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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900419

RESUMO

Uncovering whether convergent adaptations share a genetic basis is consequential for understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity. This information can help us understand the extent to which shared ancestry or independent evolution shape adaptive phenotypes. In this study, we first ask whether the same genes underlie polymorphic mimicry in Papilio swallowtail butterflies. By comparing signatures of genetic variation between polymorphic and monomorphic species, we then investigate how ancestral variation, hybridization, and independent evolution contributed to wing pattern diversity in this group. We report that a single gene, doublesex (dsx), controls mimicry across multiple taxa, but with species-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium. In contrast to widespread examples of phenotypic evolution driven by introgression, our analyses reveal distinct mimicry alleles. We conclude that mimicry evolution in this group was likely facilitated by ancestral polymorphism resulting from early co-option of dsx as a mimicry locus, and that evolutionary turnover of dsx alleles may underlie the wing pattern diversity of extant polymorphic and monomorphic lineages.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Syst Biol ; 69(1): 38-60, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062850

RESUMO

Evolutionary relationships have remained unresolved in many well-studied groups, even though advances in next-generation sequencing and analysis, using approaches such as transcriptomics, anchored hybrid enrichment, or ultraconserved elements, have brought systematics to the brink of whole genome phylogenomics. Recently, it has become possible to sequence the entire genomes of numerous nonbiological models in parallel at reasonable cost, particularly with shotgun sequencing. Here, we identify orthologous coding sequences from whole-genome shotgun sequences, which we then use to investigate the relevance and power of phylogenomic relationship inference and time-calibrated tree estimation. We study an iconic group of butterflies-swallowtails of the family Papilionidae-that has remained phylogenetically unresolved, with continued debate about the timing of their diversification. Low-coverage whole genomes were obtained using Illumina shotgun sequencing for all genera. Genome assembly coupled to BLAST-based orthology searches allowed extraction of 6621 orthologous protein-coding genes for 45 Papilionidae species and 16 outgroup species (with 32% missing data after cleaning phases). Supermatrix phylogenomic analyses were performed with both maximum-likelihood (IQ-TREE) and Bayesian mixture models (PhyloBayes) for amino acid sequences, which produced a fully resolved phylogeny providing new insights into controversial relationships. Species tree reconstruction from gene trees was performed with ASTRAL and SuperTriplets and recovered the same phylogeny. We estimated gene site concordant factors to complement traditional node-support measures, which strengthens the robustness of inferred phylogenies. Bayesian estimates of divergence times based on a reduced data set (760 orthologs and 12% missing data) indicate a mid-Cretaceous origin of Papilionoidea around 99.2 Ma (95% credibility interval: 68.6-142.7 Ma) and Papilionidae around 71.4 Ma (49.8-103.6 Ma), with subsequent diversification of modern lineages well after the Cretaceous-Paleogene event. These results show that shotgun sequencing of whole genomes, even when highly fragmented, represents a powerful approach to phylogenomics and molecular dating in a group that has previously been refractory to resolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Tempo
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3466, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371715

RESUMO

Under the neutral theory, genetic diversity is expected to increase with population size. While comparative analyses have consistently failed to find strong relationships between census population size and genetic diversity, a recent study across animals identified a strong correlation between propagule size and genetic diversity, suggesting that r-strategists that produce many small offspring, have greater long-term population sizes. Here we compare genome-wide genetic diversity across 38 species of European butterflies (Papilionoidea), a group that shows little variation in reproductive strategy. We show that genetic diversity across butterflies varies over an order of magnitude and that this variation cannot be explained by differences in current abundance, propagule size, host or geographic range. Instead, neutral genetic diversity is negatively correlated with body size and positively with the length of the genetic map. This suggests that genetic diversity is determined both by differences in long-term population size and the effect of selection on linked sites.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Tamanho Corporal , Cromossomos , Evolução Molecular , Deriva Genética , Genoma , Tamanho do Genoma , Cariótipo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Densidade Demográfica , Recombinação Genética
4.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059549

RESUMO

Cities comprise of mixed green patches that vary in size and are highly scattered and disconnected. Although small green spaces largely dominate the cityscape, they are often neglected and ignored by the naturalists and conservationists, as they do not fulfill the large green spaces criteria. The citizens on the other hand seem to have a different perception and requirements from small green spaces as they are within their neighbourhood. Bangalore, a developing city within South India, consists of a large number of newly formed residential areas which have pocket green spaces in the form of neighbourhood parks (henceforth NPs). They are maintained by the municipality and are mainly designed for recreation purposes, completely neglecting the fact that these spaces could be essential for biodiversity. Here, there is a disconnect between the requirements of the citizens, conservationists and the end product that the municipality delivers. Here, through a questionnaire survey we assess the biodiversity citizens are fond off, and use them as surrogate taxa for the not so immediately obvious taxa, insects to enumerate the biodiversity within NPs. We analyze and identify landscape characteristics around NPs which could enhance the biodiversity within NPs. Our results reveal that people are fond of Birds and Butterflies and we use them as surrogates for the inconspicuous taxa to assess biodiversity within NPs. 55 tree species, 45 species of birds, 41 species of butterflies and 68 morpho species of insects were recorded. We demonstrate that small green spaces are critical systems and help support biodiversity across three scale within the city. Interestingly, results suggests that density of NPs is more important rather than the size of NPs. Also, the presence of high density of NPs within a neighbourhood could support similar biodiversity that large green spaces support. Finally, this study provides insights on the landscape matrix that could help enhance biodiversity support service within NPs and the surrounding neighbourhood.


Assuntos
Aves/classificação , Borboletas/classificação , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Insetos/classificação , Árvores/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Humanos , Índia , Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Cells ; 8(4)2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934977

RESUMO

: The butterfly tribe Aeromachini Tutt, 1906 is a large group of skippers. In this study, a total of 10 genera and 45 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and nearly all the species diversity of the group in China, were sequenced for two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear genes (2093 bp). The combined dataset was analyzed with maximum likelihood inference using IQtree. We found strong support for monophyly of Aeromachini from China and support for the most recent accepted species in the tribe. Two paraphyletic genera within Aeromachini are presented and discussed. The divergence time estimates with BEAST and ancestral-area reconstructions with RASP provide a detailed description about the historical biogeography of the Aeromachini from China. The tribe very likely originated from the Hengduan Mountains in the late Ecocene and expanded to the Himalaya Mountains and Central China Regions. A dispersal-vicariance analysis suggests that dispersal events have played essential roles in the distribution of extant species, and geological and climatic changes have been important factors driving current distribution patterns.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Funções Verossimilhança , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 137: 86-103, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022515

RESUMO

Our understanding of the origin and evolution of the astonishing Neotropical biodiversity remains somewhat limited. In particular, decoupling the respective impacts of biotic and abiotic factors on the macroevolution of clades is paramount to understand biodiversity assemblage in this region. We present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the Neotropical Anaeini leafwing butterflies (Nymphalidae, Charaxinae) and, applying likelihood-based methods, we test the impact of major abiotic (Andean orogeny, Central American highland orogeny, Proto-Caribbean seaway closure, Quaternary glaciations) and biotic (host plant association) factors on their macroevolution. We infer a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the tribe despite moderate support in some derived clades. Our phylogenetic inference recovers the genus Polygrapha Staudinger, [1887] as polyphyletic, rendering the genera FountaineaRydon, 1971 and Memphis Hübner, [1819] paraphyletic. Consequently, we transfer Polygrapha tyrianthina (Salvin & Godman, 1868) comb. nov. to Fountainea and Polygrapha xenocrates (Westwood, 1850) comb. nov. to Memphis. We infer an origin of the group in the late Eocene ca. 40 million years ago in Central American lowlands which at the time were separated from South America by the Proto-Caribbean seaway. The biogeographical history of the group is very dynamic, with several oversea colonization events from Central America into the Chocó and Andean regions during intense stages of Andean orogeny. These events coincide with the emergence of an archipelagic setting between Central America and northern South America in the mid-Miocene that likely facilitated dispersal across the now-vanished Proto-Caribbean seaway. The Amazonian region also played a central role in the diversification of the Anaeini, acting both as a museum and a cradle of diversity. We recover a diversification rate shift in the Miocene within the species-rich genus Memphis. State speciation and extinction models recover a significant relationship between this rate shift and host plant association, indicating a positive role on speciation rates of a switch between Malpighiales and new plant orders. We find less support for a role of abiotic factors including the progressive Andean orogeny, Proto-Caribbean seaway closure and Quaternary glaciations. Miocene host plant shifts possibly acted in concert with abiotic and/or biotic factors to shape the diversification of Anaeini butterflies.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia , Clima Tropical , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Região do Caribe , Especiação Genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogeografia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(13): 6232-6237, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877254

RESUMO

For centuries, biologists have used phenotypes to infer evolution. For decades, a handful of gene markers have given us a glimpse of the genotype to combine with phenotypic traits. Today, we can sequence entire genomes from hundreds of species and gain yet closer scrutiny. To illustrate the power of genomics, we have chosen skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae). The genomes of 250 representative species of skippers reveal rampant inconsistencies between their current classification and a genome-based phylogeny. We use a dated genomic tree to define tribes (six new) and subtribes (six new), to overhaul genera (nine new) and subgenera (three new), and to display convergence in wing patterns that fooled researchers for decades. We find that many skippers with similar appearance are distantly related, and several skippers with distinct morphology are close relatives. These conclusions are strongly supported by different genomic regions and are consistent with some morphological traits. Our work is a forerunner to genomic biology shaping biodiversity research.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Genótipo , Filogenia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Mimetismo Biológico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genômica , Lepidópteros/classificação , Lepidópteros/genética , Família Multigênica , Fenótipo , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Syst Biol ; 68(5): 797-813, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690622

RESUMO

The need for robust estimates of times of divergence is essential for downstream analyses, yet assessing this robustness is still rare. We generated a time-calibrated genus-level phylogeny of butterflies (Papilionoidea), including 994 taxa, up to 10 gene fragments and an unprecedented set of 12 fossils and 10 host-plant node calibration points. We compared marginal priors and posterior distributions to assess the relative importance of the former on the latter. This approach revealed a strong influence of the set of priors on the root age but for most calibrated nodes posterior distributions shifted from the marginal prior, indicating significant information in the molecular data set. Using a very conservative approach we estimated an origin of butterflies at 107.6 Ma, approximately equivalent to the latest Early Cretaceous, with a credibility interval ranging from 89.5 Ma (mid Late Cretaceous) to 129.5 Ma (mid Early Cretaceous). In addition, we tested the effects of changing fossil calibration priors, tree prior, different sets of calibrations and different sampling fractions but our estimate remained robust to these alternative assumptions. With 994 genera, this tree provides a comprehensive source of secondary calibrations for studies on butterflies.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Fósseis , Tempo
9.
Insect Sci ; 26(5): 911-922, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573160

RESUMO

This article discusses the influence of phenology-related intraseasonal asynchrony on metapopulation dynamics and stability. As the part played by intraseasonal asynchrony is as yet unclear and poorly described, greater account of it should be taken in both metapopulation research and conservation practice. The subpopulations of the Parnassius mnemosyne metapopulation studied here are strongly isolated because of the phenological shift between them, despite the relatively small physical distances between them. This isolation is the result of a significant temporal shift in the species' flight periods in the main metapopulation centers: in some seasons its flight times in the different subpopulations did not overlap at all. The predicted results of such strong intraseasonal asynchrony are not altogether clear. On the one hand, they reduce the vulnerability of the entire metapopulation to the effects of short-term random disasters. On the other, the ever-greater isolation of subpopulations may cause the metapopulation to become a nonequilibrium one, which will have a serious impact on its long-term survival.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Migração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Voo Animal , Masculino , Polônia
10.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 30(1): 101-117, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671657

RESUMO

In this work, we used mtDNA data as a tool to delimit species and we compared the resulting molecular operational taxonomic units (barcode index number, BIN) with morphology-based identifications in the Colombian species of Rhamma Johnson, 1992 exploring the usefulness of DNA barcodes for taxonomy, species identification and delimitation. We obtained cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences for 134 morphologically identified specimens, representing 12 species of Rhamma from Colombia. Ten of these species have not been previously barcoded. DNA barcodes suggested the potential for eight additional cryptic species in Colombia but we were readily able to morphologically diagnose just one of these linages as a new species which recently was described in a separate paper as Rhamma dawkinsi Prieto & Lorenc-Brudecka, 2017. The morphological species were separated into three categories: species showing a perfect match between morphological species and BINs (33%, four species); species sharing a BIN completely or partly (single specimens) with another morphological species (42%, five species placed in three BINs); and morphological species splitting up into more than one BIN (25%, three species placed in 10 BINs). The high percentages of incongruence between morphology-based identification and species delineation through BINs, could be explained as a consequence of high rates of introgressive hybridization. However, DNA barcodes can be considered diagnostic even in cases where specimens of a species were assigned to two or more distinct BINs and in species showing a low but constant divergence causing their assignment to a single BIN, which is often the case in young, allopatric species. We retain 10 of the 12 species (83%) to be diagnostic in molecular identification.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Filogenia , Animais , Borboletas/classificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/normas , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 130: 60-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278254

RESUMO

The phylogenetic relationships of the nymphalid butterfly tribe Limenitidini are best known for the genera Limenitis and Adelpha, model taxa for evolutionary processes such as Batesian mimicry and rapid adaptive radiations. Whereas these American limenitidines have received the most attention, phylogenetic relationships of their Asian relatives are still controversial and largely unexplored. Even one of the largest genera in Asia, Athyma, is polyphyletic. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of these Asian Limenitidini, a total of 53 representatives were sampled; 37 have their mitogenomes sequenced for the first time. Our phylogenetic results confirm that mitogenomic data provides well-resolved relationships at most major levels of the phylogeny, even using different partition schemes or different inference methods. Interestingly, our results show that some Athyma taxa are embedded within the genus Limenitis, whereas the genus Tacola, previously considered to be a synonym of Athyma, needs to be recognized as a valid clade. Additionally, the other Limenitidini genera in Asia (namely Tarattia, Litinga, Sumalia, Pandita and Patsuia) are now grouped either within Athyma or Limenitis, so these genera need to be sunk. Importantly, we also show that the mainly Old World Limenitis and entirely New World Adelpha are sister groups, confirming the relevance of Asian lineages to global studies of Limenitis evolution.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia
12.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(3): 467-475, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542982

RESUMO

The present paper describes Heliconius hermathena curua Freitas & Ramos ssp. nov. This subspecies exhibits a non-mimetic phenotype typical of H. hermathena, but is characterized by the merging of the yellow streak over the forewing cubitus with the red postmedian band in the dorsal forewing. The subspecies is known from two localities in the south of Altamira, Pará State, Brazil, where it inhabits an isolated patch of "campina" vegetation more than 600 km from the nearest known H. hermathena populations. Geographic isolation of the population is supported by molecular data; based on the mitochondrial gene COI, all individuals of H. hermathena curuassp. nov. form a monophyletic group and all haplotypes found in it are unique, suggesting that gene flow is not currently on-going. Given the fragile situation of Amazonian white sand forests and the proximity of the population to areas of intensive agriculture, this new subspecies and its habitat deserve attention.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Haplótipos , Masculino
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 131: 116-124, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423438

RESUMO

Relationships within satyrine butterflies have been notoriously difficult to resolve using both morphology and Sanger sequencing methods, and this is particularly true for the mainly Neotropical subtribe Euptychiina, which contains about 400 described species. Known larvae of Euptychiina feed on grasses and sedges, with the exception of the genus Euptychia, which feed on mosses and lycopsids, and the butterflies occur widely in rainforest, cloudforest and grassland habitats, where they are often abundant. Several previous molecular and morphological studies have made significant progress in tackling the systematics of the group, but many relationships remain unresolved, with long-branch-attraction artifacts being a major problem. Additionally, the monophyly of the clade remains uncertain, with Euptychia possibly not being closely related to the remainder of the clade. Here we present a backbone phylogeny of the subtribe based on 106 taxa, 368 nuclear loci, and over 180,000 bps obtained through hybrid enrichment. Using both concatenation and species tree approaches (IQ-TREE, EXABAYES, ASTRAL), we can for the first time strongly confirm the monophyly of Euptychiina with Euptychia being the sister group to the remainder of the clade. The Euptychiina is divided into nine well supported clades, but the placement of a few genera such as Hermeuptychia, Pindis and the Chloreuptychia catharina group still remain uncertain. As partially indicated in previous studies, the genera Cissia, Chloreuptychia, Magneuptychia, Megisto, Splendeuptychia and Euptychoides, among others, were found to be highly polyphyletic and revisions are in preparation. The phylogeny will provide a strong backbone for the analysis of datasets in development that are much more taxonomically comprehensive but have orders of magnitude fewer loci. This study therefore represents a critical step towards resolving the higher classification and studying the evolution of this highly diverse lineage.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/genética , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Pigmentação , Animais , Funções Verossimilhança
14.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(2): 302-313, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414019

RESUMO

Arhuaco Adams & Bernard (1977) is one of the least known genera of Neotropical Satyrinae. It comprises two species and presents an unusual disjunct distribution, with A. ica Adams & Bernard (1977), endemic to the isolated Colombian Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and A. dryadina (Schaus 1913) found in the mountains of Costa Rica and Panama. Here, the female of A. dryadina is described, and a new generic diagnosis is presented. Affinities with other genera of the subtribe Pronophilina, in particular the potential closest relatives, such as Pronophila Doubleday (1849), are investigated based on morphological, molecular, ecological, and behavioral data. Results from molecular and morphological sources are incongruent. Molecular data indicate that Arhuaco is paraphyletic, with A. dryadina segregating within the Pronophila clade. Morphological data, by contrast, indicate a closer affinity between the two species currently placed in Arhuaco, favoring the monophyly of the genus, and show no consistent synapomorphies for Arhuaco + Pronophila. A vicariance biogeographical scenario is evaluated.


Assuntos
Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Borboletas/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Colômbia , Costa Rica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Panamá
15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5155, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514925

RESUMO

Explaining the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects is an old problem in evolutionary ecology. Here we focus on the two prominent hypothesised drivers of their diversification, radiations after major host switch or variability in host use due to continuous probing of new hosts. Unfortunately, current methods cannot distinguish between these hypotheses, causing controversy in the literature. Here we present an approach combining network and phylogenetic analyses, which directly quantifies support for these opposing hypotheses. After demonstrating that each hypothesis produces divergent network structures, we then investigate the contribution of each to diversification in two butterfly families: Pieridae and Nymphalidae. Overall, we find that variability in host use is essential for butterfly diversification, while radiations following colonisation of a new host are rare but can produce high diversity. Beyond providing an important reconciliation of alternative hypotheses for butterfly diversification, our approach has potential to test many other hypotheses in evolutionary biology.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/classificação , Ecologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208639, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576327

RESUMO

Butterfly monitoring and Red List programs in Switzerland rely on a combination of observations and collection records to document changes in species distributions through time. While most butterflies can be identified using morphology, some taxa remain challenging, making it difficult to accurately map their distributions and develop appropriate conservation measures. In this paper, we explore the use of the DNA barcode (a fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI) as a tool for the identification of Swiss butterflies and forester moths (Rhopalocera and Zygaenidae). We present a national DNA barcode reference library including 868 sequences representing 217 out of 224 resident species, or 96.9% of Swiss fauna. DNA barcodes were diagnostic for nearly 90% of Swiss species. The remaining 10% represent cases of para- and polyphyly likely involving introgression or incomplete lineage sorting among closely related taxa. We demonstrate that integrative taxonomic methods incorporating a combination of morphological and genetic techniques result in a rate of species identification of over 96% in females and over 98% in males, higher than either morphology or DNA barcodes alone. We explore the use of the DNA barcode for exploring boundaries among taxa, understanding the geographical distribution of cryptic diversity and evaluating the status of purportedly endemic taxa. Finally, we discuss how DNA barcodes may be used to improve field practices and ultimately enhance conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Borboletas/classificação , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/classificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Biblioteca Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/classificação , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Mariposas/classificação , Suíça
17.
Genome ; 61(12): 843-855, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365901

RESUMO

Genetic determinants of speciation in closely related species are poorly understood. We sequenced and analyzed transcriptomes of swallowtail butterflies Heraclides cresphontes (northeastern species) and Heraclides rumiko (southwestern species), a pair of mostly allopatric sister species whose distribution ranges overlap narrowly in central Texas. We found that the two swallowtails confidently differ (FST > 0.5 for both species) in about 5% of genes, similarly to the divergence in another pair of swallowtail species Pterourus glaucus (southern species) and Pterourus canadensis (northern species). The same genes tend to diverge in both species pairs, suggesting similar speciation paths in Heraclides and Pterourus. The most significant differences for both species pairs were found in the circadian clock genes that were conserved within each species and diverged strongly between species (P-value < 0.01 and FST > 0.7). This divergence implied that adaptations to different climates and photoperiod at different latitudes or differences in mating behavior, including mating time and copulation duration, may be possible factors in ecological or behavioral-based speciation. Finally, we suggest several nuclear DNA regions that consistently and prominently differ between the sister swallowtail species as nuclear barcodes for swallowtail identification, with the best barcode being an exon from the protein TIMELESS.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Especiação Genética , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Borboletas/classificação , Genes de Insetos , Transcriptoma
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 127: 600-605, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902572

RESUMO

The Neotropical moth-like butterflies (Hedylidae) are perhaps the most unusual butterfly family. In addition to being species-poor, this family is predominantly nocturnal and has anti-bat ultrasound hearing organs. Evolutionary relationships among the 36 described species are largely unexplored. A new, target capture, anchored hybrid enrichment probe set ('BUTTERFLY2.0') was developed to infer relationships of hedylids and some of their butterfly relatives. The probe set includes 13 genes that have historically been used in butterfly phylogenetics. Our dataset comprised of up to 10,898 aligned base pairs from 22 hedylid species and 19 outgroups. Eleven of the thirteen loci were successfully captured from all samples, and the remaining loci were captured from ≥94% of samples. The inferred phylogeny was consistent with recent molecular studies by placing Hedylidae sister to Hesperiidae, and the tree had robust support for 80% of nodes. Our results are also consistent with morphological studies, with Macrosoma tipulata as the sister species to all remaining hedylids, followed by M. semiermis sister to the remaining species in the genus. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnality evolved once from diurnality in Hedylidae, and demonstrate that the ancestral condition was likely diurnal, with a shift to nocturnality early in the diversification of this family. The BUTTERFLY2.0 probe set includes standard butterfly phylogenetics markers, captures sequences from decades-old museum specimens, and is a cost-effective technique to infer phylogenetic relationships of the butterfly tree of life.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Sondas de DNA/genética , Loci Gênicos , Mariposas/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Funções Verossimilhança , Mariposas/genética
19.
BMC Evol Biol ; 18(1): 101, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Butterflies (Papilionoidea) are perhaps the most charismatic insect lineage, yet phylogenetic relationships among them remain incompletely studied and controversial. This is especially true for skippers (Hesperiidae), one of the most species-rich and poorly studied butterfly families. METHODS: To infer a robust phylogenomic hypothesis for Hesperiidae, we sequenced nearly 400 loci using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment and sampled all tribes and more than 120 genera of skippers. Molecular datasets were analyzed using maximum-likelihood, parsimony and coalescent multi-species phylogenetic methods. RESULTS: All analyses converged on a novel, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for skippers. Different optimality criteria and methodologies recovered almost identical phylogenetic trees with strong nodal support at nearly all nodes and all taxonomic levels. Our results support Coeliadinae as the sister group to the remaining skippers, the monotypic Euschemoninae as the sister group to all other subfamilies but Coeliadinae, and the monophyly of Eudaminae plus Pyrginae. Within Pyrginae, Celaenorrhinini and Tagiadini are sister groups, the Neotropical firetips, Pyrrhopygini, are sister to all other tribes but Celaenorrhinini and Tagiadini. Achlyodini is recovered as the sister group to Carcharodini, and Erynnini as sister group to Pyrgini. Within the grass skippers (Hesperiinae), there is strong support for the monophyly of Aeromachini plus remaining Hesperiinae. The giant skippers (Agathymus and Megathymus) once classified as a subfamily, are recovered as monophyletic with strong support, but are deeply nested within Hesperiinae. CONCLUSIONS: Anchored Hybrid Enrichment sequencing resulted in a large amount of data that built the foundation for a new, robust evolutionary tree of skippers. The newly inferred phylogenetic tree resolves long-standing systematic issues and changes our understanding of the skipper tree of life. These resultsenhance understanding of the evolution of one of the most species-rich butterfly families.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Genômica , Filogenia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Borboletas/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Genes Genomics ; 40(10): 1011-1022, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949077

RESUMO

Vanessa indica is a small butterfly lacking historical molecular and biological research. Vanessa indica belongs to the family Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea), which is the largest group of butterflies and are nearly ubiquitous. However, after more than a century of taxonomic and molecular studies, there is no consensus for family classification, and the phylogenetic relationships within Nymphalidae are controversial. The first objective was to sequence and characterize the complete mitochondrial genome of V. indica. The most important objective was to completely reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships for family members within Nymphalidae. The mitochondrial genomic DNA (mtDNA) of V. indica was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The complete mitochondrial sequence was annotated and characterized by analyzing sequences with SeqMan program. The phylogenetic analyses were conducted on thirteen protein coding genes (PCGs) in 95 mtDNA of Nymphalidae downloaded from GenBank for reference using the maximum likelihood method and Bayesian inference to ensure the validity of the results. The complete mitogenome was a circular molecule with 15,191 bp consisting of 13 protein coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA and 12S rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and an A + T-rich region (D-loop). The nucleotide composition of the genome was highly biased for A + T content, which accounts for 80.0% of the nucleotides. All the tRNAs have putative secondary structures that are characteristic of mitochondrial tRNAs, except tRNASer(AGN). All the PCGs started with ATN codons, except cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), which was found to start with an unusual CGA codon. Four genes were observed to have unusual codons: COX1 terminated with atypical TT and the other three genes terminated with a single T. The A + T rich region of 327 bp consisted of repetitive sequences, including a ATAGA motif, a 19-bp poly-T stretch, and two microsatellite-like regions (TA)8. The phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Biblidinae as a sister cluster to Heliconiinae and Calinaginae as a sister clade to Satyrinae. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree identified Libytheinae as a monophyletic group within Nymphalidae. The complete mitogenome of V. indica was 15,191 bp with mitochondrial characterizations common for lepidopteran species, which enriched the mitochondria data of Nymphalid species. And the phylogenetic analysis revealed different classifications and relationships than those previously described. Our results are significant because they would be useful in further understanding of the evolutionary biology of Nymphalidae.


Assuntos
Borboletas/classificação , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Composição de Bases , Borboletas/citologia , Borboletas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Tamanho do Genoma , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA de Transferência/química
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