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1.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 4712406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765263

RESUMO

Periodontal diseases are a range of polymicrobial infectious disorders, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, which affect tooth-supporting tissues and are linked to playing a role in the exacerbation of several pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary diseases, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, tuberculosis, COVID-19, and bronchiectasis, significantly contribute to poor quality of life and mortality. The association between periodontal disease and pulmonary outcomes is an important topic and requires further attention. Numerous resident microorganisms coexist in the oral cavity and lungs. However, changes in the normal microflora due to oral disease, old age, lifestyle habits, or dental intervention may contribute to altered aspiration of oral periodontopathic bacteria into the lungs and changing inflammatory responses. Equally, periodontal diseases are associated with the longitudinal decline in spirometry lung volume. Several studies suggest a possible beneficial effect of periodontal therapy in improving lung function with a decreased frequency of exacerbations and reduced risk of adverse respiratory events and morbidity. Here, we review the current literature outlining the link between the oral cavity and pulmonary outcomes and focus on the microflora of the oral cavity, environmental and genetic factors, and preexisting conditions that can impact oral and pulmonary outcomes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Causalidade , Meio Ambiente , Humanos
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668852

RESUMO

Introduction . Capnocytophaga species are common inhabitants of the oral cavity and can be responsible for systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients with granulocytopenia. Furthermore, it has been reported that some clinical isolates of Capnocytophaga species produce extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs).Gap statement. Information is lacking about the types of ß-lactamase genes possessed by Capnocytophaga spp. and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Capnocytophaga spp. possessing each ß-lactamase gene.Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ß-lactamase genes in clinical strains of ß-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga species isolated from clinical samples acquired at Shinshu University Hospital and examine the antimicrobial susceptibility of those strains.Methodology. The ß-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga species (n=49) were obtained from clinical specimens. PCR assays were used to detect bla CfxA, bla CSP, bla TEM, bla CepA/CblA and transposon Tn4555 genes. Southern hybridization assays were used to detect bla CfxA and bla CSP. The minimum inhibitory concentration of some ß-lactams was determined using the E-test method.Results. PCR analysis indicated that the bla CfxA gene was present in 15 (30.6 %) and the bla CSP gene in 35 (69.3 %) of the 49 Capnocytophaga strains investigated, . Both bla CfxA and bla CSP genes were detected in a Capnocytophaga gingivalis strain. The PCR results were confirmed by Southern hybridization assays. Transposon Tn4555 was only detected in Capnocytophaga spp. harbouring the bla CfxA gene. All the ß-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and imipenem. In contrast, most of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin.Conclusions. The clinical isolates of Capnocytophaga spp. showed a high prevalence of the bla CSP gene in Japan. The presence of the bla CSP gene was distributed in Capnocytophaga sputigena as well as other Capnocytophaga spp. These results seem to suggest the dissemination of bla CfxA and bla CSP ß-lactamase genes among Capnocytophaga species.


Assuntos
Capnocytophaga/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Boca/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Japão , Prevalência
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553683

RESUMO

Introduction. Squamous cell carcinoma is a highly aggressive type of oral cancer (OC). It is the most common cancer among men, and accounts for almost 90 % of all oral cancers in India. Consumption of tobacco is a leading factor contributing to maximum oral cancer incidences as per the WHO.Hypothesis/Gap statement. Researchers reported a direct association of microorganisms with dysbiosis in various oral lesions including oral cancer. However, there is a dearth of information related to compositional changes in the oral microbiome in long-term tobacco chewers and the Indian oral cancer population.Aim. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate the bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of tobacco chewers, patients with oral cancer and healthy subjects in the Indian population.Methods. Oral rinse samples were collected for ten subjects in each group followed by DNA extraction. The variable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V6-V8) were amplified, sequenced, processed, and analysed using QIIME2 platform to assess alpha and beta diversity between the study groups.Results. This pilot study showed genus Streptococcus dominated the control group (18.54 %), and the abundance decreased in tobacco and OC group (9.63 and 5.45% respectively); whereas genus Prevotella dominated the tobacco and OC group (21.01 and 26.03% respectively). A shift in abundance of microbiome was observed from control population to oral cancer via the tobacco chewing population. Maximum alpha diversity of oral microbiome was found in Indian tobacco chewers. Beta diversity of tobacco chewers was similar to both the healthy population as well as oral cancer patients suggesting transitioning of the oral microbiome from healthy to oral cancer microbiome via the tobacco chewers microbiome.Conclusion. The data provides evidence of oral bacterial dysbiosis due to tobacco chewing habits that can further lead to progression towards cancer.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbiota , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Uso de Tabaco/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502159

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder associated with early-onset periodontitis and other periodontal diseases (PDs). The present work aimed to systematically review the scientific literature reporting studies in vivo on oral microbiota features in subjects with DS and related periodontal health and to highlight any correlation and difference with subjects not affected by DS, with and without PDs. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane were searched for relevant studies in May 2021. The participants were subjects affected by Down syndrome (DS) with and without periodontal diseases; the study compared subjects with periodontal diseases but not affected by DS, and DS without periodontal diseases; the outcomes were the differences in oral microbiota/periodontopathogen bacterial composition among subjects considered; the study design was a systematic review. Study quality was assessed with risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I). Of the 954 references retrieved, 26 studies were considered. The conclusions from the qualitative assessment of the papers revealed an increasing knowledge over the last years of the microbiota associated with DS and their periodontal diseases, in comparison with healthy subjects and subjects with other kinds of mental disabilities. Few data have emerged on the mycobiome and virobiome of DS, hence, further investigations are still necessary.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/complicações , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Biofilmes , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Humanos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578783

RESUMO

The human body is host to a large number of microorganisms which conform the human microbiota, that is known to play an important role in health and disease. Although most of the microorganisms that coexist with us are located in the gut, microbial cells present in other locations (like skin, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, and the vaginal zone in women) also play a significant role regulating host health. The fact that there are different kinds of microbiota in different body areas does not mean they are independent. It is plausible that connection exist, and different studies have shown that the microbiota present in different zones of the human body has the capability of communicating through secondary metabolites. In this sense, dysbiosis in one body compartment may negatively affect distal areas and contribute to the development of diseases. Accordingly, it could be hypothesized that the whole set of microbial cells that inhabit the human body form a system, and the dialogue between the different host microbiotas may be a contributing factor for the susceptibility to developing diseased states. For this reason, the present review aims to integrate the available literature on the relationship between the different human microbiotas and understand how changes in the microbiota in one body region can influence other microbiota communities in a bidirectional process. The findings suggest that the different microbiotas may act in a coordinated way to decisively influence human well-being. This new integrative paradigm opens new insights in the microbiota field of research and its relationship with human health that should be taken into account in future studies.


Assuntos
Disbiose/metabolismo , Microbiota , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16234, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376751

RESUMO

Within the oral cavity, dental biofilms experience dynamic environments, in part due to changes in dietary content, frequency of intake and health conditions. This can impact bacterial diversity and morpho-mechanical properties. While phenotypic properties of oral biofilms are closely related to their composition, these can readily change according to dynamic variations in the growth environment and nutrient availability. Understanding the interlink between phenotypic properties, variable growth conditions, and community characterization is an essential requirement to develop structure-property relationships in oral-biofilms. In this study, the impact of two distinct growth media types with increasing richness on the properties of oral biofilms was assessed through a new combination of in-vitro time-lapse biophysical methods with microbiological assays. Oral biofilms grown in the enriched media composition presented a decrease in their pH, an increase in soluble EPS production, and a severe reduction in bacterial diversity. Additionally, enriched media conditions presented an increase in biofilm volumetric changes (upon hydration) as well as a reduction in elastic modulus upon indentation. With hydration time considered a major factor contributing to changes in biofilm mechanical properties, we have shown that it is less associated than media richness. Future investigations can now use this time-lapse approach, with a clearer focus on the extracellular matrix of oral biofilms dictating their morpho-mechanical properties.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Boca/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Água/química , Adulto , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(10): 731-742, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400822

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, the importance of the microbiota in health and disease has become evident. Pathological changes to the oral bacterial microbiota, such as those occurring during periodontal disease, are associated with multiple inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease. However, the degree to which this association is a consequence of elevated oral inflammation or because oral bacteria can directly drive inflammation at distal sites remains under debate. In this Perspective, we propose that in inflammatory bowel disease, oral disease-associated bacteria translocate to the intestine and directly exacerbate disease. We propose a multistage model that involves pathological changes to the microbial and immune compartments of both the oral cavity and intestine. The evidence to support this hypothesis is critically evaluated and the relevance to other diseases in which oral bacteria have been implicated (including colorectal cancer and liver disease) are discussed.


Assuntos
Inflamação/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Boca/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Boca/imunologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16897, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413397

RESUMO

We have measured the volatile fingerprints of four pathogenic oral bacteria connected to periodontal disease and dental abscess: Porphyromonas gingivalis (three separate strains), Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Tannerella forsythia. Volatile fingerprints were measured in vitro from the headspace gas of the bacteria cultured on agar. Concrete identification of new and previously reported bacterial volatiles were performed by a combination of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and offline gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We also studied the effect of the reduced electric field strength (E/N) on the fragmentation patterns of bacterial volatiles in online proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). We aimed to discover possible new biomarkers for the studied oral bacteria, as well as to validate the combination of GC-MS and PTR-MS for volatile analysis. Some of the most promising compounds produced include: 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ), indole, and a cascade of sulphur compounds, such as methanethiol, dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulphide (DMTS). We also found that several compounds, especially alcohols, aldehydes and esters, fragment significantly with the PTR-MS method, when high E/N values are used. We conclude that the studied oral bacteria can be separated by their volatile fingerprints in vitro, which could have importance in clinical and laboratory environments. In addition, using softer ionization conditions can improve the performance of the PTR-MS method in the volatile analysis of certain compounds.


Assuntos
Bactérias/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Boca/microbiologia , Prótons , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16870, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413437

RESUMO

Understanding changes in oral flora during pregnancy, its association to maternal health, and its implications to birth outcomes is essential. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library in May 2020 (updated search in April and June 2021), and conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the followings: (1) oral microflora changes throughout pregnancy, (2) association between oral microorganisms during pregnancy and maternal oral/systemic conditions, and (3) implications of oral microorganisms during pregnancy on birth outcomes. From 3983 records, 78 studies were included for qualitative assessment, and 13 studies were included in meta-analysis. The oral microflora remains relatively stable during pregnancy; however, pregnancy was associated with distinct composition/abundance of oral microorganisms when compared to postpartum/non-pregnant status. Oral microflora during pregnancy appears to be influenced by oral and systemic conditions (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, etc.). Prenatal dental care reduced the carriage of oral pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus mutans). The Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque was more abundant in women with preterm birth. Given the results from meta-analyses were inconclusive since limited studies reported outcomes on the same measuring scale, more future studies are needed to elucidate the association between pregnancy oral microbiota and maternal oral/systemic health and birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Viés de Publicação , Risco
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276643

RESUMO

Alterations in the microbiome of the gut and oral cavity are involved in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to assess whether both microbiome compositions in feces and saliva were specific in patients with SLE. A total of 35 patients with SLE, as well as sex- and age-matched asymptomatic subjects as healthy control (HC) group were recruited. Fecal swabs and saliva samples were collected from the participants. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on the samples. Compared with the HC group, reduced bacterial richness and diversity were detected in the feces of patients with SLE, and increased bacterial diversity in their saliva. Both feces and saliva samples explained the cohort variation. The feces were characterized by enrichment of Lactobacillus, and depletion of an unclassified bacterium in the Ruminococcaceae family and Bifidobacterium. Lack of Bifidobacterium was observed in patients with arthritis. Akkermansia and Ruminococcus negatively correlated with the serum levels of C3. In saliva, Veillonella, Streptococcus, and Prevotella were dominant, and Bacteroides was negatively associated with disease activity. These findings can assist us to comprehensively understand the bacterial profiles of different body niches in SLE patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204019

RESUMO

Recent studies support the hypothesis that microbes can seed some Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases, leading to inflammation and overproduction of amyloid peptides. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is a keystone pathogen of chronic periodontitis and has been identified as risk factor for the development and progression of AD. The present preliminary study aimed to quantify Pg abundance in neurodegenerative disease (ND) patients compared with neurologic patients without neurodegenerative disorders (no-ND) and healthy controls (HC) to determine possible association between Pg abundance and neurodegenerative process. Pg was quantified on DNA extracted from the oral samples of 49 patients and 29 HC by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Anti-Pg antibodies were also detected on patient serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The Pg abundance in the oral cavity was significantly different among groups (p = 0.004). It was higher in ND than no-ND (p = 0.010) and HC (p = 0.008). The Pg abundance was correlated with the antibodies (p = 0.001) with different slopes between ND and no-ND (p = 0.037). Pg abundance was not correlated with oral indices and comorbidities. These results extend our understanding of the association between oral pathogens and AD to other neurodegenerative processes, confirming the hypothesis that oral pathogens can induce an antibody systemic response, influencing the progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/sangue , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/sangue , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9967035, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258285

RESUMO

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) are sugar substitutes widely used to reduce the negative health effects of excessive sugar consumption. Dental caries, one of the most prevalent chronic diseases globally, results from a pathogenic biofilm with microecological imbalance and frequent exposure to sugars. Some research has shown that certain NNSs possess less cariogenic potential than sucrose, indicating their putative effect on oral microbiome. To uncover the alterations of acidogenic pathogens and alkali-generating commensals, as well as the biofilm cariogenic potential under the influence of NNSs, we selected four common NNSs (acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose) and established single-, dual-, and multispecies in vitro culture model to assess their effects on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and/or Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis) compared to sucrose with the same sweetness. The results showed that NNSs significantly suppressed the planktonic growth, acid production, and biofilm formation of S. mutans or S. sanguinis compared with sucrose in single-species cultures. Additionally, decreased S. mutans/S. sanguinis ratio, less EPS generation, and higher pH value were observed in dual-species and saliva-derived multispecies biofilms with supplementary NNSs. Collectively, this study demonstrates that NNSs inhibit the cariogenic potential of biofilms by maintaining microbial equilibrium, thus having a promising prospect as anticaries agents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/química , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Adoçantes não Calóricos , Aspartame/análise , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cariogênicos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sacarina/análise , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sanguis , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/análise , Tiazinas/análise
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(13): 4579-4596, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The human being has evolved in close symbiosis with its own ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria. After the intestinal microbiome, that of the oral cavity is the largest and most diversified. Its importance is reflected not only in local and systemic diseases, but also in pregnancy since it would seem to influence the placental microbiome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a literature review of articles published in PubMed about Fusobacterium Nucleatum and both its implications with systemic and oral health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, flavors perception and its interference in the oral-nasal mucosal immunity. RESULTS: It is in maintaining the microbiome's homeostasis that the Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic periodontal pathogen of the oral cavity, plays a crucial role both as a bridge microorganism of the tongue biofilm, and in maintaining the balance between the different species in the oral-nasal mucosal immunity also by taste receptors interaction. It is also involved in the flavor perception and its detection in the oral microbiome of children from the first days of life suggests a possible physiological role. However, the dysbiosis can determine its pathogenicity with local and systemic consequences, including the pathogenesis of respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: It is interesting to evaluate its possible correlation with Sars-CoV-2 and the consequences on the microflora of the oral cavity, both to promote a possible broad-spectrum preventive action, in favor of all subjects for whom, by promoting the eubiosis of the oral microbiome, a defensive action could be envisaged by the commensals themselves but, above all, for patients with specific comorbidities and therefore already prone to oral dysbiosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Boca/microbiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Fusobacterium nucleatum/imunologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/patogenicidade , Humanos , Boca/imunologia , Gravidez
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15033, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294810

RESUMO

Previous research identified potential prebiotic substrates for oral health like the structural analogues N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (NADM) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NADG). The main hypothesis of the current study was twofold. Firstly, it was hypothesized that the modulatory effects of NADM are not limited to changes in multi-species oral biofilm composition, but also include effects on metabolism, virulence, and inflammatory potential. Secondly, the presence and orientation of their N-acetyl group could play a role. Therefore, a comparison was made between the effects of NADM, NADG and D-(+)-mannose on multi-species oral biofilms. Besides a beneficial compositional shift, NADM-treated biofilms also showed an altered metabolism, a reduced virulence and a decreased inflammatory potential. At a substrate concentration of 1 M, these effects were pronounced for all biofilm aspects, whereas at ~ 0.05 M (1%(w/v)) only the effects on virulence were pronounced. When comparing between substrates, both the presence and orientation of the N-acetyl group played a role. However, this was generally only at 1 M and dependent on the biofilm aspect. Overall, NADM was found to have different effects at two concentrations that beneficially modulate in vitro multi-species oral biofilm composition, metabolism, virulence and inflammatory potential. The presence and orientation of the N-acetyl group influenced these effects.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Boca/microbiologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Biodiversidade , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota , Virulência/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15009, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294835

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence supports an important role for alterations in the brain-gut-microbiome axis in the aetiology of depression and other psychiatric disorders. The potential role of the oral microbiome in mental health has received little attention, even though it is one of the most diverse microbiomes in the body and oral dysbiosis has been linked to systemic diseases with an underlying inflammatory aetiology. This study examines the structure and composition of the salivary microbiome for the first time in young adults who met the DSM-IV criteria for depression (n = 40) and matched controls (n = 43) using 16S rRNA gene-based next generation sequencing. Subtle but significant differences in alpha and beta diversity of the salivary microbiome were observed, with clear separation of depressed and healthy control cohorts into distinct clusters. A total of 21 bacterial taxa were found to be differentially abundant in the depressed cohort, including increased Neisseria spp. and Prevotella nigrescens, while 19 taxa had a decreased abundance. In this preliminary study we have shown that the composition of the oral microbiome is associated with depression in young adults. Further studies are now warranted, particuarly investigations into whether such shifts play any role in the underling aetiology of depression.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Depressão/etiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14507, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267278

RESUMO

HIV/SIV infections lead to massive loss of mucosal CD4 + T cells and breakdown of the epithelial mucosa resulting in severe microbial dysbiosis and chronic immune activation that ultimately drive disease progression. Moreover, disruption of one of the most understudied mucosal environments, the oral cavity, during HIV-induced immunosuppression results in significant microbial and neoplastic co-morbidities and contributes to and predicts distal disease complications. In this study we evaluated the effects of oral probiotic supplementation (PBX), which can stimulate and augment inflammatory or anti-inflammatory pathways, on early SIV infection of rhesus macaques. Our study revealed that similar to the GI mucosae, oral CD4 + T cells were rapidly depleted, and as one of the first comprehensive analyses of the oral microflora in SIV infection, we also observed significant modulation among two genera, Porphyromonas and Actinobacillus, early after infection. Interestingly, although PBX therapy did not substantially protect against oral dysbiosis or ameliorate cell loss, it did somewhat dampen inflammation and T cell activation. Collectively, these data provide one of the most comprehensive evaluations of SIV-induced changes in oral microbiome and CD4 + T cell populations, and also suggest that oral PBX may have some anti-inflammatory properties in lentivirus infections.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/dietoterapia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Citocinas/sangue , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14913, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290346

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the dominant antibody found in our mucosal secretions and has long been recognized to play an important role in protecting our epithelium from pathogens. Recently, IgA has been shown to be involved in gut homeostatic regulation by 'recognizing' and shaping our commensal microbes. Paradoxically, yet selective IgA-deficiency is often described as asymptomatic and there is a paucity of studies only focused on the mice and human gut microbiome context fully ignoring other niches of our body and our commensal viruses. Here, we used as a model the human oral cavity and employed a holistic view and studied the impact of IgA deficiency and also common variable IgA and IgM immunodeficiencies (CVID), on both the human virome and microbiome. Unexpectedly, metagenomic and experimental data in human IgA deficiency and CVID indicate minimal-moderate changes in microbiome and virome composition compared to healthy control group and point out to a rather functional, resilient oral commensal viruses and microbes. However, a significant depletion (two fold) of bacterial cells (p-value < 0.01) and viruses was observed in IgA-deficiency. Our results demonstrate that, within the limits of our cohort, IgA role is not critical for maintaining a rather functional salivary microbiome and suggest that IgA is not a major influence on the composition of abundant commensal microbes.


Assuntos
Deficiência de IgA/microbiologia , Deficiência de IgA/virologia , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Boca/virologia , Viroma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina M/deficiência , Masculino , Metagenômica , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/microbiologia , Saliva/virologia , Viroma/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 61, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294722

RESUMO

The human oral and gut commensal microbes play vital roles in the development and maintenance of immune homeostasis, while its association with susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is barely understood. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the oral and intestinal flora before and after the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in 53 COVID-19 patients, and then examined their microbiome alterations in comparison to 76 healthy individuals. A total of 140 throat swab samples and 81 fecal samples from these COVID-19 patients during hospitalization, and 44 throat swab samples and 32 fecal samples from sex and age-matched healthy individuals were collected and then subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and viral load inspection. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with alterations of the microbiome community in patients as indicated by both alpha and beta diversity indexes. Several bacterial taxa were identified related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, wherein elevated Granulicatella and Rothia mucilaginosa were found in both oral and gut microbiome. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load in those samples was also calculated to identify potential dynamics between COVID-19 and the microbiome. These findings provide a meaningful baseline for microbes in the digestive tract of COVID-19 patients and will shed light on new dimensions for disease pathophysiology, potential microbial biomarkers, and treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , SARS-CoV-2/genética
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9982744, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136578

RESUMO

Introduction: In the recent decade, the increased immunocompromised population such as diabetic patients makes a high incidence of invasive Candida infections. Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder, and diabetic patients are more susceptible to oral candidiasis infection. Candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by many species of Candida. Secretion of exoenzymes plays an important role in the virulence and pathogenesis of Candida species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of phospholipase, esterase, and hemolytic activity of Candida species isolated from oral cavity lesions of diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 108 Candida species including 75 Candida albicans and 33 non-Candida albicans species were recovered from the oral cavity of diabetic patients included in our study. Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium, and blood agar plate assays were used for determining phospholipase, esterase, and hemolytic activities, respectively. Results: Candida albicans species had the most exoenzyme activity in comparison to non-albicans isolates. Candida albicans isolates showed 97.3%, 100%, and 77.3% phospholipase, hemolysin, and esterase activities, respectively. The difference between Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans was significant in phospholipase (P < 0.001) and hemolytic activity (P = 0.027), but not significant in esterase activity (P = 0.076). Conclusion: This study showed that most of the isolates had different enzymatic patterns, and Candida albicans isolates had the most exoenzyme activity. So due to the potential effects of these enzymes in pathogenesis and virulence effects of Candida species, we can conclude that the severity of extracellular enzymes may play a role in the severity of signs and symptoms of Candida oral cavity infections in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Boca/microbiologia , Ágar , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Complicações do Diabetes , Gema de Ovo , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Hemólise , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Fosfolipases/química , Polissorbatos , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência
20.
J Oral Biosci ; 63(3): 292-297, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Profiling of oral microbiota has traditionally been performed using conventional methods. These methods are relatively time-consuming and labor-intensive. Metagenomic analysis of oral microbiota using high-speed next-generation sequencing is a highly promising technology. However, it is expensive. This study sought to develop a simple and cost-effective profiling method for oral microbiota using 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA genes. METHODS: Oral isolates of 59 bacterial species from human saliva, including Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Veillonella, were cultured anaerobically on CDC Anaerobe 5% sheep blood agar plates. Genomic DNA was extracted from single colonies and 16S rRNA genes were PCR-amplified using the 27F and 1492R universal primers. The PCR products were purified and characterized by single digestion with HpaII restriction endonuclease. 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from the GenBank database, and the expected restriction profiles were compared with the RFLP patterns obtained from agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Sixty-five RFLP patterns were obtained from 27 genera and 59 species. The expected fragment sizes of these species were calculated based on GenBank 16S rRNA gene sequences. Fifty-nine patterns were obtained from the analysis of GenBank sequences. The RFLP patterns produced with HpaII distinguished many oral bacterial species. RFLP patterns enabling identification of oral bacteria were generated. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP analysis did not require expensive equipment and reagents and was cost-effective. CONCLUSION: PCR-RFLP analysis based on 16S rRNA genes could be an alternative method for oral microbiota analysis in smaller laboratories.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Primers do DNA , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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