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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 437-447, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596255

RESUMO

The study evaluated the residual effect of the known enteric methane inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP) on anaerobic digestion of cattle feces (feces) in a CH4 potential batch test and two consecutive runs of an anaerobic leach bed reactor at a solids retention time of 40 days. The feces used in this study were collected from beef cattle fed forage- (backgrounding) or grain- (finishing) based diets supplemented with 3NOP in feedlot and metabolism studies. The results showed that CH4 yields were not significantly different from treatments using control feces and feces collected from cattle fed a diet supplemented with 3NOP in both CH4 potential and leach bed studies. Spiking feces with 200 mg 3NOP kg-1 dry matter decreased CH4 production rate by 8.0-18.1% estimated from the Gompertz equation, increased the lag phase time (0.4-3.4 d) in all the treatments, while there was no significant difference in the overall CH4 yield. Results from this study showed that 3NOP can be used as an effective enteric CH4 inhibitor with no residual effect on anaerobic digestion.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Metano/metabolismo , Propanóis , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Fezes , Carne Vermelha
2.
Archives ; 41: 101419, set. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IPPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1021629

RESUMO

The present study sought to characterize the phenomena involved in the histopathology of rabies and to assess the presence and amount of viral antigen in situ in different brain regions of naturally infected equines and bovines. The histopathological examination showed several changes due to inflammation, being most often infected cells neurons. The neuronal degeneration involved 100% of cases, in addition to a diffuse lymphocytic Infiltration and gliosis, characterized by vasculitis and perivasculitis. The presence of Negri bodies was in most cases in discreet, and the fragments with higher concentrations of antigen by both techniques employed were the cerebellum and the brain stem. Immunohistochemistry test (IHC) demonstrated greater sensitivity when applied to samples of bovines. Our results showed that in 37.5% of the total number of fragments analyzed, viral inclusions were not observed, however, was the presence of inflammatory process. In relation to the species, the fragments from bovine's animals showed a slight increase when examined under this feature. These findings highlight the importance of submitting samples from suspected animals for laboratory diagnostic, even when there are no apparent abnormal histological findings. (AU)


O presente estudo buscou caracterizar os fenômenos envolvidos na histopatologia da raiva e avaliar a presença e quantidade de antígeno viral in situ nas diferentes regiões cerebrais de equinos e bovinos naturalmente infectados. O exame histopatológico demonstrou várias mudanças devido à inflamação, sendo mais frequentemente infectadas as células neuronais. A degeneração neuronal foi observada em 100% dos casos, além de uma infiltração linfocitária difusa e gliose, caracterizada por vasculite e perivasculite. A presença de corpúsculos de Negri foi observada na maioria dos casos de maneira discreta, e os fragmentos com maior concentração de antígeno, por ambos os testes empregadas foram o cerebelo e o tronco encefálico. O teste de Imuno-histoquímica (IHC) demonstrou maior sensibilidade quando aplicada em amostras de bovinos. Nossos resultados demostraram que em 37,5% do número total de fragmentos analisados, inclusões virais não foram observadas, no entanto, havia processo inflamatório. Em relação à espécie, os fragmentos de bovinos demonstraram um ligeiro aumento quando examinado sob este aspecto. Esses achados destacam a importância de submeter amostras de animais suspeitos para diagnóstico laboratorial, mesmo quando não houver nenhum achado histopatológico anormal.Palavras-chave: raiva, equinos, bovinos, imuno-histoquímica, IFD, alterações histopatológicas. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Raiva/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Bovinos , Equidae , Cérebro/patologia
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 244-250, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the integrated schistosomiasis control model in mountainous and hilly endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: Five hilly and mountainous areas endemic for schistosomiasis were selected as the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015. According to the epidemic characteristics, economic levels and overall development planning of the demonstration areas, the goals, strategies and measures were developed, and the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control was evaluated following implementation of the integrated control. RESULTS: The support system of the integrated schistosomiasis control model was built in the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015, and five ecological, industrialized and sustainable development models of integrated schistosomiasis control were developed, including integration of balancing rural and urban development, systematic ecological improvement, intensified ecological agriculture, scientific management and health education of schistosomiasis control and ecological ethnic circular economy. Since the implementation of the integrated schistosomiasis control model, the snail habitats were completely changed. Until 2015, 92.0% of all historical areas with snails were managed, the coverage of safe drinking water was 100.0%, and more than 95.0% of the livestock were fenced. The coverage of sanitary toilets increased by 93.0%, 96.8%, 78.8%, 87.1% and 82.0% from 2011 to 2015, respectively, and the farmers'mean yearly income increased by 32.7% in the demonstration areas. From 2011 to 2015, the seroprevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 3.1% in 2011 to 1.6% in 2015 in the demonstration areas, and no egg-positives were identified. In addition, the number of fenced bovines reduced year by year, and no egg-positives were detected. The areas of snail habitats were 398.7, 108.2 hm2 and 52.9 hm2 in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2013, with no infected snails found, and no snails were detected since 2014. The awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and percentage of correct behavior formation increased year by year among residents in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The five integrated schistosomiasis control models meet the needs of the current schistosomiasis control activities in mountainous and hilly endemic areas of Sichuan Province, and achieve the goals of controlling the sources of S. japonicum infections, economic development, social progress and improving the ecological environment, which provides new insights into schistosomiasis elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esquistossomose , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 269-274, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the spatial-temporal clustering distribution of schistosomiasis transmission risk in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015, so as to provide scientific evidence for the future schistosomiasis control and consolidation of the control achievements. METHODS: All data pertaining to endemic situation of human and bovine schistosomiasis and snail survey at a township level in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015 were collected. A descriptive epidemiological method and Joinpoint model were used to describe the changing trends of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, bovine and snails, and the hotspots and clusters of schistosomiasis transmission risk were identified using spatial autocorrelation analysis, hotspots analysis and retrospective space-time scan statistic in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015. RESULTS: The prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared a continuous decline in humans, bovine and snails in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015, and the estimated number of schistosomiasis cases reduced from 43 056 in 2004 to 756 in 2015, with a decline rate of 98.24%. There were no acute cases since 2008 and no infected snails since 2014 in Yunnan Province. There were significant differences in the changing trends of human and bovine S. japonicum infections in Yunnan Province between 2012 and 2015 and between 2013 and 2015, respectively using the Joinpoint model (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a spatial autocorrelation in human S. japonicum infections in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2013 (P < 0.01), and the hotspots areas for human S. japonicum infections were mainly distributed in some townships from Dali City, Weishan County and Eryuan County. Retrospective spatial-temporal scanning revealed that S. japonicum human, bovine and snail infections were clustered in 23, 15, 4 townships from Dali City, Weishan County, Eryuan County, Nanjian County and Heqing County, respectively, with relative risks of 6.25 to 28.75 (P < 0.01), which was almost consistent with the cluster areas detected by hotspots analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis significantly reduced in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. The monitoring and control of schistosomiasis should be intensified in the future in Yunnan Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 275-279, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of infectious source control at various stages of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the further monitoring and management of infectious sources of schistosomiasis. METHODS: Wenbi Village, a plateau subtype region and Qiandian Village, a mountain subtype region in Eryuan County were selected as the study areas. The species, schistosome infection and transmission capability of infectious sources were investigated in Wenbi and Qiandian villages in 2011 and 2018 and were compared. RESULTS: Schistosome infections were detected in human, bovine, horse, dog and mouse in Qiandian Village in 2011, with positive rates of 1.19%, 0.91%, 1.25%, 3.13% and 0.95%, respectively, and human, bovine and dog were found to have schistosome infections, with positive rates of 0.76%, 1.66% and 9.30%, respectively. However, no infections were identified in human, bovine, horse, pig, dog, sheep or mouse in these two villages in 2018. A total of 731 wild feces were collected in both villages in 2011. In Qiandian Village, horse, bovine and dog feces accounted for 34.40%, 29.80% and 20.20% of all fecal samples, and dog and horse feces were found to have schistosome infections (11.94% and 6.90% positive rates, respectively). In Wenbi Village, dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 44.59%, 39.83% and 14.29% of all fecal samples, and dog, human and bovine feces were found to have schistosome infections (16.95%, 9.52% and 2.33% positive rates, respectively). In 2018, a total of 204 wild feces were collected in both villages, and no schistosome infections were identified. Sheep, dog and bovine feces accounted for 36.27%, 33.33% and 27.45% of all fecal samples in Qiandian Village, and dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 72.55%, 11.76% and 10.78% of all fecal samples in Wenbi Village. CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable achievement has been obtained in the control of infectious sources of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County, and the role of human and bovine as the major infectious sources of schistosomiasis has been effectively controlled. In the future, the integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources should be intensified, and the management of reservoir hosts including dog and mouse should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Prevalência , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Ovinos , Caramujos , Suínos
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 339-342, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Honghu City during the period from 2008 through 2018. METHODS: The data pertaining to schistosomiasis control measures and the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Honghu City were collected from 2008 to 2018, and the effect of integrated schistosomiasis control measures implemented was evaluated. RESULTS: The resources from agriculture, water resources, forestry, land, education and communication sectors were integrated to implement the integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with the focus on the control of source of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Honghu City from 2008 to 2018. The prevalence of S. japonicum infection reduced from 3.03% in 2008 to 0 in 2018 in humans in the city, and no acute infection was detected since 2009. In addition, the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in cattle reduced from 2.85% in 2008 to 0 in 2018, and no snail infection was found since 2012. Transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in the city in 2013, and transmission interruption was achieved in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: The integrated schistosomiasis control measures achieve remarkable effects in Honghu City; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica , Caramujos/parasitologia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10513-10520, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475823

RESUMO

Amino acids can stimulate milk fat synthesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still largely unknown. In this study, we studied the regulatory role and corresponding molecular mechanism of cAMP response element-binding protein-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) in amino acid-induced milk fat synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. We showed that leucine and methionine stimulated CRTC2 but not p-CRTC2(Ser171) expression and nuclear localization in cow mammary epithelial cells. Knockdown of CRTC2 decreased milk fat synthesis and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) expression and activation, whereas its overexpression had the opposite effects. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of CRTC2 affected ß-casein synthesis and phosphorylation of the machanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), suggesting that CRTC2 only regulates milk fat synthesis. CRTC2 knockdown abolished the stimulation of leucine and methionine on SREBP-1c expression and activation. Knockdown or overexpression of CRTC2 did not affect the protein level of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and its phosphorylation but decreased or increased the binding of p-CREB to the promoter of SREBP-1c gene and its mRNA expression, respectively. Mutation of Ser171 of CRTC2 did not alter the stimulation of CRTC2 on SREBP-1c expression and activation, further suggesting that CRTC2 functions in the nucleus. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin totally blocked the stimulation of leucine and methionine on CRTC2 expression. The expression of CRTC2 was dramatically higher in the mouse mammary gland of lactation period, compared with that of the dry and puberty periods, whereas p-CRTC2(Ser171) was not changed, further supporting that CRTC2 is a key transcription coactivator for milk fat synthesis. These results uncover that CRTC2 is a key transcription coactivator of amino acid-stimulated mTOR-mediated milk fat synthesis in mammary epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Leite/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10774-10781, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479258

RESUMO

The released milk N-glycome has been found to possess antipathogenic activity. Natively, they are covalently linked onto proteins. Whether the conjugated N-glycans still have antipathogenic properties and how the glycosylation influences the antipathogenic activity of proteins remain unclear. Herein, we compared the quantitative differences of milk protein N-glycosylation and the antilisterial differences of native milk proteins, released N-glycan pools, and deglycosylated proteins between human and bovine milk. N-glycosylation exhibited to be quantitatively species-specific. The entire growth inhibitory activity and the majority of the antiadhesive activity against Listeria monocytogenes of milk whey proteins, although not as high as the released N-glycans, are attributed to N-glycosylation. Moreover, all N-glycan-bearing samples from human milk showed better growth inhibitory activities than those from bovine milk. Generally, N-glycosylation significantly contributes to the antilisterial function of milk proteins and to the functional differences between species. This gives novel insights into the role of these glycoconjugates in nature.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/farmacologia , Leite Humano/química , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10756-10763, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483626

RESUMO

AFEX treatment of crop residues can greatly increase their nutrient availability for ruminants. This study investigated the concentration of acetamide, an ammoniation byproduct, in AFEX-treated crop residues and in milk and meat from ruminants fed these residues. Acetamide concentrations in four AFEX-treated cereal crop residues were comparable and reproducible (4-7 mg/g dry matter). A transient acetamide peak in milk was detected following introduction of AFEX-treated residues to the diet, but an alternative regimen showed the peak can be effectively mitigated. Milk acetamide concentration following this transition was 6 and 10 ppm for cattle and buffalo, respectively, but also decreased over time for cattle while tending to decrease (p = 0.08) for buffalo. There was no difference in acetamide concentration in the meat of cattle consuming AFEX-treated residues for 160 days compared to controls. Further investigation is necessary to determine the metabolism of acetamide in ruminants and a maximum acceptable daily intake for humans.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Acetamidas/metabolismo , Amônia/química , Animais , Búfalos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Leite/metabolismo
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 396-399, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, bovine TB) is caused by mycobacteria which are grouped within the MTBC. TB in animals is a highly infectious and progressive disease which can be transmitted to humans. Since 2009, Poland has gained official bTB-free status. Despite the official fact of bTB-free status, a dozen bTB outbreaks are still noted each year. Since 2000 in Poland, every year 1/5 of the national herd is subject to intradermal skin TB testing to control the bTB outbreaks in the cattle population. Application, with 5-year intervals between each government-funded skin test, undoubtedly resulted in financial savings. However it also seems to have caused several adverse and worrying events, e.g. an increase in the number of reactors detected and removed from a single tested herd. The objective of this study was the examination of 898 cattle imputed with bTB infection in Poland between 2008-2012. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study concerned a potential epidemic outbreak with suspected bTB transmission. 20 cows came from 3 herds in the same county located in the same province in southern Poland. RESULTS: 134 MTBC strains were identified. In MIRU-VNTR, all isolates showed the same genetic pattern 322532243421232. Based on molecular investigation, the characteristics of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle from 3 different herds confirmed the common source of this zoonotic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although not bacteriologically proven, everything points to the fact that humans were the vector of bovine tuberculosis transmission between herds. This finding confirms transmission between 3 cattle herds in the Malopolskie Province in southern Poland (Podhale). The outbreak of tuberculosis in animals finally compromised public health.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Polônia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Zoonoses/microbiologia
11.
Oecologia ; 191(2): 475-482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485850

RESUMO

Natural regeneration of abandoned farmland provides an important opportunity to contribute to global reforestation targets, including the Bonn Challenge. Of particular importance are the montane tropics, where a long history of farming, frequently on marginal soils, has rendered many ecosystems highly degraded and hotspots of extinction risk. Ants play crucial roles in ecosystem functioning, and a key question is how time since abandonment and elevation (and inherent temperature gradients therein) affect patterns of ant recovery within secondary forest systems. Focusing on the Colombian Andes across a 1300 m altitudinal gradient and secondary forest (2-30 years) recovering on abandoned cattle pastures, we find that over time ant community composition and species richness recovered towards that of primary forest. However, these relationships are strongly dependent on elevation with the more open and warmer pasturelands supporting more ants than either primary or secondary forest at a particular elevation. The loss of species richness and change in species composition with elevation is less severe in pasture than forests, suggesting that conditions within pasture and its remaining scattered trees, hedgerows and forest fragments, are more favourable for some species, which are likely in or near thermal debt. Promoting and protecting natural regenerating forests over the long term in the montane tropics will likely offer significant potential for returning ant communities towards primary forest levels.


Assuntos
Formigas , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Florestas , Árvores
12.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2843-2848, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494777

RESUMO

The Cooper and Los Angeles (LA) strains were the two original respiratory strains of bovine herpesvirus type 1.1 (BoHV-1.1) isolated in the 1950s from cattle with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. We report the complete genome sequence for the BoHV-1.1 LA strain and compare it to the prototype Cooper strain and six wild-type BoHV-1.1 isolates. A nucleotide sequence divergence of 0.74% was noted across the two complete genomes, caused by 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involving 12 genes and insertions/deletions that primarily affected the number of repeats within reiterated repeat regions of the genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cooper and LA strains are genetically the most ancient strains from which all of the more-recently isolated field strains of BoHV-1.1 evolved.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/genética , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Genótipo , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/classificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522662

RESUMO

A cluster of gastrointestinal illness was detected following receipt of a complaint of becoming ill after a multi-course dinner at a restaurant in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia. The complaint led to an investigation by ACT Health. Food samples retained by the restaurant for microbiological analysis returned an unsatisfactory level of Bacillus cereus in beef (19,000 colony forming units/gram [cfu/g]) and a satisfactory level in arancini (50 cfu/g). These positive samples underwent whole genome sequencing and genes encoding diarrhoeal toxins were detected with no laboratory evidence of the emetic toxin. No stool specimens were collected. A cohort study was undertaken and 80% (33/41) of patrons took part in a structured interview. There was no significant difference in age or sex between those ill and not ill. Due to universal exposure most foods were unable to be statistically analysed and no significant results were found from the food history. The ill cohort diverged into two distinct groups based on incubation period and symptoms suggesting this outbreak involved B. cereus intoxication with both diarrhoeal and potentially emetic toxins. Some hygiene practices during food preparation were noted to be inadequate and heating and cooling procedures were unverified when questioned. A combination of the incubation periods and symptom profile, food laboratory evidence, and genomic sequencing of the B. cereus diarrhoeal gene suggest a probable aetiology of B. cereus intoxication. Public health action included the restaurant rectifying hygiene practices and documenting heating/cooling procedures.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Território da Capital Australiana/epidemiologia , Bacillus cereus/genética , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Eméticos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/mortalidade , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Restaurantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 509-521, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488392

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present retrospective study investigated the localization, cause, treatment and healing of long bone fractures in cattle. Over a period of ten years, medical records of 194 cattle of all ages with a long bone fracture, presented at the Clinic for Ruminants with Ambulatory and Herd Health Services at LMU Munich, were evaluated. The majority of patients (n = 131, 67.5%) were younger than two weeks of age. Of these, 118 calves sustained the fracture on the day of birth (60.8%). An obstetrical assistance was found in 57.4% (n = 58) of birth-related cases as a fracture cause. The femur was most frequently affected in calves aged up to two weeks (n = 35; 26.7%). The second most frequent fractures occurred in the metacarpus (n = 31; 22.9%) in this age group, followed by metatarsus (n = 28; 21.4%) and tibia (n = 27; 20.6%). Fractures of the antebrachium (n = 9; 6.9%) and the humerus were rare (n = 1; 0.8%). A total of 194 patients were diagnosed with 50 femur fractures (25.8%), 53 metacarpal fractures (27.3%), 43 metatarsal fractures (22.2%), 30 tibial fractures (15.5%), 11 antebrachial fractures (5.7%) and 7 humeral fractures (3.6%). Of the 194 animals, 78 (40.2%) had to be euthanized, 42 of them (53.8%) without treatment. In 150 patients, treatment was initiated, of which 110 patients (73.3%) were dismissed healthy from the clinic. Among the conservative treatment methods were stall rest, casts, casts combined with a U-shaped metal rail (walking casts) and the Thomas splint. Surgical therapy (internal fixation with plates or screws, transfixation pin casts) was used to treat 65 animals (33.5%). While 86.9% (74 out of 85) of the conservatively treated animals left the clinic alive, it were only 58.1% (36 out of 65) animals after surgical treatment. In the newborn calves, colostrum supply had a significant effect on the success of the treatment. If the gamma-glutamyl transferase concentration was below 200 IU/L in the calves aged under 4 days, the healing rate was significantly different from the cure rate of sufficiently immunized patients (26.9% (7 out of 26) vs. 65.3% (47 out of 72), P = 0.001).


Assuntos
Ossos da Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Animais , Ossos da Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Bovinos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Alemanha , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 523-531, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study involved 60 cows aged 1.9 to 13 years (mean 4.8 ± 2.3 years) with type-3 abomasal ulcer. The most common clinical signs were, in decreasing order of frequency, partial or complete anorexia (98%), obtunded demeanour (95%), decreased skin surface temperature (78%), congested scleral vessels (73%), abdominal guarding (61%), tachypnoea (58%), fever (58%) and tachycardia (55%). One or more concomitant disorders were diagnosed in 86% of the cows. The most common abnormal laboratory findings were hypokalaemia (75%), shortened glutaraldehyde test time (46%) and hyperfibrinogenaemia (43%). The diagnosis of type-3 abomasal ulcer was made in all cows during laparotomy and/or at postmortem examination. Forty-eight (80%) cows were euthanased immediately after the initial examination, during laparotomy or after unsuccessful treatment. Twelve (20%) cows were treated with a solution of sodium chloride and glucose administered via an indwelling jugular catheter, antibiotics, metamizole or flunixin, and discharged from the clinic. Ten cows were still in production two years later.


Assuntos
Abomaso/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Úlcera Gástrica/diagnóstico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 533-544, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of selective dry cow treatment (SDCT) on udder health in Swiss dairy farms compared to a blanket dry cow treatment (BDCT). Cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) of less than 250'000 cells/ml and after BDCT in the previous dry period were selected. These animals received a SDCT in the subsequent dry period. Cows with less than 150,000 cells/ml or a negative California mastitis test (CMT) received either no treatment (group oB) or an internal teat sealant (group ZV) in all teats. Cows with more than 150,000 cells/ml or a positive CMT were treated with antibiotics and teat sealants (group ZV+AB). The SCC before and after the dry period were determined. In addition, the incidence of mastitis treatments in the dry period and the first 100 days of the following lactation as well as rates of new intramammary inflammations and healing thereof were determined. Data from 115 cows were available for evaluation. The SCC postpartum of all cows after SDCT did not differ from those after BDCT in the previous year. In the group oB the SCC was significantly higher than in the previous year. While the group ZV+AB showed a significant decrease of SCC during the dry period, the other two groups showed an increase (p < 0.0001). In the group oB, the proportion of mastitis treatments increased from 0% after BDCT to 28% after SDCT without any udder treatment (p < 0.05). Due to the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance, SDCT is a valuable alternative to the BDCT. In the present study the antibiotic consumption could be reduced by 63%, while the udder health after SDCT did not deteriorate. If cows with low SCC are dried off without antibiotics the end of lactation, it is beneficial to protect the udder during the dry period with a teat sealant.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Feminino , Incidência , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
17.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 553-557, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488396

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A 2-year-old Holstein Friesian bull with a penile tumour was referred to the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Germany, where the tumour was resected and diagnosed as a fibropapilloma. A urethral fistula was diagnosed eight days postoperatively and was present nine months later, although the bull had normal copulation behaviour and satisfactory fertility. Surgical removal of fibropapillomas in close proximity to the urethra is an effective treatment. A urethral fistula, which may occur as a postsurgical complication, did not have an adverse effect on copulation capacity and fertility of the bull.


Assuntos
Fístula/veterinária , Papiloma/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/cirurgia , Fístula/etiologia , Fístula/patologia , Alemanha , Masculino , Papiloma/complicações , Papiloma/patologia , Papiloma/cirurgia , Pênis/patologia , Pênis/cirurgia , Uretra/patologia
18.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 559-568, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical, ultrasonographic, radiographic, cytologic and bacteriologic findings, diagnosis and surgical treatment of two heifers with septic metacarpal physitis (type-1 osteomyelitis) and concurrent serofibrinous arthritis of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint are described. Osteomyelitis likely occurred by haematogenous spread following bronchopneumonia in one heifer and developed post-traumatically in the other. In both patients, ultrasonographic examination using the 7.5 MHz linear probe showed moderate effusion of the palmar and dorsal MCP joint pouches and highly irre-gular bone contours with depression and periosteal new bone formation at the metacarpal growth plate. Radiographs showed an extensive radiolucent area with poorly defined margins at the level of the metacarpal growth plate. Surgical treatment was carried out under sedation and regional intravenous anesthesia and involved meticulous debridement of the osteomyelitic lesion of the meta-carpal growth plate combined with arthrotomy of the MCP joint and repeated lavage of the bone cavity and joint. Successful outcomes were achieved by combined use of systemic and locoregional antibiotics, NSAIDs, temporary external coaptation and adequate housing.


Assuntos
Artrite/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/cirurgia , Osteomielite/veterinária , Animais , Artrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite/cirurgia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(4): 88-95, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474656

RESUMO

Microbial colony counts of concern of food products are one of the most important items in microbiological examinations. The distributions of colony counts per agar plate of food samples are considered to be reflected with microbial cell distributions in food homogenates. However, (i) the probabilistic distributions of the colony counts per agar plate at the dilution of counting and (ii) the relationship between the colony counts per plate and the number of agar plates for food samples have not been intensively studied so far. In this study, therefore, these two points were studied with raw food samples of raw minced beef and chicken and raw milk and microbial culture samples of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Among four major probabilistic distributions, it was found that aerobic plate counts per plate of the foods were well described with negative binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions and that the colony counts per plate of microbial cultures were described well with binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions. The effect of the number of agar plates on the estimation of the mean of colony counts per plate of a sample was then studied with the data randomly resampled from the experimental data. The resampled data showed that with more number of plates the mean of counts fluctuated less and the coefficients of variation of colony counts per plate decreased further, which were coincident to the estimated by the central limit theory. Our study would provide useful information on the characteristics of colony counts per plate of food samples which are routinely examined.


Assuntos
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ágar , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Kyobu Geka ; 72(9): 707-711, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506414

RESUMO

We describe surgical treatment of a coronary artery fistula (CAF) in a neonate. A 5-day-old male neonate was diagnosed with CAF at another hospital and was transferred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a right coronary artery-to-right ventricle (RV) fistula. Emergency surgery was performed to treat progressive congestive heart failure due to a significant left-to-right shunt through the large CAF. Intraoperatively, we confirmed that the large CAF drained into the inlet of the RV through multiple openings. Intracardiac CAF closure was performed with a bovine pericardial patch. The neonate showed an uneventful postoperative recovery, and postoperative echocardiography revealed a trivial residual shunt with good left ventricular function without increased pulmonary artery pressure.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários , Fístula , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Animais , Bovinos , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
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