Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.234
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466351

RESUMO

Firefighters have a sustained risk for experiencing a sudden cardiac event after completing a fire call. Heart rate recovery (HRR) can be utilized to characterize autonomic nervous system (ANS) recovery and has been linked to cardiac events. Research suggests that body composition influences post-exercise HRR responses in non-firefighter populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percent body fat (BF) on the HRR response of firefighter recruits. BMI (kg·m-2), WC (cm), and BF (%) data from 57 firefighter recruits were collected. HRR (b·min-1) data were collected at completion (HR0), as well as 15 (HR15), 30 (HR30), 45 (HR45), 60 (HR60), 120 (HR120), and 180 (HR180) seconds following a submaximal step test, and commonly utilized clinical HRR indices were calculated (ΔHRR30, ΔHRR60, ΔHRR120, and ΔHRR180). After controlling for sex, linear mixed regression models did not identify significant interactions between body composition (ps > 0.05) and HRR response across time. However, significant (ps < 0.05) indirect semi-partial correlations were identified between BF and ΔHRR30 (rsp = -0.31) and ΔHRR60 (rsp = -0.27), respectively. Reducing overall BF (vs. BMI or WC) should be prioritized to improve the post-exercise ANS recovery of firefighter recruits.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Bombeiros , Frequência Cardíaca , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Circunferência da Cintura
2.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 19, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is a modifier of metabolic syndrome which in turn is associated with World Trade Center obstructive airways disease (WTC-OAD). We have designed this study to (1) assess the dietary phenotype (food types, physical activity, and dietary habits) of the Fire Department of New York (FDNY) WTC-Health Program (WTC-HP) cohort and (2) quantify the association of dietary quality and its advanced glycation end product (AGE) content with the development of WTC-OAD. METHODS: WTC-OAD, defined as developing WTC-Lung Injury (WTC-LI; FEV1 < LLN) and/or airway hyperreactivity (AHR; positive methacholine and/or positive bronchodilator response). Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants-Short Version (REAP-S) deployed on 3/1/2018 in the WTC-HP annual monitoring assessment. Clinical and REAP-S data of consented subjects was extracted (7/17/2019). Diet quality [low-(15-19), moderate-(20-29), and high-(30-39)] and AGE content per REAP-S questionnaire were assessed for association with WTC-OAD. Regression models adjusted for smoking, hyperglycemia, hypertension, age on 9/11, WTC-exposure, BMI, and job description. RESULTS: N = 9508 completed the annual questionnaire, while N = 4015 completed REAP-S and had spirometry. WTC-OAD developed in N = 921, while N = 3094 never developed WTC-OAD. Low- and moderate-dietary quality, eating more (processed meats, fried foods, sugary drinks), fewer (vegetables, whole-grains),and having a diet abundant in AGEs were significantly associated with WTC-OAD. Smoking was not a significant risk factor of WTC-OAD. CONCLUSIONS: REAP-S was successfully implemented in the FDNY WTC-HP monitoring questionnaire and produced valuable dietary phenotyping. Our observational study has identified low dietary quality and AGE abundant dietary habits as risk factors for pulmonary disease in the context of WTC-exposure. Dietary phenotyping, not only focuses our metabolomic/biomarker profiling but also further informs future dietary interventions that may positively impact particulate matter associated lung disease.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Bombeiros , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/induzido quimicamente , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/epidemiologia , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro/tendências , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 144296, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341613

RESUMO

Throughout the United States, wildland firefighters respond to wildfires, performing arduous work in remote locations. Wildfire incidents can be an ideal environment for the transmission of infectious diseases, particularly for wildland firefighters who congregate in work and living settings. In this review, we examine how exposure to wildfire smoke can contribute to an increased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Human exposure to particulate matter (PM), a component of wildfire smoke, has been associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory responses; increasing the likelihood for adverse respiratory symptomology and pathology. In multiple epidemiological studies, wildfire smoke exposure has been associated with acute lower respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and wildfire smoke inhalation may present an increased risk for COVID-19 illness in wildland firefighters due to PM based transport of SARS CoV-2 virus and up-regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE-2) (i.e. ACE-2 functions as a trans-membrane receptor, allowing the SARS-CoV-2 virus to gain entry into the epithelial cell). Wildfire smoke exposure may also increase risk for more severe COVID-19 illness such as cytokine release syndrome, hypotension, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Current infection control measures, including social distancing, wearing cloth masks, frequent cleaning and disinfecting of surfaces, frequent hand washing, and daily screening for COVID-19 symptoms are very important measures to reduce infections and severe health outcomes. Exposure to wildfire smoke may introduce additive or even multiplicative risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of disease in wildland firefighters. Thus, additional mitigative measures may be needed to prevent the co-occurrence of wildfire smoke exposure and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Bombeiros , Humanos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375223

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading type of line-of-duty death among firefighters. An inability to restore parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) control after activity is associated with SCD. Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) provides unique insight into reactivation of the PSNS. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in HRR responses of 25 male firefighter recruits. HR data were collected after submaximal exercise at week 1 (W1), week 6 (W6), and week 15 (W15) of their training at an academy. Percent maximal heart rate (%MHR) measures were computed at each HRR time point (%MHR0, %MHR15, %MHR30, %MHR45, %MHR60, %MHR120, %MHR180) and absolute HRR values were calculated at 30 s (ΔHRR30), 60 s (ΔHRR60), 120 s (ΔHRR120), and 180 s (ΔHRR180). After controlling for age and percent body fat, there was no statistically significant interaction between Week × HRR (p = 0.730), and there were no changes in ΔHRR30, ΔHRR60, and ΔHRR120, and ΔHRR180 indices across time. However, %MHR at W6 and W15 was significantly lower than %MHR at W1 at every HRR time point (ps < 0.001). Therefore, although the firefighter recruit training academy elicited positive training adaptations, changes in PSNS reactivation after submaximal activity were not identified.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Frequência Cardíaca , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e52825, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1146276

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar os impactos na saúde mental de bombeiros relacionados ao estresse da exposição ocupacional. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases de dados CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO, MEDLINE®, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus e SCIELO. Para a estratégia de busca utilizou-se os descritores: "Occupational Stress", "Firefighters", "Occupational Exposure". Como critérios de inclusão estabeleceu-se: artigos originais; entre os anos de 2009 e 2019; disponíveis completos; estudos transversais; nos idiomas português, inglês e/ou espanhol; e cuja população de estudo incluíssem bombeiros. Resultados: nessa revisão foram analisados 11 artigos. Evidenciou-se que a exposição de bombeiros impactou o desencadeamento de sintomas de depressão e transtorno de estresse pós-traumático. Conclusão: as evidências deste estudo demonstraram que a exposição ocupacional de bombeiros interfere no seu padrão de saúde mental causando estresse por meio do sofrimento psíquico. Este estudo alerta para a necessidade de intervenção e promoção à saúde do bombeiro.


Objective: to identify mental health impacts of occupational exposure-related stress among firefighters. Method: this integrative literature review searched the CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO, MEDLINE®, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SCIELO databases, suing the descriptors: "Occupational Stress", "Firefighters", "Occupational Exposure". The inclusion criteria were: original articles; between the years 2009 and 2019; full text available; cross-sectional studies; in Portuguese, English and/or Spanish; and whose study population included firefighters. Results: 11 articles were analyzed. Firefighters' exposure was found to impact the triggering of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion: the evidence in this study demonstrated that firefighters' occupational exposure interferes with their mental health patterns, causing stress through psychological suffering. This study warns of the need for intervention and promotion of firefighters' health.


Objetivo: identificar los impactos en la salud mental del estrés relacionado con la exposición ocupacional entre los bomberos. Método: esta revisión integradora de la literatura buscó en las bases de datos CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO, MEDLINE®, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus y SCIELO, demandando los descriptores: "Estrés ocupacional", "Bomberos", "Exposición ocupacional". Los criterios de inclusión fueron: artículos originales; entre los años 2009 y 2019; Texto completo disponible; estudios transversales; en portugués, inglés y / o español; y cuya población de estudio incluyó bomberos. Resultados: se analizaron 11 artículos. Se descubrió que la exposición de los bomberos afecta la activación de síntomas depresivos y el trastorno de estrés postraumático. Conclusión: la evidencia de este estudio demostró que la exposición ocupacional de los bomberos interfiere con sus patrones de salud mental, provocando estrés a través del sufrimiento psicológico. Este estudio advierte de la necesidad de intervención y promoción de la salud de los bomberos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estresse Psicológico , Bombeiros/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Condições de Trabalho , Riscos Ocupacionais , Fatores Desencadeantes , Saúde do Trabalhador , Depressão
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333835

RESUMO

Physical inactivity, coupled with increasing obesity levels, in firefighters plays a key role in aggregated cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to investigate device-measured physical activity (PA) for firefighters while on- and off-duty to have a clearer understanding of their overall PA level. METHODS: Twenty-nine career firefighters participated in this non-experimental, within-subjects study by wearing an accelerometer to assess PA intensities and step-count. Obesity was classified using body mass index (BMI). Dependent t-tests were used to examine mean differences in PA intensities when on- and off-duty. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to assess the association between PA intensities when on and off-duty. RESULTS: According to the World Health Organization BMI categorizations, 20 firefighters were overweight, 9 were obese, and, thus, none were normal weight. Only light PA (LPA) was statistically significant (p = 0.026) for on- and off-duty days with a small-to-medium effect size (d = 0.47), meaning that on average, firefighters performed more minutes of LPA when on-duty compared to off. There was a significant difference between on- (9060.2 ± 2636.4) and off-duty (7495.3 ± 2835.8) daily step counts (p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: As the results demonstrate, there is a dire need for increased PA levels in firefighters while on- and off-duty.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Bombeiros , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso
7.
BMJ ; 371: m4262, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of the AbC-19 Rapid Test lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. DESIGN: Test accuracy study. SETTING: Laboratory based evaluation. PARTICIPANTS: 2847 key workers (healthcare staff, fire and rescue officers, and police officers) in England in June 2020 (268 with a previous polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive result (median 63 days previously), 2579 with unknown previous infection status); and 1995 pre-pandemic blood donors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: AbC-19 sensitivity and specificity, estimated using known negative (pre-pandemic) and known positive (PCR confirmed) samples as reference standards and secondly using the Roche Elecsys anti-nucleoprotein assay, a highly sensitive laboratory immunoassay, as a reference standard in samples from key workers. RESULTS: Test result bands were often weak, with positive/negative discordance by three trained laboratory staff for 3.9% of devices. Using consensus readings, for known positive and negative samples sensitivity was 92.5% (95% confidence interval 88.8% to 95.1%) and specificity was 97.9% (97.2% to 98.4%). Using an immunoassay reference standard, sensitivity was 94.2% (90.7% to 96.5%) among PCR confirmed cases but 84.7% (80.6% to 88.1%) among other people with antibodies. This is consistent with AbC-19 being more sensitive when antibody concentrations are higher, as people with PCR confirmation tended to have more severe disease whereas only 62% (218/354) of seropositive participants had had symptoms. If 1 million key workers were tested with AbC-19 and 10% had actually been previously infected, 84 700 true positive and 18 900 false positive results would be projected. The probability that a positive result was correct would be 81.7% (76.8% to 85.8%). CONCLUSIONS: AbC-19 sensitivity was lower among unselected populations than among PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the scope for overestimation of assay performance in studies involving only PCR confirmed cases, owing to "spectrum bias." Assuming that 10% of the tested population have had SARS-CoV-2 infection, around one in five key workers testing positive with AbC-19 would be false positives. STUDY REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 56609224.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Bombeiros , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Polícia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reino Unido
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872174

RESUMO

The World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on 9/11/2001 have consistently been associated with elevated rates of physical and mental health morbidities, while evidence about mortality has been limited. We examined mortality between 9/12/2001 and 12/31/2017 among 15,431 WTC-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) firefighters and emergency medical service providers (EMS), specifically assessing associations between intensity of WTC-exposure and mortality risk. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared FDNY cohort mortality with the US general population using life table analysis. Deaths were identified via linkage to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify associations between intensity of WTC-exposure and mortality, accounting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking history, and other relevant confounders. We identified 546 deaths and a lower than expected all-cause mortality rate (SMR = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.20-0.24). No cause-specific SMRs were meaningfully elevated. Mortality hazard ratios showed no association or linear trend with level of WTC-exposure. Our results provide evidence of the healthy worker effect, despite exposure to the World Trade Center. More follow-up time may be needed to assess the full impact of WTC-exposure on mortality in this occupational population.


Assuntos
Desastres , Bombeiros/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Resgate/estatística & dados numéricos , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Feminino , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , New York/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia
11.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 046010, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969351

RESUMO

Inhalation of smoke is shown to be associated with adverse respiratory outcomes in firefighters. Due to invasiveness of procedures to obtain airways lining fluid, the immediate responses of the target organ (i.e. lung) are secondarily assessed through biomarkers in blood and urine. The objective of this study was to identify changes in metabolic profile of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and lung function of firefighters exposed to wildfires smoke. A total of 29 subjects were studied over 16 events; 14 of these subjects provided cross-shift EBC samples. The predominant types of non-exchangeable hydrogen in EBC were saturated oxygenated hydrogen, aliphatic alkyl and allylic. Non-exchangeable allylic and oxygenated hydrogen concentrations decreased in post-exposure EBC samples. Longer exposures were correlated with increased abundance of oxidized carbon in ketones, acids and esters. Post-exposure lung function declines (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1): 0.08 l, forced vital capacity (FVC): 0.07 l, FEV1/FVC: 0.03 l, peak expiratory flow (PEF): 0.39 l s-1) indicated airways inflammation. They were related to exposure intensity (FEV1 and FVC) and exposure duration (PEF). This study showed that EBC characterization of non-exchangeable hydrogen types by NMR may provide insights on EBC molecular compositions in response to smoke inhalation and facilitate targeted analysis to identify specific biomarkers.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Expiração , Bombeiros , Hidrogênio/análise , Pulmão/fisiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomassa , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Capacidade Vital
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111100, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911453

RESUMO

Compared to the general population, firefighters are known to sustain greater levels of exposure to hazardous compounds, despite their personal protective equipment, also known as turnout gear. Among the most significant toxins that firefighters are chronically exposed to are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, firefighters have also been noted to exhibit an increased incidence of certain types of cancer. Considering a probable link between exposure to PAHs and increased rates of cancer in the fire service, we aim to document ambient chemical concentrations in the firefighter work environment. Our strategy involves the use of silicone-based wristbands that have the capacity to passively sorb PAHs. To determine if wristbands can serve as an effective chemical monitoring device for the fire service, silicone wristbands were pilot-tested as personal sampling devices for work environment risk monitoring in active-duty firefighters. Recovered wristbands underwent multiple extraction steps, followed by GC-MS analysis to demonstrate their efficacy in monitoring PAHs in the firefighter environment. Initial findings from all wristband samples taken from firefighters showed multiple exposures to various PAHs of concern for the health of the firefighters when in a fire environment. In addition to PAH monitoring, we examined known and potential sources of PAH contamination in their work environment. To that end, profiles of elevated PAH concentrations were documented at various fire stations throughout South Florida, for individual firefighters both during station duties and active fire response.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Bombeiros , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Silicones/análise
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824036

RESUMO

According to previous research, participation in exercise training (ET) by South Korean firefighters varies with shift type, and the effect of shift type is greater in large cities than in small towns. However, shift types differ among regions, depending on the number of dispatches. Therefore, the present study examined the impact of the number of fire dispatches and other situational factors on ET. A series of multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the data collected from South Korean firefighters (N = 5219) in 2017. According to the firefighters, participation in ET is higher among those who have someone to instruct their ET (Coefficient (Coef) = 0.057, SE = 0.017, p < 0.001) and who can do ET while on duty (Coef = 0.048, SE = 0.014, p < 0.001). The number of fire dispatches had a significant effect on participation in ET (Coef = -0.000, SE = 0.000, p < 0.01), meaning that the firefighters' participation in ET varies with the number of fire dispatches in each region. Our main findings indicate that the number of fire dispatches is a key factor affecting ET participation among firefighters, and the other situational factors also play a role. Therefore, ET programs that firefighters can participate in between calls should be established.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Fogo , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , República da Coreia
14.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(12): 857-861, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We estimate the point seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the frontline firefighter/paramedic workforce of a South Florida fire department located in the epicentre of a State outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the point seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a rapid immunoglobulin (Ig)M-IgG combined point-of-care lateral flow immunoassay among frontline firefighters/paramedics collected over a 2-day period, 16-17 April 2020. Fire department personnel were emailed a survey link assessing COVID-19 symptoms and work exposures the day prior to the scheduled drive-through antibody testing at a designated fire station. Off-duty and on-duty firefighter/paramedic personnel drove through the fire station/training facility in their personal vehicles or on-duty engine/rescue trucks for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. RESULTS: Among the 203 firefighters/paramedics that make up the fire department workforce, 18 firefighters/paramedics (8.9%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, of which 8 firefighters/paramedics (3.9%) were IgG positive only, 8 (3.9%) were IgM positive only and 2 (0.1%) were IgG/IgM positive. The positive predictive value (PPV) of the serological test is estimated to be 33.2% and the negative predictive value is 99.3%. The average number of COVID-19 case contacts (ie, within 6 feet of an infected person (laboratory-confirmed or probable COVID-19 patient) for ≥15 min) experienced by firefighters/paramedics was higher for those with positive serology compared with those with negative (13.3 cases vs 7.31 cases; p=0.022). None of the antibody positive firefighters/paramedics reported receipt of the annual influenza vaccine compared with firefighters/paramedics who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (0.0% vs 21.0%; p=0.027). CONCLUSION: Rapid SARS-CoV-2 IgM-IgG antibody testing documented early-stage and late-stage infection in a firefighter workforce providing insight to a broader medical surveillance project on return to work for firefighters/paramedics. Given the relatively low PPV of the serological test used in this study back in April 2020, caution should be used in interpreting test results.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bombeiros , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236640, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716980

RESUMO

Japanese firefighting organisations are essentially run as village, town, or city units. The Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995 led to the establishment of emergency support teams to ensure rapid action in response to disasters beyond the capacities of local fire departments. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake involved both a tsunami and a radiation disaster caused by a nuclear reactor meltdown, underscoring the need for responses in complex disasters. This study aimed to assess Nagasaki Prefecture firefighters' preparedness for, awareness of, and anxiety regarding radiation disaster response with the aim of elucidating the factors affecting individuals' decisions to accept or reject assignment to a radiation disaster response team. A questionnaire survey was carried out with 1,122 firefighters in three firefighting departments in Nagasaki Prefecture, which does not have nuclear power plants. In total, 920 questionnaires were returned, and the 784 that were valid were analysed. Among the participants, 39% replied that they would have no difficulty accepting assignment to a radiation disaster response team; most of them were under 30 years old and unmarried. This group also included significantly higher percentages of participants who were confident about radiation disaster response or, if anxious, believed things would turn out fine, as well as those who replied that they were able to use the necessary equipment. Furthermore, this group had significantly higher percentages of participants who replied that they would definitely participate in seminars and those who replied that their level of preparedness for radiation disasters was sufficient. The willingness to be assigned to a radiation disaster response team was linked to confidence about radiation disaster response and about handling materials and/or equipment. Therefore, it is considered that measures to increase firefighters' confidence regarding response to radiation disasters will be linked to more proactive measures if and when such disasters occur.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Bombeiros/psicologia , Exposição à Radiação , Adulto , Desastres , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centrais Nucleares , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630691

RESUMO

(1) Study Objectives: By investigating the change of cortisol levels during shift cycles among professional firefighters in Korea, this study aims to evaluate the difference between individuals' stress response and the recovery of their circadian rhythm after working night shifts. (2) Methods: A total of 325 shift firefighters, who were working in 3, 6, 9, or 21 day cycles, participated in the study. Their urinary and serum cortisol levels were measured during the day (09-18), during the night (18-09), and every 24 h (09-09) per shift cycle, and adjustments were made for confounding factors. (3) Results: Serum cortisol levels were significantly increased after working during the night or for 24 h compared with that of working throughout the day. However, whether working night or 24 h shifts, the serum cortisol levels were undoubtedly different based on the 3, 6, 9, or 21 day cycles. In all shift cycles, the urinary cortisol level decreased during the night or throughout the 24 h shifts compared with sleeping during this time, but this was considered to be significantly applicable only to those working in 21 day cycles. Additionally, in serial measurements, the recovery of urinary cortisol secretion after a night or 24 h shift was successful for individuals working in 9 day cycles, but the recovery was delayed for those working in 6 or 21 day cycles. (4) Conclusions: After analyzing the urine cortisol levels, the study indicates that only subjects working in 9 day cycles fully recovered their circadian rhythm while those working in 6 day or 21 day cycles did not completely recover. Therefore, it is important to recognize how stressful night shifts can be, and it is crucial to enhance firefighters' current shift cycles in order to allow sufficient recovery of their circadian rhythm as well as the prevention of disrupting their circadian rhythm after working at night. Further research is necessary to take into account the amount of work load, the challenges of being sleep deprived, and the individual's capacity to overcome sleepiness.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Hidrocortisona , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Sono , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604715

RESUMO

Along with the thermal modernization process of old residential buildings, there has been a significant increase in the air tightness of apartments, which may contribute to the deterioration of the safety of users and rescue teams in a fire. The main goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the air tightness of an apartment on fire growth and temperature variability. In the work, an experimental method was applied. Two full-scale fire tests were carried out, one in a sealed apartment and the other in unsealed one. The temperature was measured by thirty-two thermocouples. Two thermal imaging and video cameras were also used to evaluate a temperature field as well as flame and smoke height. Based on the analysis, conclusions have been formulated. It is noteworthy that the highest temperatures and significant increase in pressure were obtained in a sealed apartment, but dangerous and critical conditions regarding firefighters' safety were achieved faster and persisted much longer in an unsealed one.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Temperatura Alta , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Humanos , Características de Residência , Temperatura
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605225

RESUMO

Background: Recent research indicates that shift work is associated with neurocognitive function. However, studies that examine the association between shift work and neurocognitive function in firefighters have not yet been performed. We examined the effect of shift work on neurocognitive function in firefighters by measuring and comparing neurocognitive function before and after night shift. Methods: 352 firefighters from eight fire stations in South Korea were included in this study. We performed neurocognitive function test using central nervous system vital signs (CNSVS) during daytime work and on the next day after night work. We performed paired t-tests to assess differences between neurocognitive function before and after night work. We also compared neurocognitive function in insomnia and depression. We used a general linear model to analyze the associations between shiftwork schedule and the changes in neurocognitive function. Results: The neurocognitive function significantly decreased in six domains (composite memory, verbal memory, visual memory, complex attention, psychomotor speed, and motor speed) as did the neurocognitive index on the next day after night work compared with during day work. These decreased domains were the same following night work regardless of the type of shift work. Conclusion: Night work in firefighters may cause neurocognitive decline.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Bombeiros , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Adulto , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727051

RESUMO

Studies have been conducted on the association between physical activity (PA) and sleep, but to the best of our knowledge, a simultaneous analysis of the effects of occupational PA (OPA) and leisure time PA (LTPA) on South Korean firefighters' sleep has never been conducted. This study aims to analyze how OPA and LTPA affect these individuals' risk of suffering from insomnia with-in this specific population of subjects. The study includes data from an online self-report survey in which 9788 South Korean firefighters participated. The survey used the Insomnia Severity Index and the OPA- and LTPA-related characteristics were investigated. The independent two-sample t-test, χ2 test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Subgroup logistic regression analyses were also completed in accordance with the OPA level. Among 9788 participants, 890 (9.1%) suffered from insomnia. A logistic regression analysis revealed that higher levels of feeling of job loading (FoJL), rising levels of physical strength utilization rate (PSUR), greater frequency levels of occupational activities, and high-intensity LTPA were significantly correlated with an increased risk of insomnia, while execution of LTPA and getting enough rest after LTPA was correlated with a decreased risk. However, the subgroup analysis showed that high-intensity LTPA was correlated with a significantly increased the risk in the group with high OPA, but this did not apply to the group with low OPA. Although the risk of suffering from insomnia was overall significantly higher in the high OPA group, the risk was significantly lower in groups getting enough rest after partaking in LTPA, regardless of the OPA level. Thus, the intensity of exercise programs pre-scribed to groups with high OPA and individuals with higher risks of suffering from insomnia, such as firefighters, police officers, and soldiers, should be considered.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Bombeiros , Atividades de Lazer , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Bombeiros/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA