Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.216
Filtrar
1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 2322, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138475

RESUMO

Respiratory droplets emitted during speech can transmit oral bacteria and infectious viruses to others, including COVID-19. Loud speech can generate significantly higher numbers of potentially infectious respiratory droplets. This study assessed the effect of speech volume on respiratory emission of oral bacteria as an indicator of potential pathogen transmission risk. Loud speech (average 83 dBA, peak 94 dBA) caused significantly higher emission of oral bacteria (p = 0.004 compared to no speech) within 1 ft from the speaker. N99 respirators and simple cloth masks both significantly reduced emission of oral bacteria. This study demonstrates that loud speech without face coverings increases emission of respiratory droplets that carry oral bacteria and may also carry other pathogens such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Exposição por Inalação , Boca/microbiologia , Respiração , Acústica da Fala , Aerossóis , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(10): 2825-2840, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747998

RESUMO

M18 strain of Streptococcus salivarius is a bacterial replacement probiotic that has been suggested for use in the oral cavity. Here, we have shown that S. salivarius M18 cell-free supernatant reduced the growth of the two most common human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia and sensitized the pathogenic bacteria to antibiotic. Besides, the supernatant inhibited biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa drastically. For pinpointing the biomolecular changes that occurred in P. aeruginosa incubated with the probiotic supernatant, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used. Unsupervised learning algorithms, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and intensity analyses of individual spectral bands exhibited comprehensive alterations in the polysaccharide and lipid contents and compositions of P. aeruginosa cultivated with S. salivarius M18 cell-free supernatant. These results indicate that S. salivarius M18 has the potential for the prevention or alleviation of different pathogen-induced infections along with the infections of oral pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus salivarius/química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Boca/microbiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1160-1164, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741188

RESUMO

The composition of human oral microorganism is numerous and complex and is easily affected by many factors. With the development of metagenomic technology, the important role of oral microbiome in the development of tumor has attracted extensive attention. A literature retrieval was conducted through PubMed, Embase, CNKI and WanFang database for an analysis on the characteristics of oral bacteria and its association with oral cancer, esophageal cancer and gastric cancer. The results indicated that oral microbiome can be influenced by age, gender, race, and lifestyle. Specific oral bacteria were associated with high risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer, indicating a potential role of oral microbiota to be the biomarker for upper gastrointestinal cancer. This paper summarizes the progress in the research of the association between oral microbiome and upper gastrointestinal cancer, showing a new direction for the exploration of microbiological etiology of upper gastrointestinal cancer and providing scientific evidence for the optimization of early detection and treatment of upper gastrointestinal cancer.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101009, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620497

RESUMO

Chronic renal disease patients under chronic dialysis (CRDD) have a multifactorial immunological deterioration with an increased risk of Candida infections. Incidence of Candida infections is increasing. Choice of suitable antifungal agents is limited due to the resistance of some species to several antifungals. Aim of the present study was to identify the distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of oral isolated Candida species from infected and colonized patients, as well as to investigate the risk factors for oral infection in patients on dialysis. Cross-sectional study, approved by the institutional bioethics committees was performed in CRDD patients. Demographic, clinic data, and oral mucosa samples were obtained. Infection diagnosis was established clinically and confirmed with exfoliative cytology, each sample was plated on CHROMagar Candida and incubated at 36°C for 2 days. Yeast species were identified by carbohydrate assimilation ID 32C AUX system and the apiweb database. For the antifungal susceptibility test, the M44 A-3 method (CLSI) using fluconazole (FCZ), miconazole (MCZ), nystatin (NYS), and voriconazole (VCZ). Study included 119 participants, the main cause of CRD was nephropathy due to DM2 (58%), and three-fourths of the patients were under hemodialysis. Candida prevalence was 56.3% of 67 colonized or infected patients, 88 isolates were obtained. Principal identified species were C. albicans (51.1%), C. glabrata (25%), and C. tropicalis (14.8%). C. glabrata showed a reduced response to FCZ in 50% of isolates and C. albicans had a reduced response in 16% of the isolates. Antifungal agent with the least efficacious response or with the lowest susceptibility in the isolates of these patients was MCZ, followed by VCZ and FCZ, whereas NYS induced the best antifungal response.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida/classificação , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/microbiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491142

RESUMO

Oral problems are common in patients diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED) and still require better elucidation. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of oral Candida spp in individuals with ED. The sample of the study was comprised of 30 women with purgative habits and 15 without purgative habits. Samples of the oral cavity were collected by sterile cotton swab rubbed on soft tissues and teeth. Yeasts were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Yeasts were isolated from the oral cavity of 53% of the patients yielding 75 yeast isolates; of these, 43 were identified by conventional mycological methods: C. parapsilosis (n=19), C. glabrata (n=16), Rhodotorula sp (n= 6), C. famata (n=2). The remaining 32 isolates were presumptively identified as C. albicans or C. dubliniensis and required mass spectrometry for the final differentiation: 28 isolates were confirmed as C. albicans and four as C. dubliniensis. Among the control group, only four subjects (26.7%) were found to harbor C. albicans. The four C. dubliniensis isolates were from two patients, one that was only colonized and the other, with severe ED, was diagnosed with an oral candidiasis as demonstrated by the presence of pseudohyphae on the direct mycological exam from different sites. The increased rate of isolation of non-albicans species, such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. dubliniensis in the oral cavity from ED patients with nutritional deficiency may suggest that purgative habits of these patients can lead to changes in normal flora and predispose to oral candidiasis.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 162, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial biofilms adhere to all tissues and surfaces in the oral cavity. Oral biofilms are responsible for the decay of human dental structures and the inflammatory degeneration of the alveolar bone. Moreover, oral biofilms on artificial materials influence the lifespan of dental prostheses and restoratives. METHODS: To investigate in vivo oral biofilm formation and growth, five different dental restorative materials were analyzed and compared to human enamel. The roughness of the materials and the human enamel control probe were measured at the start of the study. The dental restorative materials and the human enamel control probe were placed in dental splints and worn for 3 h, 24 h and 72 h. RESULTS: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed major differences between oral biofilm formation and growth on the materials compared to those on human enamel. Microbiological analyses showed that bacterial strains differed between the materials. Significant differences were observed in the roughness of the dental materials. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that material roughness affects biofilm formation on dental surfaces and restoratives, but other factors, such as surface charge, surface energy and material composition, may also have an influence.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Biofilmes , Implantes Dentários/microbiologia , Materiais Dentários , Boca/microbiologia , Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3749-3754, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519941

RESUMO

Three strains representing the previously uncultured human oral Tannerella taxon HMT-286 were recently isolated from the subgingival plaque of a patient with chronic periodontitis. The phenotypic and genetic features of strain SP18_26T were compared to those of the type species of Tannerella, Tannerella forsythia. A genome size of 2.97 Mbp (G+C content 56.5 mol%) was previously reported for SP18_26T, compared to a size of 3.28 Mbp (47.1 mol%) in T. forsythia ATCC 43037T. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons also revealed 94.3 % sequence identity with T. forsythia ATCC 43037T. Growth was stimulated by supplementation of media with N-acetyl muramic acid, as seen with T. forsythia, but the cells displayed a distinctive snake-like morphology. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a profile differing from T. forsythia, chiefly in the amount of 3-OH-16 : 0 (four-fold lower in SP18_26T). Overall, metabolic enzyme activity also differed from T. forsythia, with enzyme activity for indole present, but the complement of glycoside hydrolase enzyme activity was smaller than T. forsythia, for example, lacking sialidase and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase - evidence backed up by analysis of its gene content. On the basis of these results, a new species Tannerella serpentiformis is proposed for which the type strain is SP18_26T (=DSM 102894T=JCM 31303T).


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/classificação , Boca/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Ácidos Murâmicos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4098-4104, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539911

RESUMO

A new α-haemolytic streptococcal strain has been isolated from the dental plaque of a teenager with Down syndrome. Genetic and taxonomic analyses place this Streptococcus within the oralis group. It is a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming spherical alpha-haemolytic coccus arranged in chains, and it ferments a large number of monosaccharides and disaccharides, as well as polymeric carbohydrates. It differs biochemically from closely related species of Streptococcus due to its production of α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase and by the absence of arginine dihydrolase deiminase and IgA1-protease. It grows in a temperature range of 25 to 40 °C (optimal growth temperature at 37 °C) and in a pH range of 4.5 to 8 (optimal pH at 7.0). A phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences placed it close to Streptococcus dentisani CECT 7747T. The ANIb and ANIm values were 93.19 and 93.61 %, respectively, both below the accepted threshold to designate it as a new species of bacteria. A phylogenetic tree based on its core genome placed it close to Streptococcus oralis subsp. dentisani strain CECT 7747T with a distance in the expanded core phylogeny of 0.1298. The in silico DNA-DNA hybridization value was 52.2 % with respect to the closest species, S. oralis subsp. dentisani CECT 7747T. Based on these data, a new species of bacteria within the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae and order Lactobacillales is described, for which the name of Streptococcus downii sp. nov. is proposed (type strain CECT 9732T=CCUG 73139T).


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Síndrome de Down , Boca/microbiologia , Filogenia , Streptococcus/classificação , Adolescente , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517039

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that the oral microbiome is related to systemic health, and a co-relation with several specific diseases has been suggested. The oral microbiome depends on environmental- and community-level factors. In this observational study, the oral microbiomes of children of isolated mountain people were analyzed with respect to the core oral microbiome and etiology of dental caries. We collected samples of supragingival plaque from children (age 9-13) living in the Chin state of Myanmar. After DNA extraction and purification, next-generation sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA was conducted. From thirteen subjects, 263,458 valid reads and 640 operational taxonomic units were generated at a 97% identity cut-off value. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria was the most abundant, followed by Firmicutes and Bacteroides. Forty-four bacteria were detected in total from all the subjects. For children without dental caries, Proteobacteria was abundant. In contrast, in children with dental caries, Firmicutes and Bacteroides were abundant. The oral microbiome of children living in an isolated area may be affected by environmental- and community-level factors. Additionally, the composition of the oral microbiome may affect the risk of dental caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Bactérias , Criança , Humanos , Mianmar , RNA Ribossômico 16S
11.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 12, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350240

RESUMO

The human microbiome functions as an intricate and coordinated microbial network, residing throughout the mucosal surfaces of the skin, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and reproductive system. The oral microbiome encompasses a highly diverse microbiota, consisting of over 700 microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. As our understanding of the relationship between the oral microbiome and human health has evolved, we have identified a diverse array of oral and systemic diseases associated with this microbial community, including but not limited to caries, periodontal diseases, oral cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The potential predictive relationship between the oral microbiota and these human diseases suggests that the oral cavity is an ideal site for disease diagnosis and development of rapid point-of-care tests. The oral cavity is easily accessible with a non-invasive collection of biological samples. We can envision a future where early life salivary diagnostic tools will be used to predict and prevent future disease via analyzing and shaping the infant's oral microbiome. In this review, we present evidence for the establishment of the oral microbiome during early childhood, the capability of using childhood oral microbiome to predict future oral and systemic diseases, and the limitations of the current evidence.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Criança , Humanos , Lactente
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3355-3360, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375938

RESUMO

Four strains, KC07070T, KC07105, 11 025B-8C and 11 026B-8-C, were isolated from the oral cavity of cats in 2007 or 2011 in Japan. These strains were Gram-stain-negative rods, exhibited gliding motility, grew in air with 5 % CO2 and showed catalase and oxidase activity. The sequences of 16S rRNA genes of the four strains were 100 % identical. Additionally, the sequences of 16S rRNA genes of KC07070T had identity to those of the type strains of Capnocytophaga canimorsus (97.7 %), Capnocytophaga cynodegmi (97.8 %) and Capnocytophaga canis (97.4 %) and 91.2-93.8% identity to those of other species of the genus Capnocytophaga. The major cellular fatty acids of KC07070T were iso-C15 : 0 (56.2 %) and summed feature 11 (14.9 %). The G+C content of the DNA from KC07070T was 35.6 mol%, and the genome size was 2.88 Mbp. KC07070T had digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values of 26.2-27.6% and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of 75.4-83.3 % to the type strains of the closest relatives, C. canimorsus, C. cynodegmi and C. canis. These results of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, cellular fatty acids compositions and dDDH and ANI values indicate that strain KC07070T represents a novel species, for which we propose the name Capnocytophaga felis sp. nov., with type strain KC07070T (=JCM 32681T=DSM 107251T).


Assuntos
Capnocytophaga/classificação , Gatos/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Capnocytophaga/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Japão , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Arch Oral Biol ; 114: 104727, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea and its extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as a mouthwash in children. DESIGN: The study group included 47 children aged 5-12 years at high caries risk and prevalence. Children selected were asked to rinse with one of the substances (EGCG, green tea, chlorhexidine and distilled water) for one min. A non-stimulated salivary sample (2 mL) was collected at baseline and after rinsing. The concentration of cariogenic microorganisms (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli) was determined before and after rinsing based on the count of colony-forming units (CFU). CFU were counted with the aid of a stereomicroscope through the perfunctory identification of the morphological characteristics of CFU. The microbial reduction percentage was then calculated. RESULTS: The analysis of the effectiveness of the treatments showed that there was a significant reduction in relation to the values obtained before and after the mouthwash, both for mutans streptococci (pCHX = 0.001; pEGCG = 0.001; pGreen Tea = 0.005; pDistilled Water = 0.018) and lactobacilli (pCHX = 0.001; pEGCG = 0.002; pGreen Tea = 0.008; pDistilled Water = 0.033). The percentage of microbial reduction of both cariogenic microorganisms caused by the EGCG solution was higher than green tea and distilled water, but less than CHX. The percentage of microbial reduction by the EGCG solution for mutans streptococci was 79.9%, green tea 68.3%, distilled water 50.6% and CHX 95.5%. For lactobacilli, the percentage reduction of all solutions was relatively lower when compared to mutans streptococci. For the EGCG solution it was 72.09%, followed by green tea 59.17% and distilled water 41.96%, but less than CHX 86.02%. CONCLUSION: Rinsing with EGCG solution reduced the levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in the oral cavity of children. Although EGCG had better antimicrobial activity than green tea, this study supports the effectiveness of both as an antibacterial mouthwash option. Both EGCG and green tea could be used as alternatives to chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Microbiota , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Chá/química , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae , Boca/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans
14.
Arch Oral Biol ; 114: 104730, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antibiotics play a great role in the treatment of infectious diseases, but meantime, they cause great disturbances to host microbiota. Studies on different antibiotic-induced changes in host microbiota are relatively scarce. This study aimed to investigate the changes in oral and gut microbiota and possible alterations of gut resistance to Salmonella induced by the administration of antibiotics. METHODS: The experiment was conducted by administering antibiotics to rats and detecting oral and gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In second part, after treating with antibiotics or Lactobacillus rhamnosus the rats were infected by Salmonella Typhimurium and the pathogen burden in the gut was counted by colony forming unit assay. RESULTS: The gut microbiota underwent dramatic changes after both vancomycin and ampicillin treatment. The alpha diversity sharply decreased, and the microbiota composition showed a significant difference. However, the gut microbiota recovered within four weeks after stopping antibiotics administration, although this recovery was incomplete. Oral microbiota did not show significant alterations in both alpha and beta diversities. The number of pathogens in the gut in the control group was significantly lower than that in the antibiotic-treated group but only lasted for the first 4 days after infection. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics cause dramatic alterations in the number and diversity of gut microbiota but not oral microbiota. These changes in the gut microbiota could incompletely recover four weeks later. When infected with pathogens after antibiotic administration, the rats show a decrease in colonization resistance in the gut for the first four days after infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Doença , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonelose Animal , Ampicilina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Boca/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Salmonella typhimurium , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 374, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated Staphylococcus aureus and oral bacterial concentrations are known to correlate with pneumonia hospitalization in nursing home residents. However, the effects of a professional oral care intervention on these factors remain unclear. The aims of this quasi-experimental study were to compare bacterial concentrations in saliva and sputum, oral health status, distribution of Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumonia status before and after a professional oral care intervention. METHODS: A purposive sample of residents from two nursing homes was divided into an intervention group that received a weekly professional oral care intervention and a control group. Oral bacterial concentration was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Staphylococcus aureus distribution was determined by bacterial culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. After data collection, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention. RESULTS: Most residents were unconscious (80%), and most had a history of pneumonia (76%). Baseline demographic data did not significantly differ between the two groups. After the intervention, the intervention group had significant improvements in plaque index (1.66 ± 0.78 vs. 0.94 ± 0.64, p <  0.01), gingival index (2.36 ± 0.76 vs. 1.65 ± 0.83, p <  0.01), tongue coating index (0.96 ± 1.10 vs. 0.16 ± 0.47, p <  0.01), distribution of Staphylococcus aureus in salivary samples (11.11 ± 14.47% vs. 1.74 ± 3.75%, p = 0.02), and salivary bacterial concentration ([4.27 ± 3.65] × 105 vs. [0.75 ± 1.20] × 105, p <  0.01). Sputum bacterial concentration did not significantly differ. The intervention group also had a significantly lower annual prevalence of pneumonia hospitalization (1.24 ± 1.51 vs. 0.48 ± 0.59, p = 0.01), especially in residents whose salivary bacterial concentration exceeded the median. However, the duration of pneumonia hospitalization did not significantly differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A professional oral care intervention in nursing home residents can improve oral health, reduce levels of salivary bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus, and decrease the annual prevalence of pneumonia hospitalization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03874962. Registered 12 March 2019 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Boca/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Taiwan
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466124

RESUMO

The purpose of this 3-year prospective cohort study was to explore the relationship between an increase in dental caries and oral microbiome among Japanese university students. We analyzed 487 students who volunteered to receive oral examinations and answer baseline (2013) and follow-up (2016) questionnaires. Of these students, salivary samples were randomly collected from 55 students at follow-up and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Students were divided into two groups: increased group (Δdecayed, missing, and filled teeth (ΔDMFT) score increased during the 3-year period) and non-increased group (ΔDMFT did not increase). Thirteen phyla, 21 classes, 32 orders, 48 families, 72 genera, and 156 species were identified. Microbial diversity in the increased group (n = 14) was similar to that in the non-increased group (n = 41). Relative abundances of the family Prevotellaceae (p = 0.007) and genera Alloprevotella (p = 0.007) and Dialister (p = 0.039) were enriched in the increased group compared with the non-increased group. Some bacterial taxonomic clades were differentially present between the two groups. These results may contribute to the development of new dental caries prevention strategies, including the development of detection kits and enlightenment activities for these bacteria.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Microbiota , Adolescente , Bactérias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Breath Res ; 14(3): 036005, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428892

RESUMO

To investigate whether academic stress changes the salivary microbiota and its relationship with salivary parameters, evaluating the effects on the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in healthy women. Fifty-five women who were enrolled in a four-year Dentistry course were assessed for academic stress by the questionnaire Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey and were then classified into 'Not Stressed' and 'Stressed' groups. Cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA) were measured as physiological stress biomarkers. Oral Chroma™ gas chromatograph was used to measure concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide. Salivary proteins were evaluated by western blot. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the salivary amounts of halitosis-associated bacteria. The 'Stressed' volunteers showed higher levels of H2S, AA, Fusobacterium nucleatum and total bacteria, compared to the 'Not Stressed' individuals (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test). Salivary proteins showed no differences between groups (p > 0.05; Mann-Whitney test). Academic stress was positively correlated with H2S, total bacteria and F. nucleatum counts, while F. nucleatum was positively correlated with AA. H2S showed positive correlations with AA and Solobacterium moorei (p < 0.05; Spearman correlation). Beta-defensin (BD) presented negative correlations with H2S and S. moorei (p < 0.05; Spearman correlation). Academic stress increased salivary F. nucleatum and total bacteria, as well as AA activity. The protein BD showed important correlations with bacteria and VSC. These changes appeared to be accountable for increased H2S production in the stressed women.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Halitose/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Estudantes , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Adolescente , Bactérias/metabolismo , Testes Respiratórios , Feminino , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Amilases/análise , beta-Defensinas/análise
18.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(5): 465-471, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452368

RESUMO

In the last decade, the association between the periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been established, suggesting that oral microbiome plays a causal role by initiating this chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of articulation. Both pathogenesis are similar in term of chronic inflammation, tissue breakdown and bone resorption. Molecular aspects have also revealed that citrullination, a post-translational modification catalyzed by peptidyl-arginine deiminases (PADs), is involved in both diseases. For RA, citrullinated proteins production leads to the synthesis the of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies triggering the loss of immune tolerance. In humans, five PADs have been identified. Recently, studies have found that only Porphyromonas species possess PAD. Thus, a major periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, is able to generate citrullinated epitopes, and could consequently induce anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. In this review, citrullination process, periodontitis and RA are described to put them in relation with molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies establishing the association between periodontitis and RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Bactérias/enzimologia , Citrulinação/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/fisiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/enzimologia , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/enzimologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12375-12386, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424080

RESUMO

Tooth decay (dental caries) is a widespread human disease caused by microbial biofilms. Streptococcus mutans, a biofilm-former, has been consistently associated with severe childhood caries; however, how this bacterium is spatially organized with other microorganisms in the oral cavity to promote disease remains unknown. Using intact biofilms formed on teeth of toddlers affected by caries, we discovered a unique 3D rotund-shaped architecture composed of multiple species precisely arranged in a corona-like structure with an inner core of S. mutans encompassed by outer layers of other bacteria. This architecture creates localized regions of acidic pH and acute enamel demineralization (caries) in a mixed-species biofilm model on human teeth, suggesting this highly ordered community as the causative agent. Notably, the construction of this architecture was found to be an active process initiated by production of an extracellular scaffold by S. mutans that assembles the corona cell arrangement, encapsulating the pathogen core. In addition, this spatial patterning creates a protective barrier against antimicrobials while increasing bacterial acid fitness associated with the disease-causing state. Our data reveal a precise biogeography in a polymicrobial community associated with human caries that can modulate the pathogen positioning and virulence potential in situ, indicating that micron-scale spatial structure of the microbiome may mediate the function and outcome of host-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biofilmes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia
20.
Av. odontoestomatol ; 36(1): 11-19, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192995

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Demostrar la existencia de agregación bacteriana a los materiales de sutura que suelen emplearse en la práctica odontológica, comprobar si dicha agregación está relacionada con la inflamación que sucede al acto quirúrgico y por último dar recomendaciones sobre què tipo de sutura se adapta mejor para la prevención de la adherencia bacteriana. MATERIAL Y MÈTODO: Búsqueda bibliográfica a travès de las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane y Scielo empleando las palabras clave: surgical sutures, bacterial adherence. Como criterios de inclusión se aceptaron los estudios publicados en los últimos 15 años, in vivo o in vitro en relación con la cirugía oral y con un nivel de evidencia científico superior a 3 según los criterios de evidencia científica. Fueron excluidas todas aquellas publicaciones que no tenían como objeto de estudio las sutura seda, Nylon™, Supramid™, Monocryl™, Vicryl™ o Vicryl Plus™. Tambièn se excluyeron todas aquellas publicaciones que no relacionaban los materiales de sutura a la agregación bacteriana. RESULTADOS: Un total de 9 publicaciones se organizaron en función del tipo de sutura empleada, si eran estudios in vivo o in vitro, el número de pacientes/muestras, tiempo transcurrido hasta la remoción de las suturas, si se realizaron controles, si existió algún tipo de reacción inflamatoria, que tipo de bacterias se agregaron y que material obtuvo mayor agregación. DISCUSIÓN: Los materiales de sutura que mayor acúmulo de placa bacteriana presentan bajo las mismas condiciones de tiempo de exposición a bacterias, son los de tipo multifilamento reabsorbible no tratados con antimicrobianos


OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the existence of bacterial aggregation to the suture materials that are usually used in dental practice, to verify if aggregation is related to the inflammation that occurs after the surgical act and finally give recommendations on what type of suture is best suited for the prevention of bacterial adhesion. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Bibliographic search through PubMed, Cochrane and Scielo databases using the keywords: surgical sutures, bacterial adherence. Inclusion criteria were accepted studies published in the last 15 years, in vivo or in vitro in relation to oral surgery and with a level of scientific evidence of more than 3 according to the criteria of scientific evidence. All those publications that did not have the suture subject Silk, Nylon™, Supramid™, Monocryl™, Vicryl™ or Vicryl Plus™ were excluded. All publications that did not relate suture materials to bacterial aggregation were also excluded. RESULTS: A total of 9 publications were organized according to the type of suture used, whether they were in vivo or in vitro studies, the number of patients/samples, time elapsed until removal of the sutures, controls if they were performed, any type of inflammatory reaction, which type of bacteria were added and which material obtained greater aggregation. DISCUSSION: The suture materials with the greatest accumulation of bacterial plaque present under the same conditions of exposure to bacteria, are the reabsorbable multifilament type not treated with antimicrobials


Assuntos
Humanos , Aderência Bacteriana , Suturas/microbiologia , Cirurgia Bucal , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/métodos , Boca/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Suturas/classificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA