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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130566, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303208

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of LED illumination on the inactivation of Rhizopus stolonifer and Botrytis cinerea on strawberries and physicochemical properties of the strawberries. Twelve days of illumination resulted in an antifungal effect of 3.4 and 1.9 log CFU/g on R. stolonifer and B. cinerea respectively. The illumination caused no significant effect (P ≥ 0.05) on the mass, color and texture of strawberries. Furthermore, total phenolic content, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content of the illuminated strawberries significantly increased (P < 0.05). Vitamin C content of illuminated strawberries was only significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control starting from Day 9. These results show that 405 nm LED illumination can potentially complement temperature and humidity control in preventing mold spoilage and preserving physicochemical quality of strawberries during refrigerated storage.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Botrytis , Frutas , Rhizopus , Tecnologia
2.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 24(1): 30-40, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608720

RESUMO

In higher plants, Zn nutritional imbalance can affect growth, physiology and response to stress, with effect variable depending on host-pathogen interaction. Mechanisms through which Zn operates are not yet well known. The hormone salicylic acid (SA) can affect plant ion uptake, transport and defence responses. Thus, in this study the impact of Zn imbalance and SA co-supply on severity of infection with the necrotrophic fungal pathogen B. cinerea or the biotroph G. cichoracearum was assessed in A. thaliana Col-0. Spectrophotometric assays for pigments and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as a marker of lipid peroxidation, plant defensin 1.2 gene expression by semi-quantitative PCR, callose visualization by fluorescence microscopy and diseases evaluation by macro- and microscopic observations were carried out. Zinc plant concentration varied with the supplied dose. In comparison with the control, Zn-deficit or Zn-excess led to reduced chlorophyll content and PDF 1.2 transcripts induction. In Zn-deficient plants, where MDA increased, also the susceptibility to B. cinerea increased, whereas MDA decreased in G. cichoracearum. Zinc excess increased susceptibility to both pathogens. Co-administration of SA positively affected MDA level, callose deposition, PDF 1.2 transcripts and plant response to the two pathogens. The increased susceptibility to B. cinerea in both Zn-deficient and Zn-excess plants could be related to lack of induction of PDF 1.2 transcripts; oxidative stress could explain higher susceptibility to the necrotroph and lower susceptibility to the biotroph in Zn-deficient plants. This research shows that an appropriate evaluation of Zn supply according to the prevalent stress factor is desirable for plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Botrytis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estilo de Vida , Oxilipinas , Doenças das Plantas , Ácido Salicílico , Zinco
3.
Phytochemistry ; 193: 113003, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763222

RESUMO

Botrytis cinerea has high potential for the production of specialized metabolites. The recent resequencing of the genome of the B05.10 strain using PacBio technology and the resulting update of the Ensembl Fungi (2017) database in the genome sequence have been instrumental in identifying new genes that could be involved in secondary metabolism. Thus, a new sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) coding gene (Bcstc7) has been included in the gene list from this phytopathogenic fungus. We recently constructed the null and complement transformants in STC7 which enabled us to functionally characterize this STC. Deletion of the Bcstc7 gene abolished (+)-4-epi-eremophilenol biosynthesis, and could then be re-established by complementing the null mutant with the Bcstc7 gene. Chemical analysis of the complemented transformant suggests that STC7 is the principal enzyme responsible for the key cyclization step of farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) to (+)-4-epi-eremophil-9-en-11-ols. A thorough analysis of the metabolites produced by two wild-type strains, B05.10 and UCA992, and the complemented mutant complΔBcstc7niaD, revealed the isolation and structural characterization of six 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophilene derivatives, in addition to a large number of known eremophilen-11-ol derivatives. The structural characterization was carried out by extensive spectroscopic techniques. The biosynthesis of these compounds is explained by a retroaldol reaction or by dehydration and oxidative cleavage of C11-C13 carbons. This is the first time that this interesting family of degraded eremophilenols has been isolated from the phytopathogenous fungus B. cinerea.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Doenças das Plantas , Botrytis/genética , Metabolismo Secundário
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7913950, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970627

RESUMO

Trichoderma spp. are widely distributed in natural habitats and have been evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent (BCA) for disease control and plant growth promotion. In this study, 1308 Trichoderma strains were obtained from the plant rhizosphere soil, above-ground plants, and decaying wood from natural habitats in China. Among them, 49 Trichoderma strains showed a good inhibitory effect, especially against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with inhibition rate above 85% in the dual culture test. Among these 49 strains, the 13 strains with broad-spectrum inhibitory effects also significantly promoted the seed germination of five crops (rice, cucumber, tomato, melon, and pakchoi) and root growth of four crop seedlings (watermelon, tomato, eggplant, and chili). Furthermore, these strains showed effective colonization in the rhizosphere and root of cucumber. Trichoderma strains SC012 and NX043 showed the highest chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase activity among all strains. Based on the morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1 (tef1), twelve Trichoderma strains were identified as Trichoderma asperellum and one as Trichoderma afroharzianum. This study suggests that the 13 Trichoderma strains are promising BCAs and could be developed as biofertilizers and biological pesticides for agricultural applications.


Assuntos
Hypocreales/classificação , Hypocreales/isolamento & purificação , Agricultura/métodos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Botrytis/genética , Botrytis/isolamento & purificação , China , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Hypocreales/genética , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(51): 15521-15529, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928597

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is one of the most important molecular targets for the development of new fungicides. Carboxamide fungicides are a class of SDH inhibitors widely used to inhibit highly destructive plant pathogens. Although cases of resistance have been found in fungal pathogens due to the unrestricted use in recent years, there is still demand for new compounds with improved fungicidal activity. Therefore, a series of ester compounds were designed to investigate potential novel antifungal molecules. First, the antifungal activity of different benzyl alcohol compounds (A1-A21) was tested, and a highly active fragment (3,5-dichlorobenzyl alcohol) was found. Subsequently, various compounds were synthesized by esterification between different acids and 3,5-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, among which compound 5 exhibited remarkable antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani with EC50 values of 6.60 and 1.61 mg/L, respectively, which were comparable to those of commercial fungicide boscalid (EC50 = 1.24 and 1.01 mg/L). In vivo testing further demonstrated that compound 5 was effective in suppressing B. cinerea (200 mg/L, 50.9%). Moreover, SDH inhibition assays, fluorescence quenching analysis, and determination of mitochondrial membrane potential revealed that compound 5 has similar effects to boscalid. Furthermore, the fungicidal activity of target compounds can be maintained by modifying the amide bond to an ester bond. These results will provide basis for the development of novel fungicides.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Fungicidas Industriais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis/metabolismo , Ésteres , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(45): 13448-13459, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748325

RESUMO

Diversity of pesticide discovery provided a solution to resistance. Here, we presented a strategy of azo-incorporating to promote the diverse developments of fungicide. A series of novel fungicides were synthesized by incorporating azobenzene derivatives into fluxapyroxad. Much better in vitro fungicidal activity increases for compound 9d were observed compared to the positive control, fluxapyroxad against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. Compound 9d (IC50 = 0.03 µM) also had a great enzyme-inhibiting activity increase toward succinate dehydrogenase in comparison with fluxapyroxad (IC50 = 4.40 µM). A comparatively equivalent biological activity was observed between compounds 8a and 9d. SEM analysis helped us to observe clearly the morphology of the fungi before and after active ingredient delivery. Our results of molecular docking analysis, fluorescence quenching analysis, and enzymatic assays demonstrated that compound 8a and 9d act on SDH. An increase in inhibitory activity could be occurring after incorporation of azobenzene, which provided a new strategy for molecular design in pesticide discovery.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Botrytis , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Rhizoctonia/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12156-12170, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623798

RESUMO

Enlightened from our previous work of structural simplification of quinine and innovative application of natural products against phytopathogenic fungi, lead structure 2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4-quinolinol (3) was selected to be a candidate and its diversified design, synthesis, and antifungal evaluation were carried out. All of the synthesized compounds Aa1-Db1 were evaluated for their antifungal activity against four agriculturally important fungi, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results showed that compounds Ac3, Ac4, Ac7, Ac9, Ac12, Bb1, Bb10, Bb11, Bb13, Cb1. and Cb3 exhibited a good antifungal effect, especially Ac12 had the most potent activity with EC50 values of 0.52 and 0.50 µg/mL against S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea, respectively, which were more potent than those of the lead compound 3 (1.72 and 1.89 µg/mL) and commercial fungicides azoxystrobin (both >30 µg/mL) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (2.12 and 5.28 µg/mL). Moreover, compound Ac12 displayed excellent in vivo antifungal activity, which was comparable in activity to the commercial fungicide boscalid. The preliminary mechanism revealed that compound Ac12 might cause an abnormal morphology of cell membranes, an increase in membrane permeability, and release of cellular contents. These results indicated that compound Ac12 displayed superior in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activities and could be a potential fungicidal candidate against plant fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Hidroxiquinolinas , Quinolinas , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Botrytis , Fungos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Quinina , Rhizoctonia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 359: 109427, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655922

RESUMO

In recent years, photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has emerged as a promising preservation method to complement refrigeration in the fresh produce supply chain. However, due to infrastructural limitations in the supply chain, fresh produce is often exposed to environmental conditions rather than recommended storage conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the influence of two important environmental variables in the fresh produce supply chain - temperature and relative humidity (RH), on the PDI of fruit spoilage molds. It also aimed to demonstrate proof-of-concept of their inactivation on fruit surfaces. In the in vitro stage, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, the two molds selected for this study, were illuminated with 405 nm LEDs on Dichloran Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar at three levels of temperature (7, 16 and 25 °C) and relative humidity (40, 60 and 80%). Illumination under these conditions caused reductions greater than 94% in the mold populations, at all temperatures and relative humidities. Even so, a temperature of 25 °C was observed to be marginally better for the inactivation as compared to 7 and 16 °C, as it necessitated the lowest dose (6-7 kJ) for the first log reduction of both the molds. Similarly, an RH of 40% worked slightly better for the inactivation of B. cinerea, as it induced inactivation without any lag phase and required the lowest dose (8.03 kJ) for the first log reduction. When the antifungal effect was investigated on fruit surfaces, it was discovered that the illumination reduced the populations of B. cinerea and R. stolonifer on strawberries by 67% and 19%, whereas on tomatoes, the respective inactivations were 79% and 70% respectively. These results demonstrate further promise of PDI as a postharvest technology for reducing the risk of fruit spoilage. This study is also the first to demonstrate the potential of PDI to add value to supply chains where compliance to ideal storage conditions is not feasible.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Lycopersicon esculentum , Antifúngicos , Botrytis , Frutas , Umidade , Rhizopus , Temperatura
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(12): 4115-4126, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668992

RESUMO

Grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea leads to severe economic loss on commercial tomato production. Application of beneficial microorganism offers an eco-friendly alternative for mitigation of tomato fungal disease damage, considering negative influences of fungicides. In the present study, an antagonistic Trichoderma afroharzianum isolate TM24 was evaluated for its biocontrol potential on tomato grey mould. The isolate TM24 showed obviously antagonistic effect on B. cinerea mycelium growth and production of glucanase and chitinase. Leaf spraying with spore suspension of isolate TM24 showed a biocontrol efficiency of over 54% against tomato grey mould in greenhouse pot experiment. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes including polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase were all increased to varying degrees in tomato leaves after isolate TM24 treatment. Transcriptome analysis showed that, a total of 1941, 1753 and 38 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained at 24, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively, in tomato leaves pretreated with T. afroharzianum TM24, and then challenged with B. cinerea inoculation. The DEGs were mainly enriched in MAPK signaling pathway and plant hormones signal transduction pathway. Multiple genes that regulated crucial nodes of defense-related pathways, like flavonoid, phenylpropanoid, jasmonic acid and ethylene metabolisms were also identified, which may have positive correlations with the biocontrol potential of isolate TM24 in tomato plants. These promising results provided valuable information on using T. afroharzianum TM24 as a beneficial biocontrol agent in tomato grey mould management.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Trichoderma , Botrytis , Hypocreales , Doenças das Plantas
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639149

RESUMO

Fungal enzymes degrading the plant cell wall, such as xylanases, can activate plant immune responses. The Fusarium graminearum FGSG_03624 xylanase, previously shown to elicit necrosis and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in wheat, was investigated for its ability to induce disease resistance. To this aim, we transiently and constitutively expressed an enzymatically inactive form of FGSG_03624 in tobacco and Arabidopsis, respectively. The plants were challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci or pv. maculicola and Botrytis cinerea. Symptom reduction by the bacterium was evident, while no reduction was observed after B. cinerea inoculation. Compared to the control, the presence of the xylanase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants did not alter the basal expression of a set of defense-related genes, and, after the P. syringae inoculation, a prolonged PR1 expression was detected. F. graminearum inoculation experiments of durum wheat spikes exogenously treated with the FGSG_03624 xylanase highlighted a reduction of symptoms in the early phases of infection and a lower fungal biomass accumulation than in the control. Besides, callose deposition was detected in infected spikes previously treated with the xylanase and not in infected control plants. In conclusion, our results highlight the ability of FGSG_03624 to enhance plant immunity, thus decreasing disease severity.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fusarium/enzimologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Tabaco/imunologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639194

RESUMO

Humulus lupulus Linn. is a traditional medicinal and edible plant with several biological properties. The aims of this work were: (1) to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of H. lupulus ethanolic extract; (2) to study the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of isoxanthohumol, an isoprene flavonoid from H. lupulus, against Botrytis cinerea; and (3) to explore the antifungal mechanism of isoxanthohumol on B. cinerea. The present data revealed that the ethanolic extract of H. lupulus exhibited moderate antifungal activity against the five tested phytopathogenic fungi in vitro, and isoxanthohumol showed highly significant antifungal activity against B. cinerea, with an EC50 value of 4.32 µg/mL. Meanwhile, it exhibited moderate to excellent protective and curative efficacies in vivo. The results of morphologic observation, RNA-seq, and physiological indicators revealed that the antifungal mechanism of isoxanthohumol is mainly related to metabolism; it affected the carbohydrate metabolic process, destroyed the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and hindered the generation of ATP by inhibiting respiration. Further studies indicated that isoxanthohumol caused membrane lipid peroxidation, thus accelerating the death of B. cinerea. This study demonstrates that isoxanthohumol can be used as a potential botanical fungicide for the management of phytopathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humulus/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684746

RESUMO

(+)-Catechin-laccase oxidation dimeric standards were hemi-synthesized using laccase from Trametes versicolor in a water-ethanol solution at pH 3.6. Eight fractions corresponding to eight potential oxidation dimeric products were detected. The fractions profiles were compared with profiles obtained with two other oxidoreductases: polyphenoloxidase extracted from grapes and laccase from Botrytis cinerea. The profiles were very similar, although some minor differences suggested possible dissimilarities in the reactivity of these enzymes. Five fractions were then isolated and analyzed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The addition of traces of cadmium nitrate in the samples solubilized in acetone-d6 led to fully resolved NMR signals of phenolic protons, allowing the unambiguous structural determination of six reaction products, one of the fractions containing two enantiomers. These products can further be used as oxidation markers to investigate their presence and evolution in wine during winemaking and wine ageing.


Assuntos
Catequina/química , Lacase/química , Vitis/química , Biomarcadores , Botrytis/enzimologia , Botrytis/metabolismo , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Oxirredução , Fenóis , Polyporaceae/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trametes/enzimologia , Vitis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11781-11793, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582205

RESUMO

Plant pathogenic fungi seriously affect agricultural production and are difficult to control. The discovery of new leads based on natural products is an important way to innovate fungicides. In this study, 30 natural-product-based magnolol derivatives were synthesized and characterized on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopy. Bioactivity tests on phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in vitro of these compounds were performed systematically. The results showed that 11 compounds were active against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi with EC50 values in the range of 1.40-20.00 µg/mL, especially compound L5 that exhibited excellent antifungal properties against B. cinerea with an EC50 value of 2.86 µg/mL, approximately 2.8-fold more potent than magnolol (EC50 = 8.13 µg/mL). Moreover, compound L6 showed the highest antifungal activity against F. graminearum and Rhophitulus solani with EC50 values of 4.39 and 1.40 µg/mL, respectively, and compound L7 showed good antifungal activity against S. sclerotiorum. Then, an in vivo experiment of compound L5 against B. cinerea was further investigated in vivo using infected tomatoes (curative effect, 50/200 and 36%/100 µg/mL). The physiological and biochemical studies illustrated that the primary action mechanism of compound L5 on B. cinerea might change the mycelium morphology, increase cell membrane permeability, and destroy the function of mitochondria. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that hydroxyl groups play a key role in antifungal activity. To sum up, this study provides a reference for understanding the application of magnolol-based antifungal agents in crop protection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Fungicidas Industriais , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Compostos de Bifenilo , Botrytis , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium , Lignanas , Estrutura Molecular , Rhizoctonia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576221

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function in nematodes. Fatty acid and retinol binding protein (FAR) is a protein that only exists in nematodes and plays an important role in their life activities. The rice white-tip nematode (RWTN), Aphelenchoides besseyi, is a migratory endoparasitic plant nematode that causes serious damage in agricultural production. In this study, the expression levels of eight RWTN genes were effectively decreased when RWTN was fed Ab-far-n (n: 1-8) hairpin RNA transgenic Botrytis cinerea (ARTBn). These functions of the far gene family were identified to be consistent and diverse through phenotypic changes after any gene was silenced. Such consistency indicates that the body lengths of the females were significantly shortened after silencing any of the eight Ab-far genes. The diversities were mainly manifested as follows: (1) Reproduction of nematodes was clearly inhibited after Ab-far-1 to Ab-far-4 were silenced. In addition, silencing Ab-far-2 could inhibit the pathogenicity of nematodes to Arabidopsis; (2) gonad length of female nematodes was significantly shortened after Ab-far-2 and Ab-far-4 were silenced; (3) proportion of male nematodes significantly increased in the adult population after Ab-far-1, Ab-far-3, and Ab-far-5 were silenced, whereas the proportion of adult nematodes significantly decreased in the nematode population after Ab-far-4 were silenced. (4) Fat storage of nematodes significantly decreased after Ab-far-3, Ab-far-4, and Ab-far-7 were silenced. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that Ab-far genes affect sex formation and lipid metabolism in nematodes, which provides valuable data for further study and control of RWTNs.


Assuntos
Botrytis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Nematoides/metabolismo , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/genética , Transcriptoma
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520340

RESUMO

The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of devastating gray mold diseases in many economically important fruits, vegetables, and flowers, leading to serious economic losses worldwide. In this study, a novel actinomycete NEAU-LD23T exhibiting antifungal activity against B. cinerea was isolated, and its taxonomic position was evaluated using a polyphasic approach. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, it is concluded that the strain represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces botrytidirepellens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-LD23T (=CCTCC AA 2019029T=DSM 109824T). In addition, strain NEAU-LD23T showed a strong antagonistic effect against B. cinerea (82.6±2.5%) and varying degrees of inhibition on nine other phytopathogenic fungi. Both cell-free filtrate and methanol extract of mycelia of strain NEAU-LD23T significantly inhibited mycelial growth of B. cinerea. To preliminarily explore the antifungal mechanisms, the genome of strain NEAU-LD23T was sequenced and analyzed. AntiSMASH analysis led to the identification of several gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites with antifungal activity, including 9-methylstreptimidone, echosides, anisomycin, coelichelin and desferrioxamine B. Overall, this research provided us an excellent strain with considerable potential to use for biological control of tomato gray mold.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Streptomyces , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Botrytis , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptomyces/genética
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10678-10687, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468130

RESUMO

Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of tea tree oil, markedly increases the disease resistance of postharvest strawberry fruit. To understand the mechanism underlying the enhancement of disease resistance, a high-throughput RNA-seq was used to analyze gene transcription in terpinen-4-ol-treated and untreated fruit. The results show that terpinen-4-ol induces the expression of genes in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis pathway, secondary metabolic pathways such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and pathways involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Terpinen-4-ol treatment reduced disease incidence and lesion diameter in strawberry fruit inoculated with Botrytis cinerea. Terpinen-4-ol treatment enhanced the expression of genes involved in JA synthesis (FaLOX, FaAOC, and FaOPR3) and signaling (FaCOI1), as well as genes related to disease defense (FaPAL, FaCHI, and FaGLU). In contrast, treatment with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) accelerated disease development and inhibited the induction of gene expressions by terpinen-4-ol. We conclude that the JA pathway participates in the induction of disease resistance by terpinen-4-ol in strawberry fruit. More generally, the results illuminate the mechanisms by which disease resistance is enhanced by essential oils.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Fragaria , Ciclopentanos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Oxilipinas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Terpenos
17.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(10): 1309-1321, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562236

RESUMO

The initial objective of our work was to synthesize a series of 2-amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles to be tested for their antifungal activities against economically relevant phytopathogenic fungi. Fourteen compounds were prepared in up to 94% yield and shown percentages of Botrytis cinerea inhibition above 70%. Despite the promising biological results, we observed that stock solutions prepared for biological tests showed color changing when kept for a few days on the laboratory bench, under room conditions, illuminated by common LED daylight tubes (4500-6000 k). This prompted us to investigate the possible photo-induced degradation of our compounds. FT-IR ATR experiments evidenced variations in the expected bands for functional of -amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles stored under LED daylight. Following, HPLC-UV analysis showed reductions in the intensity of chromatographic peaks of 2-amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles, and but not for solutions kept in the dark. A solution of (E)-2-amino-8-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile underwent 84.4% of conversion after 72 h of exposure to continuous LED daylight in a BOD chamber, and the reaction product was isolated in 36% yield and characterized as (E)-7-cyano-5-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-8-(4-nitrophenyl)bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-1(6)-ene-7-carboxamide (7*). Despite freshly prepared solutions of 2-amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles produced antifungal activities, these solutions lost biological activity when left on the bench for a week. Besides, compound 7* formed from photo-induced degradation of 7 also showed no antifungal activity. With this, we hope to bring two contributions: (1) production of cyclobutenes through photochemical reactions of 2-amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles can be carried out through exposure to simple white LED daylight; (2) biological applications of such 2-amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles may be impaired by their poor photostability.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Piranos/química , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Conformação Molecular , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Piranos/síntese química , Piranos/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 366-375, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404007

RESUMO

Polyploid plants often show improved resistance against many diseases, but whether they show increased resistance to grey mould, a devastating disease caused by Botrytis spp. fungi, is seldom reported. Stomata and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play dual roles in defence against grey mould, and it is unclear how their roles change after polyploidization. We addressed these questions in diploid and colchicine-induced Lilium rosthornii after B. elliptica infection. Tetraploids were less susceptible to grey mould, with lower morality rates in naturally infected plants. Before the stomata closed in artificially infected leaves, tetraploids, with larger stomatal apertures, were more easily invaded by the pathogen than diploids. However, the lesion area increased more slowly in tetraploids than in diploids, which may be explained by three causes based on histological and physiological characteristics. First, the pathogen required more time to penetrate the epidermis and closed stomata in tetraploids than in diploids. Second, the pathogen penetrated the reopened stomata more easily than the epidermis, and stomatal density was lower in tetraploids than in diploids. Third, tetraploids showed faster ROS accumulation, a more effective ROS-scavenging system and less malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation than diploids. Stomatal starch and abnormal guard cell nuclei were present in the infected leaves. This phenomenon may be caused by oxalic acid, a pathogenic factor for many pathogens that promotes stomatal starch degradation and stomatal reopening in Sclerotinia spp., a pathogen closely related to Botrytis spp. This suggestion was primarily confirmed by immersing healthy leaves in oxalic acid solution.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Lilium , Diploide , Lilium/genética , Estômatos de Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tetraploidia
19.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361545

RESUMO

In this study, using the botanical active component thiochromanone as the lead compound, a total of 32 new thiochromanone derivatives containing a carboxamide moiety were designed and synthesized and their in vitro antibacterial activities against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicolaby (Xoc), and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) were determined, as well as their in vitro antifungal activities against Botryosphaeria dothidea (B. dothidea), Phomopsis sp., and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea). Bioassay results demonstrated that some of the target compounds exhibited moderate to good in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. In particular, compound 4e revealed excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against Xoo, Xoc, and Xac, and its EC50 values of 15, 19, and 23 µg/mL, respectively, were superior to those of Bismerthiazol and Thiodiazole copper. Meanwhile, compound 3b revealed moderate in vitro antifungal activity against B. dothidea at 50 µg/mL, and the inhibition rate reached 88%, which was even better than that of Pyrimethanil, however, lower than that of Carbendazim. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of this series of novel thiochromanone derivatives containing a carboxamide moiety.


Assuntos
Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromanos , Phomopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Xanthomonas axonopodis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Xanthomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cromanos/síntese química , Cromanos/química , Cromanos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361746

RESUMO

New agricultural strategies aim to reduce the use of pesticides due to their damage to the environment and humans, and the caused resistance to pathogens. Therefore, alternative sources of antifungal compounds from plants are under investigation lately. Extracts from plants have a wide composition of chemical compounds which may complicate the development of pathogen resistance. Botrytis cinerea, causing grey mould, is an important horticultural and ornamental pathogen, responsible for the relevant yield and quality losses. B. cinerea isolated from a different plant host may differ in the sensitivity to antifungal substances from plants. Assessing the importance of research covering a wide range of pathogens for the rapid development of biopesticides, this study aims to determine the sensitivity of the B. cinerea isolate complex (10 strains) to plant extracts, describe morphological changes caused by the extract treatment, and detect differences between the sensitivity of different plant host isolates. The results showed the highest sensitivity of the B. cinerea isolates complex to cinnamon extract, and the lowest to laurel extract. In contrast, laurel extract caused the most changes of morphological attributes in the isolates. Five B. cinerea isolates from plant hosts of raspberry, cabbage, apple, bell pepper, and rose were grouped statistically according to their sensitivity to laurel extract. Meanwhile, the bell pepper isolate separated from the isolate complex based on its sensitivity to clove extract, and the strawberry and apple isolates based on their sensitivity to cinnamon extract.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/isolamento & purificação , Brassica/microbiologia , Capsicum/microbiologia , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Fragaria/microbiologia , Humanos , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/isolamento & purificação , Malus/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Syzygium/química , Vitis/microbiologia
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