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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e025620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076053

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a freshwater snail-borne zoonotic disease. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is a very high altitude endemic area where the highest human prevalences and intensities have been reported. Preventive chemotherapy by treatment campaigns is yearly applied. However, liver fluke infection of cattle, sheep, pigs and donkeys assures endemicity and consequent human infection and re-infection risks. A One Health action has therefore been implemented. Activity concerns lymnaeid vectors and environment diversity. Studies included growth, egg-laying and life span in laboratory-reared lymnaeids. Different habitat types and influencing factors were assessed. All populations proved to belong to Galba truncatula by rDNA sequencing. Analyses comprised physico-chemical characteristics and monthly follow-up of water temperature, pH and quantity, and lymnaeid abundance and density. Population dynamics in the transmission foci differed. Mean environmental temperature was lower than fluke development minimum temperature threshold, but water temperature was higher, except during winter. A two generations/year pattern appeared in permanent water habitats, and one generation/year pattern in habitats drying out for months. The multidisciplinary control measures can be extended from one part of the endemic area to another. These studies, made for the first time at very high altitude, constitute a baseline useful for fascioliasis control in other countries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Ovinos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Biologia , Bolívia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Dinâmica Populacional , Ovinos , Suínos
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-06-08. (OPS/FPL/IM/21-0017).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54187

RESUMO

En Bolivia, la participación pública en la toma de decisiones, la gestión y la supervisión del sistema de salud público está consagrada en la Constitución Nacional. El modelo de Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural (SAFCI) proporciona un marco de orientación para la participación mediante el establecimiento de la estructura social no partidista de la SAFCI y espacios de deliberación para evaluar las prioridades de la salud pública, el cumplimiento de las políticas y la calidad de la atención. En consonancia con el objetivo estratégico 2.1 del Plan de Acción sobre Inmunización de garantizar que los beneficios de la inmunización se extiendan de manera equitativa a todas las personas y grupos sociales, el Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (PAI) de Sucre, Bolivia ha aplicado el modelo de la SAFCI para promover la equidad en materia de inmunización...


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Equidade em Cobertura , Equidade em Saúde , Bolívia
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-06-08. (PAHO/FPL/IM/21-0017).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54186

RESUMO

In Bolivia (Plurinational State of), public participation in the decision making, management, and monitoring of the public health system is enshrined in the national constitution. The Family, Community, and Intercultural Health Model (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural—SAFCI) provides a guiding framework for such involvement through the establishment of the nonpartisan SAFCI social structure and participatory spaces of deliberation to assess public health priorities, policy compliance, and quality of care. Reflecting the Regional Immunization Action Plan’s strategic objective 2.1 to ensure that “immunization benefits extend equitably to all people and social groups,” the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Sucre, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), has applied the SAFCI model to promoting immunization equity...


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Equidade em Cobertura , Colaboração Intersetorial , Sociedade Civil , Bolívia
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2310, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875648

RESUMO

Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are major substrates for plant metabolism and have been implicated in mediating drought-induced tree mortality. Despite their significance, NSC dynamics in tropical forests remain little studied. We present leaf and branch NSC data for 82 Amazon canopy tree species in six sites spanning a broad precipitation gradient. During the wet season, total NSC (NSCT) concentrations in both organs were remarkably similar across communities. However, NSCT and its soluble sugar (SS) and starch components varied much more across sites during the dry season. Notably, the proportion of leaf NSCT in the form of SS (SS:NSCT) increased greatly in the dry season in almost all species in the driest sites, implying an important role of SS in mediating water stress in these sites. This adjustment of leaf NSC balance was not observed in tree species less-adapted to water deficit, even under exceptionally dry conditions. Thus, leaf carbon metabolism may help to explain floristic sorting across water availability gradients in Amazonia and enable better prediction of forest responses to future climate change.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Secas , Florestas , Estações do Ano , Árvores/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Bolívia , Brasil , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Mudança Climática , Geografia , Peru , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Árvores/classificação , Clima Tropical
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(4): 1245-1257, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886754

RESUMO

The scope of this study was to assess the forms used to report suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR) to the pharmacovigilance system in Brazil and twelve other Latin-American countries. The study comprised three stages. In the first stage, the forms were attributed a score relating to the presence of critical items to generate ADR notification. In the second stage, the variables of the forms were quantified and classified regarding feasibility to contribute to an appropriate assessment of causality. In the last stage, hierarchical clustering was used to identify similar forms. The Venezuelan form achieved the highest score (18 points). The median number of variables in the forms of each country was 41 [26 (Guatemala) to 95 (Brazil)]. Most of the variables of the form were classified as life-critical and the majority contribute as an alternative explanation to causality assessment. Four clusters were identified (1, 2, 3 and 4). The forms of Brazil and Bolivia formed two distinct groups, 1 and 3 respectively. The results of this study indicate the need to change the forms of the different countries studied or even delete some variables, making them more appropriate for the process of assessment of ADR causality.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacovigilância , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Bolívia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 118: 107917, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put some health systems under pressure, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed at evaluating the impact of COVID-19 emergency on the management of people with epilepsy (PWE) living in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco area of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected a sample of PWE living in the rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco. A standardized questionnaire was developed, consisting of six questions addressing drug availability, drug discontinuation, personnel responsible for drug retrieval during the lockdown, and the presence of seizures in the two months preceding the interview. Questionnaires were administered by community health workers of the rural health centers in September 2020. RESULTS: Seventy PWE (38 men, 54.3%; mean age 26.9 ±â€¯16.7) were interviewed. During the lockdown the large majority of them (n = 51, 73.9%) reported an irregular medication intake mainly due to the lack of antiseizure medications in the local health posts, leading to an increase in seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has unmasked the frailty of the Bolivian health system, especially for the management of chronic diseases such as epilepsy in the rural communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epilepsia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , População Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zootaxa ; 4926(1): zootaxa.4926.1.3, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756758

RESUMO

The general aim of this study is to contribute to and summarize knowledge of the Bolivian fauna of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Tephritidae) which includes species of both ecological and economic importance. In addition to compiling data from the literature, we report the results of fruit fly sampling using McPhail or multilure traps in the Tropic of Cochabamba region and at the private natural reserve of Potrerillo del Guendá in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, as well as records from various other sites based on specimens in museum collections. Fifty-seven named species and three unnamed species of Anastrepha are recorded from Bolivia. Distribution maps for all of these species are provided. Numerous new department records are reported as well as the first records for Bolivia of A. castanea Norrbom, A. dissimilis Stone, A. elegans Blanchard, A. haywardi Blanchard, A. macrura Hendel, A. montei Lima, A. punctata Hendel, and A. rosilloi Blanchard. Pacouria boliviensis (Markgr.) A. Chev. (Apocynaceae) is reported as a host plant of A. woodleyi Norrbom Korytkowski, and Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd.) Berg (Myrtaceae) and Pouteria glomerata (Miq.) Radlk. (Sapotaceae) as host plants of A. fraterculus (Wiedemann). This distribution and host information will be useful to monitor and manage species that damage fruit crops in Bolivia.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae , Tephritidae , Animais , Bolívia , Drosophila , Frutas
8.
Zootaxa ; 4938(1): zootaxa.4938.1.9, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756990

RESUMO

Cryptotermes Banks, 1906 is the third most diverse kalotermitid genus worldwide after Glyptotermes Froggatt, 1897 and Neotermes Holmgren, 1911, with its greatest diversity found in the Neotropics (Krishna et al. 2013a). Furthermore, the greatest number of species of Cryptotermes are known from the Caribbean Basin (Scheffrahn Krecek 1999, Casala et al. 2016, Scheffrahn 2019). Although Araujo (1977) and Bacchus (1987) list Cryptotermes domesticus (Haviland, 1898) from Trinidad (treated as mainland) and Panama, respectively, Scheffrahn Krecek (1999) and Scheffrahn et al. (2009) doubt the existence of this Asian species in the New World. Without C. domesticus, the total extant Neotropical diversity of Cryptotermes is 29 endemic and three exotic species (Constantino 2020).


Assuntos
Isópteros , Animais , Bolívia , Camelus
9.
Ars pharm ; 62(1): 52-65, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of diabetes type 2 is increasing worldwide, thus the search of novel alternative ther¬apies is needed. According to their traditional use, we selected five Bolivian plants Chenopodium quinoa (CQ) Ama¬ranthus caudatus (AC), Chenopodium pallidicaule (CP), Lupinus mutabilis (LM) and Smallanthus sonchifolius (SS) that are traditionally used to control glycemia. METHODS: The effect of a single oral administration of Ethanolic (EtOH), hydro-ethanolic (EtOH70) and aqueous (Aq) extracts from all plant species were tested for their effect on blood glucose in non-fasted mice and during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The effect on insulin secretion was evaluated in mice pancreatic islets. RESULTS: EtOH70 extracts of all the plants showed glucose-reducing effect at the highest dose evaluated (2000 mg/ kg b.w.). EtOH70 extracts improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the OGTT in mice fasted for 12 hours. The extracts have different effects on glucose homeostasis since just extracts of AC, LM and CQ but not CP and SS in¬creased insulin secretion as shown on mice pancreatic islets. The phytochemical qualitative characterization of EtOH70 extracts detected phenolic acids and flavonoids in AC, CP and CQ; alkaloids in LM and anthocyanidins in SS. None of EtOH70 extracts tested showed in vitro or in vivo acute toxicity at concentrations where they exhibit glucose lowering effects. CONCLUSIONS: We report here that extracts from AC, CQ, CP, LM and SS exhibit glucose lowering effect while just AC, CQ and LM stimulate directly the insulin secretion


INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevalencia de diabetes tipo 2 está aumentando en todo el mundo, por lo que se necesita la búsqueda de nuevas terapias alternativas. Según su uso tradicional, seleccionamos cinco plantas bolivianas Chenopodium quinoa (CQ) Amaranthus caudatus (AC), Chenopodium pallidicaule (CP), Lupinus mutabilis (LM) y Smallanthus sonchifolius (SS) que se usan tradicionalmente para controlar la glucemia. MÉTODOS: Se evaluó el efecto de la administración oral única de extractos etanólicos (EtOH), hidroetanólicos (EtOH70) y acuosos (Aq) de las plantas mencionadas para determinar su efecto sobre la glucosa en sangre en ratones en o sin ayunas y durante la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral (PTGO). El efecto sobre la secreción de insulina se evaluó en islotes pancreáticos de ratones. RESULTADOS: Los extractos de EtOH70 de todas las plantas disminuyeron la glucemia a la dosis más alta evaluada (2000 mg / kg b.w.). Los extractos de EtOH70 mejoraron la tolerancia a la glucosa evaluada mediante la PTGO en ratones con ayuno de 12 horas. Los extractos tienen diferentes efectos sobre la homeostasis de la glucosa, ya que solo los extractos de AC, LM y CQ pero no CP y SS aumentaron la secreción de insulina como se muestra en los islotes pancreáticos de los ratones. La caracterización cualitativa fitoquímica de extractos de EtOH70 detectó ácidos fenólicos y flavonoides en AC, CP y CQ, alcaloides en LM y antocianidinas en SS. Ninguno de los extractos de EtOH70 probados mostró toxicidad aguda in vitro o in vivo a concentraciones en las que exhiben efectos reductores de glucosa. CONCLUSIÓN: Los extractos de AC, CQ, CP, LM y SS exhiben un efecto reductor de la glucosa, mientras que solo AC, CQ y LM estimulan directamente la secreción de insulina


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Amaranthus/química , Chenopodium/química , Lupinus/química , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bolívia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 273: 113761, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621752

RESUMO

Unhealthy diets are increasing contributors to poor health and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Government interventions targeting the structural drivers of unhealthy diets are needed to prevent these illnesses, including nutrition labelling regulations that create healthier food environments. Yet, implementation remains slow and uneven. One explanation for slow implementation highlights the role of politics, including powerful ideological discourse and its strategic deployment by economically powerful actors. In this article, we advance research on the politics of nutrition policies by analysing political discourse on nutrition labelling regulations within an influential and under-studied global institution: the World Trade Organization (WTO). We identified WTO Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee meeting minutes with reference to nutrition labelling policies proposed by Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Uruguay (2007-2019; n = 47). We analysed the frames, narratives, and normative claims that feature in inter-country discourse within TBT meetings and examined how actors mobilize ideological and material sources of power via these statements. We find that informal government challenges to nutrition labelling proposals within the Committee featured a narrative that individualized the causes of and solutions to poor diet, downplayed harms from industrialised food products, and framed state regulation as harmful and unjust. These non-technical claims mobilised neoliberal ideology and rhetoric to contest the normative legitimacy of members' proposals and to de-socialize and de-politicize poor diets. Furthermore, high-income countries (HICs) re-framed policy goals to focus on individual determinants of poor nutrition whilst calling for their preferred policies to be adopted. Patterns of discourse within TBT meetings also had striking similarities with arguments raised by multi-national food corporations elsewhere. Our findings suggest that non-technical and ideological arguments raised during TBT meetings serve as inconspicuous tools through which nutrition labelling policies in LMICs are undermined by HICs, industry, and the powerful ideology of neoliberalism.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Política Nutricional , Bolívia , Chile , Equador , Humanos , Indonésia , Peru , Política , Tailândia , Uruguai
11.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003408, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly encountered in community settings and contributes to morbidity, mortality, and increased resource utilization worldwide. In low-resource settings, lack of awareness of and limited access to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions likely influence patient management. We evaluated the feasibility of the use of point-of-care (POC) serum creatinine and urine dipstick testing with an education and training program to optimize the identification and management of AKI in the community in 3 low-resource countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients presenting to healthcare centers (HCCs) from 1 October 2016 to 29 September 2017 in the cities Cochabamba, Bolivia; Dharan, Nepal; and Blantyre, Malawi, were assessed utilizing a symptom-based risk score to identify patients at moderate to high AKI risk. POC testing for serum creatinine and urine dipstick at enrollment were utilized to classify these patients as having chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney disease (AKD), or no kidney disease (NKD). Patients were followed for a maximum of 6 months with repeat POC testing. AKI development was assessed at 7 days, kidney recovery at 1 month, and progression to CKD and mortality at 3 and 6 months. Following an observation phase to establish baseline data, care providers and physicians in the HCCs were trained with a standardized protocol utilizing POC tests to evaluate and manage patients, guided by physicians in referral hospitals connected via mobile digital technology. We evaluated 3,577 patients, and 2,101 were enrolled: 978 in the observation phase and 1,123 in the intervention phase. Due to the high number of patients attending the centers daily, it was not feasible to screen all patients to assess the actual incidence of AKI. Of enrolled patients, 1,825/2,101 (87%) were adults, 1,117/2,101 (53%) were females, 399/2,101 (19%) were from Bolivia, 813/2,101 (39%) were from Malawi, and 889/2,101 (42%) were from Nepal. The age of enrolled patients ranged from 1 month to 96 years, with a mean of 43 years (SD 21) and a median of 43 years (IQR 27-62). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (418/2,101; 20%). At enrollment, 197/2,101 (9.4%) had CKD, and 1,199/2,101 (57%) had AKD. AKI developed in 30% within 7 days. By 1 month, 268/978 (27%) patients in the observation phase and 203/1,123 (18%) in the intervention phase were lost to follow-up. In the intervention phase, more patients received fluids (observation 714/978 [73%] versus intervention 874/1,123 [78%]; 95% CI 0.63, 0.94; p = 0.012), hospitalization was reduced (observation 578/978 [59%] versus intervention 548/1,123 [49%]; 95% CI 0.55, 0.79; p < 0.001), and admitted patients with severe AKI did not show a significantly lower mortality during follow-up (observation 27/135 [20%] versus intervention 21/178 [11.8%]; 95% CI 0.98, 3.52; p = 0.057). Of 504 patients with kidney function assessed during the 6-month follow-up, de novo CKD arose in 79/484 (16.3%), with no difference between the observation and intervention phase (95% CI 0.91, 2.47; p = 0.101). Overall mortality was 273/2,101 (13%) and was highest in those who had CKD (24/106; 23%), followed by those with AKD (128/760; 17%), AKI (85/628; 14%), and NKD (36/607; 6%). The main limitation of our study was the inability to determine the actual incidence of kidney dysfunction in the health centers as it was not feasible to screen all the patients due to the high numbers seen daily. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter, non-randomized feasibility study in low-resource settings demonstrates that it is feasible to implement a comprehensive program utilizing POC testing and protocol-based management to improve the recognition and management of AKI and AKD in high-risk patients in primary care.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Creatinina/sangue , Países em Desenvolvimento , Progressão da Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Testes Imediatos , Urinálise
12.
Environ Res ; 194: 110730, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444611

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance poses a major global health threat. Understanding emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in environmental media is critical to the design of control strategies. Because antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may be aerosolized from contaminated point sources and disseminated more widely in localized environments, we assessed ARGs in aerosols in urban La Paz, Bolivia, where wastewater flows in engineered surface water channels through the densely populated urban core. We quantified key ARGs and a mobile integron (MI) via ddPCR and E. coli spp. as a fecal indicator by culture over two years during both the rainy and dry seasons in sites near wastewater flows. ARG targets represented major antibiotic groups-tetracyclines (tetA), fluoroquinolines (qnrB), and beta-lactams (blaTEM)-and an MI (intI1) represented the potential for mobility of genetic material. Most air samples (82%) had detectable targets above the experimentally determined LOD: most commonly blaTEM and intI1 (68% and 47% respectively) followed by tetA and qnrB (17% and 11% respectively). ARG and MI densities in positive air samples ranged from 1.3 × 101 to 6.6 × 104 gene copies/m3 air. Additionally, we detected culturable E. coli in the air (52% of samples <1 km from impacted surface waters) with an average density of 11 CFU/m3 in positive samples. We observed decreasing density of blaTEM with increasing distance up to 150 m from impacted surface waters. To our knowledge this is the first study conducting absolute quantification and a spatial analysis of ARGs and MIs in ambient urban air of a city with contaminated surface waters. Environments in close proximity to urban wastewater flows in this setting may experience locally elevated concentrations of ARGs, a possible concern for the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in cities with poor sanitation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Aerossóis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bolívia , Cidades , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Águas Residuárias
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245859, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association among social media exposure, risk perception, preventive behaviors, and attitudes toward the COVID-19 epidemic in Bolivia. METHODS: We launched an online survey in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia, during April and May 2020. The questionnaire examined: Socio-demographic factors, Social media use, Risk Perception, Preventive behaviors, attitudes and the willingness to use a vaccine if it were available in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. A logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with risk perception and a structural equation model (SEM) was performed to explore the pathway of the relationship among social media exposure, risk perception and preventive behaviors and attitudes. RESULTS: Among 886 participants, the most were young adults, between 18-25 years old (73.4%) and 577 (65.1%) were female. During the the week before the survey 387 (43.7%) reported be exposure to social media Covid-19 information almost always or always. Moreover 304 (34.3%) were categorized as with a high risk perception. The multivariable analyses show that being female (aOR = 1.5, CI 95% 1.1-2.1) and having high exposure to Covid-19 information on social media (aOR = 2.5, CI 95% 1.3-5.3) were associated with a higher risk perception for Covid-19. Furthermore, SEM results indicated that risk perception is associated with the adoption of preventive behaviors and attitudes (ß = 0.605, p < 0.001) including the acceptance of a vaccine if one were available (ß = 0.388, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Social media exposure to COVID-19 information influences the adoption of preventive attitudes and behaviors through shaping risk perception. Understanding the role of social media during the pandemic could help policymakers and communicators to develop better communication strategies that enable the population to adopt appropriate attitudes and behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00282020, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1143882

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study intraspecific variation in Triatoma costalimai, a potential vector of Chagas disease present in Brazil and Bolivia. METHODS: We analyzed phenotypic (connexivum color patterns, wing morphometrics) and genetic variation (16S mtDNA) of three Brazilian T. costalimai populations. We compared 16S sequences with those of putative Bolivian T. costalimai and its sister species, T. jatai. RESULTS: Brazilian populations had different connexivum color patterns and forewing shapes. A 16S mtDNA haplotype network showed a clear separation of Brazilian T. costalimai from both T. jatai and Bolivian T. costalimai. CONCLUSIONS: We report considerable variability in T. costalimai populations.


Assuntos
Animais , Triatoma/genética , Doença de Chagas , Variação Genética/genética , Bolívia , Brasil , Insetos Vetores/genética
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111256, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920312

RESUMO

Anthropogenic pressure in the high altitude lakes such as Titicaca and Uru (Bolivia) may favor the production of methylmercury (MeHg) known to accumulate in trophic chains. Periphyton associated with emerged aquatic plants (totoras) from the lake shores accumulates and demethylates MeHg providing a potential cost-effective water treatment technique. In this laboratory study, we measured the MeHg uptake kinetics of a consortium of green algae isolated from Lake Titicaca totora's periphyton. The most abundant algal consortium, composed of Oedogonium spp., Chlorella spp., Scenedesmus spp., was exposed to rising MeHg concentrations (from 5 to 200 ng·L-1) to assess their maximum potential capacity for MeHg accumulation. Various algal biomass concentrations were tested to choose the optimal one. Results provided a net MeHg uptake rate by this algal consortium of 2.38 amol ng-1·h-1·nM-1 (the total uptake was 2863 ng MeHg·g-1) for an initial concentration of 200 ng MeHg·L-1 with an algal biomass concentration of 0.02 g·L-1. This initial MeHg concentration is 1000 times higher than the one measured in the eutrophic Cohana Bay of Lake Titicaca, which shows the high accumulation potential of these green algae. Our data suggest that periphyton has a high potential for the treatment of Hg contaminated waters in constructing wetlands in the Andean Altiplano.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Bolívia , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/análise , Perifíton , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Epilepsy Behav ; 115: 107680, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the diagnosis of epilepsy should be made by Non-Physician Health Workers (NPHW) who are widely available in these settings. Recently a smartphone app (Epilepsy Diagnosis Aid) has been developed and validated to be used by NPHW, in order to confirm the diagnosis of epilepsy. The aim of our study was to perform a validation of the app in two different contexts: a hospital-based setting of a high-income country (HIC) and a population-based setting of the rural communities of a LMIC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the hospital-based setting, the app was administered to a sample of patients with epilepsy (PWE) and to a sample of subjects affected by syncope attending the epilepsy center of the University of Catania. For the population-based setting, performed in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region in Bolivia,the app was administered by NPHW to a sample of PWE previously identified. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the diagnosis of epilepsy. RESULTS: In the hospital-setting, the app was administered to 100 PWE and 20 syncopes. A probability score > 80 showed a sensitivity of 76% (95%CI 66.4-84) and a specificity of 100% (95%CI 83.2-100) for the diagnosis of epilepsy; higher values were found for active epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures. In the rural-setting, the app was administered to 38 PWE, giving a sensitivity of 92.1% (95%CI 78.6-98.3). CONCLUSION: The app for epilepsy could represent a valuable instrument, which can be easily employed by trained NPHW to diagnose epilepsy in primary health-care settings of LMIC.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , População Rural , Bolívia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Convulsões , Smartphone
18.
Lima; Organismo Andino de Salud Convenio Hipólito Unanue; 44; 20210000. 40 p. (Situación Actual de la Pandemia Covid-19 a Nivel Mundial y en los Países Andinos, 44, 44).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1145910

RESUMO

Consolidado de la situación epidemiológica de la COVID-19 en los países de la Región Andina (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela) y a nivel mundial al 11 de enero de 2021.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Peru , Venezuela , Bolívia , Chile , Colômbia , Equador
19.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(3): e20200320, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1149309

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo analisar a tendência dos casos de HIV/Aids por sexo e faixa etária nas cidades gêmeas de Mato Grosso do Sul. Método estudo ecológico de série histórica. Foram utilizadas as fichas de notificação de HIV/Aids, do período de 2009 a 2018, disponibilizadas pela Secretaria de Estado de Saúde e analisadas segundo estatística descritiva, regressão polinomial e geoespacialização dos casos. Resultados foram registradas 734 notificações, sendo 57,9% em homens, e com maior incidência no biênio 2017-2018 em ambos os sexos. A tendência de crescimento das notificações apresenta-se com aceleração positiva nas cidades gêmeas (r2=0,91; p<0,001). Os maiores coeficientes de determinação foram observados em mulheres, na faixa etária de 35 a 49 anos (r2=0,98; p<0,001), e em homens de 15 a 19 anos (r2=0,96; p<0,002). Conclusão os resultados desafiam profissionais e gestores no combate à pandemia de HIV/Aids, carecendo de reflexões contínuas diante as estratégias/políticas públicas adotadas até o momento, em especial na região de fronteira. Implicações para a prática: o profissional enfermeiro, ao conhecer o perfil da sua população e a distribuição dos casos, consegue traçar estratégias capazes de atingir o público de forma eficaz e efetiva.


RESUMEN Objetivo analizar la tendencia de los casos de VIH/SIDA por género y grupo de edad en las ciudades gemelas de Mato Grosso do Sul. Método estudio ecológico de series históricas. Se utilizaron formularios de notificación del VIH/SIDA de 2009 a 2018, puestos a disposición por el Departamento de Salud del Estado y analizados de acuerdo con estadísticas descriptivas, regresión polinómica y geospatialización de los casos. Resultados se registraron 734 notificaciones, un 57,9% en hombres y una mayor incidencia en el bienio 2017-2018 en ambos sexos. La tendencia de crecimiento de las notificaciones se acelera positivamente en las ciudades gemelas (r2-0,91; p<0,001). Los coeficientes de determinación más altos se incluyeron en las mujeres de 35 a 49 años (r2-0,98; p<0,001), y en los hombres de 15 a 19 años (r2-0,96; p<0,002). Conclusión los resultados desafían a profesionales y directivos en la lucha contra la pandemia del VIH/SIDA, carentes de reflexiones continuas frente a las estrategias/políticas públicas adoptadas hasta ahora, especialmente en la región fronteriza. Implicaciones para la práctica: el enfermero profesional, conociendo el perfil de su población y la distribución de los casos, puede diseñar estrategias capaces de llegar al público de manera efectiva y efectiva.


ABSTRACT Objective Analyze the trend of HIV/AIDS cases by sex and age in the twin cities of Mato Grosso do Sul. Method ecological study of historical series. The HIV/AIDS notification forms, from 2009 to 2018, made available by the Secretary of State for Health and analyzed according to descriptive statistics, polynomial regression and geospatialization of the cases were used. Results 734 notifications were registered, 57.9% of them in men, and with a higher incidence in the biennium 2017-2018 in both sexes. The trend of growth of notifications shows a positive acceleration in twin cities (r2=0.91; p<0.001). The highest coefficients of determination were observed in women, in the age group 35 to 49 years (r2=0.98; p<0.001), and in men from 15 to 19 years (r2=0.96; p<0.002). Conclusion The results challenge professionals and managers in the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic, requiring continuous reflection on the strategies/public policies adopted so far, especially in the border region. Implications for the practice: the nurse professional, by knowing the profile of its population and the distribution of cases, is able to draw strategies capable of reaching the public effectively and efficiently.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Saúde na Fronteira , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Política de Saúde
20.
Front Public Health ; 8: 605123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381488

RESUMO

Indigenous people living in the Bolivian Andes are exposed through their drinking water to inorganic arsenic, a potent carcinogen. However, the health consequences of arsenic exposure in this region are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between arsenic exposure and changes in cancer-related proteins in indigenous women (n = 176) from communities around the Andean Lake Poopó, Bolivia. Arsenic exposure was assessed in whole blood (B-As) and urine (as the sum of arsenic metabolites, U-As) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cancer-related proteins (N = 92) were measured in urine using the proximity extension assay. The median B-As concentration was 2.1 (range 0.60-9.1) ng/g, and U-As concentration was 67 (12-399) µg/L. Using linear regression models adjusted for age, urinary osmolality, and urinary leukocytes, we identified associations between B-As and four putative cancer-related proteins: FASLG, SEZ6L, LYPD3, and TFPI2. Increasing B-As concentrations were associated with lower protein expression of SEZ6L, LYPD3, and TFPI2, and with higher expression of FASLG in urine (no association was statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons). The associations were similar across groups with different arsenic metabolism efficiency, a susceptibility factor for arsenic toxicity. In conclusion, arsenic exposure in this region was associated with changes in the expression of some cancer-related proteins in urine. Future research is warranted to understand if these proteins could serve as valid biomarkers for arsenic-related toxicity.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenicais , Água Potável , Neoplasias , Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Bolívia , Feminino , Humanos
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