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1.
ISME J ; 14(1): 302-317, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624342

RESUMO

Multiple synergistic factors affect the development and composition of mammalian gut microbiota, but effects of host genetics remain unclear. To illuminate the role of host genetics on gut microbiota, we employed animals with a graduated spectrum of genetic variation with minimal environmental influences. We bred 228 calves with linearly varying breed composition from 100% Angus (Bos taurus) to 100% Brahman (Bos indicus), as a proxy for genetic variation, and then raised the offspring in the same environment with identical diets. We hypothesized each breed would harbor distinct gut microbiota due to genetic influence. We found that the gut microbiota of preweaning calves at 3 months old is significantly affected by host genetics, profoundly by paternal genome. We also demonstrate that single nucleotide polymorphisms in host mucin-encoding genes, critical for gut mucosal health, are significantly correlated with both breed composition and mucin-degrading gut bacteria. We further demonstrate host genetics indirectly changes gut microbiota composition via microbe-microbe interactions. These findings indicate a strong contribution by host genetics in shaping the gut microbiota during early life stages, shedding light on impact of animal breeding on gut microbiota, which is associated with animal growth and health.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Mucinas/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 714-720, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal data analysis contributes to detect differences in the growing curve by exploiting all the information involved in repeated measurements, allowing to distinguish changes over time within individuals, from differences in the baseline levels among groups. In this research, longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis were compared to evaluate differences in growth in Angus heifers under two different grazing conditions, ad libitum (AG) and controlled (CG) to gain 0.5 kg day-1 . RESULTS: Longitudinal mixed models show differences in growing curve parameters between grazing conditions, that were not detected by cross-sectional analysis. Differences (P < 0.05) in first derivative of growth curves (daily gain) until 289 days were observed between treatments, AG being higher than CG. Correspondingly, pubertal heifer proportion was also higher in AG at the end of rearing (AG, 0.94; CG, 0.67). CONCLUSION: In longitudinal studies, the power to detect differences between groups increases by exploiting the whole information of repeated measures, modelling the relation between measurements performed on the same individual. Under a proper analysis, valid conclusion can be drawn with fewer animals in the trial, improving animal welfare and reducing investigation costs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poaceae/metabolismo
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 556-571, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704017

RESUMO

Advances in technology and improved data collection have increased the availability of genomic estimated breeding values (gEBV) and phenotypic information on dairy farms. This information could be used for the prediction of complex traits such as survival, which can in turn be used in replacement heifer management. In this study, we investigated which gEBV and phenotypic variables are of use in the prediction of survival. Survival was defined as survival to second lactation, plus 2 wk, a binary trait. A data set was obtained of 6,847 heifers that were all genotyped at birth. Each heifer had 50 gEBV and up to 62 phenotypic variables that became gradually available over time. Stepwise variable selection on 70% of the data was used to create multiple regression models to predict survival with data available at 5 decision moments: distinct points in the life of a heifer at which new phenotypic information becomes available. The remaining 30% of the data were kept apart to investigate predictive performance of the models on independent data. A combination of gEBV and phenotypic variables always resulted in the model with the highest Akaike information criterion value. The gEBV selected were longevity, feet and leg score, exterior score, udder score, and udder health score. Phenotypic variables on fertility, age at first calving, and milk quantity were important once available. It was impossible to predict individual survival accurately, but the mean predicted probability of survival of the surviving heifers was always higher than the mean predicted probability of the nonsurviving group (difference ranged from 0.014 to 0.028). The model obtained 2.0 to 3.0% more surviving heifers when the highest scoring 50% of heifers were selected compared with randomly selected heifers. Combining phenotypic information and gEBV always resulted in the highest scoring models for the prediction of survival, and especially improved early predictive performance. By selecting the heifers with the highest predicted probability of survival, increased survival could be realized at the population level in practice.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Lactação/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Leite , Mortalidade , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Probabilidade , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 858-863, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733867

RESUMO

The primary objective of this prospective cohort study was to identify factors evaluated upon arrival at a grain-fed veal facility that were associated with increased growth. A secondary objective was to determine if the factors associated with average daily gain (ADG) varied between the pre- and postweaning periods. Calves were visually assessed and scored using a standardized health scoring system immediately upon arrival. They were also weighed and vaccinated, and had blood drawn from their jugular vein to determine their serum total protein level. Weights were taken on d 49 and 78 after arrival and were used to calculate ADG. Three mixed linear regression models were created to determine factors associated with ADG from 0 to 49 d after arrival, 0 to 78 d after arrival, and 49 to 78 d after arrival. A total of 998 calves were evaluated and weighed upon arrival; 636 and 915 of those calves were weighed at d 49 and d 78, respectively. Mean ADG were 610 g/d from 0 to 49 d after arrival, 860 g/d from 0 to 78 d after arrival, and 1,240 g/d from 49 to 78 d after arrival. In the model evaluating growth from 0 to 49 d, calves arriving at the facility with a higher body mass index (BMI) gained more weight per day than calves that arrived with a lower BMI. If calves arrived in the spring, they gained 201 g/d more than calves that arrived in the winter. For the period following weaning (d 49 to 78), BMI was also associated with growth. For every additional 1 g/cm2 increase in BMI at arrival, calves gained an additional 1.55 g/d from d 49 to 78. Growth from arrival to d 78 was affected solely by BMI. For every 1 g/cm2 increase in BMI at arrival, calves gained 1.23 g/d more during the entire observation period. Body mass index and season at arrival affected growth through the initial period at a grain-fed veal facility. Producers should consider these factors, especially BMI, when purchasing calves to maximize the calves' growth potential.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Nível de Saúde , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Carne Vermelha , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 313-324, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704024

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milk replacer (MR) feeding programs on performance and metabolism during summer. At 3 d of age (DOA), calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: control [CON; 0.55 kg dry matter (DM) of a 20% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat MR per day], intermediate (IL; 0.66 kg DM of a 26% CP and 17% fat MR per day), high (HL; 0.77 kg DM of a 26% CP and 17% fat MR per day), or aggressive (AL; 0.87 kg DM of a 26% CP and 17% fat MR per day). Calves were managed similarly and housed in individual polyethylene hutches using sand as a bedding material. Because 3 calves fed the AL diet developed abomasum bloating during the first 30 DOA, the AL treatment was terminated. Milk replacer (12.5% solids) was offered twice daily until 42 DOA, when MR was fed once daily to reduce its intake by 50%. Calves were weaned at 49 DOA and remained in hutches until 56 DOA. Calf starter and water were offered ad libitum. Ambient temperature and relative humidity in and outside the hutches were assessed hourly. Starter and MR intakes were recorded daily. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were determined 3 times each week. Body weight was measured at 3, 14, 28, 42, and 56 DOA. Plasma was collected at 5, 10, 14, 28, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, and 56 DOA for analysis of glucose, ß-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, urea nitrogen, and insulin concentrations. There were no treatment effects on starter intake, rectal temperature, or respiration rate. By 7 DOA, calves fed the IL and HL diets consumed the same amount of MR and a higher amount of MR than the CON calves. At wk 2, calves from all treatments had similar MR consumption before returning to the projected intake by design at wk 4. Calves fed the IL and HL treatments had similar body weight but were heavier than those fed the CON diet at wk 6, 7, and 8. Calves fed the IL and HL diets had similar average daily gain, which was higher than that of calves fed the CON diet. There was no difference in plasma metabolites among treatments, but insulin concentration increased as milk allowance increased. In summary, feeding an intermediate level of MR during summer improved calf growth compared with the CON diet, but a higher MR allowance did not support further improvements in calf performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Leite , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Desmame
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 433-438, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733874

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of supplementing glutamic acid in milk replacers (MR) with respect to calf performance, intestinal permeability, and metabolism. Sixty Holstein male calves (3 ± 1.3 d old and 45 ± 5.9 kg body weight) were individually housed and fed a control MR without AA supplementation (24.8% crude protein and 19.1% fat, dry matter basis), or MR supplemented with 0.3% glutamic acid (25.1% crude protein and 20.3% fat, dry matter basis). Animals followed the same MR feeding program and were weaned at 56 d of the study. The amount of starter concentrate offered was restricted to limit the effect of concentrate intake on calf metabolism. Individual daily consumption and weekly body weight were measured, and 4 h after the morning feeding, blood samples were obtained at 14 and 35 d to determine general biochemical parameters and plasma AA concentrations. On d 10 of the study, we conducted an intestinal permeability test by including 21 g of lactulose and 4.2 g of d-mannitol as markers in the MR. We found no differences in calf performance or in intestinal permeability (measured as lactulose:mannitol ratio). Serum glucose concentration was greater in unsupplemented calves than in Glu-supplemented calves. At 14 d, the proportion of plasma Leu was greater in Glu-supplemented calves; the proportion of Ile tended to be greater in Glu-supplemented calves; and the proportion of Met tended to be greater in unsupplemented calves. We observed no other differences. Small changes occurred in AA metabolism when supplementing calf MR with 0.3% glutamic acid, without leading to improvements in calf performance or changes in intestinal permeability.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ácido Glutâmico/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma , Leite , Permeabilidade , Desmame
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 823-839, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677831

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate whether health, survival, and performance of dairy heifers from birth through first lactation are associated with parity and health status of their dams. Holstein heifers (n = 1,811) derived from artificial insemination were categorized as (1) daughters of primiparous cows that, consequently, were nonlactating heifers during gestation (Prim-NoL; n = 787); (2) daughters of multiparous cows that did not have any clinical diseases in the previous lactation (Mult-NoCD; n = 638); and (3) daughters of multiparous cows that had at least one clinical disease in the previous lactation (Mult-CD; n = 386). Clinical diseases of the multiparous dams included retained placenta, metritis, mastitis, lameness, and digestive and respiratory problems. Data collected for evaluation of daughters included genotypic and phenotypic characteristics at birth, morbidity, reproductive performance, and culling from birth through 305 d in milk of first lactation. Orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate the effect of the parity of the dam (Prim-NoL vs. Mult-NoCD + Mult-CD) and the effect of clinical disease occurrence in the previous lactation among multiparous dams (Mult-NoCD vs. Mult-CD). Compared with daughters of multiparous cows, daughters of Prim-NoL were lighter at birth (36 vs. 41 kg), had greater genetic merit for production traits (e.g., genomic estimated breeding value for milk yield: 875 vs. 746 kg), were less likely to leave the herd (17 vs. 28%) and to lose pregnancy as a heifer (9 vs. 14%), calved earlier (703 vs. 711 d old), were less likely to have clinical diseases as a first lactation cow (30 vs. 37%), and had reduced performance in the first lactation when considering their genetic merit (e.g., 305-d yield of energy-corrected milk: 11,270 vs. 11,539 kg). Compared with daughters of Mult-NoCD, daughters of Mult-CD were less likely to have digestive problems as a heifer (17 vs. 27%) and clinical disease as a first lactation cow (32 vs. 42%), but were also more likely to leave the herd as a heifer (32 vs. 25%) even though genetic merit for production traits were similar (e.g., genomic estimated breeding value for milk: 744 vs. 749 kg). In conclusion, both parity and health status of the dam in the previous lactation were associated with morbidity, survival, and performance of their daughters from birth through 305 d in milk of the first lactation and might represent factors affecting developmental programming of dairy heifers in utero.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Paridade , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Leite , Parto , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , Reprodução , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104787, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689581

RESUMO

The growth rate of female calves on dairy farms is one of the crucial factors which influence age at first calving, affecting lifetime lactation productivity of a dairy cow. Diets with adequate crude protein are necessary to support calf growth. The study objective was to determine the effects of nutritional advice and diet supplementation with Calliandra calothyrsus and Sesbania sesban on average daily weight gain in dairy calves on semi-commercial smallholder dairy farms in Kenya. This trial involved 155 calves from 73 smallholder dairy farms, in Kenya, randomly selected and allocated to either intervention or control groups. The intervention group received nutritional advice and seedlings of Calliandra calothyrsus and Sesbania sesban, while the control group did not receive these interventions. Every 1-2 months for 16 months, data on farm nutritional practices and management were collected in a questionnaire, and physical examinations were done to monitor weight and health status. Descriptive and univariable statistical analyses were conducted, and multivariable mixed linear regression models were used for identification of factors associated (P < 0.05) with the natural log transformation of weight gain of calves on a given farm, controlling for clustering of visits within calves. Feeding at least 0.2 kg/day (wet weight) of Calliandra or Sesbania to calves <6 months old resulted in 33.2% increase in daily weight gain, while controlling for confounding by breed and sex of the calf. For calves ≥6 months, there was a significant interaction between amount of hay fed and if calves were also fed on Calliandra or Sesbania. When no Calliandra or Sesbania supplementation was provided, the mean weight gain was low and relatively constant even with increasing amounts of hay. When Calliandra or Sesbania supplement was added to the diet, the mean weight gain increased from 0.17 kg to 0.48 kg when hay was fed at 1 and 5 kg, respectively, while controlling for confounding by amount of maize silage fed and the prevailing season. In conclusion, supplementation of calf diets with at least 0.2 kg/calf/day of Calliandra or Sesbania is beneficial for faster weight gains.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/química , Sesbania/química , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fazendas , Quênia , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4349-4361, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581301

RESUMO

Weaning is one of the most stressful periods in the life of a ruminant. Several factors entrenched within typical management practices pose challenges to the calf gastrointestinal health. Weaning is associated with losses in BW and feed intake. In addition, increasing highly fermentable carbohydrates in the diet at the expense of physically effective fiber after weaning predisposes the development of rumen acidosis and increases the concentration of endotoxin in rumen fluid and the permeability of the lower gut to luminal contents. Endotoxin translocation can elicit immune activation, shifting the metabolic priorities toward the immune system, which if sustained over time can hinder animal health and performance. Strategic supplementation of additives with anti-inflammatory capacity could represent a suitable approach to decrease systemic inflammation, restoring barrier function to luminal contents. Bioactive extracts from Olea europaea have anti-inflammatory activity and have been shown to reduce systemic inflammation in other animal models. A generalized randomized block design was used to evaluate the impact of feeding an olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) to newly weaned heifers injected intravenously with sequentially increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 36 heifers, distributed across 3 experimental periods, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments that consisted of intravenous injection of either saline (CTL-) or with 6 sequentially increasing doses of LPS (0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 µg/kg of BW) over a 10-d period (CTL+), and CTL+ plus dietary supplementation with a low (OBE-L; 0.04% of diet DM) or a high (OBE-H; 0.16% of diet DM) dose of OBE. Feeding OBE reduced some of the negative effects of prolonged immune activation with LPS, such as improved DMI and decreased intravaginal temperature in some, but not all of the days of LPS challenge (P < 0.05). In addition, feeding OBE reduced circulating concentration of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and haptoglobin (P < 0.05). Heifers supplemented with OBE had reduced cell surface expression of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) in monocyte cells (P < 0.01), a key receptor for LPS recognition, which was correlated with a faster recovery of immune cell counts in plasma. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with OBE was successful in mitigating the negative effects of sustained immune activation in newly weaned heifers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inflamação/veterinária , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fermentação , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4386-4404, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583405

RESUMO

Average daily gain (ADG) and daily dry matter intake (DMI) are key determinants of beef industry profitability. These traits together with metabolic body weight (MWT) are combined as component traits to calculate residual feed intake (RFI), a common measure of feed efficiency in beef cattle. Recently, there have been significant efforts towards molecular genetic characterization of RFI through transcriptomic studies in different breeds and tissues. However, molecular mechanisms of RFI component traits still remain predominately unexplored. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the hepatic transcriptomic profiles and their associations with ADG, DMI, and MWT in Angus, Charolais, and Kinsella Composite (KC) populations through global RNAseq analyses. In each population and for each trait, 12 steers with extreme phenotypes (n = 6 low and n = 6 high) were analyzed for differential gene expression. These animals were from 20 beef steers of each Angus, Charolais, and KC breed population that were initially selected for a transcriptome study of RFI. At a false discovery rate <0.05 and fold change >1.5, we identified 123, 102, and 78 differentially expressed (DE) genes between high- and low-ADG animals of Angus, Charolais, and KC populations, respectively. For DMI, 108, 180, and 156 DE genes were identified between high- and low-DMI from Angus, Charolais, and KC populations, respectively, while for MWT, 80, 82, and 84 genes were differentially expressed between high- and low-MWT animals in Angus, Charolais, and KC populations, respectively. The identified DE genes were largely breed specific (81.7% for ADG, 82.7% for DMI, and 83% for MWT), but were largely involved in the same biological functions across the breeds. Among the most enriched biological functions included metabolism of major nutrients (lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals), small molecule biochemistry, cellular movement, cell morphology, and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. Notably, we identified multiple DE genes that are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, and immune response pathways for the 3 studied traits. Thus, our findings present potential molecular genetic mechanisms and candidate genes that influence feed intake, growth, and MWT of beef cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Transcriptoma , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colesterol/biossíntese , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Carne Vermelha/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Ganho de Peso
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11016-11025, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587905

RESUMO

Newborn Holstein male calves (n = 50) born on a single dairy farm were assigned randomly at birth to receive 3 feedings of 1.8 L of pooled maternal colostrum (MC) at 1, 6, and 12 h of age or 1 feeding of 500 g of a colostrum replacer reconstituted to 1.8 L at 1 h of age, followed by 2 feedings of 227 g of a commercial milk replacer (MR) reconstituted to 1.8 L at 6 and 12 h of age (CR). All feedings were administered by esophageal feeder. At 2 to 3 d of age, calves were transported to the experimental facility and assigned within colostrum group to receive 0.66 kg/d dry matter (DM) of MR to 39 d, and then 0.33 kg/d to 42 d (MRM) or 0.77 kg/d of MR DM to d 13, 1.03 kg/d for 22 d, and 0.51 kg/d for 7 d (MRH). The MR contained 25.8% crude protein and 17.6% crude fat (DM basis) and was based on whey proteins and lard as the primary fat source. Calf starter (21.7% crude protein, 15.7% neutral detergent fiber, 37.4% starch, DM basis) and water were available for ad libitum consumption throughout the 56-d study. Serum IgG and total protein were measured at 2 to 3 d of age. Intakes of MR and calf starter were monitored daily. Calf health and fecal scores were also monitored daily. Body weight was measured weekly, and hip width and body condition score were monitored every 2 wk. Digestion of DM, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract were determined at 1 and 3 wk from 5 calves randomly selected within treatment and using chromic oxide as a digestibility marker added to the MR. Calves fed CR had lower serum IgG and total protein than calves fed MC. Also, calves fed CR grew more slowly, consumed less calf starter, and were less efficient to 56 d than calves fed MC. The number of days calves were treated with veterinary medications was higher when calves were fed CR. Calves fed MC-MRH gained more BW than other calves from 3 to 8 wk of age. Calves fed CR-MRH consumed less calf starter than other calves during wk 7 and 8. Digestion of nutrients at 1 and 3 wk of the study was unaffected by type of colostrum or level of MR fed and did not change from 1 to 3 wk. Over the first 2 mo of life, the calves fed MRH consumed less calf starter than calves fed MRM, but average daily gain or hip width change did not differ. One feeding of CR followed by 2 feedings of MR in the first 24 h likely reduced absorption of IgG from CR and contributed to differences in health and growth. Differences in animal performance observed in this study were unrelated to MR digestibility.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colostro , Substitutos do Leite/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes , Masculino , Amido/metabolismo , Desmame
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4405-4417, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593986

RESUMO

Some definitions of feed efficiency such as residual energy intake (REI) and residual gain (RG) may not truly reflect production efficiency. The energy sinks used in the derivation of the traits include metabolic live-weight; producers finishing cattle for slaughter are, however, paid on the basis of carcass weight, as opposed to live-weight. The objective of the present study was to explore alternative definitions of REI and RG which are more reflective of production efficiency, and quantify their relationship with performance, ultrasound, and carcass traits across multiple breeds and sexes of cattle. Feed intake and live-weight records were available on 5,172 growing animals, 2,187 of which also had information relating to carcass traits; all animals were fed a concentrate-based diet representative of a feedlot diet. Animal linear mixed models were used to estimate (co)variance components. Heritability estimates for all derived REI traits varied from 0.36 (REICWF; REI using carcass weight and carcass fat as energy sinks) to 0.50 (traditional REI derived with the energy sinks of both live-weight and ADG). The heritability for the RG traits varied from 0.24 to 0.34. Phenotypic correlations among all definitions of the REI traits ranged from 0.90 (REI with REICWF) to 0.99 (traditional REI with REI using metabolic preslaughter live-weight and ADG). All were different (P < 0.001) from one suggesting reranking of animals when using different definitions of REI to identify efficient cattle. The derived RG traits were either weakly or not correlated (P > 0.05) with the ultrasound and carcass traits. Genetic correlations between the REI traits with carcass weight, dressing difference (i.e., live-weight immediately preslaughter minus carcass weight) and dressing percentage (i.e., carcass weight divided by live-weight immediately preslaughter) implies that selection on any of the REI traits will increase carcass weight, lower the dressing difference and increase dressing percentage. Selection on REICW (REI using carcass weight as an energy sink), as opposed to traditional REI, should increase the carcass weight 2.2 times slower but reduce the dressing difference 4.3 times faster. While traditionally defined REI is informative from a research perspective, the ability to convert energy into live-weight gain does not necessarily equate to carcass gain, and as such, traits such as REICW and REICWF provide a better description of production efficiency for feedlot cattle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Animais , Benchmarking , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ganho de Peso
13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4682-4690, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608380

RESUMO

Auction-derived steers (n = 36; initial BW = 284 ± 11 kg) were received to compare performance, rumination characteristics, and rumen pH differences due to alternative ration energy densities and feed management strategies during a 56 d receiving study. Cattle were weighed on day -1 and randomized to 1 of 3 treatments. Time spent ruminating was quantified with a three-axis accelerometer ear-tag. Rumen pH and temperature were logged in a random subset (n = 6 per treatment) by a ruminal bolus. Cattle were processed identically and housed in individual pens. The modified-live virus respiratory vaccination was delayed until day 28. The finisher (FIN) cattle were provided their daily feed as a high energy density (1.39 Mcal NEg/kg) diet. The finisher + hay (FIN+H) cattle were provided the same diet but were also offered 0.5% BW DM as coastal Bermudagrass hay on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28. The control (CON) cattle were fed a low energy density (0.93 Mcal NEg/kg) diet from day 0 to 7, then transitioned to the FIN diet by replacing an additional 25% of the daily feed call with FIN every 7 d until 100% of the diet was FIN on day 29. Feed offering for CON was increased more aggressively (0.45 kg DM daily for days 1 to 7, every other day for day 8 to 14) than FIN and FIN+H (0.45 kg DM every other day for days 1 to 7, daily for days 8 to 14). Performance and DMI were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with treatment as a fixed effect. Rumination, pH, and temperature models included repeated measures. There was no treatment difference observed for BW, average daily gain (ADG), or G:F (P ≥ 0.12). There was a treatment × day interaction (P = 0.06) for rumen temperature, where FIN increased more rapidly following vaccination on day 28 compared to CON (P ≤ 0.04). Daily rumination minutes were greater (P < 0.01) for CON than FIN from days 7 to 22. Additionally, CON had the greatest (P < 0.01) hourly rumination from 2000 to 0800 hours. Lower minimum daily rumen pH occurred in FIN+H (P ≤ 0.06) on weeks 1, 2 and 6 to 8 compared to CON. There were minimal statistical differences in area under the curve or time below pH thresholds, probably due to large animal-to-animal variation. Hourly rumen pH was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) for FIN vs. FIN+H and CON during the initial 28 d, but greater (P = 0.05) for FIN and FIN+H during the final 28 d. When cattle are individually fed, greater energy density rations can be fed initially without compromising performance, but this needs to be evaluated in group pens where greater DMI variation is probable.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1677-1685, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038650

RESUMO

Forty eight crossbred calves, 24 males and 24 females, with weight and age of 203.6±3.7kg and 11.8±1.0 months were allotted to the following treatments: MT- mineral salt ad libitum and sugar cane mixed with 10g kg-1 mixture of urea and ammonium sulfate in a 9:1 proportion; MA - sugar cane mixed with 16g kg-1 of a concentrate of urea (550g kg-1), ammonium sulfate (60g kg-1) and minerals (390g kg-1); SU - sugar cane mixed with 50g kg-1 of a concentrate of soybean meal (830g kg-1), urea (52g kg-1) and minerals (118g kg-1) and MC - corn silage mixed with 10g kg-1 of a concentrate of urea (500g kg-1), ammonium sulfate (50g kg-1) and minerals (450g kg-1). Minerals mixed with sugar cane (MA) resulted in greater weight gain (0.258 x 0.188kg d-1) for similar intakes of DM (3.29 x 3.30kg d-1). Substitution of part of urea nitrogen in the MA by soybean meal (SU) resulted in greater ADG (0.538 x 0.258kg d-1), due to higher sugar cane intake (4.10 x 3.13kg d-1). ADG of calves receiving corn silage was greater (0.406 x 0.258kg d-1) than for calves receiving sugar cane.(AU)


Quarenta e oito bezerros cruzados, com peso vivo de 203,6±3,7kg e idade de 11,8±1,0 meses, sendo 24 machos e 24 fêmeas, foram distribuídos nos tratamentos: MT - sal mineral à vontade e cana-de-açúcar adicionada de 10g kg -1 de uma mistura de ureia e sulfato de amônio na proporção de 9:1; MA - cana-de-açúcar adicionada de 16g kg -1 de uma mistura de ureia (55%), sulfato de amônio (6%) e minerais (39%); SU - cana-de-açúcar adicionada de 50g kg -1 de uma mistura de farelo de soja (83%), ureia (5,2%) e minerais (11,8%); e MC - silagem de milho adicionada de 10g kg -1 de uma mistura de ureia (50%), sulfato de amônio (5%) e minerais (45%). Minerais misturados no volumoso resultaram em maior ganho de peso (0, 258 x 0,188kg/dia) com consumos semelhantes de matéria seca (3,29 x 3,30kg/dia). Substituição de parte do nitrogênio da ureia no MA pelo do farelo de soja resultou em aumento do ganho de peso (0,258 x 0,538kg/dia) e no consumo de cana (3,13 x 4,10kg/dia). Ganho de peso dos bezerros que receberam silagem de milho foi superior ao dos bezerros que receberam o MA (0,406 x 0,258kg/dia), devido ao maior consumo de silagem (4,71 x 3,13kg/dia).(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Ureia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays , Saccharum , Ração Animal/análise , Minerais/administração & dosagem
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1695-1702, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038648

RESUMO

Utilizaram-se registros de pesos corporais padronizados aos 120, 210, 365 e 450 dias de idade, provenientes de 30.481 animais da raça Nelore, progênies de 211 reprodutores acasalados com 19.229 matrizes, oriundos de rebanhos dos estados de Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul e Goiás, com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de interação genótipo x ambiente entre os estados. As estimativas de herdabilidade entre os estados variaram de 0,09 a 0,14; 0,11 a 0,17; 0,16 a 0,27 e 0,17 a 0,35, respectivamente, para os pesos 120, 210, 365 e 450 dias de idade. As estimativas de correlação genética aditiva entre a mesma característica para os diferentes estados apresentaram valores inferiores a 0,80. As correlações de Spearman entre os valores genéticos para os pesos corporais se reduziram à medida que se aumentou a intensidade de seleção sobre os reprodutores. A presença de interação genótipo x ambiente causa maior impacto sobre a avaliação genética dos reprodutores sob intensidade de seleção elevada, sendo interessante sua consideração no processo de avaliação genética. Estimativas de tendências genéticas para todos os pesos corporais apresentaram-se crescentes ao longo dos anos nos três estados.(AU)


Data of adjusted alive weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age of 30,481 records of animals of the Nellore beef cattle breed from herds of states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás were used to study the influence of environment genotype interaction on genetic evaluation of sires. Estimates of heritability between the states ranged from 0.09 to 0.14; 0.11 to 0.17; 0.16 to 0.27 and 0.17 to 0.35, respectively for live weights 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age. The estimates of additive genetic correlation between the same characteristic for the different states presented values lower than 0.80. Spearman correlations between breeding values obtained from live weights of sires lowered as the intensity of selection on sires increased. The presence of environment genotype interaction has greater impact on the genetic evaluation of breeding under high intensity of selection, being an interesting consideration in the process of genetic evaluation. Estimates of genetic trends for all body weights have been increasing over the years in all three states.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Seleção Genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11137-11147, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532202

RESUMO

MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation is important for the development of the mammary gland and the lactating process. A previous study has shown that the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is different in the dry and early lactation period of the dairy cow mammary gland, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the lactation cycle are not fully understood. Here, the function of miR-21-3p on bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs) was detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, which showed that miR-21-3p significantly promoted the cell viability and proliferation. Then, the regulating mechanism of miR-21-3p on cell viability and proliferation was elucidated. Dual luciferase assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blot results revealed that IGFBP5 was a target gene of miR-21-3p. It was known that lncRNA could act as a competing endogenous RNA to sequester miRNAs and reduce the regulatory effect of miRNA-targeted genes. Based on our previous lncRNA-seq data and bioinformatics analysis, lncRNA NONBTAT017009.2 was potentially associated with miR-21-3p, and its expression was specifically inhibited with the transfection of miR-21-3p mimic into BMECs. Inversely, the overexpression of NONBTAT017009.2 significantly decreased the expression level of miR-21-3p in BMECs, while the expression of IGFBP5, the target gene of miR-21-3p, was significantly upregulated. In addition, the promoter region of miR-21 contained two STAT3 binding sites, and the dual luciferase reporter assays revealed that the overexpression of STAT3 significantly reduced the promoter activity of miR-21, implying that the transcription factor STAT3 may act as an upstream regulator affecting the regulation process of miR-21-3p. The overexpression of STAT3 significantly inhibited the expression of miR-21-3p, while the mRNA expression of IGFBP5 was significantly increased compared with the control group. Besides, there are no STAT3 binding sites in the promoter region of IGFBP5 as we predicted by gene-regulation and JASPAR software. Therefore, it could infer that STAT3 might regulate the expression of IGFBP5 by miR-21-3p. Taken together, these results established a regulatory network of miR-21-3p to illustrate the regulating mechanism on promoting cow mammary epithelial cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
17.
Anim Genet ; 50(6): 634-643, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502261

RESUMO

Genomic prediction has been widely utilized to estimate genomic breeding values (GEBVs) in farm animals. In this study, we conducted genomic prediction for 20 economically important traits including growth, carcass and meat quality traits in Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Five approaches (GBLUP, BayesA, BayesB, BayesCπ and BayesR) were used to estimate the genomic breeding values. The predictive accuracies ranged from 0.159 (lean meat percentage estimated by BayesCπ) to 0.518 (striploin weight estimated by BayesR). Moreover, we found that the average predictive accuracies across 20 traits were 0.361, 0.361, 0.367, 0.367 and 0.378, and the averaged regression coefficients were 0.89, 0.86, 0.89, 0.94 and 0.95 for GBLUP, BayesA, BayesB, BayesCπ and BayesR respectively. The genomic prediction accuracies were mostly moderate and high for growth and carcass traits, whereas meat quality traits showed relatively low accuracies. We concluded that Bayesian regression approaches, especially for BayesR and BayesCπ, were slightly superior to GBLUP for most traits. Increasing with the sizes of reference population, these two approaches are feasible for future application of genomic selection in Chinese beef cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Bovinos/classificação , Carne , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
18.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4341-4348, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504581

RESUMO

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the inclusion of crude glycerin (CG) in diets for beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated steers were fed diets with 0 or 15% CG (DM basis), to evaluate DM disappearance, VFA profiles, and gas production. There was a tendency for an interaction (P = 0.06) between diet fed to donor animals and substrate fed to in vitro system, and digestion was increased when CG was added to cultures with ruminal fluid from CG-fed animals. Total VFA were unaffected by diets or by substrate incubated. The CG increased production of propionate, butyrate, and valerate (P < 0.01) while the gas production was unaffected (P = 0.16). In Exp. 2, 24 crossbred heifers (334.4 ± 0.9 kg BW) were fed the same diets as Exp. 1, for 35 d. Fecal grab samples were collected 3 times daily on day 7, 21, and 35, to evaluate total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, and NDF. The CG improved digestibility of diet OM (P = 0.04), and DM followed a similar trend (P = 0.06), while the NDF digestibility was unaffected (P = 0.29). In Exp. 3, crossbred heifers (n = 374; 375.8 ± 36.1 kg BW) were used to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass traits when fed diets with 0, 7.5, or 15% CG, with or without added 0.3% salt. Heifers were assigned to 25 pens and were harvested on day 125. Removing salt from CG-based diets did not impact performance (P = 0.50). The CG did not influence average daily gain (P = 0.27), but decreased DM intake (P = 0.003), USDA Yield Grade (P = 0.01), and improved feed efficiency (P = 0.03), while tended to decrease USDA prime carcasses (P = 0.10). Carcass weight (P = 0.24), Longissimus muscle area (P = 0.63), and kidney, pelvic, heart fat (P = 0.59) were unaffected by CG. Twelfth-rib fat was less for heifers fed 15% CG without salt compared with the other treatments (P = 0.005), while marbling was less for heifers fed CG diets compared with the control-fed animals (linear, P = 0.004; quadratic, P = 0.02). In conclusion, GC can replace dry-rolled corn in diets for beef heifers when fed at 15% of diet DM, improving OM digestion, increasing ruminal propionate and butyrate without affecting greenhouse gas emissions. Feeding up to 15% CG improves feed efficiency but depresses marbling and tends to decrease Quality Grade. Removing supplemental salt from CG-diets has no impact on performance or carcass traits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glicerol/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4362-4369, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504608

RESUMO

This study utilized 204 Angus-based beef steers (249 ± 23 kg SD) from a single ranch with initial serum α-tocopherol concentrations of 3.9 ± 1.0 mg/L to determine the effect of varying doses of vitamin E (VE) on feedlot performance, antibody response to vaccination, and antioxidant defense. Seven days after arrival, steers were blocked by body weight and weaning protocol (preweaned, unweaned heavy, and unweaned light) and randomly assigned to pens within blocks (12 pens per block). Preweaned steers had been weaned for approximately 35 d prior to arrival, and unweaned steers were weaned when leaving the origin ranch. Pens within block were randomly assigned to supplemental VE (ROVIMIX E-50 Adsorbate, DSM Nutritional Products, Heerlen, The Netherlands) treatments (n = 9 pens per treatment): no supplemental VE (CON), 25 IU/kg dry matter (DM; LOW), 500 IU per steer daily (MED), or 1,000 IU per steer daily (HIGH). Back-calculated supplemental VE intake was 0, 151 (24.8 IU/kg DM), 484, and 995 IU/d for CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively. On day 6, all steers received a booster vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV; Bovi-Shield Gold, One Shot, Zoetis, Parsippany, NJ). Steers were weighed on day -1, 0, 14, 26, and 27. One steer per pen representative of the average body weight of the pen was chosen as a sampling animal for blood (day -1, 6, 14, 26, and 28) and liver (day -3 and 24). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using Proc Mixed of SAS with pen as the experimental unit and the fixed effects of treatment and block. Linear, quadratic, and cubic contrast statements were constructed using Proc IML; morbidity data were analyzed using Proc Glimmix. Day 24 liver and day 26 serum α-tocopherol concentrations were linearly increased by supplemental VE (P < 0.01). Supplemental VE did not affect DM intake, average daily gain, or gain:feed from day 0 to 27 (P ≥ 0.37), or the percentage of steers treated for respiratory disease (P ≥ 0.44). Day 24 liver glutathione concentrations decreased linearly due to supplemental VE (P ≤ 0.02). Total- and Mn-superoxide dismutase activities were quadratically affected by supplemental VE (P ≤ 0.07), with MED steers exhibiting the greatest activity. Over time, BVDV type 1 and 2 antibody titers numerically decreased, whereas the decrease in BVDV type 1 titers was lesser for HIGH steers (linear P = 0.04). Increasing doses of VE improved VE status but did not affect overall receiving period performance in steers with minimal to adequate VE status upon arrival.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Vacinação/veterinária , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Desmame
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11040-11050, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563311

RESUMO

Growth and the digestibility of nutrients can be greatly affected by diet preweaning and the rate at which calves are weaned. A 2 × 2 factorial design [moderate (MOD) or high (HI) milk replacer (MR) feeding rates and abrupt (AB) or gradual (GR) weaning] was used to compare these effects. Calves (n = 50) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: MOD-AB, MOD-GR, HI-AB, and HI-GR. Calves assigned to MOD-AB were fed 0.66 kg of MR for the first 42 d and then 0.33 kg for the last 7 d; those assigned to MOD-GR were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 28 d, 0.33 kg for 14 d, and 0.17 kg for the last 7 d; those assigned to HI-AB were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 7 d, 0.82 kg for 7 d, 1.1 kg for 28 d, and 0.66 kg for the last 7 d; and those assigned to HI-GR were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 7 d, 0.82 kg for 7 d, 1.1 kg for 14 d, 0.66 kg for 14 d, and 0.33 kg for the last 7 d. All calves received the same MR [25% crude protein (CP), 17% fat; dry matter (DM) basis] and were given ad libitum access to water and a textured starter (42% starch and 20% CP). On d 26 to 30 and d 45 to 49, a fecal sample was taken from 5 calves in each treatment via the rectum to estimate apparent digestibility coefficients (dC). Apparent dC of DM, organic matter, and fat were greater for HI versus MOD calves. Apparent dC of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and sugar were greater for MOD versus HI calves. Apparent dC of DM was greater for AB versus GR calves [90.9, 89.0 ± 0.5384 (standard error)], and the apparent dC of acid detergent fiber was greater for GR versus AB calves (39.5, 32.3 ± 1.67). Feed efficiency was greater for HI versus MOD and AB versus GR. There were no significant differences between CP or starch dC based on treatment, and no interactions were observed. Starter consumption was greater for MOD calves compared with HI calves, and GR calves consumed more than AB calves. These results suggest that providing calves high amounts of MR preweaning enhanced readily available nutrient dC, but providing moderate amounts of MR resulted in increased fibrous fraction dC. Accordingly, the AB weaning strategy had higher dC for DM and organic matter, but there was a depression in fiber dC.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão , Substitutos do Leite/farmacologia , Desmame , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes , Leite , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
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