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1.
J Nucl Med ; 63(11): 15N-22N, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319112

RESUMO

From the Newsline Editor: The Highlights Lecture, presented at the closing session of each SNMMI Annual Meeting, was originated and presented for more than 30 years by Henry N. Wagner, Jr., MD. Beginning in 2010, the duties of summarizing selected significant presentations at the meeting were divided annually among 4 distinguished nuclear and molecular medicine subject matter experts. Each year Newsline publishes these lectures and selected images. The 2022 Highlights Lectures were delivered on June 14 at the SNMMI Annual Meeting in Vancouver, Canada. In this issue we feature the lecture by Julie Price, PhD, a professor of radiology at the Harvard Medical School and director of PET Pharmacokinetic Modeling in the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging at the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA), who spoke on neuroscience highlights from the meeting. Note that in the following presentation summary, numerals in brackets represent abstract numbers as published in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2022;63[suppl 2]).


Assuntos
Neurociências , Medicina Nuclear , Boston , Hospitais Gerais , Medicina Molecular
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277223, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350898

RESUMO

Credibly estimating social-ecological relationships requires data with broad coverage and fine geographic resolutions that are not typically available from standard ecological surveys. Open and unstructured data from crowdsourced platforms offer an opportunity for collecting large quantities of user-submitted ecological data. However, the representativeness of the areas sampled by these data portals is not well known. We investigate how data availability in eBird, one of the largest and most popular crowdsourced science platforms, correlates with race and income of census tracts in two cities: Boston, MA and Phoenix, AZ. We find that checklist submissions vary greatly across census tracts, with similar patterns within both metropolitan regions. In particular, census tracts with high income and high proportions of white residents are most likely to be represented in the data in both cities, which indicates selection bias in eBird coverage. Our results illustrate the non-representativeness of eBird data, and they also raise deeper questions about the validity of statistical inferences regarding disparities that can be drawn from such datasets. We discuss these challenges and illustrate how sample selection problems in unstructured or semi-structured crowdsourced data can lead to spurious conclusions regarding the relationships between race, income, and access to urban bird biodiversity. While crowdsourced data are indispensable and complementary to more traditional approaches for collecting ecological data, we conclude that unstructured or semi-structured data may not be well-suited for all lines of inquiry, particularly those requiring consistent data coverage, and should thus be handled with appropriate care.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Meio Social , Boston
3.
Hist Psychol ; 25(4): 385-387, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395018

RESUMO

This short research report focuses on psychologist Leon Kamin, who is best known for his research on what became known as the Kamin (blocking) effect. In the 1970s and 1980s he became prominent both inside and outside of psychology, not for laboratory research but for his writings on the heritability of intelligence. Kamin was no stranger to political activism. He joined the Communist Party U.S.A. at age 17, when he was a sophomore at Harvard. By 1949, he was writing for the Daily Worker (pen name: Leo Soft) and was employed as its New England editor in 1949-1950. In January 1954, Kamin was called to testify by Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist Senate subcommittee, which was visiting Boston and justified its interest in Harvard by citing its winning research grants from the U.S. Department of Defense. Kamin refused to "name names" and he was indicted for contempt of the Senate. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ativismo Político , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Comunismo , Inteligência , Boston , New England
4.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1544-1549, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343325

RESUMO

With tax assistance, financial literacy education, and other programs, Boston Medical Center helps families rise out of poverty.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Humanos , Pobreza , Escolaridade , Boston
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 707, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36199070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients with Alzheimer's Disease and related disorders (ADRD) necessitates increasing numbers of clinicians to care for them. Educational programming related to community outreach with older adults may help inspire interest in future ADRD clinical careers, while increasing awareness of ADRD in the community and aiding recruitment of underrepresented participants into research studies. METHOD: The Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (BU ADRC) created the BU ADRC Student Ambassador Program, where medical students, graduate students, and undergraduates interested in medicine completed a curriculum during the academic year that included six educational and three outreach events, including monthly dementia-focused didactic meetings and outreach focusing on Black participant recruitment. A pre-post program survey design was implemented to assess changes in students' knowledge of and attitudes toward dementia and related disorders. RESULTS: Between September 2015 and May 2020, thirty-seven students completed the program. Following program completion, students demonstrated increased knowledge of dementia and willingness to work with patients with dementia, as well as more positive attitudes toward patients and the role of empathy in physician practice. In terms of recruitment benefits, the students helped the BU ADRC reach older adults from underrepresented groups who could serve as participants in future research studies. CONCLUSIONS: The BU ADRC Student Ambassador Program can serve as a model for other clinical research programs who wish to encourage students to consider a career in a specific field. In addition, this model has the potential to increase enrollment of participants to research studies. We discuss limitations of our initial efforts and directions for future work to quantify the anticipated benefits for student education and participant recruitment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Estudantes de Medicina , Idoso , Boston , Currículo , Humanos
6.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 111(6): 580-586, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this analysis was to assess whether (1) daily vitamin D3 plus calcium supplementation vs. placebo or (2) the mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level achieved during a 3-year trial was associated with muscle performance or balance in the Boston STOP IT study. Methods We conducted exploratory analyses in 386 men and women age 65 years and older who participated in the Boston STOP IT trial and had one or more muscle performance or balance assessments at baseline and 3 years. Participants were treated with 700 IU of vitamin D3 plus 500 mg of calcium or with double placebo daily for 3 years. Plasma 25(OH)D was measured at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months; muscle performance (timed walk, grip strength, and chair-rise) and two balance tests, the one-leg stand and tandem stand, were assessed at baseline and 3 years only. Results Supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium had no favorable effect on any muscle performance measure. The 3-year mean 25(OH)D levels were 22.7 ± 6.3 (SD) in the placebo and 30.8 ± 7.5 ng/ml in the supplemented groups (p < 0.001). The 3-year mean 25(OH)D level was positively associated with change in one-leg stand time (p = 0.04), but not with the other measures. Conclusion Vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation had no favorable effect on muscle performance or balance in this relatively healthy older population. A higher 3-year mean 25(OH)D level may favor balance, as indicated by longer one-leg stand time, but this observation should be confirmed.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Boston , Vitamina D , Vitaminas , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Calcifediol , Cálcio na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculos , Método Duplo-Cego
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15113, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068261

RESUMO

Random forests are a popular type of machine learning model, which are relatively robust to overfitting, unlike some other machine learning models, and adequately capture non-linear relationships between an outcome of interest and multiple independent variables. There are relatively few adjustable hyperparameters in the standard random forest models, among them the minimum size of the terminal nodes on each tree. The usual stopping rule, as proposed by Breiman, stops tree expansion by limiting the size of the parent nodes, so that a node cannot be split if it has less than a specified number of observations. Recently an alternative stopping criterion has been proposed, stopping tree expansion so that all terminal nodes have at least a minimum number of observations. The present paper proposes three generalisations of this idea, limiting the growth in regression random forests, based on the variance, range, or inter-centile range. The new approaches are applied to diabetes data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and four other datasets (Tasmanian Abalone data, Boston Housing crime rate data, Los Angeles ozone concentration data, MIT servo data). Empirical analysis presented herein demonstrate that the new stopping rules yield competitive mean square prediction error to standard random forest models. In general, use of the intercentile range statistic to control tree expansion yields much less variation in mean square prediction error, and mean square prediction error is also closer to the optimal. The Fortran code developed is provided in the Supplementary Material.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Boston , Los Angeles , Inquéritos Nutricionais
8.
J Neuroimaging ; 32(6): 1080-1089, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Templates are a hallmark of image analysis in neuroimaging. However, while numerous structural templates exist and have facilitated single-subject and large group studies, templates based on functional contrasts, such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion, are scarce, have an inherently low spatial resolution, and are not as widely distributed. Having such tools at one's disposal is desirable, for example, in the case of studies not acquiring structural scans. We here propose an initial development of an ASL adult template based on high-resolution fast spin echo acquisitions. METHODS: High-resolution single-delay ASL, low-resolution multi-delay ASL, T1 -weighted magnetization prepared rapid acquisition 2 gradient echoes, and T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery data were acquired in a cohort of 10 healthy volunteers (6 males and 4 females, 30± 7 years old). After offline reconstruction of high-resolution perfusion arterial transit time (ATT) and T1 maps, we built a multi-contrast template relying on the Advanced Normalization Toolbox multivariate template nonlinear construction framework. We offer examples for the registration of ASL data acquired with different sequences. Finally, we propose an ASL simulator based on our templates and a standard kinetic model that allows generating synthetic ASL contrasts based on user-specified parameters. RESULTS: Boston ASL Template and Simulator (BATS) offers high-quality, high-resolution perfusion-weighted and quantitative perfusion templates accompanied by ATT and different anatomical contrasts readily available in the Montreal Neurological Institute space. In addition, examples of use for data registration and as a synthetic contrast generator show various applications in which BATS could be used. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a new ASL template collection, named BATS, that also includes a simulator allowing the generation of synthetic ASL contrasts. BATS is available at http://github.com/manueltaso/batsasltemplate.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Marcadores de Spin , Boston , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Artérias , Circulação Cerebrovascular
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 657, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic caused an abrupt disruption in clinical care and medical education, putting patients at increased risk for social stressors and displacing medical students from traditional clerkships. The pandemic also exposed the need for virtual tools to supplement clinical care and an opportunity to create meaningful roles for learners. METHODS: An interdisciplinary group designed a student-led virtual outreach program for patients with HIV whose care was limited by the pandemic. Patients were identified by clinicians and social workers using a clinic-based registry. Students called patients to conduct needs assessments, provide Covid-19 education, and to facilitate connection to services. Students participated in case-based didactics and workshops on motivational interviewing and patient engagement using virtual tools. Facilitated team meetings were held weekly during which themes of calls were identified. RESULTS: During a three-month period, five students participated in the outreach program. Two hundred sixteen patients were identified for outreach calls, of which 174 (75.9%) were successfully reached by telephone. Rate of completed phone call did not differ by age or gender. Sixty patients had a preferred language other than English of which 95.6% were reached in their preferred language. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual proactive outreach can be used as a tool to support patients and engage students in clinical care when access to in-person care is limited. This model of care could be adapted to other ambulatory practices and integrated into pre-clerkship curriculum as an introduction to the social history and structural drivers of health (SDOH) (245/350).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Estudantes de Medicina , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Boston , Currículo , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto
10.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0266216, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006966

RESUMO

Integration of genetic, social network, and spatial data has the potential to improve understanding of transmission dynamics in established HCV epidemics. Sequence data were analyzed from 63 viremic people who inject drugs recruited in the Boston area through chain referral or time-location sampling. HCV subtype 1a was most prevalent (57.1%), followed by subtype 3a (33.9%). The phylogenetic distances between sequences were no shorter comparing individuals within versus across networks, nor by location or time of first injection. Social and spatial networks, while interesting, may be too ephemeral to inform transmission dynamics when the date and location of infection are indeterminate.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Boston/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Massachusetts , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
11.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(1): 214, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931539

RESUMO

Statistical approaches that could be used as standardized methodology for evaluating reliability and validity of data obtained using remote audiometry are proposed. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 31), the approaches to evaluate the reliability and validity of hearing threshold measurements obtained by a self-administered iPhone-based hearing assessment application (Decibel Therapeutics, Inc., Boston, MA) compared with measurements obtained by clinical (soundbooth) audiometry are described. These approaches use mixed-effects models to account for multilevel correlations, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of single and averaged measurements, and regression techniques with the generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to account for between-ear correlations. Threshold measurements obtained using the iPhone application were moderately reliable. The reliability was improved substantially by averaging repeated measurements; good reliability was achieved by averaging three repeated measurements. In the linear regression analyses that assessed validity, the range of intercepts (2.3-8.4) and range of slopes (0.4-0.7) indicated that the measurements from the application were likely biased from those obtained by clinical audiometry. When evaluating alternative hearing assessment tools, it is recommended to assess reliability through mixed-effects models and use ICCs to determine the number of repeated assessments needed to achieve satisfactory reliability. When evaluating validity, GEE methods are recommended to estimate regression coefficients.


Assuntos
Audiometria , Testes Auditivos , Audiometria/métodos , Boston , Audição , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Health Commun ; 27(5): 312-325, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904165

RESUMO

Communication infrastructure theory (CIT) suggests that an ethnic enclave's communication infrastructure (CI) shapes the community's unique social processes that give rise to social determinants of health. A well-integrated CI in ethnic enclaves that includes community-based organizations (CBOs), local ethnic media, and resident networks is positively associated with residents' health outcomes. Through storytelling, CBOs and other community actors obtain and disseminate information, develop a sense of belonging to the community, and participate in problem-solving activities, including health-related ones. Local ethnic media can play an important role in building a network of neighborhood storytellers by catalyzing storytelling about local resources and problems. We propose three main categories of "catalyzing storytelling" by local ethnic media: 1) CBO stories, 2) geo-ethnic stories, and 3) presentation of root causes and solutions for community problems. This study examines the content of Boston Chinatown's local ethnic news media outlet, Sampan, to assess the three categories of catalyzing stories. We analyzed a total of 340 news articles and one interview with the editor. The findings showed that Sampan tells stories in all three categories. Based on our findings, we further develop the concept of catalyzing as a communication process in CIT. This new concept in CIT has practical implications for public health communication as it demonstrates a process through which local ethnic media can foster community engagement and health. Health communicators should seek opportunities to work collaboratively with local ethnic media in ways that will serve to catalyze community.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Comunicação em Saúde , Boston , Etnicidade , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Características de Residência
13.
Hum Reprod ; 37(9): 2042-2053, 2022 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35770801

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What are the systemic molecular profiles of endometriosis diagnosed in adolescents and young adults? SUMMARY ANSWER: Significant enrichment and increased activation of proteins related to angiogenesis and cell migration pathways were observed in endometriosis cases compared to controls (P-value < 2.4 × 10-8). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Little is known about the pathophysiology of adolescent endometriosis despite the fact that over 50% of adults with endometriosis report onset of severe pelvic pain during adolescence. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional analysis using data on 142 laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis cases and 74 controls from the observational longitudinal cohort of Women's Health Study: From Adolescence to Adulthood (A2A). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We measured 1305 plasma protein levels using the validated, multiplex aptamer-based proteomics discovery platform, SOMAscan. We calculated odds ratios and 95% CIs using logistic regression adjusting for age, BMI, fasting status and hormone use at blood draw for differentially expressed proteins (P < 0.05). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and STRING analysis were performed to identify biological pathways and protein interactions. We also examined proteins and pathways associated with superficial peritoneal lesion colors (i.e. red, vascularized, white, blue/black, brown). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Average age at blood draw was 18 years for endometriosis cases and 22 years for controls. We identified 63 proteins associated with endometriosis with type-I error set at 0.05, and absolute fold change >1.2, revealing significant enrichment of dysregulated proteins in biological pathways associated with endometriosis. Increased activation of pathways related to angiogenesis and cell migration was observed in plasma from endometriosis cases compared to controls (P-value < 2.4 × 10-8). Furthermore, when we examined proteins and pathways associated with lesion colors, vascularized lesions were associated with upregulation of pathways related to immune cell migration/activation and inflammation, whereas white, blue/black and brown lesions were associated with downregulation of these pathways. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Validation of our results in independent datasets and mechanistic studies are warranted to further our understanding of the pathophysiological characteristics of this common but understudied patient population. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: To our knowledge, this was the first study to comprehensively examine circulating proteins in predominantly adolescents and young adult women with and without endometriosis. Results from this study provide novel biological insight that will build toward further research to elucidate endometriosis pathophysiology during the earlier course of the disease trajectory. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by the Department of Defense (W81XWH1910318) and the 2017 Boston Center for Endometriosis Trainee Award. Financial support for establishment of and data collection within the A2A cohort were provided by the J. Willard and Alice S. Marriott Foundation. N.S., A.F.V., S.A.M., K.L.T. have received funding from Marriott Family Foundation. S.A.M. and K.L.T. are supported by NICHD (R01 HD94842). S.A.M. serves as an advisory board member for AbbVie and Roche; neither are related to this study. The authors report no conflict of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Adolescente , Adulto , Boston , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Endometriose/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Proteômica , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med J Aust ; 216(10): C1-C2, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665509
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2216355, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737390

RESUMO

Importance: Racial and ethnic disparities in postpartum care access have been well identified in the United States. Such disparities could be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic because of amplified economic distress and compromised social capital among pregnant women who belong to racial or ethnic minority groups. Objective: To examine whether the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with an increase in the existing racial and ethnic disparity in postpartum care access. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records data. Multinomial logistic regressions in an interrupted time series approach were used to assess monthly changes in postpartum care access across Asian, Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black (hereafter, Black), non-Hispanic White (hereafter, White) women, and women of other racial groups, controlling for maternal demographic and clinical characteristics. Eligible participants were women who gave live birth at 8 hospitals in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area from January 1, 2019, to November 30, 2021, allowing for tracking 90-day postpartum access until March 1, 2022. Exposures: Delivery period: prepandemic (January to December 2019), early pandemic (January to March 2020), and late pandemic (April 2020 to November 2021). Main Outcomes and Measures: Postpartum care within 90 days after childbirth was categorized into 3 groups: attended, canceled, and nonscheduled. Results: A total of 45 588 women were included. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse (4735 [10.4%] Asian women, 3399 [7.5%] Black women, 6950 [15.2%] Hispanic women, 28 529 [62.6%] White women, and 1269 [2.8%] women of other race or ethnicity). The majority were between 25 and 34 years of age and married and had a full-term pregnancy, vaginal delivery, and no clinical conditions. In the prepandemic period, the overall postpartum care attendance rate was 75.2%, dropping to 41.7% during the early pandemic period, and rebounding back to 60.9% in the late pandemic period. During the months in the late pandemic, the probability of not scheduling postpartum care among Black (average marginal effect [AME], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-1.6) and Hispanic women (AME, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.6) increased more than among their White counterparts. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of postpartum care access before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, racial and ethnic disparities in postpartum care were exacerbated following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, when postpartum care access recovered more slowly among Black and Hispanic women than White women. These disparities require swift attention and amelioration to address barriers for these women to obtain much needed postpartum care during this pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Etnicidade , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156625, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691344

RESUMO

Many techniques for estimating exposure to airborne contaminants do not account for building characteristics that can magnify contaminant contributions from indoor and outdoor sources. Building characteristics that influence exposure can be challenging to obtain at scale, but some may be incorporated into exposure assessments using public datasets. We present a methodology for using public datasets to generate housing models for a test cohort, and examined sensitivity of predicted fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures to selected building and source characteristics. We used addresses of a cohort of children with asthma and public tax assessor's data to guide selection of floorplans of US residences from a public database. This in turn guided generation of coupled multi-zone models (CONTAM and EnergyPlus) that estimated indoor PM2.5 exposure profiles. To examine sensitivity to model parameters, we varied building floors and floorplan, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) type, room or floor-level model resolution, and indoor source strength and schedule (for hypothesized gas stove cooking and tobacco smoking). Occupant time-activity and ambient pollutant levels were held constant. Our address matching methodology identified two multi-family house templates and one single-family house template that had similar characteristics to 60 % of test addresses. Exposure to infiltrated ambient PM2.5 was similar across selected building characteristics, HVAC types, and model resolutions (holding all else equal). By comparison, exposures to indoor-sourced PM2.5 were higher in the two multi-family residences than the single family residence (e.g., for cooking PM2.5 exposure, by 26 % and 47 % respectively) and were sensitive to HVAC type and model resolution. We derived the influence of building characteristics and HVAC type on PM2.5 exposure indoors using public data sources and coupled multi-zone models. With the important inclusion of individualized resident behavior data, similar housing modeling can be used to incorporate exposure variability in health studies of the indoor residential environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Boston , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Habitação , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 330, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725848

RESUMO

A pandemic, like other disasters, changes how systems work. In order to support research on how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the dynamics of a single metropolitan area and the communities therein, we developed and made publicly available a "data-support system" for the city of Boston. We actively gathered data from multiple administrative (e.g., 911 and 311 dispatches, building permits) and internet sources (e.g., Yelp, Craigslist), capturing aspects of housing and land use, crime and disorder, and commercial activity and institutions. All the data were linked spatially through BARI's Geographical Infrastructure, enabling conjoint analysis. We curated the base records and aggregated them to construct ecometric measures (i.e., descriptors of a place) at various geographic scales, all of which were also published as part of the database. The datasets were published in an open repository, each accompanied by a detailed documentation of methods and variables. We anticipate updating the database annually to maintain the tracking of the records and associated measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bases de Dados Factuais , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Dados , Humanos , Pandemias
18.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100566, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584658

RESUMO

Pamela Klein, Nurse Manager of Transgender Services at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) and Nurse Liaison for Boston Medical Center (BMC)'s Center for Transgender Medicine and Surgery (CTMS), shares how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected her practice and her patients and reflects on which changes in care she believes will become permanent.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Boston , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 683, 2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018 Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP), an evidence-based patient navigation intervention aimed at addressing breast cancer care disparities, was implemented across six Boston hospitals. This study assesses patient navigator team member perspectives regarding implementation barriers and facilitators one year post-study implementation. METHODS: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews at the six sites participating in the pragmatic TRIP trial from December 2019 to March 2021. Navigation team members involved with breast cancer care navigation processes at each site were interviewed at least 12 months after intervention implementation. Interview questions were designed to address domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), focusing on barriers and facilitators to implementing the intervention that included 1) rigorous 11-step guidelines for navigation, 2) a shared patient registry and 3) a social risk screening and referral program. Analysis was structured using deductive codes representing domains and constructs within CFIR. RESULTS: Seventeen interviews were conducted with patient navigators, their supervisors, and designated clinical champions. Participants identified the following benefits provided by the TRIP intervention: 1) increased networking and connections for navigators across clinical sites (Cosmopolitanism), 2) formalization of the patient navigation process (Goals and Purpose, Access to Knowledge and Information, and Relative Advantage), and 3) flexibility within the TRIP intervention that allowed for diversity in implementation and use of TRIP components across sites (Adaptability). Barriers included those related to documentation requirements (Complexity) and the structured patient follow up guidelines that did not always align with the timeline of existing site navigation processes (Relative Priority). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides data using real-world experience from an intervention trial in progress, identifying barriers and facilitators to implementing an evidence-based patient navigation intervention for breast cancer care. We identified core processes that facilitated the navigators' patient-focused tasks and role on the clinical team. Barriers encountered reflect limitations of navigator funding models and high caseload. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT03514433 , 5/2/2018.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Navegação de Pacientes , Boston , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7701, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546594

RESUMO

According to the attention restoration theory, exposure to nature (ETN) renews one's capacity to focus attention, which decreases cognitive fatigue and therefore may increase positive emotions. Indeed, natural settings have been associated with high prevalence of happy facial expressions (HFE). However, how universal the association is, remains unclear. We explored the ETN-HFE association in Boston, US, representing a less collectivistic culture, and Yokohama, Japan, representing a more collectivistic one. Evidence from satellite images and social network data, using geoinformatics and statistical tools, revealed that individuals from both societies exhibited more happiness when they were photographed in more natural settings. These associations varied with temporal variations expressed through weekly and annual effects. In addition, we found that the presence of others was also associated with prevalence of HFE in natural settings at Yokohama and Boston but the relation was significantly stronger in Boston. Despite some relatively minor differences between the countries, these results support the universality of the association between ETN and HFE.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Boston , Emoções , Humanos , Individualidade , Japão
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