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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 410, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are two genetically distinct subspecies of cattle, Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus, which arose from independent domestication events. The two types of cattle show substantial phenotypic differences, some of which emerge during fetal development and are reflected in birth outcomes, including birth weight. We explored gene expression profiles in the placenta and four fetal tissues at mid-gestation from one taurine (Bos taurus taurus; Angus) and one indicine (Bos taurus indicus; Brahman) breed and their reciprocal crosses. RESULTS: In total 120 samples were analysed from a pure taurine breed, an indicine breed and their reciprocal cross fetuses, which identified 6456 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two pure breeds in at least one fetal tissue of which 110 genes were differentially expressed in all five tissues examined. DEGs shared across tissues were enriched for pathways related to immune and stress response functions. Only the liver had a substantial number of DEGs when reciprocal crossed were compared among which 310 DEGs were found to be in common with DEGs identified between purebred livers; these DEGs were significantly enriched for metabolic process GO terms. Analysis of DEGs across purebred and crossbred tissues suggested an additive expression pattern for most genes, where both paternal and maternal alleles contributed to variation in gene expression levels. However, expression of 5% of DEGs in each tissue was consistent with parent of origin effects, with both paternal and maternal dominance effects identified. CONCLUSIONS: These data identify candidate genes potentially driving the tissue-specific differences between these taurine and indicine breeds and provide a biological insight into parental genome effects underlying phenotypic differences in bovine fetal development.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Domesticação , Impressão Genômica , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Gravidez
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147086, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088114

RESUMO

Determining the source of fecal contamination in a water body is important for the application of appropriate remediation measures. However, it has been suggested in the extant literature that this can best be achieved using a 'toolbox' of molecular- and culture-based methods. In response, this study deployed three indicators (Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC)), one culture-dependent human marker (Bacteroides (GB-124) bacteriophage) and five culture-independent markers (human adenovirus (HAdV), human (HMMit), cattle (CWMit), pig (PGMit) and poultry (PLMit) mitochondrial DNA markers (mtDNA)) within the River Tagus catchment (n = 105). Water samples were collected monthly over a 13-month sampling campaign at four sites (impacted by significant specific human and non-human inputs and influenced by differing degrees of marine and freshwater mixing) to determine the dominant fecal inputs and assess geographical, temporal, and meteorological (precipitation, UV, temperature) fluctuations. Our results revealed that all sampling sites were not only highly impacted by fecal contamination but that this contamination originated from human and from a range of agricultural animal sources. HMMit was present in a higher percentage (83%) and concentration (4.20 log GC/100 mL) than HAdV (32%, 2.23 log GC/100 mL) and GB-124 bacteriophage with the latter being detected once. Animal mtDNA markers were detected, with CWMit found in 73% of samples with mean concentration of 3.74 log GC/100 mL. Correlation was found between concentrations of fecal indicators (EC, IE and SC), CWMit and season. Levels of CWMit were found to be related to physico-chemical parameters, such as temperature and UV radiation, possibly as a result of the increasing presence of livestock outside in warmer months. This study provides the first evaluation of such a source-associated 'toolbox' for monitoring surface water in Portugal, and the conclusions may inform future implementation of surveillance and remediation strategies for improving water quality.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Bacteriófagos , Animais , Bovinos , DNA Mitocondrial , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Portugal , Rios , Suínos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147077, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088125

RESUMO

Animal-based food supply chains lead to significant environmental impacts, which can be influenced by production systems, distribution networks and consumption patterns. To develop strategy aimed at reducing the environmental impact of animal-based food supply chains, the common environmental hotspots among different types of food, the role of transport logistics and the consequence of end market need to be better understood. Life cycle assessment was adopted to model three types of animal-based food chains (beef, butter and salmon), with specific technologies, high spatial-resolution logistics and typical consumption patterns for three markets: local, regional (intra-European) and international. The results confirmed that the farm production stage usually had the greatest environmental impact, except when air transport was used for distribution. Potentially, the role of end market also can significantly influence the environmental impacts. To understand more, three improvement options were examined in detail with regard to hotspots for climate change: novel feed ingredients (farm production stage), sustainable aviation fuel (transport and logistics stage) and reduction of wasted food (consumption and end of life stage). Significant reduction was achieved in the salmon system by sustainable aviation fuel (64%) and novel feed (15%). Minimizing food waste drove the greatest reduction in the beef supply chain (23%) and the international butter supply chain can reduce 50% of GHG mission by adopting sustainable aviation fuel. Combined interventions could reduce GHG emission of animal-based food supply chains by 15% to 82%, depending on market, transport and food waste behaviour. The results show that eco-efficiency information of animal-based foods should include the full supply chain. The effective mitigation strategy to achieve the greatest reduction should not only consider the impacts on-farm, but also detail of the downstream impacts, such as food distribution network and consumption patterns.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Bovinos , Mudança Climática , Cadeia Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097596

RESUMO

A polyphasic approach was applied to investigate the diversity of microbiota that evolved during cold storage beef ripening. Isolate V4/DAB/S4/2aT with a unique BOX-rep-PCR fingerprint profile revealed more than 99 % nucleotide identities upon pairwise comparisons of 16S rDNA sequences from the type strains Pseudomonas versuta DSM 101070T, Pseudomonas saxonica DSM 108989T, Pseudomonas deceptionensis DSM 26521T and Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis DSM 29166T, placing it within the Pseudomonas fragi / lundensis branch of the genus Pseudomonas. Additional rpoB based comparison revealed P. versuta DSM 101070T as the nearest relative, with 98.5 % nucleotide identity. Calculation of ANIb values of the V4/DAB/S4/2aT draft genome identified P. versuta DSM 101070T with 90.1 %, P. deceptionensis DSM 26521T with 85.1 %, P. fragi DSM 3456T with 84.4 %, Pseudomonas psychrophila DSM 17535T and Pseudomonas bubulae DSM 107389T with 84.2 % similarities each. Pairwise genome-to-genome distance calculations [digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH)] resulted in values of 47.1, 35.1, 34.8, 34.2 and 34.1 %, respectively. A second isolate was detected years later in ground beef and showed ANIb values of 99.3 % and dDDH of 96.1 % relatedness to V4/DAB/S4/2aT. The DNA G+C content was 58.6 mol% for both isolates. The predominant cellular fatty acids of V4/DAB/S4/2aT were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c, C17 : 0 cyclo and a summed feature containing C16 : 1ω7c and/or C15 : 0 iso 2-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol, the major respiratory quinone was Q9, with a small portion of Q8. The combined data on genotypic and phenotypic features support the proposal of a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas paraversuta sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is V4/DAB/S4/2aT (=DSM 111361T=LMG 31844T) and a second isolate is UBT376 (=DSM 111360=LMG 31845).


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Bovinos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Alemanha , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
5.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112128, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082945

RESUMO

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, currently, more than 250,000 total hip replacements annually in the US alone, with an estimated increase to 500,000 by the year 2030. The usage of tapered junctions between the femoral neck and head gives the surgeon flexibility in implant assembly. However, these modular junctions are subjected to micro-motion that may cause chemical and fretting-corrosion at the modular junction. Therefore, it is imperative to study these forces to mitigate their effects. The current study aims to understand the effects of fretting-corrosion as a function of fretting frequencies caused by common physical activities in an in-vitro model of hip modular junctions. The fretting system has a tribological contact condition of flat-on-flat, mounted to a load frame. CoCrMo pins were polished and immersed in a synovial fluid-like electrolyte solution (Bovine calf serum 30 g/l). Electrochemical measurements were made using a potentiostat. Samples then undergo 3600 cycles at 50 µm (to simulate gross slips), with a horizontal load at 200 N, and a frequency of 0.5 Hz, 0.7 Hz, 1 Hz, and 1.5 Hz to simulate Sit Down-Stand Up, Stair Climb, Walking, and Jogging, respectively. Worn surfaces were then examined under optical and scanning electron microscopy. The evolution of free potential as a function of time for tested frequencies shows the initial potential drop and stabilized trend in the potential evolution. The sample group at a higher frequency displays a higher tendency of corrosion than a lower frequency; however, the dissipation energy decreases as a function of fretting frequency. Both electrochemical and mechanical responses correlate to the variation in the fretting frequencies. Organometallic complexes were found on the surfaces of the samples that were subjected to a slower frequency of fretting, whereas mechanical grooving was noticed on samples with a faster frequency. Hence, these preliminary studies suggest that implant failure rates may be altered based on fretting-frequencies induced by physical activity. Further studies will be required to verify the findings and explore the potential role of fretting frequency in the damage modes of the modular junction.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Animais , Bovinos , Corrosão , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112147, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082958

RESUMO

Low proliferation capacity of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) and worldwide limitations in transplantable donor tissues reveal the critical need of a robust approach for in vitro CEC growth. However, preservation of CEC-specific phenotype with increased proliferation has been a great challenge. Here we offer a biomimetic cell substrate design, by optimizing mechanical, topographical and biochemical characteristics of materials with CEC microenvironment. We showed the surprising similarity between topographical features of white rose petals and corneal endothelium due to hexagonal cell shapes and physiologically relevant cell density (≈ 2000 cells/mm2). Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with replica of white rose petal topography and cornea-friendly Young's modulus (211.85 ± 74.9 kPa) were functionalized with two of the important corneal extracellular matrix (ECM) components, collagen IV (COL 4) and hyaluronic acid (HA). White rose petal patterned and COL 4 modified PDMS with optimized stiffness provided enhanced bovine CEC response with higher density monolayers and increased phenotypic marker expression. This biomimetic approach demonstrates a successful platform to improve in vitro cell substrate properties of PDMS for corneal applications, suggesting an alternative environment for CEC-based therapies, drug toxicity investigations, microfluidics and organ-on-chip applications.


Assuntos
Rosa , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Células Endoteliais , Epitélio Posterior
7.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1204-1207, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to show the effectiveness of the cultural method in the diagnosis of babesiosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study material was the blood from 10 healthy humans and animals, 30 humans with borreliosis, 41 animals with babesiosis. A cultural research method was used. RESULTS: Results: The use of cultural method contributed to the optimization of the etiopathogenetic diagnosis of babesiosis. The method objectively proved the ability of protozoa (Babesia spp.) to asexual reproduction in vitro on the multicomponent growth medium with erythrocytes; proved the role of erythrocytes as acceptable for Babesia spp. of target cells. Absolute and relative parameters of detection of Babesia spp. by cultural method in the blood samples of the groups of the examined persons/species were different, making on average 19.7% (with the highest rates among the domestic dogs (62.5%) and cattle (20.0%)). Negative result (0%) was identified among the patients with borreliosis. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Detection of Babesia spp. by the cultural method objectively confirmed its value as an apparent laboratory criterion for the etiopathogenetic diagnosis of babesiosis.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Animais , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Bovinos , Cães , Eritrócitos , Humanos
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237869, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105674

RESUMO

Reproductive diseases have been well documented in domestic livestock such as sheep, goat, cattle and pigs. However, there is very little information on these diseases in the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). The agouti is used for its meat in South America and the Caribbean. More recently, intensive farming of this animal is being practiced in the Neotropics. There is dearth of information on dystocia and vaginal prolapses in the agouti. This document reports on three cases of reproductive diseases in captive reared agoutis in Trinidad and Tobago. The first case was a female agouti weighing approximately 3 kg that was in the last stage of pregnancy, which was found dead in its cage. The vulva of the mother had the protruding hind-limbs of the fetus. Necroscopic evaluation of carcass revealed little fat tissue and the mother had two fetuses in the right horn of the uterus. Each fetus weighed approximately 200 g. The fetuses were well formed with fur, teeth and eyes. The placenta was attached to each fetus. The pathological findings suggested that dystocia resulted from secondary uterine inertia which was the cause of death of the adult female agouti. The second case was that of an adult female agouti weighing 2.5 kg. This female had given birth to an offspring three weeks prior and was observed to have had a vaginal prolapse. Surgery was performed and the prolapsed vagina was placed back into the pelvic cavity. Further to this intervention, the vagina prolapsed twice. Subsequent to the re-insertion of the vaginal tissue the agouti was euthanized. The third case was also that of a dystocia. However, the fetuses weighed 235 g and 165 g respectively and were in normal presentation, posture and positioning. The fetus however was unable to pass via the vagina and was trapped in the pelvic cavity. This caused secondary uterine inertia which was the cause of death. The causes of reproductive diseases in these cases are unknown but the feeding management and space allowance given to the agouti in late gestation may be contributing factors.


Assuntos
Dasyproctidae , Animais , Região do Caribe , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Ovinos , América do Sul , Suínos , Trinidad e Tobago
9.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(3): 468-473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the bone collection capacity of bur drill systems used in implant surgery with different diameters, lengths, and drilling speeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed on bovine ribs. Two bur drill systems were studied: Implantium (Dentium) and Straumann (Institut Straumann). The groups were divided into subgroups according to the bur diameter. As a result, there were four Implantium subgroups (3.3, 3.8, 4.3, and 4.8 mm) and three Straumann subgroups (3.3, 4.1, and 4.8 mm). In addition, for each bur diameter, the bone collection capacities of the drill systems were evaluated at three different drilling speeds (150, 250, and 400 rpm) and two bur lengths (10 and 12 mm). The diameter, length, and speed changes were performed, and the results were compared between the two drill systems. RESULTS: The mean bone weight collected by using the Straumann burs was higher than that of the Implantium burs at each drilling speed and bur length. Using the Straumann system, the different drilling speeds/lengths of the burs had no impact on the bone collection capacity, irrespective of the bur diameter (P > .05). However, the drilling speeds/lengths of the Implantium system resulted in a statistically significant difference in the same diameters (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Both bur systems were suitable for autogenous graft collection for bone grafting in implant surgery, but the Straumann burs were more successful than the Implantium burs.


Assuntos
Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Implantes Dentários , Animais , Bovinos , Costelas/cirurgia
10.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(3): 474-484, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the amount of bone expansion, bone density change, and implant primary stability with an osseodensification technique to a conventional drilling protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four bovine rib segments (20 × 25 × 4 mm) with a 1-mm outer layer of cortical bone were randomly divided into two groups: an osseodensification group and a conventional drilling group. Each bone sample received one 4.1 × 10-mm implant. The density of the peri-implant bone before and after osteotomy was measured. After implant placement, primary stability was assessed. A laser surface scanner was used before and after implant placement to compare the dimension of crestal bone width and volumetric expansion. Histomorphometric analysis was performed to compare the bone-to-implant contact percentage (BIC%) of the two groups. RESULTS: The peripheral and apical bone mineral density around the implants was significantly increased, and a statistically significantly higher peripheral BIC% was found in the osseodensification group. A significant increase in volume and bone width after implant placement was found in both groups. However, there were no significant differences in volume and bone width change at all three locations and in implant stability between the osseodensification and conventional drilling protocols. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, the osseodensification protocol increased the bone mineral density and primary bone-to-implant contact. Also, this study suggests that implant placement by osseodensification or conventional drilling can increase ridge dimensions in narrow alveolar ridges.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Osseointegração , Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Processo Alveolar/cirurgia , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Bovinos , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Osteotomia
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 414, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117952

RESUMO

Despite increasing public concern about air and water pollution risks posed by concentrated animal feeding operation areas (CAFOs), there is little information about bioavailability and ecosystem impacts of agrochemicals used to increase productivity. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of wastewaters originating from beef cattle feeding operation on Daphnia pulex. Specifically, we assessed lethal and chronic sublethal exposure effects using various endpoints including survival, oxygen consumption, morphology, reproduction, and swimming behavior. Exposure assessments (acute and chronic) were performed with ten (10) surface water samples collected from on-site retention ponds designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and R (reference site). Surface water samples were diluted to yield five concentrations (stock, 1 × , 2 × , 3 × , and 4 ×) as treatments and deionized water was used as control. Results showed site-specific and concentration-related effects on toxicity endpoints. Among treatments, significant (p < 0.05) increase in mortality rate (for A, E, F, and H) and decreasing total body length and width (for B, C, D, and G) of D. pulex were observed with increasing wastewater concentration. However, treatments did not have significant effect on swimming behavior (average speed) after exposure to the wastewater samples from all sites except for site E. Evidence from this study suggested that surface waters near beef cattle feed yards affected physiological responses in D. pulex and therefore may similarly affect organisms in the surrounding aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agroquímicos , Animais , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130479, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126691

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread, persistent in the environment, and classified as global pollutants. Their presence has been confirmed in various types of food which adversely affect human health when consumed in sufficient amounts. Although milk has advantageous nutritional qualities and there are health benefits associated with its consumption, it could also contain toxic PBDEs. The aim of the study was the determination of the concentrations of ten congeners (BDE -28, -47, -49, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, -183, and 209) in cow's, sheep's, and goat's milk obtained from Polish farms and their determination in infant formula. A total of 103 samples of raw milk and infant formula were tested using an accredited high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method. PBDEs were detected in all analyzed samples, the highest concentration being found in sheep's milk (11.9 ng g-1 fat), and cow's milk containing the least contamination. BDE-209 makes the predominant contribution to the sum of the ten congeners, constituting at least 38%. The profiles of PBDEs were dependent on the milk type and the differences between its varieties are discussed. The highest median concentration of the sum of ten PBDEs (0.473 ng g-1 fat) was determined in infant formula, which was identified as an important source of infants' exposure (5.48 ng kg-1 b.w. day-1 calculated based on P95 concentration). Milk is a source of PBDE in the diet; however, considered in isolation its consumption does not pose a risk to either adults' or children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Animais , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Fórmulas Infantis , Leite Humano/química , Medição de Risco
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4761-4773, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059942

RESUMO

The highly complex raw milk matrix challenges the sample preparation for amplicon-sequencing due to low bacterial counts and high amounts of eukaryotic DNA originating from the cow. In this study, we optimized the extraction of bacterial DNA from raw milk for microbiome analysis and evaluated the impact of cycle numbers in the library-PCR. The selective lysis of eukaryotic cells by proteinase K and digestion of released DNA before bacterial lysis resulted in a high reduction of mostly eukaryotic DNA and increased the proportion of bacterial DNA. Comparative microbiome analysis showed that a combined enzymatic and mechanical lysis procedure using the DNeasy® PowerFood® Microbial Kit with a modified protocol was best suitable to achieve high DNA quantities after library-PCR and broad coverage of detected bacterial biodiversity. Increasing cycle numbers during library-PCR systematically altered results for species and beta-diversity with a tendency to overrepresentation or underrepresentation of particular taxa. To limit PCR bias, high cycle numbers should thus be avoided. An optimized DNA extraction yielding sufficient bacterial DNA and enabling higher PCR efficiency is fundamental for successful library preparation. We suggest that a protocol using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to resolve casein micelles, selective lysis of somatic cells, extraction of bacterial DNA with a combination of mechanical and enzymatic lysis, and restriction of PCR cycles for analysis of raw milk microbiomes is optimal even for samples with low bacterial numbers. KEY POINTS: • Sample preparation for high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of raw milk microbiota. • Reduction of eukaryotic DNA by enzymatic digestion. • Shift of detected microbiome caused by high cycle numbers in library-PCR.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072531

RESUMO

Cytoplasm injection cloning technology (CICT) is an efficient technique for evaluating the developmental potential of cloned embryos. In this study, we investigated the effects of donor cell type on the developmental potential and quality of cloned bovine embryos. Adult fibroblasts (AFs) and embryonic cells (ECs) were used as donor cells to clone bovine embryos using CICT. We initially used AF cells to develop cloned embryos and then cultured the cloned day-8 blastocysts for 10 days to obtain ECs as donor cells for second embryo cloning. We found that the bovine blastocysts cloned using AF cells had significantly reduced developmental rates, embryo quality, and ratios of inner cell mass (ICM) to the total number of cells compared to those using ECs as donor cells. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the DNA methyltransferase-, histone deacetylation-, apoptosis-, and development-related genes at the blastocyst stage in embryos cloned from AFs compared to those in embryos cloned from ECs. Our results suggest that using ECs as donor cells for nuclear transfer enhances the quantity and quality of cloned embryos. However, further investigation is required in terms of determining pregnancy rates and developing cloned embryos from different donor cell types.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular , Clonagem de Organismos , Embrião de Mamíferos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Clonagem de Organismos/métodos , Metilação de DNA , Implantação do Embrião , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doadores de Tecidos
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e000421, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076044

RESUMO

Anaplasma marginale is a vector-borne pathogen that causes a disease known as anaplasmosis. No sequenced genomes of Brazilian strains are yet available. The aim of this work was to compare whole genomes of Brazilian strains of A. marginale (Palmeira and Jaboticabal) with genomes of strains from other regions (USA and Australia strains). Genome sequencing of Brazilian strains was performed by means of next-generation sequencing. Reads were mapped using the genome of the Florida strain of A. marginale as a reference sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (INDELs) were identified. The data showed that two Brazilian strains grouped together in one particular clade, which grouped in a larger American group together with North American strains. Moreover, some important differences in surface proteins between the two Brazilian isolates can be discerned. These results shed light on the evolutionary history of A. marginale and provide the first genome information on South American isolates. Assessing the genome sequences of strains from different regions is essential for increasing knowledge of the pan-genome of this bacteria.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale , Anaplasmose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anaplasma marginale/genética , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Genômica , Filogenia
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e001821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076048

RESUMO

Between December 2016 and April 2017, a spate of abortions occurred in a closed dairy herd from the central eastern region of Paraná, Brazil, in which 75 cows aborted. To identify its cause, organ fragments were collected from an aborted fetus for histopathology, and the blood samples from a stillborn, 4 aborted fetuses, and 9 farm dogs for indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT). These tests found multifocal non-suppurative encephalitis, periportal hepatitis, and multifocal lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis, and detected anti-Neospora antibodies in all aborted fetuses, and in 5 of the 9 dogs. DNA of Neospora caninum was detected in the brain tissue of an aborted fetus. Blood samples of 340 cows and 146 heifers showed 33.5% and 30.8% seropositivity, respectively. In this closed herd, the parasite was probably introduced by infected domesticated or wild carnivores inhabiting the farm, through the infective oocysts present in their stool.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Aborto Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Gravidez
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e025620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076053

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a freshwater snail-borne zoonotic disease. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is a very high altitude endemic area where the highest human prevalences and intensities have been reported. Preventive chemotherapy by treatment campaigns is yearly applied. However, liver fluke infection of cattle, sheep, pigs and donkeys assures endemicity and consequent human infection and re-infection risks. A One Health action has therefore been implemented. Activity concerns lymnaeid vectors and environment diversity. Studies included growth, egg-laying and life span in laboratory-reared lymnaeids. Different habitat types and influencing factors were assessed. All populations proved to belong to Galba truncatula by rDNA sequencing. Analyses comprised physico-chemical characteristics and monthly follow-up of water temperature, pH and quantity, and lymnaeid abundance and density. Population dynamics in the transmission foci differed. Mean environmental temperature was lower than fluke development minimum temperature threshold, but water temperature was higher, except during winter. A two generations/year pattern appeared in permanent water habitats, and one generation/year pattern in habitats drying out for months. The multidisciplinary control measures can be extended from one part of the endemic area to another. These studies, made for the first time at very high altitude, constitute a baseline useful for fascioliasis control in other countries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Ovinos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Biologia , Bolívia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Dinâmica Populacional , Ovinos , Suínos
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e026620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076056

RESUMO

Bioverm® (Duddingtonia flagrans) is a fungal formulation indicated for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and horses, which has recently been authorized for commercialization in Brazil. The objective was to determine the efficiency of Bioverm® against larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. Twelve animals were used, divided into two groups. In the treated group, a single dose of 1 g of Bioverm® per 10 kg of live weight (containing 105 chlamydospores of D. flagrans) was provided for each animal. Fecal samples were obtained from the animals in each group at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours after administration. In assay A, 2 g of feces were added to Petri dishes containing 2% agar-water medium. In assay B, coprocultures were performed. In both assays, the peak of larval predation occurred within 48 hours after administration of Bioverm®. In assay A, a significant larval reduction (P < 0.05) was seen at 48 h (88.2%). In assay B, significant reductions (P < 0.05) were seen at 36 h (43.7%) and 48 h (82.3%). Bioverm® showed high predatory capacity after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and was effective for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes.


Assuntos
Duddingtonia , Nematoides , Animais , Ascomicetos , Brasil , Bovinos , Fezes , Trato Gastrointestinal , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores
19.
J Adhes Dent ; 23(3): 217-222, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the push-out bond strength (PBS) of glass-fiber posts (GFP) in different root canal zones (cervical, middle, and apical), bonded with experimental simplified adhesives (ESAs) containing different initiator systems (camphorquinone [CQ] or phenylpropanodione [PPD]) with or without diphenyl iodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPI), in combination with a DPI-containing composite cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ESA blends were prepared with bisphenol glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEG-DMA), 1,3-glycerol dimethacrylate (GDMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and ethanol, then divided into 12 experimental groups (n = 10) according to the initiator systems (CQ, PPD, or CQ + PPD) and the presence or absence of DPI. The roots of 120 extracted bovine incisors were prepared with #5 Largo drills and the GFP were cemented with each ESA and experimental composite cements containing 0.05 mol% of DPI. The push-out bond strength (PBS) test was performed after 24 h of storage. Failure patterns were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with split-plot two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: PBS was significantly higher for DPI-containing ESAs in all regions evaluated, with the group containing 0.5 CQ + 1 PPD + 0.5 DPI exhibiting the highest PBS. There was no statistically signficant difference among groups without DPI. Most failures were classified as adhesive at the cement-dentin interface. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of an adhesive and a composite cement containing DPI salt can improve GFP bonding to root dentin, even in the apical region.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários , Cimentos de Resina , Animais , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato , Bovinos , Materiais Dentários , Cloreto de Sódio
20.
J Adhes Dent ; 23(3): 243-252, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of the etching strategy of universal adhesives on bond degradation to sound and artificially-induced caries-affected dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The universal adhesives (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive; All-Bond Universal; Prime&Bond Elect) and adhesives used as controls (Adper Single Bond 2 and Clearfil SE Bond) were applied to sound and artificially-induced caries-affected bovine dentin. Microtensile bond strength was evaluated immediately (24 h) and after one year of water storage (1 year). Representative specimens were also prepared to assess nanoleakage. Bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05), considering each substrate separately. RESULTS: Bonding degradation was observed for all universal adhesives on caries-affected dentin, irrespective of the etching strategy. On sound dentin, bonding degradation was observed when adhesives were used on the etch-and-rinse strategy. CONCLUSION: The universal adhesives were not capable of maintaining bond stability over time on caries-affected dentin. The self-etch strategy seems better able to maintain the durability of adhesive interfaces created on sound dentin.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cárie Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Dentina , Resistência à Tração
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