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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15841, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982178

RESUMO

Intense psychosocial stress during early life has a detrimental effect on health-disease balance in later life. Simultaneously, despite its sensitivity to stress, the developing microbiome contributes to long-term health. Following stress exposure, HPA-axis activation regulates the "fight or flight" response with the release of glucose and cortisol. Here, we investigated the interaction between the oral microbiome and the stress response. We used a cohort of 115 adults, mean age 24, who either experienced institutionalisation and adoption (n = 40) or were non-adopted controls (n = 75). Glucose and cortisol measurements were taken from participants following an extended socially evaluated cold pressor test (seCPT) at multiple time points. The cohort´s oral microbiome was profiled via 16S-V4 sequencing on microbial DNA from saliva and buccal samples. Using mixed-effect linear regressions, we identified 12 genera that exhibited an interaction with host's cortisol-glucose response to stress, strongly influencing intensity and clearance of cortisol and glucose following stress exposure. Particularly, the identified taxa influenced the glucose and cortisol release profiles and kinetics following seCPT exposure. In conclusion, our study provided evidence for the oral microbiome modifying the effect of stress on the HPA-axis and human metabolism, as shown in glucose-cortisol time series data.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Microbiota , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Saliva , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/microbiologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Boca/microbiologia , Glucose/metabolismo
2.
Acta Vet Scand ; 66(1): 26, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956712

RESUMO

Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi are commensal bacteria in the oral cavities of dogs. Both are zoonotic pathogens that could infect humans via dog bites. C. canimorsus may cause life-threatening infections in humans, whereas C. cynodegmi infections tend to be milder and more localized. Capsular serovars A-C of C. canimorsus seem to be virulence-associated. Some of the C. canimorsus serovars described to date can also be detected in other Capnocytophaga species, including C. cynodegmi. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the emergence of C. canimorsus and C. cynodegmi after birth in oral cavities of puppies and to evaluate the impact of the dam's Capnocytophaga spp. carrier status on the emergence. Ten litters, altogether 59 puppies, were included in the study. The puppies and their dams were sampled at five time points over seven weeks after whelping. Oral swab samples taken were investigated for the presence of C. canimorsus and C. cynodegmi by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the specificity of which was verified by sequencing a selection of the PCR products. Samples that were positive in Capnocytophaga PCR reactions were also capsular-typed by PCR to gain more knowledge about the Capnocytophaga spp. present in the samples. Altogether 10.2% and 11.9% of puppies, or 20.0% and 30.0% of litters tested PCR-positive for C. canimorsus and C. cynodegmi, respectively. Capnocytophaga PCR-positive puppy samples were always positive for only C. cynodegmi or C. canimorsus, not both. Most Capnocytophaga PCR-positive puppies became positive at the age of 5 to 7 weeks. Only a minority (5/16) of the C. cynodegmi PCR-positive dog samples were positive in capsular typing PCR, whereas all C. canimorsus PCR-positive dog samples were negative in capsular typing PCR. For all Capnocytophaga PCR-positive puppies, their dam was positive for the same Capnocytophaga species. These results suggest that puppies become colonized by C. cynodegmi or C. canimorsus from their dams at the time of deciduous teeth eruption.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Capnocytophaga , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Boca , Animais , Capnocytophaga/isolamento & purificação , Capnocytophaga/genética , Cães , Projetos Piloto , Boca/microbiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1388222, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38988815

RESUMO

Intramuscular vaccines present limitations in eliciting robust mucosal immunity and preventing respiratory pathogens transmission. Sublingual vaccine administration offers promising advantages, including interconnected mucosal protection. Despite these advantages, only a few clinical trials have explored sublingual vaccines, underscoring the necessity of optimizing next-generation vaccine formulas. Critical research priorities include understanding vector behavior in the oral environment, understanding their interactions with mucosal immunity and developing formulations enabling sustained mucosal contact to facilitate efficient transduction. Consequently, tonsil organoids, as representative human mucosal models, could offer critical insights into sublingual immunization. Thus, a multi-disciplinary approach integrating pharmacological, immunological, and manufacturing considerations is pivotal for sublingual vaccines in targeting pathogen-aggravated prevalent respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD and lung cancer, as well as the antimicrobial resistance crisis.


Assuntos
Imunidade nas Mucosas , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacinas/imunologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Administração Sublingual , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Boca/microbiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16158, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997299

RESUMO

Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare immune-mediated disease of childhood with putative links to microbial exposures. In this multi-center, prospective, observational cohort study, we evaluated whether JDM is associated with discrete oral and gut microbiome signatures. We generated 16S rRNA sequencing data from fecal, saliva, supragingival, and subgingival plaque samples from JDM probands (n = 28). To control for genetic and environmental determinants of microbiome community structure, we also profiled microbiomes of unaffected family members (n = 27 siblings, n = 26 mothers, and n = 17 fathers). Sample type (oral-vs-fecal) and nuclear family unit were the predominant variables explaining variance in microbiome diversity, more so than having a diagnosis of JDM. The oral and gut microbiomes of JDM probands were more similar to their own unaffected siblings than they were to the microbiomes of other JDM probands. In a sibling-paired within-family analysis, several potentially immunomodulatory bacterial taxa were differentially abundant in the microbiomes of JDM probands compared to their unaffected siblings, including Faecalibacterium (gut) and Streptococcus (oral cavity). While microbiome features of JDM are often shared by unaffected family members, the loss or gain of specific fecal and oral bacteria may play a role in disease pathogenesis or be secondary to immune dysfunction in susceptible individuals.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Fezes/microbiologia , Dermatomiosite/microbiologia , Dermatomiosite/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Boca/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto
5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 2531-2553, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952486

RESUMO

The WHO Global Status Report on Oral Health 2022 reveals that oral diseases caused by infection with oral pathogenic microorganisms affect nearly 3.5 billion people worldwide. Oral health problems are caused by the presence of S. mutans, S. sanguinis, E. faecalis and C. albicans in the oral cavity. Synthetic anti-infective drugs have been widely used to treat oral infections, but have been reported to cause side effects and resistance. Various strategies have been implemented to overcome this problem. Synthetic anti-infective drugs have been widely used to treat oral infections, but they have been reported to cause side effects and resistance. Therefore, it is important to look for safe anti-infective alternatives. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies suggest that Red Betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) could be a potential source of oral anti-infectives. This review aims to discuss the pathogenesis mechanism of several microorganisms that play an important role in causing health problems, the mechanism of action of synthetic oral anti-infective drugs in inhibiting microbial growth in the oral cavity, and the potential of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) as an herbal oral anti-infective drug. This study emphasises the importance of researching natural components as an alternative treatment for oral infections that is more effective and can meet global needs.


Assuntos
Piper , Humanos , Piper/química , Doenças da Boca/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Boca/microbiologia
7.
Microb Biotechnol ; 17(6): e14506, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881505

RESUMO

The human respiratory system is constantly exposed to environmental stimuli, sometimes including toxicants, which can trigger dysregulated lung immune responses that lead to respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function and airway diseases. Evidence supports that the microbiome in the lungs has an indispensable role in respiratory health and disease, acting as a local gatekeeper that mediates the interaction between the environmental cues and respiratory health. Moreover, the microbiome in the lungs is intimately intertwined with the oral microbiome through the oral-lung axis. Here, we discuss the intricate three-way relationship between (i) cigarette smoking, which has strong effects on the microbial community structure of the lung; (ii) microbiome dysbiosis and disease in the oral cavity; and (iii) microbiome dysbiosis in the lung and its causal role in patients suffering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We highlight exciting outcomes arising from recently established interactions in the airway between environmental exposures, microbiome, metabolites-functional attributes and the host, as well as how these associations have the potential to predict the respiratory health status of the host through an airway microbiome health index. For completion, we argue that incorporating (synthetic) microbial community ecology in our contemporary understanding of lung disease presents challenges and also rises novel opportunities to exploit the oral-lung axis and its microbiome towards innovative airway disease diagnostics, prognostics, patient stratification and microbiota-targeted clinical interventions in the context of current therapies.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Pulmão , Microbiota , Boca , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5260, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898021

RESUMO

The human microbiome plays a crucial role in human health. However, the influence of maternal factors on the neonatal microbiota remains obscure. Herein, our observations suggest that the neonatal microbiotas, particularly the buccal microbiota, change rapidly within 24-48 h of birth but begin to stabilize by 48-72 h after parturition. Network analysis clustered over 200 maternal factors into thirteen distinct groups, and most associated factors were in the same group. Multiple maternal factor groups were associated with the neonatal buccal, rectal, and stool microbiotas. Particularly, a higher maternal inflammatory state and a lower maternal socioeconomic position were associated with a higher alpha diversity of the neonatal buccal microbiota and beta diversity of the neonatal stool microbiota was influenced by maternal diet and cesarean section by 24-72 h postpartum. The risk of admission of a neonate to the newborn intensive care unit was associated with preterm birth as well as higher cytokine levels and probably higher alpha diversity of the maternal buccal microbiota.


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbiota , Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fezes/microbiologia , Adulto , Cesárea , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Masculino
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 707, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced by various microorganisms. Current research evaluates diverse types of biosurfactants against a range of oral pathogens. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to explore the potential of microbial-derived biosurfactants for oral applications. METHODOLOGY: A systematic literature search was performed utilizing PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with designated keywords. The results were registered in the PROSPERO database and conducted following the PRISMA checklist. Criteria for eligibility, guided by the PICOS framework, were established for both inclusion and exclusion criteria. The QUIN tool was used to assess the bias risk for in vitro dentistry studies. RESULTS: Among the initial 357 findings, ten studies were selected for further analysis. The outcomes of this systematic review reveal that both crude and purified forms of biosurfactants exhibit antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties against various oral pathogens. Noteworthy applications of biosurfactants in oral products include mouthwash, toothpaste, and implant coating. CONCLUSION: Biosurfactants have garnered considerable interest and demonstrated their potential for application in oral health. This is attributed to their surface-active properties, antiadhesive activity, biodegradability, and antimicrobial effectiveness against a variety of oral microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi.


Assuntos
Tensoativos , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Boca/microbiologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892262

RESUMO

The impact of gut and oral microbiota on the clinical outcomes of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is unknown. We compared the bacterial composition of dental plaque and feces between patients with OSCC and healthy controls (HCs). Fecal and dental plaque samples were collected from 7 HCs and 18 patients with OSCC before treatment initiation. Terminal restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes was performed. Differences in bacterial diversity between the HC and OSCC groups were examined. We compared the occupancy of each bacterial species in samples taken from patients with OSCC and HCs and analyzed the correlation between PD-L1 expression in the tumor specimens and the occupancy of each bacterial species. The gut and oral microbiota of patients with OSCC were more varied than those of HCs. Porphyromonas and Prevotella were significantly more abundant in patients with OSCC than in HCs. The abundance of Clostridium subcluster XIVa in the gut microbiota of the PD-L1-positive group was significantly greater than that in the PD-L1-negative group. The oral and gut microbiomes of patients with OSCC were in a state of dysbiosis. Our results suggest the possibility of new cancer therapies targeting these disease-specific microbiomes using probiotics and synbiotics.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Bucais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Idoso , Fezes/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Microbiota/genética , Adulto , Disbiose/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles
11.
Microbiol Res ; 285: 127788, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833831

RESUMO

Oral microbiota and gastrointestinal microbiota, the two largest microbiomes in the human body, are closely correlated and frequently interact through the oral-gut axis. Recent research has focused on the roles of these microbiomes in human health and diseases. Under normal conditions, probiotics and commensal bacteria can positively impact health. However, altered physiological states may induce dysbiosis, increasing the risk of pathogen colonization. Studies suggest that oral and gastrointestinal pathogens contribute not only to localized diseases at their respective colonized sites but also to the progression of systemic diseases. However, the mechanisms by which bacteria at these local sites are involved in systemic diseases remain elusive. In response to this gap, the focus has shifted to bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs), which act as mediators of communication between the microbiota and the host. Numerous studies have reported the targeted delivery of bacterial pathogenic substances from the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract to distant organs via BEVs. These pathogenic components subsequently elicit specific cellular responses in target organs, thereby mediating the progression of systemic diseases. This review aims to elucidate the extensive microbial communication via the oral-gut axis, summarize the types and biogenesis mechanisms of BEVs, and highlight the translocation pathways of oral and gastrointestinal BEVs in vivo, as well as the impacts of pathogens-derived BEVs on systemic diseases.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Disbiose , Vesículas Extracelulares , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Boca , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Probióticos
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1356907, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863832

RESUMO

Introduction: Microbial community composition is closely associated with host disease onset and progression, underscoring the importance of understanding host-microbiota dynamics in various health contexts. Methods: In this study, we utilized full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing to conduct species-level identification of the microorganisms in the oral cavity of a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with oral malignant fibroma. Results: We observed a significant difference between the microbial community of the tumor side and non-tumor side of the oral cavity of the giant panda, with the latter exhibiting higher microbial diversity. The tumor side was dominated by specific microorganisms, such as Fusobacterium simiae, Porphyromonas sp. feline oral taxon 110, Campylobacter sp. feline oral taxon 100, and Neisseria sp. feline oral taxon 078, that have been reported to be associated with tumorigenic processes and periodontal diseases in other organisms. According to the linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis, more than 9 distinct biomarkers were obtained between the tumor side and non-tumor side samples. Furthermore, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the oral microbiota of the giant panda was significantly associated with genetic information processing and metabolism, particularly cofactor and vitamin, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, a significant bacterial invasion of epithelial cells was predicted in the tumor side. Discussion: This study provides crucial insights into the association between oral microbiota and oral tumors in giant pandas and offers potential biomarkers that may guide future health assessments and preventive strategies for captive and aging giant pandas.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Fusobacterium , Microbiota , Boca , Porphyromonas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ursidae , Ursidae/microbiologia , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Porphyromonas/genética , Porphyromonas/isolamento & purificação , Porphyromonas/classificação , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/classificação , Boca/microbiologia , Fusobacterium/genética , Fusobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fibroma/microbiologia , Fibroma/veterinária , Neisseria/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria/genética , Neisseria/classificação , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/veterinária , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 367, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850297

RESUMO

Recent microbiome research has incorporated a higher number of samples through more participants in a study, longitudinal studies, and metanalysis between studies. Physical limitations in a sequencing machine can result in samples spread across sequencing runs. Here we present the results of sequencing nearly 1000 16S rRNA gene sequences in fecal (stabilized and swab) and oral (swab) samples from multiple human microbiome studies and positive controls that were conducted with identical standard operating procedures. Sequencing was performed in the same center across 18 different runs. The simplified mock community showed limitations in accuracy, while precision (e.g., technical variation) was robust for the mock community and actual human positive control samples. Technical variation was the lowest for stabilized fecal samples, followed by fecal swab samples, and then oral swab samples. The order of technical variation stability was inverse of DNA concentrations (e.g., highest in stabilized fecal samples), highlighting the importance of DNA concentration in reproducibility and urging caution when analyzing low biomass samples. Coefficients of variation at the genus level also followed the same trend for lower variation with higher DNA concentrations. Technical variation across both sample types and the two human sampling locations was significantly less than the observed biological variation. Overall, this research providing comparisons between technical and biological variation, highlights the importance of using positive controls, and provides semi-quantified data to better understand variation introduced by sequencing runs. KEY POINTS: • Mock community and positive control accuracy were lower than precision. • Samples with lower DNA concentration had increased technical variation across sequencing runs. • Biological variation was significantly higher than technical variation due to sequencing runs.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano , Fezes , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Boca/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
14.
PeerJ ; 12: e17241, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854801

RESUMO

Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) is an antimicrobial agent, and hence, its use in fabricating nanoparticles (NP) may be useful in providing more efficacious antimicrobial agents. The current research aimed to test the antimicrobial efficacy of TTO and its TTO-Metal-NPs against oral microbes: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans. The antimicrobial activity of TTO and zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) and the combined effects of antimicrobial agents were investigated using agar well diffusion assays. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify the phyto-constituents of TTO. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), dynamic light scatter (DLS), and zeta potential were utilized to analyze the biogenic nanoparticles' morphology, size, and potential. The antimicrobial mode of action was determined by assessing the morphological changes under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TTO extracts converted Zn and Fe ions to NPs, having an average size of 97.50 (ZnNPs) and 102.4 nm (FeNPs). All tested agents had significant antibacterial efficacy against the tested oral microbes. However, the TTO extract was more efficacious than the NPs. Combination treatment of TTO with antibiotics resulted in partial additive effects against P. gingivalis and partial antagonistic effects against E. faecalis, S. mutans, and common mouthwashes (Oral B and chlorhexidine). TTO and NP-treated bacteria underwent morphological changes on treatment. M. alternifolia phytochemicals could be useful for further research and development of antimicrobial NPs. The current study highlights the variance in activity observed for different types of bacteria and antagonistic effects seen with common mouthwashes, which represent a threat to therapeutic efficacy and heighten the risk of clinical microbial resistance.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Streptococcus mutans , Óleo de Melaleuca , Óleo de Melaleuca/farmacologia , Óleo de Melaleuca/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Boca/microbiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Melaleuca/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Humanos , Ferro , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Korean J Intern Med ; 39(4): 590-602, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38910513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent research has increasingly focused on the role of the gastric microbiome in the development of gastric cancer. We aimed to investigate the changes in the microbiome during gastric carcinogenesis in structural and functional aspects, with a specific focus on the association between oral and gastric microbiomes. METHODS: We collected saliva, gastric juice, and gastric tissue samples from 141 patients at different stages of gastric carcinogenesis and processed them for microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA gene profiling. The alpha and beta diversities were analyzed, and the differences in microbiome composition and function profiles were analyzed among the groups, as well as the correlation between changes in the oral and gastric microbiomes during carcinogenesis. RESULTS: We observed significant differences in microbial diversity and composition between the disease and control groups, primarily in the gastric juice. Specific bacterial strains, including Schaalia odontolytica, Streptococcus cristatus, and Peptostreptococcus stomatis, showed a significant increase in abundance in the gastric juice in the low-grade dysplasia and gastric cancer groups. Notably, the correlation between the oral and gastric microbiota compositions, increased as the disease progressed. Predictive analysis of the metagenomic functional profiles revealed changes in functional pathways that may be associated with carcinogenesis (ABC transport and two-component systems). CONCLUSION: During gastric carcinogenesis, the abundance of oral commensals associated with cancer increased in the stomach. The similarity in microbial composition between the stomach and oral cavity also increased, implying a potential role of oral-gastric bacterial interactions in gastric cancer development.


Assuntos
Suco Gástrico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saliva , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Suco Gástrico/microbiologia , Idoso , Saliva/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ribotipagem , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Carcinogênese , Estômago/microbiologia , Metagenômica
16.
Biofouling ; 40(7): 390-401, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945827

RESUMO

This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of surface pre-reacted glass ionomer eluate (S-PRG) against oral microcosm biofilms collected from the oral cavity of patients. Dental biofilm samples were collected from three volunteers to form microcosm biofilms in vitro. Initially, screening tests were carried out to determine the biofilm treatment conditions with S-PRG eluate. The effects of a daily treatment for 5 min using three microcosm biofilms from different patients was then evaluated. For this, biofilms were formed on tooth enamel specimens for 120 h. Biofilms treated with 100% S-PRG for 5 min per day for 5 days showed a reduction in the number of total microorganisms, streptococci and mutans streptococci. SEM images confirmed a reduction in the biofilm after treatment. Furthermore, S-PRG also reduced lactic acid production. It was concluded that S-PRG eluate reduced the microbial load and lactic acid production in oral microcosm biofilms, reinforcing its promising use as a mouthwash agent.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Boca , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/farmacologia , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Resinas Acrílicas/farmacologia , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Dióxido de Silício
17.
In Vivo ; 38(4): 1758-1766, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38936916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The leaves of Laurus nobilis have been used for culinary purposes for many years and have recently been shown to have beneficial effects on human health by altering microbiota composition. However, the effects of L. nobilis on the diversity of microbiomes in the oral cavity and gut remain unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of an extract of L. nobilis on the diversity of microbiomes in the oral cavity and gut in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed a standard diet (SD) and a standard diet containing 5% LAURESH®, a laurel extract (SDL). After 10 weeks, oral swabs and fecal samples were collected. The bacterial DNA extracted from the oral swabs and feces was used for microbiota analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequencing data were analyzed using the Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology 2 in the DADA2 pipeline and 16S rRNA database. RESULTS: The α-diversity of the oral microbiome was significantly greater in the SDL group than in the SD group. The ß-diversity of the oral microbiome was also significantly different between the groups. Moreover, the taxonomic abundance analysis showed that five bacteria in the gut were significantly different among the groups. Furthermore, the SDL diet increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria, such as Akkermansia sp. CONCLUSION: Increased diversity of the oral microbiome and proportion of Akkermansia sp. in the gut microbiome induced by L. nobilis consumption may benefit oral and gut health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Laurus , Boca , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Laurus/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Boca/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(4): e905, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38938117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The human oral microbiome, a complex ecosystem linked to oral and systemic health, harbors a diverse array of microbial populations, including antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). As a critical component of the One Health approach to tackle antibiotic resistance, comprehending the oral resistome's composition and diversity is imperative. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of chemical cell lysis treatment using MetaPolyzyme on the detectability of the oral microbiome, resistome, and DNA quality and quantity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples were collected from five healthy individuals, and each of the samples was subjected to DNA extraction with and without the treatment with MetaPolyzyme. Through metagenomic sequencing, we analyzed, assessed, and compared the microbial composition, resistome, and DNA characteristics between both groups of extracted DNA. RESULTS: Our study revealed that MetaPolyzyme treatment led to significant shifts in the detectability of microbial composition, favoring Gram-positive bacteria, notably Streptococcus, over Gram-negative counterparts. Moreover, the MetaPolyzyme treatment also resulted in a distinct change in ARG distribution. This shift was characterized by an elevated proportion of ARGs linked to fluoroquinolones and efflux pumps, coupled with a reduction in the prevalence of tetracycline and ß-lactam resistance genes when compared with the nontreated group. Alpha diversity analysis demonstrated altered species and ARG distribution without affecting overall diversity, while beta diversity analysis confirmed significant differences in the taxonomical composition and oral resistome between treated and nontreated groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the critical role of cell lysis treatment in optimizing oral metagenomic studies and enhance our understanding of the oral resistome's dynamics in the context of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano , Microbiota , Saliva , Saliva/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Metagenoma , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Masculino , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1413787, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836053

RESUMO

Background: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) from trimethylamine (TMA). High TMAO level is a biomarker of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders, and it also affects periodontitis through interactions with the gastrointestinal microbiome. While recent findings indicate that periodontitis may alter systemic TMAO levels, the specific mechanisms linking these changes and particular oral pathogens require further clarification. Methods: In this study, we established a C57BL/6J male mouse model by orally administering Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, Pg), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum, Fn), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans, Sm) and PBS was used as a control. We conducted LC-MS/MS analysis to quantify the concentrations of TMAO and its precursors in the plasma and cecal contents of mice. The diversity and composition of the gut microbiome were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. TMAO-related lipid metabolism and enzymes in the intestines and liver were assessed by qPCR and ELISA methods. We further explored the effect of Pg on FMO3 expression and lipid molecules in HepG2 cells by stimulating the cells with Pg-LPS in vitro. Results: The three oral pathogenic bacteria were orally administered to the mice for 5 weeks. The Pg group showed a marked increase in plasma TMAO, betaine, and creatinine levels, whereas no significant differences were observed in the gut TMAO level among the four groups. Further analysis showed similar diversity and composition in the gut microbiomes of both the Pg and Fn groups, which were different from the Sm and control groups. The profiles of TMA-TMAO pathway-related genera and gut enzymes were not significantly different among all groups. The Pg group showed significantly higher liver FMO3 levels and elevated lipid factors (IL-6, TG, TC, and NEFA) in contrast to the other groups. In vitro experiments confirmed that stimulation of HepG2 cells with Pg-LPS upregulated the expression of FMO3 and increased the lipid factors TC, TG, and IL-6. Conclusion: This study conclusively demonstrates that Pg, compared to Fn and Sm, plays a critical role in elevating plasma TMAO levels and significantly influences the TMA-TMAO pathway, primarily by modulating the expression of hepatic FMO3 and directly impacting hepatic lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metilaminas , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxigenases , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Animais , Masculino , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Metilaminas/sangue , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolismo , Fusobacterium nucleatum/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Células Hep G2 , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Boca/microbiologia
20.
Carbohydr Res ; 541: 109172, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823062

RESUMO

Sialic acid metabolism in oral bacteria is a complex process involving nutrient acquisition, immune evasion, cell surface modification, and the production of metabolites that contribute to bacterial persistence and virulence in the oral cavity. In addition to causing various periodontal diseases, certain oral pathogenic bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, can induce inflammatory reactions and influence the immunity of host cells. These associations with host cells are linked to various diseases, particularly colorectal cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Sialic acid can be found in the host oral mucosa, saliva, or food residues in the oral cavity, and it may promote the colonization of oral bacteria and contribute to disease development. This review aims to summarize the role of sialic acid metabolism in oral bacteria and discuss its effect on the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Neoplasias Colorretais , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Fusobacterium nucleatum/metabolismo , Fusobacterium nucleatum/patogenicidade , Animais
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