect to community structure but substantially more detail was available in the short read data, in spite of high levels of host DNA contamination. Using both approaches we were able to show that the colorectal community is a potential reservoir for antibiotic resistance, human pathogens such as Clostridiodes difficile and a possible source of novel antimicrobials or other useful secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Microbiota , Jacarés e Crocodilos/genética , Animais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Boca/microbiologia
8.
Mol Oral Microbiol ; 37(6): 229-243, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073311

RESUMO

A detailed understanding of where bacteria localize is necessary to advance microbial ecology and microbiome-based therapeutics. The site-specialist hypothesis predicts that most microbes in the human oral cavity have a primary habitat type within the mouth where they are most abundant. We asked whether this hypothesis accurately describes the distribution of the members of the genus Streptococcus, a clinically relevant taxon that dominates most oral sites. Prior analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing data indicated that some oral Streptococcus clades are site-specialists while others may be generalists. However, within complex microbial populations composed of numerous closely related species and strains, such as the oral streptococci, genome-scale analysis is necessary to provide the resolution to discriminate closely related taxa with distinct functional roles. Here, we assess whether individual species within this genus are specialists using publicly available genomic sequence data that provide species-level resolution. We chose a set of high-quality representative genomes for human oral Streptococcus species. Onto these genomes, we mapped shotgun metagenomic sequencing reads from supragingival plaque, tongue dorsum, and other sites in the oral cavity. We found that every abundant Streptococcus species in the healthy human oral cavity showed strong site-tropism and that even closely related species such as S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. infantis specialized in different sites. These findings indicate that closely related bacteria can have distinct habitat distributions in the absence of dispersal limitation and under similar environmental conditions and immune regimes. Substantial overlap between the core genes of these three species suggests that site-specialization is determined by subtle differences in genomic content.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Streptococcus , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptococcus/genética , Microbiota/genética , Metagenoma , Bactérias/genética , Boca/microbiologia , Tropismo , Filogenia
9.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 145, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human mouth is a natural laboratory for studying how bacterial communities differ across habitats. Different bacteria colonize different surfaces in the mouth-teeth, tongue dorsum, and keratinized and non-keratinized epithelia-despite the short physical distance between these habitats and their connection through saliva. We sought to determine whether more tightly defined microhabitats might have more tightly defined sets of resident bacteria. A microhabitat may be characterized, for example, as the space adjacent to a particular species of bacterium. Corncob structures of dental plaque, consisting of coccoid bacteria bound to filaments of Corynebacterium cells, present an opportunity to analyze the community structure of one such well-defined microhabitat within a complex natural biofilm. Here, we investigate by fluorescence in situ hybridization and spectral imaging the composition of the cocci decorating the filaments. RESULTS: The range of taxa observed in corncobs was limited to a small subset of the taxa present in dental plaque. Among four major groups of dental plaque streptococci, two were the major constituents of corncobs, including one that was the most abundant Streptococcus species in corncobs despite being relatively rare in dental plaque overall. Images showed both Streptococcus types in corncobs in all individual donors, suggesting that the taxa have different ecological roles or that mechanisms exist for stabilizing the persistence of functionally redundant taxa in the population. Direct taxon-taxon interactions were observed not only between the Streptococcus cells and the central corncob filament but also between Streptococcus cells and the limited subset of other plaque bacteria detected in the corncobs, indicating species ensembles involving these taxa as well. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial organization we observed in corncobs suggests that each of the microbial participants can interact with multiple, albeit limited, potential partners, a feature that may encourage the long-term stability of the community. Additionally, our results suggest the general principle that a precisely defined microhabitat will be inhabited by a small and well-defined set of microbial taxa. Thus, our results are important for understanding the structure and organizing principles of natural biofilms and lay the groundwork for future work to modulate and control biofilms for human health. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Zea mays , Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Boca/microbiologia , Streptococcus
10.
Rev. ADM ; 79(4): 218-223, jul.-ago. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396089

RESUMO

Objetivo: actualizar la información sobre la disbiosis bacteriana oral y su efecto en enfermedades bucales. Material y métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica detallada, donde la búsqueda de artículos comenzó desde el 2014 con trabajos de investigación relacionados con el tema. Se aplicaron palabras clave para facilitar y delimitar el tema. En los resultados obtenidos se observa información específica de disbiosis bacteriana y los problemas y enfermedades que causan en la cavidad bucal. Conclusión: la cavidad oral es un ecosistema muy complejo e interactivo donde se desarrollan variedades de hábitats que establecen relaciones entre los microorganismos en los distintos medios bucales. Por lo general, el cuerpo humano vive en simbiosis con dichas bacterias, esta relación hospedador-huésped es producto de años de evolución y convivencia para poder tolerar a dichas especies y por medio de años de investigación, determinar a los agentes patógenos y a los simbióticos, lo que permitirá en un futuro tener enfoques terapéuticos y científicos, para así solucionar, mejorar y evitar problemas relacionados con la salud (AU)


Objective: this review aimed to update the information on oral bacterial dysbiosis and its effect on oral diseases. Material and methods: a detailed literature review was performed, where the search for articles began in 2014 with research papers related to the topic. Keywords were applied to facilitate and delimit the topic. The results obtained show specific information on bacterial dysbiosis and the problems and diseases they cause in the oral cavity. Conclusion: the oral cavity is a very complex and interactive ecosystem where a variety of habitats develop and establish relationships between microorganisms in different oral environments. Generally, the human body lives in symbiosis with these bacteria, this host-guest relationship is the product of years of evolution and coexistence to be able to tolerate these species and through years of research to determine the pathogens and symbiotics, which will allow in the future to have therapeutic and scientific approaches, to solve, improve and avoid health-related problems (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Disbiose/etiologia , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Bacilos Gram-Positivos/patogenicidade , Bacilos e Cocos Aeróbios Gram-Negativos/patogenicidade , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Boca/microbiologia
11.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0106322, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000841

RESUMO

Bacteriophages (phages) are an integral part of the human oral microbiome. Their roles in modulating bacterial physiology and shaping microbial communities have been discussed but remain understudied due to limited isolation and characterization of oral phage. Here, we report the isolation of LC001, a lytic phage targeting human oral Schaalia odontolytica (formerly known as Actinomyces odontolyticus) strain XH001. We showed that LC001 attached to and infected surface-grown, but not planktonic, XH001 cells, and it displayed remarkable host specificity at the strain level. Whole-genome sequencing of spontaneous LC001-resistant, surface-grown XH001 mutants revealed that the majority of the mutants carry nonsense or frameshift mutations in XH001 gene APY09_05145 (renamed ltg-1), which encodes a putative lytic transglycosylase (LT). The mutants are defective in LC001 binding, as revealed by direct visualization of the significantly reduced attachment of phage particles to the XH001 spontaneous mutants compared that to the wild type. Meanwhile, targeted deletion of ltg-1 produced a mutant that is defective in LC001 binding and resistant to LC001 infection even as surface-grown cells, while complementation of ltg-1 in the mutant background restored the LC001-sensitive phenotype. Intriguingly, similar expression levels of ltg-1 were observed in surface-grown and planktonic XH001, which displayed LC001-binding and nonbinding phenotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the overexpression of ltg-1 failed to confer an LC001-binding and -sensitive phenotype to planktonic XH001. Thus, our data suggested that rather than directly serving as a phage receptor, ltg-1-encoded LT may increase the accessibility of phage receptor, possibly via its enzymatic activity, by cleaving the peptidoglycan structure for better receptor exposure during peptidoglycan remodeling, a function that can be exploited by LC001 to facilitate infection. IMPORTANCE The evidence for the presence of a diverse and abundant phage population in the host-associated oral microbiome came largely from metagenomic analysis or the observation of virus-like particles within saliva/plaque samples, while the isolation of oral phage and investigation of their interaction with bacterial hosts are limited. Here, we report the isolation of LC001, the first lytic phage targeting oral Schaalia odontolytica. Our study suggested that LC001 may exploit the host bacterium-encoded lytic transglycosylase function to gain access to the receptor, thus facilitating its infection.


Assuntos
Actinomycetaceae , Bacteriófagos , Glicosiltransferases , Actinomycetaceae/enzimologia , Actinomycetaceae/virologia , Receptores de Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/enzimologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Boca/virologia , Mutação , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Plâncton/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14239, 2022 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987920

RESUMO

Dysbiosis of the oral microbiota plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, which is characterized by chronic inflammation and alveolar bone loss, and associated with systemic diseases. Bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain various bioactive molecules and show diverse effects on host environments depending on the bacterial species. Recently, we reported that EVs derived from Filifactor alocis, a Gram-positive periodontal pathogen, had osteoclastogenic activity. In the present study, we analysed the osteoclastogenic potency and immunostimulatory activity of EVs derived from the Gram-negative periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, the oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus oralis, and the gut probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri. Bacterial EVs were purified by density gradient ultracentrifugation using OptiPrep (iodixanol) reagent. EVs from P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and S. oralis increased osteoclast differentiation and osteoclstogenic cytokine expression in osteoclast precursors, whereas EVs from L. reuteri did not. EVs from P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and S. oralis preferentially activated Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) rather than TLR4 or TLR9, and induced osteoclastogenesis mainly through TLR2. The osteoclastogenic effects of EVs from P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were reduced by both lipoprotein lipase and polymyxin B, an inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while the osteoclastogenic effects of EVs from S. oralis were reduced by lipoprotein lipase alone. These results demonstrate that EVs from periodontal pathogens and oral commensal have osteoclastogenic activity through TLR2 activation by lipoproteins and/or LPS.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Boca , Osteoclastos , Diferenciação Celular , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Lipase Lipoproteica , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Receptor 4 Toll-Like
13.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 50(297): 190-194, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801603

RESUMO

The involvement of commensals and opportunistic pathogens and the role of protective mechanisms in the development of dental diseases in children with cystic fibrosis require more detailed study. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the ecological characteristics of the oral microbiota and some antimicrobial factors of saliva in children with mucoviscidosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved an assessment of oral microbiota as complex ecological system that protects the human body from colonization by pathogenic flora in children with cystic fibrosis. Bacteriological studies have been performed on clinical material from 30 children with mucoviscidosis diagnosed with dental and periodontal diseases. RESULTS: In the microbiological study of plaque microbiota, 70 strains of opportunistic pathogens were isolated in patients with mucoviscidosis. The most significant were alpha-hemolytic Streptococci (40%). The proportion of bacteria of Neisseria genus in patients with cystic fibrosis was lower and amounted to 24.3%. C. albicans fungi were isolated in comparable values (18.5%), S. aureus (8.5%), as well as gram-negative strains of E. aerogenes (4.3%) and E. coli (4.3%) significantly dominated. The results indicate that opportunistic pathogens S. aureus, E. aerogenes and E. coli partially replaced the representatives of the normal oral microbiota alpha-hemolytic streptococci and non-pathogenic species of Neisseria genus in patients with mucoviscidosis. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiota of plaque in children with mucoviscidosis is characterized by an expansion of the spectrum of opportunistic pathogens due to Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and C. albicans fungi, which indicates a violation of the microbiocenosis due to reduced mucosal immunity. Mucosal immunity of the oral cavity in children with mucoviscidosis is characterized by a 1.5-fold decrease in lysozyme activity and the level of secretory IgA in the saliva of children.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Antibacterianos , Criança , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus
14.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 93, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701831

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease with limited diagnostic and treatment options. Not all populations are affected equally, as disparities exist in pancreatic cancer prevalence, treatment and outcomes. Recently, next-generation sequencing has facilitated a more comprehensive analysis of the human oral microbiome creating opportunity for its application in precision medicine. Oral microbial shifts occur in patients with pancreatic cancer, which may be appreciated years prior to their diagnosis. In addition, pathogenic bacteria common in the oral cavity have been found within pancreatic tumors. Despite these findings, much remains unknown about how or why the oral microbiome differs in patients with pancreatic cancer. As individuals develop, their oral microbiome reflects both their genotype and environmental influences. Genetics, race/ethnicity, smoking, socioeconomics and age affect the composition of the oral microbiota, which may ultimately play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain the oral dysbiosis found in patients with pancreatic cancer though they have yet to be confirmed. With a better understanding of the interplay between the oral microbiome and pancreatic cancer, improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches may be implemented to reduce healthcare disparities. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Boca/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/microbiologia , Medicina de Precisão
15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(7): e24483, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This case-control study was designed to compare the composition of the predominant oral bacterial microbiome in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control group. SUBJECT: A total of 30 adult participants (15 AD and 15 healthy individuals) were entered in this study. The composition of oral bacterial microbiome was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using bacterial 16S rDNA gene. The levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines in both groups were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). RESULTS: The loads of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella intermedia were significantly more abundant in the AD compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Although Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans were relatively frequent in the AD group, no significance difference was observed in their copy number between two groups. Although the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α were higher in the AD group, there was a significant difference in their levels between the two groups (p < 0.05). Finally, there was a significant relationship between increased number of pathogenic bacteria in oral microbiome and higher concentration of cytokines in patient's blood. CONCLUSION: Our knowledge of oral microbiome and its exact association with AD is rather limited; our study showed a significant association between changes in oral microbiome bacteria, increased inflammatory cytokines, and AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Microbiota , Boca , Adulto , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Projetos Piloto
16.
Chin J Dent Res ; 25(2): 107-118, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the composition and abundance of candidate phyla radiation (CPR) in the oral cavity in caries patients and a healthy population. METHODS: The raw macrogenomic sequencing data for a total of 88 subjects were downloaded from the National Centre for Biotechnology Sequence Read Archive (NCBI SRA) public database according to the public data usage specifications. Trimmomatic (Department for Metabolic Networks, Potsdam, Germany) and Bowtie 2 (University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA) were used to quality control and dehost the host sequences. Species annotation was made using Kraken2 (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA) and Bracken (Johns Hopkins University) based on the reference database. According to the results of the species annotation, the species-significant differences and species correlation of caries and healthy oral microbiota in species composition and microbiota diversity were analysed to study the distribution and abundance differences of CPR in the oral environment. RESULTS: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were the main components. The relative abundance of TM7 (Candidatus Saccharibacteria) and GN02 (Candidatus Gracilibacteria) of CPR is second only to the aforementioned five bacteria, indicating that CPR is an important part of the oral microbiota. TM7 and GN02 were common to both the caries patients and healthy patients and were detected in all samples, suggesting that CPR is the 'core microbiome'. There was a correlation between CPR and a variety of oral microbiota, among which the positive correlation with Capnocytophaga was the strongest, suggesting that Capnocytophaga might be the potential host bacteria of CPR. CONCLUSION: CPR is an indispensable part of the oral microbiota. It is the 'core microflora' of the oral cavity and may play an important role in the stability and function of the oral microecological environment. Capnocytophaga may be the potential host bacteria of CPR.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Depósitos Dentários , Placa Dentária , Microbiota , Bactérias , Capnocytophaga , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia
17.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 22(2): 101718, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718428

RESUMO

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Joshi, Chaitanya; Bapat, Ranjeet; Anderson, William; Joshi, Chaitanya; Bapat, Ranjeet; Anderson, William; Dawson, Dana; Hijazi, Karolin; Cherukara, George (2021). "Detection of periodontal microorganisms in coronary atheromatous plaque specimens of myocardial infarction patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 31(1): 69-82. SOURCE OF FUNDING: None. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Boca/microbiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/microbiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Assistência Odontológica , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
18.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 35(3): e0014021, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658516

RESUMO

Candidate phyla radiation (CPR) is an emerging division of the bacterial domain within the human microbiota. Still poorly known, these microorganisms were first described in the environment in 1981 as "ultramicrobacteria" with a cell volume under 0.1 µm3 and were first associated with the human oral microbiota in 2007. The evolution of technology has been paramount for the study of CPR within the human microbiota. In fact, since these ultramicrobacteria have yet to be axenically cultured despite ongoing efforts, progress in imaging technology has allowed their observation and morphological description. Although their genomic abilities and taxonomy are still being studied, great strides have been made regarding their taxonomic classification, as well as their lifestyle. In addition, advancements in next-generation sequencing and the continued development of bioinformatics tools have allowed their detection as commensals in different human habitats, including the oral cavity and gastrointestinal and genital tracts, thus highlighting CPR as a nonnegligible part of the human microbiota with an impact on physiological settings. Conversely, several pathologies present dysbiosis affecting CPR levels, including inflammatory, mucosal, and infectious diseases. In this exhaustive review of the literature, we provide a historical perspective on the study of CPR, an overview of the methods available to study these organisms and a description of their taxonomy and lifestyle. In addition, their distribution in the human microbiome is presented in both homeostatic and dysbiotic settings. Future efforts should focus on developing cocultures and, if possible, axenic cultures to obtain isolates and therefore genomes that would provide a better understanding of these ultramicrobacteria, the importance of which in the human microbiome is undeniable.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bactérias , Disbiose , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563488

RESUMO

Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) are a promising resource for use in regenerative endodontic treatment (RET) that may be adversely affected by oral bacteria, which in turn can exert an effect on the success of RET. Our work aims to study the cytokine profile of SCAP upon exposure to oral bacteria and their supernatants-Fusobacterium nucleatum and Enterococcus faecalis-as well as to establish their effect on the osteogenic and immunogenic potentials of SCAP. Further, we target the presence of key proteins of the Wnt/ß-Catenin, TGF-ß, and NF-κB signaling pathways, which play a crucial role in adult osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, using the Western blot (WB) technique. The membrane-based sandwich immunoassay and transcriptomic analysis showed that, under the influence of F. nucleatum (both bacteria and supernatant), the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 occurred, which was also confirmed at the mRNA level. Conversely, E. faecalis reduced the secretion of the aforementioned cytokines at both mRNA and protein levels. WB analysis showed that SCAP co-cultivation with E. faecalis led to a decrease in the level of the key proteins of the Wnt/ß-Catenin and NF-κB signaling pathways: ß-Catenin (p = 0.0068 *), LRP-5 (p = 0.0059 **), and LRP-6 (p = 0.0329 *), as well as NF-kB (p = 0.0034 **) and TRAF6 (p = 0.0285 *). These results suggest that oral bacteria can up- and downregulate the immune and inflammatory responses of SCAP, as well as influence the osteogenic potential of SCAP, which may negatively regulate the success of RET.


Assuntos
Papila Dentária , Boca , Osteogênese , Células-Tronco , Adulto , Bactérias , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Citocinas , Papila Dentária/metabolismo , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , RNA Mensageiro , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
20.
Science ; 376(6596): 934-936, 2022 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617380

RESUMO

Oral microbiota form complex biofilms that can affect local and systemic health.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Doença , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Boca , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Saúde , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia
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