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1.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 637-649, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472225

RESUMO

The insect brain is the central part of the neurosecretory system, which controls morphology, physiology, and behavior during the insect's lifecycle. Lepidoptera are holometabolous insects, and their brains develop during the larval period and metamorphosis into the adult form. As the only fully domesticated insect, the Lepidoptera silkworm Bombyx mori experienced changes in larval brain morphology and certain behaviors during the domestication process. Hormonal regulation in insects is a key factor in multiple processes. However, how juvenile hormone (JH) signals regulate brain development in Lepidoptera species, especially in the larval stage, remains elusive. We recently identified the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant 1 ( Met1) as a putative domestication gene. How artificial selection on Met1 impacts brain and behavioral domestication is another important issue addressing Darwin's theory on domestication. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Bombyx Met1 caused developmental retardation in the brain, unlike precocious pupation of the cuticle. At the whole transcriptome level, the ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) signaling and downstream pathways were overactivated in the mutant cuticle but not in the brain. Pathways related to cell proliferation and specialization processes, such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and tyrosine metabolism pathways, were suppressed in the brain. Molecular evolutionary analysis and in vitro assay identified an amino acid replacement located in a novel motif under positive selection in B. mori, which decreased transcriptional binding activity. The B. mori MET1 protein showed a changed structure and dynamic features, as well as a weakened co-expression gene network, compared with B. mandarina. Based on comparative transcriptomic analyses, we proposed a pathway downstream of JH signaling (i.e., tyrosine metabolism pathway) that likely contributed to silkworm larval brain development and domestication and highlighted the importance of the biogenic amine system in larval evolution during silkworm domestication.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica
2.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(2): e21839, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427962

RESUMO

Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that help plants resist insect attack. It can resist insect attack by inhibiting insect immune defense, and pathogens can also inhibit insect immune defense. It is speculated that the combination of flavonoids and pathogens may inhibit the immune defense and have stronger toxicity to silkworm. In this study, the combined treatment of quercetin with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) had significant negative effects on the growth and survival of silkworm compared with BmNPV group. The detoxifying enzyme activity of BmNPV group was significantly increased at 96 h, while the activity of the combined treatment group was significantly decreased with the increase of quercetin exposure time (72 or 96 h). The activity of antioxidant enzymes also showed a similar trend, that was, the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the combined treatment group also decreased significantly with the increase of quercetin exposure time, which led to the increase of reactive oxygen species content. The silkworm cells would produce lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde content was significantly increased, so that the expression of immune-related genes (the antimicrobial peptide, Toll pathway, IMD pathway, JAK-STAT pathway, and melanin genes) were decreased, leading to the damage of the immune system of silkworm. These results indicated that quercetin combined with BmNPV could inhibit the activities of protective enzymes and lead to oxidative damage to silkworm. It can also affect the immune response of the silkworm, and thus resulting in abnormal growth. This study provides the novel conclusion that quercetin accumulation will increase the susceptibility of silkworm to pathogens.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/imunologia , Bombyx/virologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I/imunologia , Nucleopoliedrovírus/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299043

RESUMO

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a pathogen that causes great economic losses in sericulture. Many genes play a role in viral infection of silkworms, but silkworm metabolism in response to BmNPV infection is unknown. We studied BmE cells infected with BmNPV. We performed liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the cytosolic extract and identified 36, 76, 138, 101, 189, and 166 different molecules at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post BmNPV infection (hpi) compared with 0 hpi. Compounds representing different areas of metabolism were increased in cells post BmNPV infection. These areas included purine metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and ABC transporters. Glycerophosphocholine (GPC), 2-hydroxyadenine (2-OH-Ade), gamma-glutamylcysteine (γ-Glu-Cys), hydroxytolbutamide, and 5-pyridoxolactone glycerophosphocholine were continuously upregulated in BmE cells post BmNPV infection by heat map analysis. Only 5-pyridoxolactone was found to strongly inhibit the proliferation of BmNPV when it was used to treat BmE cells. Fewer infected cells were detected and the level of BmNPV DNA decreased with increasing 5-pyridoxolactone in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of BmNPV genes ie1, helicase, GP64, and VP39 in BmE cells treated with 5-pyridoxolactone were strongly inhibited in the BmNPV infection stage. This suggested that 5-pyridoxolactone may suppress the entry of BmNPV. The data in this study characterize the metabolism changes in BmNPV-infected cells. Further analysis of 5-pyridoxolactone, which is a robust antiviral molecule, may increase our understanding of antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactonas/farmacologia , Metaboloma , Nucleopoliedrovírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombyx/virologia , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia
4.
Food Chem ; 362: 130231, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237653

RESUMO

The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect that can be used as food in many countries in Asia. However, silkworms and their metabolites are an important source of allergens, which can induce severe allergic reactions. So far, there are no systematic studies on the potential allergens in silkworm and its metabolites. These studies have important guiding significance for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of silkworm allergy. The aim of this study was to identify the potential allergens from larva, pupa, moth, silk, slough and feces of silkworm and analyze the sequence homology of silkworm allergens with other allergens identified in the Allergenonline database. We have found 45 potential allergens in silkworm. The results of the homology comparison suggested that silkworm allergens likely cross-react with those of Dermatophagoides farinae, Aedes aegypti, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Triticum aestivum and Malassezia furfur.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Bombyx/química , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Ásia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reações Cruzadas , Fezes/química , Hipersensibilidade , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/química , Mariposas/química , Pupa/química , Seda/química
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 522-529, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119553

RESUMO

Sericin, as the main component of silkworm cocoon silk, surrounds and protects the silk fibroin. Sericin is a natural macromolecular protein complex encoded by the genes Ser1, Ser2, and Ser3. At present, there are no available antibodies against sericin that may be used to identify and locate it at the protein level, hindering the study of its secretion mechanism and materials application. Therefore, the development of effective antibodies against sericin is an urgent necessity. To address this problem, we prepared polyclonal antibodies against the Ser1, Ser2 and Ser3 proteins using synthesized peptides for the first time. The specificity of the antibodies was confirmed using dot blot, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry on the hybrid bands of the middle silk gland. The immunoblotting results of anti-sericin antibodies showed that sericin has different molecular weights in different regions of the middle silk gland and strains in the 5th instar. Through immunohistochemistry, anti-sericin antibodies revealed that sericin presented different distributions in the anterior part of the middle silk gland of 872 strain at the 7th day of 5th instar. In addition, the prepared antibodies not only detected intact sericin molecules, but also detected degraded sericin that was dissolved in five different solvents. In summary, this work prepared effective sericin antibodies for silk protein synthesis and secretion research and provides a possible molecular detection method for biological products containing silkworm sericin.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/análise , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peptídeos/imunologia , Sericinas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Bombyx/imunologia , Bombyx/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Família Multigênica , Peptídeos/genética , Sericinas/genética , Sericinas/imunologia , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 151: 112117, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722604

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated silk fibroin protein's (SF) ability to extend the shelf life of foods by mitigating the hallmarks of spoilage, namely oxidation and dehydration. Due to the potential for this protein to become more widespread, its safety was evaluated comprehensively. First, a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) was conducted in five bacterial strains. Second, an in vivo erythrocyte test was conducted with Sprague Dawley rats at doses up to 1,000mg/kg-bw/day. Third, a range-finder study was conducted with Sprague Dawley rats at the highest consumption amount given solubility and oral gavage volume constrains (500mg/kg-bw/day). Fourth, a 28-day sub-chronic study in Sprague Dawley rats was conducted with the high dose set at 500mg/kg-bw/day, as limited by solubility of the protein in a single-gavage per-day study. Fifth, an in vitro pepsin digestion assay was performed to assess the potential for protein allergenicity. Sixth, allergenic potential was further assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy for detection of allergenic insect proteins. Seventh, the SF protein sequences were subjected to bioinformatic analyses. Together, these studies raise no mutagenic, genotoxic, toxicological, or allergenic concerns with the oral consumption of silk fibroin.


Assuntos
Bombyx/metabolismo , Fibroínas/toxicidade , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Fibroínas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 107(1): e21774, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690914

RESUMO

The expression levels of some intrinsic genes, protease activity, and regulation of signaling pathways were distinct during different growth and development stages in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The silkworm mutant mini was discovered from the normal silkworm strain S8V, and the body-size of the mini mutant was smaller than the wild-type from the second-instar and the difference became more significant in the following stages. In this study, genetic analysis of mini mutant showed that mini mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene, manifested as homozygous lethal. Then, the transcriptome analysis of the mini mutant indicated that 2944 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from the silkworm in the 48 h of the second-instar, of which 1638 genes in the mini mutants were upregulated and 1306 genes were downregulated. These DEGs were mainly distributed in the biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. The functional annotation based on the KEGG database showed that these genes were mainly clustered in metabolic pathways, fatty acid metabolism pathways, ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, and so on. Further analysis indicated that some genes involved in the growth and metabolism including enzyme genes, juvenile hormone, and ecdysone exhibited different transcriptional levels. These results provided new experimental evidence regarding the mechanism of the underlying formation of mini mutants.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Mutação , Transcriptoma , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764365

RESUMO

Lactic acid is widely used in the food, drugs, cosmetics, and other industries to maintain the microbial stability of low-pH products. However, it is unclear whether lactic acid can affect silkworm (Bombyx mori) growth and reproduction. This study investigated the effects of lactic acid on the growth and reproduction of the silkworm. We analyzed the growth, cocoon quality, and reproductive performance of fifth instar larvae fed on mulberry leaves saturated with different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10%) of lactic acid and the control. Results showed that 0.01, 0.1, and 1% lactic acid supplementation positively affects growth and female cocoon quality, with increased larval weight and female cocoon shell weight compared to the control group. In contrast, 10% lactic acid was toxic to the larvae and significantly decreased growth, leading to larval death. Our study provides a basic reference for the optimal amount of preservatives. In addition, this study can be a desirable intervention for sericulturists and can play an important role in getting high return from silkworm-rearing activities.


Assuntos
Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Láctico , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fertilidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672402

RESUMO

In insects, sex determination pathways involve three levels of master regulators: primary signals, which determine the sex; executors, which control sex-specific differentiation of tissues and organs; and transducers, which link the primary signals to the executors. The primary signals differ widely among insect species. In Diptera alone, several unrelated primary sex determiners have been identified. However, the doublesex (dsx) gene is highly conserved as the executor component across multiple insect orders. The transducer level shows an intermediate level of conservation. In many, but not all examined insects, a key transducer role is performed by transformer (tra), which controls sex-specific splicing of dsx. In Lepidoptera, studies of sex determination have focused on the lepidopteran model species Bombyx mori (the silkworm). In B. mori, the primary signal of sex determination cascade starts from Fem, a female-specific PIWI-interacting RNA, and its targeting gene Masc, which is apparently specific to and conserved among Lepidoptera. Tra has not been found in Lepidoptera. Instead, the B. mori PSI protein binds directly to dsx pre-mRNA and regulates its alternative splicing to produce male- and female-specific transcripts. Despite this basic understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination, the links among the primary signals, transducers and executors remain largely unknown in Lepidoptera. In this review, we focus on the latest findings regarding the functions and working mechanisms of genes involved in feminization and masculinization in Lepidoptera and discuss directions for future research of sex determination in the silkworm.


Assuntos
Bombyx/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Splicing de RNA/genética
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21783, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719082

RESUMO

Vitamin C (VC) is an essential nutrient for many animals. However, whether insects, including Bombyx mori, can synthesize VC remains unclear. In this article, the optimized HPLC method was used to determine the content of l-ascorbic acid (AsA) in silkworm eggs, larvae and pupae, and the activity of l-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidase (GULO), a key enzyme in VC synthesis. The RNA interference method was used to determine the effect of the BmGulo-like gene on embryonic development and GULO activity in the pupal fat body. The AsA content increased significantly during E144 h-E168 h in the late embryonic stage and P48 h-P144 h in the middle-late pupal stage, in which exogenous VC was not ingested. Furthermore, the body AsA content in larvae fed VC-free feed also increased with larval stage. The GULO enzymatic activity was present in eggs and the fat bodies of larvae and pupae, even when the larvae were reared with fresh mulberry leaves. Moreover, the activity was higher in the later embryonic stages (E144 h-E168 h) and the early pupal stage (before P24 h). The GULO activity in the pupal fat body dramatically decreased when the screened BmGulo-like gene (BGIBMGA005735) was knocked down with small interfering RNA; in addition, the survival rate and hatching rate of eggs significantly decreased 21% and 44%, respectively, and embryonic development was delayed. Thus, Bombyx mori can synthesize AsA through the l-gulose pathway, albeit with low activity, and this synthesis ability varies with developmental stages.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Bombyx/metabolismo , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hexoses/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo
11.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 39, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a critical transcription factor for juvenile hormone (JH) signaling, known to play a key role in regulating metamorphosis and adult reproduction in insects. Kr-h1 can also be induced by molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), however, the underlying mechanism of 20E-induced Kr-h1 expression remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Kr-h1 induction by 20E in the reproductive system of a model lepidopteran insect, Bombyx mori. RESULTS: Developmental and tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that BmKr-h1 was highly expressed in ovaries during the late pupal and adult stages and the expression was induced by 20E. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of BmKr-h1 in female pupae severely repressed the transcription of vitellogenin receptor (VgR), resulting in the reduction in vitellogenin (Vg) deposition in oocytes. BmKr-h1 specifically bound the Kr-h1 binding site (KBS) between - 2818 and - 2805 nt upstream of BmVgR and enhanced the transcription of BmVgR. A 20E cis-regulatory element (CRE) was identified in the promoter of BmKr-h1 and functionally verified using luciferase reporter assay, EMSA and DNA-ChIP. Using pull-down assays, we identified a novel transcription factor B. mori Kr-h1 regulatory protein (BmKRP) that specifically bound the BmKr-h1 CRE and activated its transcription. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of BmKRP in female pupae suppressed the transcription of BmKr-h1 and BmVgR, resulting in arrested oogenesis. CONCLUSION: We identified BmKRP as a new transcription factor mediating 20E regulation of B. mori oogenesis. Our data suggests that induction of BmKRP by 20E regulates BmKr-h1 expression, which in turn induces BmVgR expression to facilitate Vg uptake and oogenesis.


Assuntos
Bombyx/fisiologia , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Oócitos/fisiologia , Oogênese/genética , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia
12.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(2): e21762, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415772

RESUMO

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is one of primary silkworm pathogens and causes a serious damage of cocoon losses every year. Recent years, many works have been done to clarify the silkworm anti-BmNPV mechanism, and a significant progress has been made in screening and studying of genes and proteins related to BmNPV infection, but several of them lacked the proofs in vivo. In this study, to further validate the function of seven newly reported genes in vivo, including BmAtlatin-n, Bmferritin-heavy chain (BmFerHCH), Bmthymosin (BmTHY), Bmseroin1, Bmseroin2, Bmnuclear hormone receptors 96 (BmNHR96), and BmE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SINA-like 10 (BmSINAL10), the response of them in the midgut, fat body, and hemolymph of differentially resistant strains (resistant strain YeA and susceptible strain YeB) at 48 h following BmNPV infection were analyzed. The results showed that the relative stable or upregulated expression level of BmAtlatin-n, BmTHY, Bmseroin1, and Bmseroin2 in YeA resistant strain following BmNPV infection further indicated their antiviral role in vivo, compared with susceptible YeB strain. Moreover, the significant downregulation of BmFerHCH, BmNHR96, and BmSINAL10 in both strains following BmNPV infection revealed their role in benefiting virus infection, as well as the upregulation of BmFerHCH in YeB midgut and BmSINAL10 in YeB hemolymph. These data could be used to complementary the proofs of the function of these genes in response to BmNPV infection.


Assuntos
Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/virologia , Genes de Insetos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/virologia
13.
Insect Sci ; 28(1): 47-62, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283000

RESUMO

Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a zinc finger transcription factor, is involved in the metamorphosis and adult reproduction of insects. However, the role of Kr-h1 in reproduction of holometabolic insects remains to be elucidated. The regulation network of Kr-h1-associated genes in the reproduction in Bombyx mori was investigated in this study. The higher expression level of BmKr-h1 in the ovaries was detected during the late pupal stage and adults. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of BmKr-h1 in the female at day 6 of pupae resulted in abnormal oocytes at 48 h post-double-stranded RNA treatment, which showed less yolk protein deposition and partially transparent chorion. RNA-seq and subsequent differentially expressed transcripts analysis showed that knockdown of BmKr-h1 caused a decrease in the expression of 2882 genes and an increase in the expression of 2565 genes in the oocytes at day 8 of pupae. Totally, 27 genes coding for transcription factors were down-regulated, while six genes coding for other transcription factors were up-regulated. BmKr-h1 bound to the Kr-h1 binding site of the transcription factors AP-1 (activating protein-1) and FOXG1 to increase their messenger RNA transcripts in the BmN cells, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses of that positively co-expressed with AP-1 and FOXG1 transcripts showed mainly enrichment in the metabolic-related pathways, the nutrient absorption and the yolk protein absorption processes. These data suggested that BmKr-h1 might directly regulate the metabolic-related pathways, the nutrient absorption and the yolk protein absorption processes or probably through AP-1 and /or FOXG1 to regulate oocyte development.


Assuntos
Bombyx/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo
14.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(2): e21761, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225529

RESUMO

Bombyx mori latent virus (BmLV) is a positive, single-stranded insect RNA virus closely related to plant maculaviruses. BmLV was first isolated from Bombyx mori ovary-derived cell line BmN-4, and this virus has already infected most B. mori-derived cultured cell lines. We previously reported that small interfering RNA (siRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathways function cooperatively to maintain the amount of BmLV RNA for normal BmN-4 cell growth. On the other hand, BmLV does not propagate in B. mori larvae. Here we conducted BmLV injection into the larval body cavities of B. mori, and examined BmLV accumulation in larval ovaries where siRNA and piRNA pathways are both active, to investigate whether this in vivo resistance is governed by small RNA pathways. Expression levels of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, coat protein, and p15 genes in BmLV-injected larval ovaries were extremely low compared with those in B. mori cultured cells, indicating that B. mori larval ovaries are more resistant to BmLV than B. mori cultured cells. We also sequenced small RNAs prepared from BmLV-injected larval ovaries and mapped them onto the BmLV genome. Although their amounts were very small, we were able to detect BmLV-derived small RNAs in the ovaries. According to their length distribution and nucleotide bias, they were likely to be siRNAs and piRNAs. These results suggest that B. mori ovaries can potentially produce small RNAs against BmLV, but the resistance of larval ovaries against BmLV is not dependent on RNA silencing pathways.


Assuntos
Bombyx/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Tymoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/virologia , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/imunologia , Larva/virologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovário/metabolismo
15.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322530

RESUMO

Insect adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are short peptides produced in the corpora cardiaca and are responsible for mobilizing energy stores from the fat body to the hemolymph. Three related peptides, AKH1, AKH2, and AKH/corazonin-related peptide (ACP) as well as three AKH receptors have been reported in Bombyx mori. AKH1 and AKH2 are specific for the AKHR1 receptor, whereas ACP interacts with the other two AKHRs. To assess the effect of the two silkworm AKHs and ACP in the regulation of energy homeostasis we examined the expression pattern of the three peptides and their receptors as well as their effect on the level of carbohydrates and lipids in the hemolymph. Our results support the hypothesis that only AKH1 and AKH2 peptides together with the AKHR1 receptor are involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Because Bombyx AKHR1 (BmAKHR1) seems to be a true AKHR we generated its mutation. The BmAKHR1 mutant larvae display significantly lower carbohydrate and lipid levels in the hemolymph and reduced sensitivity to starvation. Our study clarifies the role of BmAKHR1 in energy homeostasis.


Assuntos
Bombyx/metabolismo , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/análogos & derivados , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carboidratos/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hormônios de Inseto/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Mutagênese , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucagon/genética , Receptores de Glucagon/metabolismo
16.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 127: 103494, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132139

RESUMO

Sucrose-hydrolyzing enzymes are largely divided into ß-fructofuranosidase and sucrose α-glucosidase. The domestic silkworm Bombyx mori possesses both enzymes, BmSUC1 and BmSUH, belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 32 (GH32) and GH13, respectively. BmSUC1 was presumed to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria based on phylogenetic analysis and related to tolerance to sugar-mimic alkaloids contained in mulberry latex. Here we investigated the substrate specificity of recombinant BmSUC1 that can hydrolyze not only sucrose but also fructooligosaccharides and fructans, and revealed that the enzyme was competitively inhibited by 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol, one of the alkaloids. Moreover, the crystal structures of BmSUC1 in apo form and complex with sucrose were determined, and the active site pocket was shallow and suitable for shorter substrates but was related to more relaxed substrate specificity than the strict sucrose α-glucosidase BmSUH. Considering together with the distribution of BmSUC1-orthologous genes in many lepidopterans, our results suggest that BmSUC1 contributes to the digestion of fructooligosaccharides and fructans derived from feed plants.


Assuntos
Bombyx/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/classificação , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/classificação , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato , beta-Frutofuranosidase/química , beta-Frutofuranosidase/classificação , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
17.
J Insect Sci ; 20(6)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159528

RESUMO

Quercetin is a flavonoid produced as a defense by plants. The effects of 1% quercetin on the growth and development of Bombyx mori were studied. The activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), carboxy-lesterase (CarEs), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were all measured at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after quercetin exposure. The results show that quercetin induces the activities of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. With longer exposure times, enzyme activity first increased and then decreased. The relative expressions of AMP (defensin, CecA), the Toll pathway (cactus, Spatzle, and Rel), the IMD pathway (Imd, Fadd, and Dorsal), the JAK-STAT pathway (STAT, HOP, and Pi3k60), and the Melanization gene (DDC and PAH) were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that long-term exposure to quercetin could inhibit the expression of immune-related pathway genes in silkworms. This suggests that it can inhibit the activities of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, thus inhibiting the immune system and affecting the growth and development, resulting in an increase in the death rate in silkworm. This study provides the novel conclusion that quercetin accumulation inhibits the immune system of silkworm and increases its death rate, a result that may promote the development and utilization of better biopesticides that avoid environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/genética , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genes de Insetos/imunologia , Quercetina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombyx/enzimologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercetina/administração & dosagem
18.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 105(3): e21741, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002240

RESUMO

Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that is regulated by genes independently. The Bm30kc6 gene is a kind of small molecular lipoprotein about 30 kDa, expressed highly in the late stage of the silkworm hemolymph. Our study showed that overexpression of Bm30kc6 could decrease caspase-3 activation. Meanwhile, activation of caspase-3 increased when Bm30kc6 expression was disturbed by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Cell apoptosis was decreased when Bm30kc6 was overexpressed under UV treatment. The apoptosis rate induced by actinomycin D is similar to the trend by UV. It was inferred that Bm30kc6 has an inhibitory effect on the apoptosis of silkworm cells. The apoptosis-related genes, such as BmFadd, BmDredd, and BmDaxx were increased after overexpression of Bm30kc6 or decreased after interference of siRNA. It was speculated that there was an interactive relationship between Bm30kc6, BmDaxx, BmFadd, and BmDredd in the apoptosis signaling pathways. We investigated the transcription expression of the Bm30kc6 gene in different growth stages and tissues of the silkworm. The results showed that Bm30kc6 reached its peak in the hemolymph during the 6th to 7th days of the 5th instar, or in spinning post 24 h of the silk gland. In the silkworm BmN cells treated with caspase-3/7 inhibitor, the caspase-3 enzyme activity, and the expression levels of Bm30kc6, BmFadd, BmDredd, and BmDaxx were significantly reduced. The expression levels of Bm30kc6 increased sharply when silkworms were treated by molting hormone at Day 3 or 5 of the 5th instar. The results indicated that the expression of the Bm30kc6 gene was affected by the molting hormone and was likely to be its downstream target. In conclusion, the results suggest that the Bm30kc6 gene is involved in the regulation of the apoptotic signaling pathway and plays a role in the apoptotic process.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/genética , Animais , Bombyx/metabolismo , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Inibidores de Caspase/farmacologia , Dactinomicina/farmacologia , Ecdisona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transdução de Sinais , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 13(1): 34, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation, as an essential epigenetic modification found in mammals and plants, has been implicated to play an important role in insect reproduction. However, the functional role and the regulatory mechanism of DNA methylation during insect organ or tissue development are far from being clear. RESULTS: Here, we found that DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-dC) treatment in newly molted pupae decreased the chitin content of pupal wing discs and adult wings and resulted in wing deformity of Bombyx mori. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the up-regulation of chitinase 10 (BmCHT10) gene might be related to the decrease of chitin content induced by 5-aza-dC treatment. Further, the luciferase activity assays demonstrated that DNA methylation suppressed the promoter activity of BmCHT10 by down-regulating the transcription factor, homeobox protein araucan (Bmara). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, DNA pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Bmara directly bound to the BmCHT10 promoter. Therefore, DNA methylation is involved in keeping the structural integrity of the silkworm wings from unwanted chitin degradation, as a consequence, it promotes the wing development of B. mori. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that DNA methylation plays an important role in the wing development of B. mori. Our results support that the indirect transcriptional repression of a chitin degradation-related gene BmCHT10 by DNA methylation is necessary to keep the proper wing development in B. mori.


Assuntos
Bombyx/genética , Quitinases/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteólise , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
20.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000828, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936797

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects are mono- or oligophagous, having evolved to select a limited range of host plants. They specifically identify host-plant leaves using their keen sense of taste. Plant secondary metabolites and sugars are thought to be key chemical cues that enable insects to identify host plants and evaluate their quality as food. However, the neuronal and behavioral mechanisms of host-plant recognition are poorly understood. Here, we report a two-factor host acceptance system in larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori, a specialist on several mulberry species. The first step is controlled by a chemosensory organ, the maxillary palp (MP). During palpation at the leaf edge, the MP detects trace amounts of leaf-surface compounds, which enables host-plant recognition without biting. Chemosensory neurons in the MP are tuned with ultrahigh sensitivity (thresholds of attomolar to femtomolar) to chlorogenic acid (CGA), quercetin glycosides, and ß-sitosterol (ßsito). Only if these 3 compounds are detected does the larva make a test bite, which is evaluated in the second step. Low-sensitivity neurons in another chemosensory organ, the maxillary galea (MG), mainly detect sucrose in the leaf sap exuded by test biting, allowing larvae to accept the leaf and proceed to persistent biting (feeding). The two-factor host acceptance system reported here may commonly underlie stereotyped feeding behavior in many phytophagous insects and determine their feeding habits.


Assuntos
Bombyx/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bombyx/anatomia & histologia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/citologia , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia
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