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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMO

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Cervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Oceano Índico , Cavalos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Cádmio , Bovinos , Bioacumulação
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

RESUMO

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Assuntos
Animais , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia , Encéfalo , RNA Mensageiro , Bovinos , Neuroglobina
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339362

RESUMO

Abstract The telencephalon refers to the most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres. The study determined Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle, and compare the expression and distribution pattern of Ngb and HIF-1α in the two animals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle. mRNA and protein expressions of Ngb and HIF-1α showed positive in different tissues of the yak and cattle telencephalon. Ngb expression in tissues of the yak recorded higher as compare to cattle while HIF-1α expression was found higher in cattle than yak. The HIF-1α expression in some tissues of yak telencephalon was consistent with the cattle. The results documented that HIF-1α may have a direct or indirect synergistic effect on Ngb expression in the yak telencephalon to improve hypoxia adaptation. It is suggested that yak may need more Ngb expression for adaptation, but the expression of HIF-1α seems to be down-regulated during long-term adaptation, and the specific causes of this phenomenon needs to be further verified.


Resumo O telencéfalo refere-se à parte anterior e mais desenvolvida do prosencéfalo, consistindo principalmente dos hemisférios cerebrais. O estudo determinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator indutível por hipóxia (HIF-1α) no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos e comparou a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de Ngb e HIF-1α nos dois animais. Imuno-histoquímica (IHC), reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e Western blot (WB) foram empregados para investigar a expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos. As expressões de mRNA e proteínas de Ngb e HIF-1α mostraram-se positivas em diferentes tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque e bovino. A expressão de Ngb nos tecidos do iaque foi registrada mais alta em comparação com o gado, enquanto a expressão do HIF-1α foi encontrada mais alta no gado do que no iaque. A expressão de HIF-1α em alguns tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque foi consistente com o gado. Os resultados documentaram que o HIF-1α pode ter um efeito sinérgico direto ou indireto na expressão de Ngb no telencéfalo de iaque para melhorar a adaptação à hipóxia. É sugerido que o iaque pode precisar de mais expressão de Ngb para adaptação, mas a expressão de HIF-1α parece ser regulada para baixo durante a adaptação de longo prazo, e as causas específicas desse fenômeno precisam ser verificadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Telencéfalo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Bovinos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Neuroglobina
7.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115320, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642811

RESUMO

The lack of treatment systems for pollutants in family-livestock and poultry sites results in large amounts of untreated manure and urine being directly discharged to environment. The risks from veterinary antibiotic (VA) and heavy metal (HM) exposure in the rural environment require further research. In this investigation, 221 samples (feed, manure, surface soil, soil profiles, water, and plant) were collected from 41 livestock and poultry farms (swine, chichen, and cattle). Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), oxytetracycline (OTC), and enrofloxacin (ENR) were frequently detected in the samples. Metals and VAs in sandy loam soils were more inclined to migrate to deep layers than those in loam soils. Copper and Zn in the polluted soils mainly existed in available forms, which facilitated their migration to deep soil layers. In this study, OTC was also observed to migrate more easily to deeper soil layers than ENR due to its relatively high pKa value. Eighteen antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and 5 metal resistance genes (MRGs) along with one mobile genetic element (MGE) occurred in the soils at 80 cm depth. Luteimonas, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and Rhodanobacter were dominant genera detected in the soil samples from different sites, which might increase migration of ARGs or degradation of VAs. An ecological risk assessment suggested that VAs posed threats to the growth of Triticum aestivum L, Cucumis sativus L, and Brassiaca chinensis L. Remediation techniques including biochar/modified biochar, anaerobic digestion, and manure composting should be developed urgently for joint HM and VA pollution.


Assuntos
Gado , Metais Pesados , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cobre , Fazendas , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Aves Domésticas , Solo , Suínos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156382, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660435

RESUMO

Pseudomonas spp. are common microorganisms from cold-storage raw milk, and protease secreted by Pseudomonas spp. can cause the deterioration of stored milk. However, analyses of Pseudomonas spp. diversity and proteolytic activity in raw milk from different regions of China have not been extensively examined. With this aim, the diversity and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas isolated from 25 raw cow milk samples from Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Gansu, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Chongqing and Hunan of China in different seasons were evaluated by PCR targeting 16S rDNA and rpoD, as well as TNBS method, respectively. A total of 116 Pseudomonas isolates from 25 raw cow milk samples were identified at the species level, including P. fluorescens, P. veronii, P. psychrophila, P. lundensis, P. lactis, P. azotoformans, P. granadensis, P. lurida, P. rhizosphaerae, P. rhodesiae and P. extremorientalis. P. fluorescens accounted for 75.8% of the total. Of all 116 Pseudomonas isolates, 68.9% of them displayed proteolytic activity at 4 °C, 81.9% at 10 °C and 85.3% at 25 °C, respectively. The aprX gene encoded a secreted and heat-resistant metalloprotease that was present in 60.3% of the Pseudomonas isolates tested. The proteases showed residual activity ranged from 73 ±â€¯4% to 84 ±â€¯7% residual activity after the heat treatment at 72 °C for 15 s and 62 ±â€¯3% to 74 ±â€¯2% after the heat treatment at 132 °C for 4 s. This is the first report to compare Pseudomonas spp. diversity and proteolytic activity at species levels in raw milk from different regions of China. The results of this study provide valuable data about the diversity and spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species in raw milk and the thermal resistance of the proteases. Therefore, these findings provide a reference for the importance to prevent Pseudomonas spp. contamination of raw cow milk to ensure the quality and safety of milk and dairy products.


Assuntos
Leite , Pseudomonas , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Leite/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteólise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156378, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660448

RESUMO

In spite of meadow bird protection programs, a severe decline of meadow birds is taking place in the Netherlands. It is hypothesized that pesticides and other agrochemicals may contribute to this decline through a negative impact on the entomofauna; a very important food source of meadow birds and especially of their chicks. The present study analysed the presence of 664 pesticides (including biocides and some metabolites) in soil, concentrated feed, manure and some fodder samples from 23 cattle farms in the province of Gelderland (the Netherlands). Furthermore, the presence of 21 anti-parasitic medicines in manure from storage facilities was analysed. For farms practicing field grazing, the number of dung beetles in field samples of fresh manure was determined and a potential relationship with the presence of pesticide residues was explored. Of the 23 farms included in present study, 22 participated in meadow bird protection schemes. A total of 129 different pesticides (including biocides and metabolites) was detected, of which 115 at the 15 conventional farms and 69 at the 8 certified organic farms. The average total amount of pesticide residues detected tended to be lower at organic cattle farms than at conventional farms; for organic concentrated feed this difference was significant at a factor of 3.7. A significant negative correlation was found between the estimated daily intake of insecticides by cattle through the consumption of concentrated feed and hay, and the numbers of dung beetles detected in fresh manure samples in the field. We discuss the most important insecticides detected in concentrated feed and hay, and conclude that their quantities in manure and feed, if compared with LR50 values, give a reason for concern. More research is needed to establish the role of agrochemicals in the decline of meadow birds.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Indústria de Laticínios , Desinfetantes/análise , Fazendas , Inseticidas/análise , Esterco/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010428, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) due to Mycobacterium bovis burden across the globe. The aim of this study was to describe zTB surveillance programs in selected WHO signatory countries and to assess the relationship of the disease with the country's income level and the risk of M. bovis transmission. METHODS: We searched the main articles databases and grey literature for guide documents published between 1980 and 2019. For inclusion, the articles and guide documents had to be in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, or Italian. Only original articles and narrative and systematic reviews were accepted and the guide documents were required to be available on official websites. We excluded articles that did not focus on epidemiology, control and surveillance. We used bovine TB cases in livestock and wildlife populations as a proxy for the country's risk of zTB using data from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) published from 2015 to 2018. Countries were classified according to income level (World Bank's classification) and strength of zTB surveillance. The study was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42018090603. FINDINGS: We included 13 articles and 208 guide documents including data from 119/194 countries (61.3%). We found a lack of surveillance data about zTB in over half (89.9%) of the 119 WHO signatory countries. Most surveillance systems perform passive surveillance and are not integrated into the One Health perspective, which was operating in 4/119 (3.4%) countries, all high-income. Many of these countries (71/119, 59.7%) have M. bovis circulating in their cattle herds, but only ~10% of them have implemented zTB surveillance activities. INTERPRETATION: Our findings highlight weaknesses in zTB surveillance worldwide, with a consequent lack of information that could support an adequate understanding of disease burden, especially in countries at major risk for M. bovis transmission. To meet this challenge, efforts will be needed to promote intersectoral policies, implementing the One Health strategy.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Saúde Única , Tuberculose Bovina , Tuberculose , Animais , Bovinos , Países Desenvolvidos , Renda , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia
11.
Food Chem ; 393: 133389, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689926

RESUMO

Milk is used and processed under various environmental temperature, and its physicochemical properties are also strongly affected by temperature. Therefore, it is important to reveal the structure of milk at variable temperatures. In this study, the temperature dependence of the inner structure of bovine casein micelles in the temperature range of 10-40 °C was investigated by in-situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. The micelle size calculated from the SAXS profiles using a micelle model including water domains was almost independent of temperature. The water domain expanded and the distance between the colloidal calcium phosphates (CCP) decreased with increasing temperature. The number of CCPs in a micelle increased, because CCPs were newly formed by the transfer of calcium and inorganic phosphate from serum into the micelle. These structural changes occurred during the cooling process. Therefore, in the temperature range of 10-40 °C, the structure of the casein micelle varied sensitively with the temperature, and these structural changes were thermoreversible in nature.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Micelas , Animais , Caseínas/química , Bovinos , Leite/química , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Temperatura , Água/análise , Difração de Raios X
13.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 466, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654948

RESUMO

Cell-cultured meat offers the potential for a more sustainable, ethical, resilient, and healthy food system. However, research and development has been hindered by the lack of serum-free media that enable the robust expansion of relevant cells (e.g., muscle satellite cells) over multiple passages. Recently, a low-cost serum-free media (B8) was described for pluripotent stem cells. Here, B8 is adapted for bovine satellite cells through the addition of a single component, recombinant albumin, which renders it suitable for long-term satellite cell expansion without sacrificing myogenicity. This new media (Beefy-9) maintains cell growth over the entire period tested (seven passages), with an average doubling time of 39 h. Along with demonstrated efficacy for bovine cells, Beefy-9 offers a promising starting-point for developing serum-free media for other meat-relevant species. Ultimately, this work offers a foundation for escaping cultured meat research's reliance on serum, thereby accelerating the field.


Assuntos
Carne , Mioblastos , Animais , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro
14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 35(2): 95-101, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675663

RESUMO

Objective: Severe immunglobuline E (IgE)-mediated reactions during oral immunotherapy (OIT) are major obstacles to treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate and identify clinical and laboratory biomarkers of adverse events during OIT among children with cow's milk (CM) allergy. Study Design: Eighty-six children older than 36 months who had undergone OIT with milk were enrolled. Clinical data, oral food challenge (OFC) test results, and laboratory data were recorded retrospectively. Results: The median duration of the build-up phase of OIT was 19 weeks (min 10-max 40) and the duration of the maintenance phase was 86.5 (min 1-max 132) months. A total of 11,767 CM doses were administered during the build-up phase and adverse reactions were seen in 62 (73.8%) patients with reactions registered for 157 doses among 11,767 (1/75 doses). The number of reactions during the maintenance phase was 41 (47.6%) in 24 (27.9%) patients. There was a significant reduction in the number of reactions (P = 0.000) between the build-up phase and maintenance phase. Adverse reactions and anaphylaxis were higher for patients who had cough during OFC (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, respectively) during the build-up phase and also during the maintenance phase too (P = 0.000). Evaluation for all reactions and anaphylaxis (during build-up and maintenance) with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis showed class IV-VI of CM-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE), casein-sIgE and cough during OFC were significantly associated with increased probability of reaction and anaphylaxis. Younger age at onset of OIT was associated with risk reduction (0.017). Conclusion: Laboratory data and reactions during the OFC (especially cough) can help to identify high-risk patients during OIT.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Alérgenos , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Tosse , Dessensibilização Imunológica/efeitos adversos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Leite/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Tomography ; 8(3): 1293-1306, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645393

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the correlation between the mean value of bone density measured on the CBCT device and the primary stability of dental implants determined by resonant frequency analysis. An experimental study was conducted on a material of animal origin: bovine femur and pig ribs. Two types of implants were used in this study: self-tapping and non-self-tapping of the same dimensions. Results of the experimental study showed a statistically significant correlation between bone density expressed in HU units and the primary stability of self-tapping and non-self- tapping dental implants expressed in ISQ units in bovine femur bones and self-tapping implants and pig rib bones. There was no statistically significant correlation between non-self-tapping dental implants in pig rib bones. Self-tapping and non-self-tapping implants did not show statistical significance in the primary stability in bones of different qualities. The analysis of bone density from CBCT images in the software of the apparatus expressed in HU units can be used to predict the degree of primary stability of self-tapping and non-self-tapping dental implants in bones of densities D1 and D2, and self-tapping dental implants in bones of the lower quality D4.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Bovinos , Suínos , Torque
16.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 58(5): 384-395, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648337

RESUMO

The cell proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) and consequent milk synthesis are regulated by multiple factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 14-3-3ß on cellular proliferation and milk fat/ß-casein synthesis in BMECs and reveal its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we employed gene function analysis to explore the regulatory effect and molecular mechanisms of 14-3-3ß on milk synthesis and proliferation in BMECs. We found that leucine and IGF-1 enhance cell proliferation and milk synthesis in a 14-3-3ß-dependent manner and only exhibiting such effect in the presence of 14-3-3ß. We further determined that 14-3-3ß interacts with the IGF1R self-phosphorylation site and it additionally mediated leucine and IGF-1 to stimulate the synthesis of milk through the IGF1R-AKT-mTORC1 signaling pathway. In summary, our data indicated that 14-3-3ß mediates the expression of milk fat and protein stimulated by leucine and IGF-1, leading to lactogenesis through IGF1R signaling pathway in BMECs.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Leucina/metabolismo , Leucina/farmacologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(3): 205-214, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665714

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates recent findings about Escherichia coli O157:H7 virulence factors and its bovine reservoir. This Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli belongs to the Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) pathotype causing hemorrhagic colitis. Its low infectious dose makes it an efficient, severe, foodborne pathogen. Although EHEC remains in the intestine, Stx can translocate systemically and is cytotoxic to microvascular endothelial cells, especially in the kidney and brain. Disease can progress to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with hemolytic anemia, acute kidney failure, and thrombocytopenia. Young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly are at the highest risk for HUS. Healthy ruminants are the major reservoir of EHEC and cattle are the primary source of human exposure. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in understanding E. coli O157:H7 pathogenesis include molecular mechanisms of virulence, bacterial adherence, type three secretion effectors, intestinal microbiome, inflammation, and reservoir maintenance. SUMMARY: Many aspects of E. coli O157:H7 disease remain unclear and include the role of the human and bovine intestinal microbiomes in infection. Therapeutic strategies involve controlling inflammatory responses and/or intestinal barrier function. Finally, elimination/reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle using CRISPR-engineered conjugative bacterial plasmids and/or on-farm management likely hold solutions to reduce infections and increase food safety/security.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157 , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Pré-Escolar , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Ruminantes , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
Biomaterials ; 286: 121602, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660866

RESUMO

A major challenge for successful cultured meat production is the requirement for large quantities of skeletal muscle satellite cells (MuSCs). Commercial microcarriers (MCs), such as Cytodex®1, enable extensive cell expansion by offering a large surface-to-volume ratio. However, the cell-dissociation step post cell expansion makes the cell expansion less efficient. A solution is using food-grade MCs made of sustainable raw materials that do not require a dissociation step and can be included in the final meat product. This study aimed to produce food-grade MCs from food industry by-products (i.e., turkey collagen and eggshell membrane) and testing their ability to expand bovine MuSCs in spinner flask systems for eight days. The MCs' physical properties were characterized, followed by analyzing the cell adhesion, growth, and metabolic activity. All MCs had an interconnected porous structure. Hybrid MCs composed of eggshell membrane and collagen increased the mechanical hardness and stabilized the buoyancy compared to pure collagen MCs. The MuSCs successively attached and covered the entire surface of all MCs while expressing high cell proliferation, metabolic activity, and low cell cytotoxicity. Cytodex®1 MCs were included in the study. Relative gene expression of skeletal muscle markers showed reduced PAX7 and increased MYF5, which together with augmented proliferation marker MKI67 indicated activated and proliferating MuSCs on all MCs. Furthermore, the expression pattern of cell adhesion receptors (ITGb5 and SDC4) and focal adhesion marker VCL varied between the distinct MCs, indicating different specific cell receptor interactions with the various biomaterials. Altogether, our results demonstrate that these biomaterials are promising prospects to produce custom-fabricated food-grade MCs intended to expand MuSCs.


Assuntos
Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Indústria Alimentícia , Carne , Músculo Esquelético , Porosidade , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
19.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 249: 110442, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662038

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of digital serum total protein (TP) and digital Brix refractometers in estimating different passive immunity levels (<10, <18, <25 mg/mL) in dairy calves. Blood samples were collected from 260 apparently healthy Holstein calves, aged 2-7 days. Serum IgG concentrations were measured using digital Brix and TP refractometers and the radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, as the gold standard. Data were analyzed by a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curves (AUC) and Cohen's kappa (κ). Optimal thresholds were determined as < 8.4, < 9.0 and < 9.4% for the digital Brix refractometer, and < 5.0, < 5.4 and < 5.8 g/dL for the serum TP refractometer in estimating IgG concentrations of < 10, < 18, < 25 mg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the Brix refractometer were 96.3% and 88.8% for < 8.4% Brix, 97.0% and 83.4% for < 9.0% Brix, and 85.5% and 77.8% for < 9.4% Brix, respectively. The Se and Sp of the serum TP refractometer were 96.3% and 90.1% for < 5.0 g/dL, 91.0% and 89.6% for < 5.4 g/dL, 79.6% and 85.2% for < 5.8 g/dL, respectively. The discriminant ability of the refractometers was moderately accurate in estimating IgG concentrations of < 10 and < 18 mg/mL, and highly accurate in estimating IgG concentrations of < 25 mg/mL. Both refractometers substantially agreed with RID-IgG results and almost perfectly agreed with each other. In conclusion, the digital Brix and digital serum TP refractometers offer a good utility for determining different passive immunity levels in dairy calves.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G , Refratometria , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Colostro , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Imunodifusão/métodos , Imunodifusão/veterinária , Gravidez , Refratometria/métodos , Refratometria/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665644

RESUMO

This work proposes a new method for biomonitoring studies focused on the screening and quantification of xenobiotics in blood-derived samples. The performance of a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS/DVB/PDMS) biocompatible extraction phase was investigated for extraction of pesticides and pharmaceuticals from plasma samples via direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Under the optimum extraction settings, which included an attentive optimization of the fiber rinsing conditions, the microextraction device was able to endure 100 consecutive extractions from undiluted and diluted plasma with an overall reproducibility up to 28% for all the analytes tested, except chlorpyrifos-methyl. Optimized conditions were used to validate a quantitative method using matrix-matched calibration with isotopically labeled internal standard correction. Accuracy and precision values obtained for analysis of bovine plasma were within 96-132% and 0.05-5.82% respectively. LLOQs for all the analytes were at 1 µg L-1 and LDR ranged within 1-100 µg L-1. The applicability of this method to plasma from different species (human, rat, rabbit) was also investigated. This work represents the first step toward broader use of the biocompatible PDMS/DVB/PDMS extraction phases for analysis of multiclass xenobiotics in plasma and other complex biofluids.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Sólida , Xenobióticos , Animais , Bovinos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Plasma , Coelhos , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
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