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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249008, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355893

RESUMO

Abstract Horismenus camobiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described based on morphological, molecular and ecological data; this new species of chalcid wasp acts as hyperparasitoid of Opsiphanis invirae (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in its parasitoid Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto and Whitfield, 2019 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Diagnoses with morphological and molecular characters and illustrations are provided.


Resumo Horismenus camobiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) é descrita com base em dados morfológicos, moleculares e ecológicos; esta nova espécie Chalcididae atua como hiperparasitoide de Opsiphanis invirae (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) em pupas de seu parasitoide Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto and Whitfield, 2019 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Caracteres diagnósticos morfológicos e moleculares e ilustrações de H. camobiensis são fornecidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Vespas , Borboletas , Himenópteros , Pupa
2.
Genome Res ; 33(1): 32-44, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617663

RESUMO

Homeobox genes encode transcription factors with essential roles in patterning and cell fate in developing animal embryos. Many homeobox genes, including Hox and NK genes, are arranged in gene clusters, a feature likely related to transcriptional control. Sparse taxon sampling and fragmentary genome assemblies mean that little is known about the dynamics of homeobox gene evolution across Lepidoptera or about how changes in homeobox gene number and organization relate to diversity in this large order of insects. Here we analyze an extensive data set of high-quality genomes to characterize the number and organization of all homeobox genes in 123 species of Lepidoptera from 23 taxonomic families. We find most Lepidoptera have around 100 homeobox loci, including an unusual Hox gene cluster in which the lab gene is repositioned and the ro gene is next to pb A topologically associating domain spans much of the gene cluster, suggesting deep regulatory conservation of the Hox cluster arrangement in this insect order. Most Lepidoptera have four Shx genes, divergent zen-derived loci, but these loci underwent dramatic duplication in several lineages, with some moths having over 165 homeobox loci in the Hox gene cluster; this expansion is associated with local LINE element density. In contrast, the NK gene cluster content is more stable, although there are differences in organization compared with other insects, as well as major rearrangements within butterflies. Our analysis represents the first description of homeobox gene content across the order Lepidoptera, exemplifying the potential of newly generated genome assemblies for understanding genome and gene family evolution.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Genes Homeobox , Animais , Filogenia , Família Multigênica , Genômica , Evolução Molecular
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20222068, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651049

RESUMO

In a variety of aposematic species, the conspicuousness of an individual's warning signal and the quantity of its chemical defence are positively correlated. This apparent honest signalling is predicted by resource competition models which assume that the production and maintenance of aposematic defences compete for access to antioxidant molecules that have dual functions as pigments and in protecting against oxidative damage. To test for such trade-offs, we raised monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) on different species of their milkweed host plants (Apocynaceae) that vary in quantities of cardenolides to test whether (i) the sequestration of cardenolides as a secondary defence is associated with costs in the form of oxidative lipid damage and reduced antioxidant defences; and (ii) lower oxidative state is associated with a reduced capacity to produce aposematic displays. In male monarchs conspicuousness was explained by an interaction between oxidative damage and sequestration: males with high levels of oxidative damage became less conspicuous with increased sequestration of cardenolides, whereas those with low oxidative damage became more conspicuous with increased levels of cardenolides. There was no significant effect of oxidative damage or concentration of sequestered cardenolides on female conspicuousness. Our results demonstrate a physiological linkage between the production of coloration and oxidative state, and differential costs of sequestration and signalling in monarch butterflies.


Assuntos
Asclepias , Borboletas , Toxinas Biológicas , Animais , Masculino , Borboletas/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Antioxidantes , Asclepias/química , Cardenolídeos , Estresse Oxidativo
4.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688789

RESUMO

This study was conducted with a perception that fructose-rich niches may inhabit novel species of lactic acid bacteria that are gaining importance as probiotics and for the production of exopolysaccharides that have applications in food and pharmaceuticals. Recently, some Lactobacillus species have been reclassified as fructophilic lactic acid bacteria due to their preference for fructose over glucose as a carbon source. These bacteria are likely to be found in fructose rich niches such as flower nectar and insects that feed on it. We explored the butterfly gut and acquired a new isolate, designated as F1, of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria, which produces a glucan-type exopolysaccharide. Whole genome sequencing and in silico analysis revealed that F1 has significantly lower average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA hybridization values as compared to its closest Apilactobacillus neighbors in phylogenetic analysis. Therefore, we declare the isolate F1 as a novel Apilactobacillus species with the proposed name of Apilactobacillus iqraium F1. Genome mining further revealed that F1 harbors genes for exopolysaccharide synthesis and health-promoting attributes. To this end, F1 is the only Apilactobacillus species harboring three diverse α-glucan-synthesis genes that cluster with different types of dextransucrases in the dendrogram. Moreover, many nutritional marker genes, as well as genes for epithelial cell adhesion and antimicrobial synthesis, were also detected suggesting the probiotic attributes of F1. Overall analysis suggests A. iqraium sp. F1 be a potential candidate for various health beneficial and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Lactobacillales , Probióticos , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Borboletas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Lactobacillales/genética , Frutose/metabolismo , Probióticos/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , DNA
5.
Chromosome Res ; 31(1): 2, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662301

RESUMO

Karyotypes are generally conserved between closely related species and large chromosome rearrangements typically have negative fitness consequences in heterozygotes, potentially driving speciation. In the order Lepidoptera, most investigated species have the ancestral karyotype and gene synteny is often conserved across deep divergence, although examples of extensive genome reshuffling have recently been demonstrated. The genus Leptidea has an unusual level of chromosome variation and rearranged sex chromosomes, but the extent of restructuring across the rest of the genome is so far unknown. To explore the genomes of the wood white (Leptidea) species complex, we generated eight genome assemblies using a combination of 10X linked reads and HiC data, and improved them using linkage maps for two populations of the common wood white (L. sinapis) with distinct karyotypes. Synteny analysis revealed an extensive amount of rearrangements, both compared to the ancestral karyotype and between the Leptidea species, where only one of the three Z chromosomes was conserved across all comparisons. Most restructuring was explained by fissions and fusions, while translocations appear relatively rare. We further detected several examples of segregating rearrangement polymorphisms supporting a highly dynamic genome evolution in this clade. Fusion breakpoints were enriched for LINEs and LTR elements, which suggests that ectopic recombination might be an important driver in the formation of new chromosomes. Our results show that chromosome count alone may conceal the extent of genome restructuring and we propose that the amount of genome evolution in Lepidoptera might still be underestimated due to lack of taxonomic sampling.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Madeira , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma , Sintenia , Cromossomos Sexuais , Evolução Molecular
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2203724120, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577073

RESUMO

Multitrait adaptive evolution is shaped by factors such as phylogenetic and functional constraints as well as the intensity and direction of selection. The tempo and mode of such multitrait evolution can differentially impact the assembly of biological communities. Batesian mimicry, in which undefended prey gain a fitness advantage by evolving a resemblance to aposematic models, involves adaptive evolution of multiple traits such as color patterns and flight morphology. To elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms of such multitrait adaptations, we evaluated the tempo and mode of adaptive convergence in flight morphology and color patterns in mimetic butterfly communities. We found that compared with Batesian mimics or nonmimetic sister species, models showed significantly faster rates of aposematic trait evolution, creating adaptive peaks for mimicry. At the community level, the degree of mimetic resemblance between mimics and models was positively correlated with the rate of character evolution, but independent of phylogenetic relatedness. Monomorphic mimics and female-limited mimics converged on the color patterns of models to a similar degree, showing that there were no constraints on mimetic trait evolution with respect to sex-specific selections. Convergence was driven by the greater lability of color patterns, which evolved at significantly faster rates than the phylogenetically conserved flight morphological traits, indicating that the two traits evolve under differential selection pressures and/or functional and genetic constraints. These community-wide patterns show that during the assembly of a community, the tempo of adaptive evolution is nonlinear, and specific to the underlying functional relationships and key traits that define the community.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/genética , Biota , Excipientes , Comportamento Predatório
8.
Neotrop Entomol ; 51(1): 32-42, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546551

RESUMO

Understanding the association pattern and foraging behaviour of flower visitors is crucial to determine their role in the interaction with plants. To analyse the insect flower visitor association as well as their foraging profile on Aegialitis rotundifolia Roxb.-a near threatened mangrove plant, present study has been conducted among four islands of Indian Sundarban for three consecutive years. Results using first three Hill numbers depicted that, the species richness and Shannon and Simpson diversity of flower visitors were higher among the islands situated far from the sea than the islands neighbouring to the sea. NMDS analysis showed moderately ordinate data structure for island-year-based flower visitor association. Furthermore, network analysis for island-based visitor assemblage showed a significantly generalised network with no specialisation among islands. Five abundant visitors were further analysed for foraging profile, where the highest foraging rate was shown by Apis dorsata Fabricius, 1793 and the highest handling time was shown by Micraspis discolor (Fabricius, 1798). Moreover, all the visitors except M. discolor showed a significant variation in their foraging rate among different time frames. Furthermore, only M. discolor showed significant variation in their foraging behaviour when compared individually with each visitor in all the time frames. Present findings conclude that, flower visitors showed a generalised assemblage pattern among islands. Both honey bees provided excellent foraging on this plant and butterflies were good foragers too. Therefore, to device conservation strategies for this plant, protection of flower visitors must be of paramount concern.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Polinização , Animais , Abelhas , Flores , Insetos , Plantas
9.
J Therm Biol ; 110: 103374, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462869

RESUMO

Monarch butterflies in North America have an exceptionally large breeding distribution, occupying regions west of the Rocky Mountains and throughout the eastern seaboard. An experimental study conducted 17 years ago and published in this journal appeared to show that western monarch larvae tend to have smaller black stripes than those from eastern parents, which at the time was thought to be an adaptation to higher solar exposure in California. Here, we revisit this question by measuring melanism of eastern and western larvae from online photographs submitted to iNaturalist by members of the public. We downloaded over 500 photos of larvae from 10 different states (4 in the west, 6 in the east) and used image analysis to quantify the size of each larva's black stripes (% of surface covered by black). We compared average melanism level between east and west, while also accounting for temperature (at the photo location), seasonal effects, and latitude. Results showed larvae tended to be darker with lower development temperatures, and later in the season, though there was no significant difference between eastern and western larvae in their degree of melanism. It is not yet clear why findings here were different from the prior experimental study. Also, the wild larvae appeared to be notably lighter in color than the captive-reared larvae of the original study, suggesting that the captive environment does not truly replicate the developmental experience of wild larvae, at least in terms of cuticular development. Thus, if there truly are innate tendencies for western larvae to differ (morphologically) from eastern, they are not observable in nature.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Melanose , Animais , Larva , América do Norte , Aclimatação
10.
J Biosci ; 472022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550690

RESUMO

Long-term socioeconomic progress requires a healthy environment/ecosystem, but anthropogenic activities cause environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. Constant ecological monitoring is, therefore, necessary to assess the state of biodiversity and ecological health. However, baseline data are lacking even for ecologically sensitive regions such as the Western Ghats. We looked at the seasonality and polyphenism of butterflies of the central Western Ghats to obtain baseline population patterns on these charismatic taxa. We recorded 43118 individuals (175 species) using fortnightly time-constrained counts for two consecutive years and found the peak abundance (49% of the total individuals) in the post-monsoon period (October to January). Seasonal abundance was correlated with the overall increase in species richness. Habitat differences were stronger than seasonality as samples clustered based on sites. Several species also displayed polyphenism with distinct distributions of wet and dry season forms. Seasonal equitability and indicator species analysis showed distinct inter-species differences in seasonality patterns. This work provides key baseline data on the seasonal dynamics of butterflies of the Western Ghats in the context of climate change and conservation. It will help monitor this ecologically sensitive region using butterflies.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Ecossistema , Humanos , Animais , Estações do Ano , Biodiversidade , Índia
11.
Brain Nerve ; 74(12): 1399-1401, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503143

RESUMO

The Diving Bell and the Butterfly is a movie based on the true story of an editor-in-chief, Jean-Dominique Bauby, who had locked-in syndrome due to a cerebral infarction. He made an entire story by communication with his staff using solely eye movements. The patient's real emotions to the medical staff was presented in the movie. I would highly recommend this movie, and in this article, I explain and describe locked-in syndrome and my impressions of this movie.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Síndrome do Encarceramento , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Emoções , Comunicação , Infarto Cerebral
12.
J Insect Sci ; 22(6)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508354

RESUMO

Ants provide protection to various organisms via myrmecophilous relationships. Most notably, ants and several butterfly species are involved in mainly mutualistic interactions. Previous field studies have shown that butterfly larval survival is increased in the presence of tending ants, suggesting that ants are providing protection against insect predation or parasitism. Here, we conducted a series of timed observational trials under laboratory conditions to assess larval survival and ant protection from insect predators for a myrmecophilous lycaenid butterfly. We focused on a critically endangered butterfly, the Miami blue (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) (Comstock and Huntington) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), and its most common ant associate, the Florida carpenter ant (Camponotus floridanus) (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), to test this assumption of ant protection. We found that ants provide significant protection to Miami blue larvae, with later instar larvae receiving a higher level of protection due to differences in tending frequencies. These results will aid in informing conservation management and future organism reintroductions for this endangered butterfly.


Assuntos
Formigas , Borboletas , Animais , Larva , Simbiose
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(51): e2208447119, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508662

RESUMO

Coevolutionary interactions are responsible for much of the Earth's biodiversity, with key innovations driving speciation bursts on both sides of the interaction. One persistent question is whether macroevolutionary traits identified as key innovations accurately predict functional performance and selection dynamics within species, as this necessitates characterizing their function, investigating their fitness consequences, and exploring the selection dynamics acting upon them. Here, we used CRISPR-Cas9 mediating nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in the butterfly species Pieris brassicae to knock out and directly assess the function and fitness impacts of nitrile specifier protein (NSP) and major allergen (MA). These are two closely related genes that facilitate glucosinolate (GSL) detoxification capacity, which is a key innovation in mustard feeding Pierinae butterflies. We find NSP and MA are both required for survival on plants containing GSLs, with expression differences arising in response to variable GSL profiles, concordant with detoxification performance. Importantly, this concordance was only observed when using natural host plants, likely reflecting the complexity of how these enzymes interact with natural plant variation in GSLs and myrosinases. Finally, signatures of positive selection for NSP and MA were detected across Pieris species, consistent with these genes' importance in recent coevolutionary interactions. Thus, the war between these butterflies and their host plants involves more than the mere presence of chemical defenses and detoxification mechanisms, as their regulation and activation represent key components of complex interactions. We find that inclusion of these dynamics, in ecologically relevant assays, is necessary for coevolutionary insights in this system and likely others.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7611, 2022 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509742

RESUMO

Climate and land-use changes are main drivers of insect declines, but their combined effects have not yet been quantified over large spatiotemporal scales. We analysed changes in the distribution (mean occupancy of squares) of 390 insect species (butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies), using 1.45 million records from across bioclimatic gradients of Switzerland between 1980 and 2020. We found no overall decline, but strong increases and decreases in the distributions of different species. For species that showed strongest increases (25% quantile), the average proportion of occupied squares increased in 40 years by 0.128 (95% credible interval: 0.123-0.132), which equals an average increase in mean occupancy of 71.3% (95% CI: 67.4-75.1%) relative to their 40-year mean occupancy. For species that showed strongest declines (25% quantile), the average proportion decreased by 0.0660 (95% CI: 0.0613-0.0709), equalling an average decrease in mean occupancy of 58.3% (95% CI: 52.2-64.4%). Decreases were strongest for narrow-ranged, specialised, and cold-adapted species. Short-term distribution changes were associated to both climate changes and regional land-use changes. Moreover, interactive effects between climate and regional land-use changes confirm that the various drivers of global change can have even greater impacts on biodiversity in combination than alone. In contrast, 40-year distribution changes were not clearly related to regional land-use changes, potentially reflecting mixed changes in local land use after 1980. Climate warming however was strongly linked to 40-year changes, indicating its key role in driving insect trends of temperate regions in recent decades.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Odonatos , Animais , Aves , Mudança Climática , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema
16.
J Insect Sci ; 22(6)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562324

RESUMO

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use bright orange coloration to warn off predators as well as for sexual selection. Surprisingly the underlying pigment compounds have not been previously characterized. We used LCMS and fragmentation MS (including MSMS and MSn) of extracted pigments from nonmigratory summer-generation female monarch forewings to identify and provide relative quantitation of various orange pigments from D. plexippus. We observed seven ommochrome pigments, with xanthommatin and decarboxylated xanthommatin being the most abundant followed by xanthommatin methyl ester. Among the seven pigments, we also observed molecules that correspond to deaminated forms of these three amine-containing pigments. To the best of our knowledge, these deaminated compounds have not been previously discovered. A seventh pigment that we observed was α-hydroxyxanthommatin methyl ester, previously described in other nymphalid butterflies. We also show that chemical reduction of pigment extracts results in a change of their color from yellow to red, concomitant with the appearance of dihydro-xanthommatin and similarly reduced forms of the other pigment compounds. These findings indicate that monarchs may employ differences in the redox states of these pigments in order to achieve different hues of orange.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Feminino , Animais , Fenotiazinas , Asas de Animais , Estações do Ano
17.
J Vis Exp ; (188)2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373905

RESUMO

Global insect declines continue to accelerate. Effective genetic sampling is critically needed to advance the understanding of many taxa and address existing knowledge gaps. This protocol represents a demonstrated method for nondestructively sampling rare butterflies for population genetic structure or DNA barcoding analyses. It uses the chorion of hatched butterfly ovae to yield sufficiently high quantity and quality DNA for successful gene sequencing to confirm species identity and quantify genetic variation. It may be particularly useful when other tissue sampling techniques are impractical or unavailable. While developed for a lepidopteran, it nonetheless could easily be adapted for use with other insect species. It was specifically designed with ease of use as a goal to help maximize broad implementation by individuals of varying experience and skill levels, such as community scientists, conservation practitioners, and students, and for use over large geographic areas to facilitate broad population sampling. The data generated can help inform taxonomic and listing decisions, conservation and management actions, and enhance basic ecological research.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Humanos , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Dinâmica Populacional
18.
Neotrop Entomol ; 51(6): 840-859, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378478

RESUMO

A comparative analysis of high-Andean Pierina was carried out, including a total of 25 species. Based on morphological evidence, with an emphasis on venation and genitalia and molecular data, using three genetic markers, we confirm the recent subjective synonymy of the generic names Tatochila Butler, 1870, Piercolias, Staudinger, 1894, Hypsochila Ureta, 1955, Infraphulia Field, 1958, Pierphulia Field, 1958, and Theochila Field, 1958 with Phulia Herrich-Schäffer, 1867. Two new species are described, namely Phulia stoddardi Pyrcz & Cerdeña n. sp., from the Andes of Central Peru, which occurs at an unusually high altitude of close to 5000 m a.s.l. in dry puna habitat, and Phulia phantasma Lamas, Willmott & Boyer n. sp., from dry montane forests in northern Peru and southern Ecuador. An overview of high-elevation butterflies is presented, with some discussion on adaptations to this environment.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Ecossistema , Equador , Florestas , Peru
19.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101806, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36386873

RESUMO

Fruit flies sense the features of food that are driven by particle size, including smoothness versus grittiness, by deflection of sensilla decorating the labellum, and md-L neurons. We describe adaptation of the Drosophila proboscis extension response assay, including steps to perform the taste tests and score behavioral responses, to determine preferences to foods with different sized particles. We also describe calcium imaging in GCaMP-expressing flies to assess the responses of md-L neurons to different levels of taste sensilla deflection. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li and Montell. (2021).


Assuntos
Borboletas , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Sensilas , Alimentos
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 139, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416991

RESUMO

The success of a species in future climate change scenarios depends on its morphological, physiological, and demographic adaptive responses to changing climate. The existence of threatened species against climate adversaries is constrained due to their small population size, narrow genetic base, and narrow niche breadth. We examined if ecological niche model (ENM)-based distribution predictions of species align with their morpho-physiological and demographic responses to future climate change scenarios. We studied three threatened Ilex species, viz., Ilex khasiana Purkay., I. venulosa Hook. f., and I. embelioides Hook. F, with restricted distribution in Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Demographic analysis of the natural populations of each species in Meghalaya, India revealed an upright pyramid suggesting a stable population under the present climate scenario. I. khasiana was confined to higher elevations only while I. venulosa and I. embelioides had wider altitudinal distribution ranges. The bio-climatic niche of I. khasiana was narrow, while the other two species had relatively broader niches. The ENM-predicted potential distribution areas under the current (2022) and future (2050) climatic scenarios (General Circulation Models (GCMs): IPSL-CM5A-LR and NIMR-HADGEM2-AO) revealed that the distribution of highly suitable areas for the most climate-sensitive I. khasiana got drastically reduced. In I. venulosa and I. embelioides, there was an increase in highly suitable areas under the future scenarios. The eco-physiological studies showed marked variation among the species, sites, and treatments (p < 0.05), indicating the differential responses of the three species to varied climate scenarios, but followed a similar trend in species performance aligning with the model predictions.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Ilex , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mudança Climática , Dinâmica Populacional
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