Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.686
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19906, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620938

RESUMO

We combined survey, mobility, and infections data in greater Boston, MA to simulate the effects of racial disparities in the inclination to become vaccinated on continued infection rates and the attainment of herd immunity. The simulation projected marked inequities, with communities of color experiencing infection rates 3 times higher than predominantly White communities and reaching herd immunity 45 days later on average. Persuasion of individuals uncertain about vaccination was crucial to preventing the worst inequities but could only narrow them so far because 1/5th of Black and Latinx individuals said that they would never vaccinate. The results point to a need for well-crafted, compassionate messaging that reaches out to those most resistant to the vaccine.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Fatores Raciais , Vacinação , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Comunicação Persuasiva , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Incerteza , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Am J Nurs ; 121(9): 46-55, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438429

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that emerged in early 2020 put unprecedented physical, mental, and emotional strain on the staff of health care organizations, who have been caring for a critically ill patient population for more than a year and a half. Amid the ongoing pandemic, health care workers have struggled to keep up with new information about the disease, while also coping with the anxiety associated with caring for affected patients. It has also been a continual challenge for nurse leaders to provide adequate support for staff members and keep them informed about frequently changing practices and protocols. In this article, nursing leaders at an academic medical center in Boston reflect on the initial COVID-19 patient surge, which occurred from March to June 2020, and identify key actions taken to provide clinical and emotional support to frontline staff who cared for these patients. Lessons learned in this period provide insight into the management of redeployed staff, use of emotional support and debriefing, and relationship between access to information and staff morale. The knowledge gained through these initial experiences has been a vital resource as health care workers continue to face challenges associated with the ongoing pandemic.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , COVID-19/enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Boston/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research has indicated that area-level income inequality is associated with increased risk in alcohol consumption. However, few studies have been conducted among adolescents living within smaller area units, such as neighborhoods. We investigated whether neighborhood income inequality is associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a sample of 1878 adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to determine the role of neighborhood income inequality and the odds for alcohol consumption and to determine if social cohesion and depressive symptoms were mediators. RESULTS: In comparison to the first tertile of income inequality, or the most equal neighborhood, adolescent participants living in the second tertile (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.61) and third tertile (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.96) were more likely to have consumed alcohol in the last 30 days. Social cohesion and depressive symptoms were not observed to mediate this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that the distribution of incomes within urban areas may be related to alcohol consumption among adolescents. To prevent alcohol consumption, public health practitioners should prioritize prevention efforts for adolescents living in neighborhoods with large gaps between rich and poor.


Assuntos
Renda , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Massachusetts , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 86, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure has been associated with increased risk of preterm birth. Non-Hispanic Black women have higher incidence of preterm birth compared to other racial/ethnic groups and may be disproportionately exposed to EDCs through EDC-containing hair products. However, research on the use of EDC-associated hair products during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this pilot study was to estimate associations of prenatal hair product use with gestational age at delivery in a Boston, Massachusetts area pregnancy cohort. METHODS: The study population consisted of a subset of participants enrolled in the Environmental Reproductive and Glucose Outcomes (ERGO) Study between 2018 and 2020. We collected self-reported data on demographics and hair product use using a previously validated questionnaire at four prenatal visits (median: 12, 19, 26, 36 weeks' gestation) and abstracted gestational age at delivery from medical records. We compared gestational age and hair product use by race/ethnicity and used linear regression to estimate covariate-adjusted associations of product use and frequency of use at each study visit with gestational age at delivery. Primary models were adjusted for maternal age at enrollment and delivery method. RESULTS: Of the 154 study participants, 7% delivered preterm. Non-Hispanic Black participants had lower mean gestational age at delivery compared to non-Hispanic White participants (38.2 vs. 39.2 weeks) and were more likely to report ever and more frequent use of hair products. In regression models, participants reporting daily use of hair oils at visit 4 had lower mean gestational age at delivery compared to non-users (ß: -8.3 days; 95% confidence interval: -14.9, -1.6). We did not find evidence of associations at earlier visits or with other products. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent use of hair oils during late pregnancy may be associated with shorter gestational duration. As hair oils are more commonly used by non-Hispanic Black women and represent potentially modifiable EDC exposure sources, this may have important implications for the known racial disparity in preterm birth.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Preparações para Cabelo , Óleos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(4): 293-303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319924

RESUMO

COVID-19 necessitated significant care redesign, including new ambulatory workflows to handle surge volumes, protect patients and staff, and ensure timely reliable care. Opportunities also exist to harvest lessons from workflow innovations to benefit routine care. We describe a dedicated COVID-19 ambulatory unit for closing testing and follow-up loops characterized by standardized workflows and electronic communication, documentation, and order placement. More than 85% of follow-ups were completed within 24 hours, with no observed staff, nor patient infections associated with unit operations. Identified issues include role confusion, staffing and gatekeeping bottlenecks, and patient reluctance to visit in person or discuss concerns with phone screeners.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , COVID-19/terapia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Unidades de Cuidados Respiratórios/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sistemas , Fluxo de Trabalho
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206813

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the relationships among hyperglycemia (HG), the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the outcomes of COVID-19. Demographic data, blood glucose levels (BG) measured on admission, and hospital outcomes of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Boston University Medical Center from 1 March to 4 August 2020 were extracted from the hospital database. HG was defined as BG > 200 mg/dL. Patients with type 1 diabetes or BG < 70 mg/dL were excluded. A total of 458 patients with T2D and 976 patients without T2D were included in the study. The mean ± SD age was 56 ± 17 years and 642 (45%) were female. HG occurred in 193 (42%) and 42 (4%) of patients with and without T2D, respectively. Overall, the in-hospital mortality rate was 9%. Among patients without T2D, HG was statistically significantly associated with mortality, ICU admission, intubation, acute kidney injury, and severe sepsis/septic shock, after adjusting for potential confounders (p < 0.05). However, only ICU admission and acute kidney injury were associated with HG among patients with T2D (p < 0.05). Among the 235 patients with HG, the presence of T2D was associated with decreased odds of mortality, ICU admission, intubation, and severe sepsis/septic shock, after adjusting for potential confounders, including BG (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HG in the subset of patients without T2D could be a strong indicator of high inflammatory burden, leading to a higher risk of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are at a high risk for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we compared characteristics and outcomes of ESKD and non-ESKD patients admitted with COVID-19 to a large safety-net hospital. METHODS: We evaluated 759 adults (45 with ESKD) hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spring of 2020. We examined clinical characteristics, laboratory measures and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between ESKD status and outcomes. RESULTS: 73% of ESKD and 47% of non-ESKD patients identified as Black (p = 0.002). ESKD patients were older and had higher rates of comorbidities. Admission ferritin was approximately 6-fold higher in ESKD patients. During hospitalization, the rise in white blood cell count, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin and C-reactive protein, and the decrease in platelet count and serum albumin were all significantly greater in ESKD patients. The in-hospital mortality was higher for ESKD [18% vs. 10%; multivariable adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95% CI, 0.48-4.70)], but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ESKD patients had more co-morbidities and more robust inflammatory response than non-ESKD patients. The odds ratio point estimate for death was higher in ESKD patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Urbanos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Segurança , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/sangue , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116425, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170303

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted US educational institutions. Given potential adverse financial and psychosocial effects of campus closures, many institutions developed strategies to reopen campuses in the fall 2020 semester despite the ongoing threat of COVID-19. However, many institutions opted to have limited campus reopening to minimize potential risk of spread of SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To analyze how Boston University (BU) fully reopened its campus in the fall of 2020 and controlled COVID-19 transmission despite worsening transmission in Boston, Massachusetts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multifaceted intervention case series was conducted at a large urban university campus in Boston, Massachusetts, during the fall 2020 semester. The BU response included a high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction testing facility with capacity to deliver results in less than 24 hours; routine asymptomatic screening for COVID-19; daily health attestations; adherence monitoring and feedback; robust contact tracing, quarantine, and isolation in on-campus facilities; face mask use; enhanced hand hygiene; social distancing recommendations; dedensification of classrooms and public places; and enhancement of all building air systems. Data were analyzed from December 20, 2020, to January 31, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of anterior nares specimens and sources of transmission, as determined through contact tracing. Results: Between August and December 2020, BU conducted more than 500 000 COVID-19 tests and identified 719 individuals with COVID-19, including 496 students (69.0%), 11 faculty (1.5%), and 212 staff (29.5%). Overall, 718 individuals, or 1.8% of the BU community, had test results positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of 837 close contacts traced, 86 individuals (10.3%) had test results positive for COVID-19. BU contact tracers identified a source of transmission for 370 individuals (51.5%), with 206 individuals (55.7%) identifying a non-BU source. Among 5 faculty and 84 staff with SARS-CoV-2 with a known source of infection, most reported a transmission source outside of BU (all 5 faculty members [100%] and 67 staff members [79.8%]). A BU source was identified by 108 of 183 undergraduate students with SARS-CoV-2 (59.0%) and 39 of 98 graduate students with SARS-CoV-2 (39.8%); notably, no transmission was traced to a classroom setting. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of COVID-19 transmission, BU used a coordinated strategy of testing, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine, with robust management and oversight, to control COVID-19 transmission in an urban university setting.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/normas , Universidades/tendências , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Busca de Comunicante/instrumentação , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/métodos , Universidades/organização & administração
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e019708, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044586

RESUMO

Background COVID-19 was temporally associated with an increase in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We sought to determine if patients with implantable defibrillators residing in areas with high COVID-19 activity experienced an increase in defibrillator shocks during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods and Results Using the Medtronic (Mounds View, MN) Carelink database from 2019 and 2020, we retrospectively determined the incidence of implantable defibrillator shock episodes among patients residing in New York City, New Orleans, LA, and Boston, MA. A total of 14 665 patients with a Medtronic implantable defibrillator (age, 66±13 years; and 72% men) were included in the analysis. Comparing analysis time periods coinciding with the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 with the same periods in 2019, we observed a larger mean rate of defibrillator shock episodes per 1000 patients in New York City (17.8 versus 11.7, respectively), New Orleans (26.4 versus 13.5, respectively), and Boston (30.9 versus 20.6, respectively) during the COVID-19 surge. Age- and sex-adjusted hurdle model showed that the Poisson distribution rate of defibrillator shocks for patients with ≥1 shock was 3.11 times larger (95% CI, 1.08-8.99; P=0.036) in New York City, 3.74 times larger (95% CI, 0.88-15.89; P=0.074) in New Orleans, and 1.97 times larger (95% CI, 0.69-5.61; P=0.202) in Boston in 2020 versus 2019. However, the binomial odds of any given patient having a shock episode was not different in 2020 versus 2019. Conclusions Defibrillator shock episodes increased during the higher COVID-19 activity in New York City, New Orleans, and Boston. These observations may provide insights into COVID-19-related increase in cardiac arrests.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Cardioversão Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nova Orleans/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(6): 886-895, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038193

RESUMO

Delays in seeking emergency care stemming from patient reluctance may explain the rise in cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and associated poor health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study we used emergency medical services (EMS) call data from the Boston, Massachusetts, area to describe the association between patients' reluctance to call EMS for cardiac-related care and both excess out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and related outcomes during the pandemic. During the initial COVID-19 wave, cardiac-related EMS calls decreased (-27.2 percent), calls with hospital transportation refusal increased (+32.5 percent), and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence increased (+35.5 percent) compared with historical baselines. After the initial wave, although cardiac-related calls remained lower (-17.2 percent), out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence remained elevated (+24.8 percent) despite fewer COVID-19 infections and relaxed public health advisories. Throughout Boston's fourteen neighborhoods, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence was significantly associated with decreased cardiac-related calls, but not with COVID-19 infection rates. These findings suggest that patients were reluctant to obtain emergency care. Efforts are needed to ensure that patients seek timely care both during and after the pandemic to reduce potentially avoidable excess cardiovascular disease deaths.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Boston/epidemiologia , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e23905, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many ambulatory clinics transitioned to telehealth, but it remains unknown how this may have exacerbated inequitable access to care. OBJECTIVE: Given the potential barriers faced by different populations, we investigated whether telehealth use is consistent and equitable across age, race, and gender. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study of outpatient visits was conducted between March 2 and June 10, 2020, compared with the same time period in 2019, at a single academic health center in Boston, Massachusetts. Visits were divided into in-person visits and telehealth visits and then compared by racial designation, gender, and age. RESULTS: At our academic medical center, using a retrospective cohort analysis of ambulatory care delivered between March 2 and June 10, 2020, we found that over half (57.6%) of all visits were telehealth visits, and both Black and White patients accessed telehealth more than Asian patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the rapid implementation of telehealth does not follow prior patterns of health care disparities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/métodos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9694, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958668

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that causes Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). We aim to assess the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG among healthcare workers and compare risk-factors between seropositive and seronegative HCWs. In this observational study, serum samples were collected from HCWs between July 13th to 26th, 2020 at Boston Medical Center (BMC). Samples were subsequently tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. Participants also answered a questionnaire capturing data on demographics, history of COVID-19 symptoms, occupation, infection prevention and control measures. Overall, 95 of 1743 (5.5%) participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Of these, 1.8% of the participants had mild or no COVID-19 symptoms and did not require a diagnostic test. Seropositivity was not associated with gender, occupation, hand hygiene and personal protective equipment (PPE) practices amongst HCWs. However, lack of physical distancing among health care workers in work areas and break room was associated with seropositivity (p = 0.05, p = 0.003, respectively). The majority of the HCWs are negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. This data highlights the need to promote infection prevention measures, and the importance of distance amongst co-workers to help mitigate infection rates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(6): 856-863, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) admission after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) varies across medical centers. We evaluated the association of postoperative ICU use with perioperative and long-term outcomes after EVAR. STUDY DESIGN: The Vascular Quality Initiative (2003-2019) was queried for index elective EVARs. Included centers were categorized by percentage of patients with EVARs postoperatively admitted to the ICU; routine ICU (rICU) centers as ≥80% ICU admissions and nonroutine ICU (nrICU) centers as ≤20% ICU admissions. Patients admitted preoperatively or with same day discharge were excluded. Perioperative outcomes and survival were compared between rICU and nrICU centers. RESULTS: Of 45,310 EVARs in the database, 35,617 were performed at rICU or nrICU centers - 5,443 (15.3%) at 71 rICU centers and 30,174 (84.7%) at 200 nrICU centers. Overall, mean age was 73.4 years and 81.6% were male. Postoperative myocardial infarction, pulmonary complications, stroke, leg ischemia, and in-hospital mortality were similar between rICU and nrICU centers (all p > 0.05). Postoperative length of stay (LOS) was prolonged at rICU centers (mean) (2.2 ± 3.6 vs 2 ± 4.2 days, p < 0.001). One-year survival was similar between rICU and nrICU centers, respectively, (94.9% vs 95.4%, p = 0.085). When compared with nrICU centers, rICU centers had similar 1-year mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% CI 0.99-1.34, p = 0.076), but were associated with longer postoperative LOS (means ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.08-1.13, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Routine ICU use after EVAR was associated with prolonged postoperative LOS, without improved perioperative/long-term morbidity or mortality. Updated care pathways to include postoperative admission to lower acuity care units may reduce costs without compromising care.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aneurisma Aórtico/mortalidade , Boston/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
15.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(7): 741-746, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe maternal characteristics and clinical outcomes of infants born to mothers with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tests during pregnancy at an urban, safety-net hospital in Boston. STUDY DESIGN: We abstracted electronic chart data from 75 pregnant women with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests at any stage of gestation until 72 hours after birth who delivered consecutively between March 31 and August 6, 2020 at our center. We collected clinical data on maternal and infant characteristics, including testing, signs, and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), delivery outcomes, newborn care practices (skin-to-skin care, location of care, and breastfeeding) and 30-day postdischarge infant emergency room visits and readmissions. We described categorical characteristics as percentages for this case series. RESULTS: Among 75 pregnant women, 47 (63%) were Hispanic, 10 (13%) had hypertension, 23 (30%) had prepregnancy obesity, and 57 (76%) had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Regarding birth outcomes, 32 (41%) had cesarean delivery and 14 (19%) had preterm birth. Among 75 infants, 5 (7%) had positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests in the first week of life, all of whom were born to Hispanic mothers with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and had clinical courses consistent with gestational age. Six (8%) infants visited the emergency department within 30 days of discharge; one was admitted with a non-COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: At our urban, safety-net hospital among pregnant women with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, 41% had a cesarean delivery and 19% had a preterm birth. Seven percent of infants had one or more positive SARS-CoV-2 tests and all infants had clinical courses expected for gestational age. KEY POINTS: · Among 75 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 positive testing at our center, five infants (7%) had one or more SARS-CoV-2 positive tests in the first week of life.. · Infants with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests had clinical courses expected for gestational age..


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/transmissão , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/virologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(4): 362-366, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852553

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The eye care needs of the homeless population in the United States are not well known. This study elucidates those needs for health care for the homeless programs and eye care practitioners. This information could result in an increase in the provision of necessary eye care services. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of visual and ocular conditions, the frequency of eyeglass orders and receipt of eyeglasses, and the frequency of ophthalmology referrals and receipt of ophthalmological care in an adult homeless population in Boston. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was conducted for patients of the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program's Pine Street Inn eye clinic from September 26, 2016, to December 31, 2017. Data on sociodemographics, medical history, comprehensive eye examination findings, glasses orders and receipt, and ophthalmology referrals and receipt of care were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 424 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the study population was 52.7 (interquartile range, 46 to 60), and the majority were male (74%). The most common systemic conditions were hypertension (40.6%) and diabetes (23.8%). The most common refractive error was presbyopia (67.7%), followed by astigmatism (38.9%), hyperopia (34.0%), and myopia (30.7%). The most common ocular conditions were dry eye (28.6%), visually or clinically significant cataract (20%), and glaucoma/glaucoma suspicion (13.9%). Refractive correction was indicated for 356 patients (84%), but 82 (29%) did not receive ordered eyeglasses. Ophthalmology referrals were placed for 61 patients (14.4%), yet only 20 (32.8%) of those referrals were completed. CONCLUSIONS: A significant need for refractive correction and a large gap for ophthalmological care were found among the study population. Health care for the homeless programs and eye care practitioners should be aware of the visual and ocular needs of this patient population so as to better meet their needs.


Assuntos
Óculos/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Boston/epidemiologia , Catarata/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Erros de Refração/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916686

RESUMO

Findings on the role of Mediterranean-style diet (MSD) on duration of pregnancy and birth weight have been inconsistent and based largely on Non-Hispanic white populations, making it unclear as to whether they could extend to African Americans who are at a higher risk of unfavorable birth outcomes. Our study addresses this gap using a large urban, multiethnic, predominantly low-income cohort of mother-infant dyads from Boston, MA, USA. Dietary information was obtained via food frequency questionnaires; health information including birth outcomes were extracted from medical records. A Mediterranean-style diet score (MSDS) was formulated based on intake history, and linear and log-binomial regressions were performed to assess its association with birth outcomes. After adjustment, the lowest MSDS quintile from the overall sample was found to be associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of overall preterm birth (RR 1.18; 95% CI: 1.06-1.31), spontaneous preterm birth (1.28; 1.11-1.49), late preterm birth (1.21; 1.05-1.39), and low birth weight (1.11; 1.01-1.22), compared to the highest quintile. The findings were similar for the African American sample. Our study adds to the current understanding of the diet's influence on birth outcomes by demonstrating that adherence to MSD may improve birth outcomes for African American women.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Pobreza , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(5): 880-890, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe characteristics, multisystem outcomes, and predictors of mortality of the critically ill COVID-19 patients in the largest hospital in Massachusetts. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between March 14, 2020, and April 28, 2020, were included; hospital and multisystem outcomes were evaluated. Data were collected from electronic records. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300 during admission and bilateral radiographic pulmonary opacities. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for available confounders were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 235 patients were included. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 5 (3-8), and the median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 was 208 (146-300) with 86.4% of patients meeting criteria for ARDS. The median (IQR) follow-up was 92 (86-99) days, and the median ICU length of stay was 16 (8-25) days; 62.1% of patients were proned, 49.8% required neuromuscular blockade, and 3.4% required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The most common complications were shock (88.9%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (69.8%), secondary bacterial pneumonia (70.6%), and pressure ulcers (51.1%). As of July 8, 2020, 175 patients (74.5%) were discharged alive (61.7% to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility), 58 (24.7%) died in the hospital, and only 2 patients were still hospitalized, but out of the ICU. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), higher median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), elevated creatine kinase of ≥1,000 U/L at hospital admission (OR, 6.64; 95% CI, 1.51-29.17), and severe ARDS (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.18-23.29) independently predicted hospital mortality.Comorbidities, steroids, and hydroxychloroquine treatment did not predict mortality. CONCLUSION: We present here the outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Age, acuity of disease, and severe ARDS predicted mortality rather than comorbidities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Gravidade do Paciente , Injúria Renal Aguda/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Bacteriana/virologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Decúbito Ventral , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Choque/virologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Surg Res ; 264: 117-123, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis is a common reason for emergency general surgery admission. The declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic may have resulted in treatment delays and corresponding increases in severity of disease. This study compared cholecystitis admissions and disease severity pre- and postdeclaration of pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of adult acute cholecystitis admissions (January 1,2020-May 31, 2020). Corresponding time periods in 2018 and 2019 comprised the historical control. Difference-in-differences analysis compared biweekly cholecystitis admissions pre- and postdeclaration in 2020 to the historical control. Odds of increased severity of disease presentation were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Cholecystitis admissions decreased 48.7% from 5.2 to 2.67 cases (RR 0.51 [0.28,0.96], P = 0.04) following pandemic declaration when comparing 2020 to historical control (P = 0.02). After stratifying by severity, only Tokyo I admissions declined significantly postdeclaration (RR 0.42 [0.18,0.97]), when compared to historical control (P = 0.02). There was no change in odds of presenting with severe disease after the pandemic declaration (aOR 1.00 [95% CI 0.30, 3.38] P < 0.99) despite significantly longer lengths of symptoms reported in mild cases. CONCLUSIONS: Postpandemic declaration we experienced a significant decrease in cholecystitis admissions without corresponding increases in disease severity. The pandemic impacted healthcare-seeking behaviors, with fewer mild presentations. Given that the pandemic did not increase odds of presenting with increased severity of disease, our data suggests that not all mild cases of cholecystitis progress to worsening disease and some may resolve without medical or surgical intervention.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Colecistite/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Colecistite/epidemiologia , Colecistite/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...