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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239786, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027259

RESUMO

Evaluations of replacement heifers in intensively managed grazing systems in tropical conditions are warranted. Thus, we aimed to evaluate performance, muscle and mammary gland development, oocyte quality, and in vitro production of embryos of crossbred heifers grazing an intensively managed pasture and supplemented with high or low protein concentrates. Eighteen pubertal crossbred heifers (Holstein x Gyr) with an initial weight of 350 ± 8.0 kg were used in a 60-day trial. Two supplement types, 12% crude protein (CP) (S12CP) or 24% CP (S24CP), and a control treatment (mineral mixture, CON) were randomly distributed to the heifers. Throughout the experiment, four digestibility trials were performed over four consecutive days. Four ovarium pick-ups were performed to evaluate oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production. Lastly, ultrasounds of carcasses and mammary glands were performed. The intakes of dry matter (DM), digestible energy (DE), and CP were greater for supplemented (SUP) compared with CON heifers. The SUP heifers had a greater average daily gain (ADG) (645 versus 390 g/d) and rib eye area (58.78 versus 53.32 cm2) than the CON heifers. Oocyte recovery, quality, and follicle features were not affected by supplementation strategy. However, the cleavage rate (47.17% versus 30.31%) and blastocyst rate (27.91% versus 10.12%) were negatively affected by supplementation. The S12CP presented a blastocyst rate much lower than the S24CP (3.02% versus 17.23%). Carcass ultrasonography indicated a trend for greater rib eye area for S24CP and mammary ultrasonography indicated no effects of supplementation on mammary gland development. In summary, supplementation seems to be an appropriate strategy for satisfactory performance, with greater muscle deposition and no negative impacts on mammary gland development. However, in vitro embryo production was impaired when the animals received the supplementation with 12% CP.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13467, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043536

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for first calving reproductive traits and growth curve characteristics in Japanese Black cattle. The Gompertz growth function was fitted to body weight-age data to obtain the mature weight (MWT) and rate of maturing (ROM) of cows. Data of reproductive traits including the first service conception rate (CR) for heifers, age at the first calving (AFC), and gestation length for the first calving were collected. Records of 3,204 animals were used for analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated using a linear uni- and bivariate animal model. The heritability estimates were moderate (0.29 for ROM) and high (0.57 for MWT) for growth curve parameters and low (0.03-0.11) for reproductive traits. There was a negative genetic correlation between MWT and ROM (-0.26), suggesting that an animal with a faster ROM would show a lower MWT. CR was negatively correlated with MWT (-0.42) but significantly and positively correlated with ROM (0.91). There was a negative genetic correlation between AFC and MWT (-0.49). These results suggest that a heifer with a faster ROM and lower MWT would show a higher CR. Meanwhile, a heifer with a lower MWT would show a higher AFC.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Feminino , Fertilização/genética , Gravidez/genética
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 10136-10151, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952015

RESUMO

During weaning, methionine (Met) supply decreases as liquid feed intake is reduced and ruminal function is developing. During this transition, the calf starter should both promote ruminal development and provide adequate nutrients post-ruminally. In mature ruminants, rumen-protected Met (RPM) and the Met analogs, 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMTBa) and HMTBa isopropyl ester (HMBi), are used to increase Met supply, stimulate ruminal fermentation, or exert both effects, respectively. To evaluate the effects of these forms of Met on calf performance during development of ruminal function, 74 Holstein calves were raised until 91 d of age, in 2 enrollment periods. Calves were individually housed from birth and, at 14 d of age, balanced for sex and randomly assigned to receive a starter with no added Met (CTRL, n = 20) or one supplemented with RPM (Smartamine M, Adisseo USA Inc., Alpharetta, GA; n = 16), HMTBa (RumenSmart, Adisseo; n = 19), or HMBi (MetaSmart, Adisseo; n = 19). Milk replacer [28% crude protein (CP), 15% fat] was offered up to 1.6 kg of dry matter (DM)/d and fed 3 times daily. Weaning was facilitated from d 49 to 63. The 4 starters (25% CP, 2.5 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg of DM) were offered ad libitum, and supplement inclusion was set to provide an additional 0.16% DM of Met equivalents, and equal amounts of HMTBa within the analogs. Body weight and stature were measured, and blood was collected and analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and free AA on a weekly basis. Supplementation of RPM and HMBi increased free plasma Met, but no differences in growth or feed efficiency compared with calves fed the CTRL starter could be attributed to the additional Met supply alone. The addition of HMBi in the starter increased feed intake and body weight during the last weeks of the experiment. On the contrary, HMTBa failed to increase plasma Met and depressed intake and growth after weaning, likely because the level included in the diet was too high and intake was greater than previous studies, exacerbating the level of HMTBa ingested. No differences were observed in stature, feed efficiency, or non-AA plasma measurements among groups. These results demonstrate that RPM and HMBi are effective sources of metabolizable Met; however, Met was apparently not limiting calves fed the basal diet in this study. The increased feed intake observed with the inclusion of HMBi in the starter during the weaning and early postweaning period might be mediated by its metabolism in the rumen, and further research is needed to determine the mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Butiratos/administração & dosagem , Butiratos/metabolismo , Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metionina/metabolismo , Leite , Desmame
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 10207-10218, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952029

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and performance of postweaning heifers supplemented with monensin (MON), sodium butyrate (SB), or the combination of MON and SB (MSB) compared with heifers not receiving these feed additives. Forty Holstein heifers [mean age 84.2 ± 1.2 d; body weight (BW) 99.8 ± 10.8 kg (mean ± SD)] were housed in a freestall barn, blocked by birth date, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) 100 g of soybean meal carrier (control; CON); (2) 0.75 g of SB/kg of BW + carrier (SB); (3) 1 mg of MON/kg of BW + carrier (MON); (4) 1 mg of MON/kg of BW + 0.75 g of SB/kg of BW (MSB). Data were analyzed using single degree of freedom contrasts evaluating CON versus additives (ADD), SB versus MON, and SB and MON versus MSB. Treatments were hand-mixed daily. Feed and orts were measured daily and frozen at -20°C. Orts samples were subsampled for dry matter (DM) determination, and total mixed ration samples were taken weekly and composited monthly for DM and nutrient analysis. Initial BW, heart and paunch girths, body length, blood samples, and fecal coccidia counts were measured before the start and weekly during the 12-wk trial. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and ketone concentrations. Apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility was determined from d 21 to 27 and from d 63 to 69 using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolizable energy intake were increased in ADD compared with CON, and average BW, final BW, and heart girth tended to increase. Whereas MSB tended to be greater than SB and MON for heart girth, feed efficiency was greater with MON compared with SB. Compared with CON, ADD decreased coccidia counts. No effect of treatment on PUN was detected. Monensin and SB tended to have greater plasma glucose than MSB did. Average blood ketone concentrations were greater with ADD versus CON, in SB versus MON, and in MSB versus SB and MON. During the wk-3 digestibility phase, DMI tended to be greater in heifers fed SB versus MON, as well as in heifers fed MSB versus SB and MON. Digestibility of nutrients were similar, except that starch digestibility was increased in heifers fed MSB versus SB and MON. During the wk-9 digestibility phase, DMI and digestibility of nutrients were similar, except NDF, which tended to be greater in CON than in ADD. Overall, ADD resulted in positive growth and reduced coccidia compared with CON.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nível de Saúde , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 10108-10121, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921466

RESUMO

The milk-fed calf has a requirement for essential amino acids (EAA) instead of crude protein (CP). However, most milk replacers (MR) are still formulated to a CP concentration, and although limited amounts of Lys or Met may be added, these MR are not formulated solely on an AA basis. Previous work has demonstrated that feeding a modified MR balanced for specific EAA concentrations of a 24% CP MR, but reducing CP to 22%, resulted in improved growth performance in calves compared with a 24% CP MR. The 56-d objective was to determine if the hypothesis that an EAA MR formulated to the specific EAA concentrations of a 24% CP MR, but reducing CP to 22 (22AA) compared with a standard 22% CP MR would result in similar or enhanced growth performance, while reducing feed costs. Two 56-d studies using forty 3- to 5-d-old Holstein bull calves per study received in 1 lot starting on May 8, 2018 (late-spring cooler) and June 22, 2018 (summer with heat stress) were blocked by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 MR treatments. Milk replacer treatments consisted of a standard 22:20 (CP:fat; 22CP) and a 22:20 MR with greater EAA concentrations of a 24% CP MR (22AA). All MR, containing decoquinate and diflubenzuron, were fed at 0.57 kg/d per calf split into 2 feedings at 0630 h and 1800 h for 0 to 14 d via bucket, increased to 0.85 kg/d through 35 d split in 2 feedings, and fed once per day at 0.41 kg/d in the morning with weaning after 42 d. Calves were housed in straw-bedded hutches with ad libitum access to water and 25% CP pelleted calf starter (CS). All data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with block within study considered random and week as a repeated measurement. Initial BW was similar across all treatments (39.9 ± 2.32 kg). Average daily temperature (i.e., heat stress intensity) tended to be greater for calves in study 2 compared with study 1 (20.5 and 22.9°C for study 1 and 2, respectively). The interaction of study and MR effects were nonsignificant. Calf BW, BW gain, average daily gain, CS intake, total dry matter intake (MR plus CS), feed conversions, and EAA intake (MR plus CS) were similar for calves fed both MR. Study 2 (summer heat stress) resulted in more scours incidences compared with study 1, and 22AA MR formulation tended to increase scours possibly due to synthetic AA addition or greater carbohydrate (lactose) inclusion when AA replaced protein sources. Feed costs as MR and total feed costs were lower for calves fed 22AA MR compared with calves fed 22CP MR. The increased Leu, Lys, Met, Thr, and Val concentrations in the 22AA MR compared with the 22CP MR resulted in similar calf growth performance, but the feed cost was lower for calves fed the 22AA MR, which achieved similar growth performance at a lesser cost under current study conditions, but not enhanced as hypothesized.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Estações do Ano , Desmame
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 10099-10107, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921472

RESUMO

The current study evaluated the effects of step-down weaning implementation time on starter feed intake, growth performance, blood metabolites, and ruminal pH in dairy calves. A total of 48 Holstein dairy calves (24 male and 24 female; 3 ± 1 d old; 41.2 ± 1.8 kg of body weight) were assigned (n = 12 per treatment; 6 male and 6 female) to 4 experimental treatments in a completely randomized block design. All calves were fed 6 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10 of age, and the treatments consisted of the following: calves were offered 8 L/d of milk from d 11 to 28 of age and then 4 L/d from d 29 to 63 (Step-28; total milk offered = 326 L); calves were offered 8 L/d of milk from d 11 to 42 of age and then 4 L/d from d 43 to 63 (Step-42; total milk offered = 382 L); calves were offered 8 L/d of milk from d 11 to 56 of age and 4 L/d from d 57 to 63 (Step-56; total milk intake = 438 L); and calves were fed 8 L/d of milk from d 11 to 63 of age and abruptly weaned (control; total milk offered = 466 L). All calves were housed individually in pens and had ad libitum access to water and solid feed throughout the experiment. All calves were completely milk weaned on d 64, and their performance was measured until d 80 of age. During the experiment, the starter intake (kg/d and % of body weight) was greater in calves in the Step-28 group compared with those in the other groups. However, the total metabolizable energy intake was greater in the Step-56 calves compared with the other calves. Overall, the average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (ADG/dry matter intake), and ADG/total metabolizable energy intake were similar across the treatments. Circulating glucose, ß-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, total protein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as ruminal pH, were not affected by the treatments. The implementation of step-down weaning in early life (4-6 wk of age) could stimulate solid feed intake compared with weaning at a later age with no negative effect on performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Leite/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 10083-10098, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952017

RESUMO

Tropical grass hay feeding is related to improved ruminal health; however, it may decrease energy intake. On the other hand, whole-flint corn grain may be an alternative fiber source in the diet of dairy calves. Forty-two Holstein calves were used in a randomized block design, considering sex, birth date, and weight at 21 d of age, when the supply of whole-flint corn grain or tropical grass hay started. Three component-fed solid diets were compared: (1) starter concentrate only during the preweaning and starter concentrate with free choice of chopped Tifton-85 hay postweaning (SC), (2) starter concentrate with free choice of chopped Tifton-85 hay pre- and postweaning (SCH), and (3) starter concentrate with free choice of whole-flint corn grain pre- and postweaning (SCW). The animals were evaluated from 21 to 84 d of age. Calves were managed equally during the first 21 d, fed with 6 L/d of whole milk and a commercial starter concentrate (46% nonfiber carbohydrates, small particles, and pelleted) ad libitum. After that, milk feeding was reduced to 4 L/d until gradual weaning at 56 d of age. At 56 d of age, 4 animals per treatment were randomly chosen to be slaughtered for digestive tract weight evaluation and to collect tissue for histological analysis of the ruminal wall, duodenum, and cecum, whereas the other 30 animals were weaned and evaluated for a further 22 d when the SC diet also received hay ad libitum. Feed intake was measured daily. Weight gain and metabolic indicators of intermediate metabolism were evaluated weekly. Ruminal fluid was collected at wk 6, 8, 10, and 12 of age. The SCH diet increased the total and starter dry matter intake, and consequently, the average daily gain and body weight at 56 d of age. The SCW diet promoted an increase in propionate and decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Morphometric variables were affected by the SCH diet. The postweaning performance was unaffected by solid diets; however, the SCW diet decreased ruminal and fecal pH. Feeding hay, starting at 21 d of age, can stimulate early solid diet intake, promoting better performance and ruminal and intestinal development, when a highly fermentable and small particle pelleted starter is fed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Zea mays , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Fermentação , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Poaceae , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rúmen/fisiologia , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Grãos Integrais
8.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13459, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996271

RESUMO

Pineapple stem starch (PS) was evaluated for its suitability as a new starch source in concentrate for fattening cattle, based on the growth performance, blood profile, and rumen parameters of 36 steers in a 206-day feeding study. PS was formulated as a 40% concentrate and fed with forage in comparison with ground corn (GC) and ground cassava (CA) formulated at the same level. PS feeding improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio without affecting feed intake. PS did not obviously influence blood lipid profiles throughout the experiment. Ruminal concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) increased with PS without affecting SCFA composition throughout the feeding study. Rumen amylolytic group, especially Ruminococcus bromii, was dominant in the rumen microbial community, and showed increased abundance by PS feeding throughout the experiment. These results clearly indicate the potential of PS as a useful starch source for fattening cattle in terms of rumen fermentation and growth performance.


Assuntos
Ananas , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Lipídeos/sangue , Rúmen/microbiologia , Amido , Animais , Masculino
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 3241-3250, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783132

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the productive and reproductive characteristics of the Caqueteño Creole cattle breed. Data was taken from 655 animals organized into 6 groups: group 1 (n = 185), pure Caqueteño Creole cattle breed (Caqueteño); group 2 (n = 34), Caqueteño Creole cattle breed crossing for multiracial animals (Caqueteño 50% × multiracial 50%); group 3 (n = 10) (Caqueteño 75% × Bos indicus 25%); group 4 (n = 56), crossbreed F1 (Bos taurus × B. indicus); group 5 (n = 168), animals with B. taurus percentage greater than 50% (B. taurus > 50%); group 6 (n = 202), animals with B. indicus percentage greater than 50% (B. indicus > 50%). Subsequently were done descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the LSD Fisher test (P < 0.05), with the software InfoStat version 2018. A significant difference was found (P < 0.05); in weight at birth (WB), Caqueteño presented the smallest value (29.8 kg); in daily weight gain (DWG), weight adjusted at 9 months (W9), and weight adjusted at 18 months (W18), Caqueteño presented highest values corresponding to 574.5 g/day, 183.0 kg, and 343.6 kg, respectively; in age at the first service (AFS), the lowest value was obtained by B. taurus × B. indicus (24.5 months), and in calving interval (CI), no significant differences were found (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the Caqueteño Creole cattle breed is efficient in the productive variables (daily weight gain, adjusted weight at 9 and 18 months); in age at the first service, the F1 group indicated precocity, followed by Caqueteño Creole.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colômbia , Feminino , Masculino , Ganho de Peso
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845979

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to investigate milk casein polymorphisms in dams and to determine the impacts of maternal casein genotypes on growth traits of their sucking calves. Milk samples from 433 dams of the breeds German Angus (GA) and German Simmental (GS) were typed at the milk protein loci α s1-casein (αs1-CN), ß-casein (ß-CN), α s2-casein (αs2-CN), and κ-casein (κ-CN) via isoelectric focusing. Associations between casein genotypes in maternal milk with growth traits of their 1,872 calves were analyzed until the age of weaning using linear mixed models, considering either genotypes of individual casein loci (model 1) or composite α s1-ß-α s2-κ-CN genotypes within the casein cluster (model 2). Besides environmental effects such as sex, age of the dam, and calving year-season, genetic effects (breed group and maternal and paternal effects) were considered in statistical models. The composite casein genotype BBǀA2A2ǀAAǀAB (order of genes on bovine chromosome 6: α s1-ǀß-ǀα s2-ǀκ-CN) was associated with greater average daily weight gains (ADG) and heavier age-adjusted weaning weights (WW) of calves (P < 0.05). The effects of composite genotypes on birth weight of calves were similar (P > 0.05; model 2). With regard to individual casein loci, greater ADG and WW were observed for calves from dams with the genotypes κ-CN BB and α s1-CN BB, respectively (P < 0.05; model 1). Age-adjusted WW was largest for calves from dams carrying the κ-CN genotype BB (215 kg) compared with calves representing the maternal AB and AA genotypes (both 204 kg). Results from the present study suggested selectable casein genotypes due to their nutritional value of milk (value in terms of offspring performances), offering new perspectives for breeding strategies in beef cattle to improve preweaning calf performance.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Proteínas do Leite/genética , Leite/química , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Cruzamento , Caseínas/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Genótipo , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812033

RESUMO

A randomized complete block design experiment with 30 yearling crossbred steers (initial average body weight [BW] = 297.6 ± 32.8 kg) fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet was used to evaluate finishing performance and carcass characteristics when provided with different concentrations of vitamin A (Rovimix A 1000; DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland) subsequent to a depletion phase. Steers were blocked by BW (n = 5 blocks; 6 steers per block), assigned to pens (n = 2 steers per pen), and randomly assigned to one of the following dietary treatments: no added vitamin A (0IU; 0.0 IU/kg dry matter [DM] basis of additional vitamin A), vitamin A supplemented at the estimated National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) requirement (2,200IU; 2,200 IU/kg of dietary DM of additional vitamin A), and vitamin A supplemented at 5× the estimated requirement (11,000IU; 11,000 IU/kg of dietary DM of additional vitamin A). The basal diet included minimal vitamin A activity (<200 IU of vitamin A activity/kg of dietary DM) via the provitamin A, beta-carotene. After all animals underwent a 91-d vitamin A depletion period, additional vitamin A was top-dressed at feeding via a ground corn carrier. Liver biopsy samples, BW, and blood were obtained on days -91, -35, 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112. Final BW was collected prior to shipping on day 112. Carcass data were collected by trained personnel upon harvest. Sera and liver samples were used to monitor circulating vitamin A and evaluate true vitamin A status of the cattle. Vitamin A status did not affect interim average daily gain or feed efficiency (G:F; P > 0.05). Throughout the duration of the study, dry matter intake for the 0IU cattle was depressed (P = 0.01). Differences were not observed across treatments for hot carcass weight, rib eye area, back fat thickness, kidney-pelvic-heart fat %, marbling score, or dressing percent (P ≥ 0.10). A treatment × day interaction occurred for both (P < 0.01) sera retinol and liver retinol during phase 2 of the trial. The treatments and sera retinol concentrations were incorporated into a repletion model, resulting in an estimation of liver retinol changes (P < 0.01; R2 = 0.682). However, models used to evaluate depleted animals were less effective. The current NASEM recommended that vitamin A requirement of 2,200 IU/kg is adequate for repletion of vitamin A status of feedlot steers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Zea mays
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776133

RESUMO

This experiment investigated phenotypic and genetic relationships between carbon dioxide production, methane emission, feed intake, and postweaning traits in Angus cattle. Respiration chamber data on 1096 young bulls and heifers from 2 performance recording research herds of Angus cattle were analyzed to provide phenotypic and genetic parameters for carbon dioxide production rate (CPR; n = 425, mean 3,010 ± SD 589 g/d) and methane production rate (MPR; n = 1,096, mean 132.8 ± SD 25.2 g/d) and their relationships with dry matter intake (DMI; n = 1,096, mean 6.15 ± SD 1.33 kg/d), body weight (BW) and body composition traits. Heritability estimates were moderate to high for CPR (0.53 [SE 0.17]), MPR (0.31 [SE 0.07]), DMI (0.49 [SE 0.08]), yearling BW (0.46 [SE 0.08]), and scanned rib fat depth (0.42 [SE 0.07]). There was a strong phenotypic (0.83 [SE 0.02]) and genetic (0.75 [SE 0.10]) correlation between CPR and MPR. The correlations obtained for DMI with CPR and with MPR were high, both phenotypically (rp) and genetically (rg) (rp: 0.85 [SE 0.01] and 0.71 [SE 0.02]; rg (0.95 [SE 0.03] and 0.83 [SE 0.05], respectively). Yearling BW was strongly correlated phenotypically (rp ≥ 0.60) and genetically (rg > 0.80) with CPR, MPR, and DMI, whereas scanned rib fat was weakly correlated phenotypically (rp < 0.20) and genetically (rg ≤ 0.20) with CPR, MPR, and DMI. The strong correlation between both CPR and MPR with DMI confirms their potential use as proxies for DMI in situations where direct DMI recording is not possible such as on pasture.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bovinos/genética , Metano/metabolismo , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 8910-8921, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713693

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of conditioner retention time during the pelleting process of starter feed on intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and growth performance of dairy calves. A total of 30 Holstein female dairy calves [40 ± 1.93 kg of body weight (BW)] were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) pelleted starter conditioned for 0 min (CON), (2) pelleted starter conditioned for 2 min, and (3) pelleted starter conditioned for 4 min. Three pelleted starter feeds had similar nutritional composition, and the starters were blended with 3% chopped wheat straw and fed to individually housed calves from d 3 to 70 of age. All calves were fed 4 L/d of pasteurized whole milk twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h from d 3 to 50 of calf age, followed by 2 L/d of morning feeding from 51 to 56 d of age. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 70 of age. With the increase of conditioner retention time during pellet processing for 0, 2, and 4 min, the gelatinized starch content of pelleted starter feed linearly increased from 14, 30, and 45%, respectively. Additionally, the pellet durability and hardness also linearly increased with increasing conditioner retention time during pelleting. Feeding pelleted feed prepared using different conditioner retention time did not affect feed dry matter intake, metabolizable energy intake, weaning BW, final BW, or feed efficiency during the study. We observed no differences in the total-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein around weaning (d 49 to 56 of age) and after weaning (d 63 to 70 of calf cage); however, the digestibility of dry matter and starch after weaning was increased with increasing conditioner retention time during pelleting of starter feed. No difference was found in overall average daily gain (ADG) or growth rates of hip height, withers height, and heart girth. Ruminal volatile fatty acid profile was not affected by pelleting under different conditioner retention times. The ruminal ammonia concentration tended to be lower for calves fed the 4-min diet compared with those fed the CON diet during the postweaning period. The postweaning (d 57-70 of age) ADG was greater for calves fed the 4-min diet compared with those fed the CON diet. In conclusion, the conditioning time during the pelleting process of starter feed increased the gelatinization of starch, durability, and hardness of the pellets but did not influence feed intake, feed efficiency, and skeletal growth during the first 70 d of age. Increasing conditioning time during the pelleting process improved postweaning ADG; however, the final BW of calves was similar among treatments.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão/fisiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Desmame
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 8880-8897, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713706

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine effects of various forages and live yeast culture on intake, growth, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation of weaned dairy calves. Holstein calves (n = 45) were randomly assigned to 2 × 3 factorial treatments: live yeast culture or no yeast and alfalfa haylage (AH), corn silage (CS), or grass hay (GH). Calves were weaned at 6 wk of age, housed individually, and studied from 7 to 16 wk of age. Rations, consisting of an 18% crude protein texturized grower (yeast or no yeast) and assigned forage, were offered as separate components until 9 wk of age. After 9 wk, diets were offered as a total mixed ration (TMR). Concentrate intake was capped at 2.25 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, and forage was offered ad libitum. The TMR contained equal forage neutral detergent fiber (8 ± 0.5%) on a DM basis for each basal diet. Calves were fed TMR to limit concentrate intake, and additional forage was offered ad libitum after 8 h if the entire TMR allotment was consumed. Total fecal collection (12 calves) was conducted for 4 d at 11 and 15 wk of age. Feeds and feces were evaluated for DM, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and starch to calculate digestibility. On the last day of fecal collection, rumen samples were collected to evaluate pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile. Metabolizable energy and DM intake was least for calves consuming GH compared with other forages. Forage intake (% of DM intake) increased as calves aged (AH = 20 to 44.4%, CS = 24.5 to 37.6%, GH = 11.3 to 32.3% at 10 and 16 wk of age, respectively). Calves on CS had the greatest average daily gain and empty body weight gain, and calves on GH had the least. Calves on GH tended to have the lowest final body weight. There were no differences in structural growth. Digestibility of DM decreased with age. Fiber digestibility was least for calves on CS, and starch digestibility was least for calves on AH. Mean and minimum rumen pH increased with age. Forage offered changed VFA profile and there was an interaction between yeast and forage on VFA profile. These results indicated that recently weaned calves perform well on AH, CS, or GH and have minimal benefit from yeast supplementation. Feeding GH reduced weight gain, but all calves achieved a level of gain to meet growth goals for breeding and freshening. Furthermore, the ability to consume large portions of the ration as forage allows for more economical diets to be fed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão/fisiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(9): 7998-8019, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622603

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of using heat-treated canola meal (CM) and glycerol inclusion in starter mixtures on starter intake, growth, and gastrointestinal tract development in Holstein bull calves. In the first study, a protocol for the heat treatment of CM was evaluated by comparing commercial CM that was exposed to 0, 100, 110, or 120°C of heat treatment for 10 min. Following heat treatment, in situ crude protein (CP) ruminal degradability and estimated intestinal CP digestibility were assessed. It was observed that the degradable fractions of dry matter and CP in CM decreased linearly with increasing temperature of heat treatment. The estimated intestinal CP digestibility was greatest when CM was heated to 110°C. In the second study, 28 bull calves were used in a randomized complete block design. Calves were fed pelleted starters containing CM or CM that was heat-treated to 110°C for 10 min. Diets also contained 0 or 5% glycerol on a dry matter basis. The study lasted 51 d, ending on the first day of weaning. Starter intake, average daily gain (ADG), ruminal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, morphology of the rumen and small intestine, gene expression (MCT1, GPR41, GPR43, UTB, AQP3, PEPT1, PEPT2, ATB0+, and EAAC1) in the ruminal, jejunal, and ileal epithelium, and brush border enzyme activities in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were investigated. Few interactions between heat-treated CM and glycerol inclusion were observed. Feeding heat-treated CM did not affect starter intake. However, feeding heat-treated CM to calves tended to reduce ADG and decreased the weight of ruminal and jejunal tissue. Heat treatment did not affect gene expression or brush border enzyme activities in the small intestine. Glycerol inclusion tended to increase cumulative starter intake and increased cumulative body weight gain. Use of glycerol reduced ruminal pH and increased the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids. Additionally, glycerol inclusion increased abomasal, duodenal, jejunal, and cecal digesta weights and tended to increase the weight of the jejunal tissue. Glycerol supplementation tended to downregulate the expression of MCT1 in the ruminal epithelium, and upregulated the expression of MCT1 in the epithelium of proximal jejunum. In conclusion, heat treatment of CM may negatively affect calf growth and gastrointestinal tract development. Glycerol inclusion may increase starter intake, ADG, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal development in calves when CM is used as a main source of protein in pelleted starter mixture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glicerol/farmacologia , Abomaso/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glicerol/metabolismo , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697832

RESUMO

This 2-yr study evaluated the growth and puberty attainment of Bos indicus-influenced beef heifers offered 2 different postweaning concentrate supplementation amounts and delivery frequencies. On day 0 of each year, 64 Brangus crossbred heifers were stratified by initial body weight (BW) and age (mean = 244 ± 22 kg; 314 ± 17 d) and assigned into 1 of 16 bahiagrass pastures (4 heifers/pasture/yr). Treatments were randomly assigned to pastures in a 2 × 2 factorial design (4 pastures/treatment/yr) and consisted of concentrate dry matter (DM) supplementation at 1.25% or 1.75% of BW which were offered either daily (7×) or 3 times weekly (3×) for 168 d. On day 56 of each year, heifers were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol consisting of intravaginal controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insertion on day 56, CIDR removal on day 70, i.m. injection of 25 mg of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on day 86, and i.m. injection of 100 µg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and timed-AI at 66 h after PGF2α injection (day 89). Heifers were exposed to Angus bulls from day 89 to 168 (1 bull/pasture). Pregnancy diagnosis was assessed on day 213 of each year. Supplementation amount × frequency effects were not detected (P ≥ 0.12) for any variable, except for plasma concentrations of glucose (P = 0.10) and urea nitrogen (PUN; P = 0.01). Herbage mass, herbage allowance, and nutritive value did not differ (P ≥ 0.12) among treatments. Increasing supplementation DM amount from 1.25% to 1.75% of BW increased (P ≤ 0.05) plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), overall average daily gain (ADG), final BW, percentage of pubertal heifers on day 89, pregnancy and calving percentages, and percentage of heifers calving within the first 21 d of the calving season. However, reducing the supplementation frequency from daily to 3× weekly, regardless of supplementation amount, did not impact overall pregnancy and calving percentages (P ≥ 0.42), but caused (P ≤ 0.05) fluctuations in plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-1 and decreased (P ≤ 0.03) overall ADG, final BW, puberty attainment on days 56, 89, and 168, and percentage of heifers calving during the first 21 d of the calving season. Hence, increasing the supplement DM amount did not prevent the negative effects of reducing the frequency of supplementation (3× vs. 7× weekly) on growth and reproduction of replacement Bos indicus-influenced beef heifers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Paspalum , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672407

RESUMO

Circulating leptin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of production traits in cattle. This study aimed to clarify the correlations between circulating leptin concentrations and growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality indexes in finishing bulls fed high-concentrate diets (concentrate-to-forage ratio 70:30). Fifty-seven Simmental × Luxi F1 crossbred bulls were used for 112-day finishing experiment. Circulating leptin concentrations and relevant indexes of growth performance, and carcass traits and meat quality were measured during or after finishing trail. The results indicated that the leptin concentrations tended to be negatively correlated with dry matter intake (DMI) (r = -.233, p = .081), and were positively correlated with 12th-rib fat thickness (r = .330, p = .012), marbling score (r = .336, p = .011), and intramuscular fat content (r = .368, p = .021). Moreover, the leptin concentrations were negatively correlated with cholesterol content (r = -.339, p = .037) and were not correlated with sensory indexes including tenderness, juiciness, and like flavor (p > .05). In conclusion, circulating leptin concentrations may potentially be used as a predictor of carcass traits related to content of fat and beef quality traits related to content of cholesterol in finishing bulls fed high-concentrate diets.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leptina/sangue , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino
18.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619223

RESUMO

A randomized complete block design experiment with 32 yearling crossbred steers (average body weight [BW] = 442 ± 17.0 kg) fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet was used to evaluate the effects of dietary Zn (KemTRACE Zn propionate 27; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) supplementation on live growth performance, skeletal muscle fiber, and beta-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR) characteristics during the finishing phase. Steers were blocked by BW (n = 4 blocks; 8 steers/block), assigned to pens (n = 4 steers/pen), and randomly assigned to the following treatments: control (CON; 0.0 g/[head (hd) · d] of additional Zn) or additional dietary Zn (ZnP; 1.0 g/[hd · d] additional Zn). The basal diet contained Zn (60 ppm dry matter basis) from ZnSO4; additional Zn was top-dressed at feeding. Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; Optaflexx: Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) was included at 300 mg/(hd · d) for the final 28 d of the 111-d feeding period. Longissimus muscle biopsy samples, BW, and blood were obtained on days 0, 42, 79, and 107. Final BW was collected prior to shipping on day 111. Biopsy samples were used for immunohistochemical (IHC), mRNA, and protein analysis. Serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were measured. Steers fed ZnP had a greater average daily gain (P = 0.02) and gain to feed ratio (G:F; P = 0.03) during the RH feeding period compared with CON. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in other growth performance variables, carcass traits, mRNA abundance, or relative protein concentration for fiber type and ß-AR. Fiber types I and IIA had no differences in the cross-sectional area; however, the IIX area was greater for CON (P < 0.04) compared with ZnP and increased (P < 0.02) over time. There were no differences between treatments for the ß1-AR density (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle tissue throughout the study. A treatment × day interaction was observed in ß2-AR density (P = 0.02) and ß3-AR density (P = 0.02) during the RH feeding period, where the abundance of the receptors increased with ZnP but did not change in CON. Compared with CON, ZnP had greater (P < 0.01) mean NEFA concentrations. Mean SUN concentrations did increase by day (P < 0.01). Additional dietary Zn, supplied as Zn propionate, upregulates ß2-AR and ß3-AR and improves growth performance in feedlot steers during the RH feeding period, likely through a shift of resource utilization from lipogenesis to muscle maintenance and hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenetilaminas/administração & dosagem , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Propionatos/administração & dosagem
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7018-7027, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600764

RESUMO

The effect of replacing lactose with glucose on the gastrointestinal system of young calves at levels above 20% diet inclusion in milk replacer (MR) is not well described. The aim of this study was to determine tolerance to glucose inclusion at the direct expense of lactose on glucose metabolism, health, and growth performance in Holstein male calves. In total, 110 Holstein male dairy calves (16 ± 2.5 d and 50.3 ± 0.2 kg) were acquired from a commercial collection center. After an adaptation period of 3 d, 100 calves were selected for the study based on health parameters. Calves were blocked based on body weight measured on d 4 after arrival. Within each block, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 levels of glucose inclusion (replacing lactose): 0% (L1, n = 20), 10% (L2, n = 20), 20% (L3, n = 20), 30% (L4, n = 20), and 40% (L5, n = 20), leading to an estimated osmolality range from 417 (L1) to 586 mOsm/kg (L5). Carbohydrates were exchanged based on hexose equivalents, and glucose delivery was standardized across treatments, while the rest of the formula (60%) remained unchanged. Calves received L1 during the adaptation period of 3 d and were then exposed to their respective treatment until d 47 after arrival. Milk replacer was provided daily in 2 equally sized meals. Meal size was 2.0 L during the 3-d adaptation period and gradually increased to 4.0 L until weaning (d 35 after arrival). During weaning, meal size decreased from 4.0 to 2.0 L on d 36, and MR was withdrawn on d 48 after arrival. Straw and concentrates were offered ad libitum from d 25 onward. Calves had ad libitum access to water throughout the study. Measurements included daily feed intakes, weekly body weight, and weekly spot feces sampling in all calves. Blood samples were collected on d 18. Additionally, postprandial responses of insulin and glucose were measured in 6 calves per treatment on d 19, 20, and 21. Increasing glucose inclusion (at the direct expense of lactose) in MR did not affect growth but linearly increased mortality, which was as high as 25% (5/20) in L5. Mortality was primarily associated with gastrointestinal disorders (6/11). At higher glucose levels, calves needed greater serum insulin concentrations to control glycemia, as shown by a linear increase in the area under the curve for insulin. Furthermore, calves needed more time to control glycemia, as indicated by a linear increase in the maximal concentration of insulin. Consequently, there was a linear increase in area under the curve for glucose. Even though calves needed more time and higher insulin concentrations for 30% glucose inclusion and higher, the glucose-to-insulin ratio did not differ across treatments. However, high glucose inclusion levels in MR affected calf mortality and is not a suitable strategy for lactose replacement.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Substitutos do Leite/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactose/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Desmame
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(9): 8494-8506, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684463

RESUMO

Dairy calves are often offered milk allowance at a flat rate during the first 6 wk of life, although an initial high allowance followed by a stepwise reduction (step-down strategy) may correspond better to the calves' nutritional needs. The amount of milk offered per feeding is typically constant. However, during natural suckling, the daily number of milk meals (suckling frequency) declines with age, which may reflect increased consumption of solid feeds. Thus, allowing calves to pattern their meals on a computer-controlled feeder by placing less restriction on meal frequency may stimulate dairy calves' ingestion of solid feeds. This experiment investigated the effects of milk feeding strategy and milk feeding frequency on calves' feeding behavior, intake, and growth. Sixty-four male Holstein Friesian calves, purchased from conventional dairy farms, were housed in groups of 8 and fed milk replacer (MR) via computer-controlled milk feeders. From 14 d old, calves were assigned to either a conventional flat-rate milk allowance (CON: 6.5 L/d of MR from d 14 to 42; 4 L/d from d 43 to 49; 2 L/d from d 50 to 56 of age) or to stepwise reduction in milk allowance (STEP: 8 L/d of MR from d 14 to 28; 5 L/d from d 29 to 42; 4 L/d from d 43 to 49; 2 L/d from d 50 to 56 of age). Within each group of 8, 4 calves were randomly allocated to each of 2 milk feeding frequencies, either restricted portion size (RES: maximum milk portion size of 2.3 L/portion) or unrestricted portion size (UNRES). Concentrates, hay, and water were available ad libitum. Feeding behavior was recorded via video for 24 h on 26 and 40 d of age. On d 26, where STEP calves were offered 1.5 L/d more milk than CON calves, no difference was seen regarding the time spent eating concentrate (16.9 vs. 20.3 min/d). However, STEP calves spent more time eating concentrate on d 40, where these calves had 1.5 L/d less milk than CON (36.1 vs. 27.2 min/d). Thus, a lower daily milk allowance stimulated feeding on concentrate d 40, but not d 26. As predicted, UNRES calves spent more time eating concentrate (27.6 vs. 21.9 min/d) and more time eating hay (38.4 vs. 30.0 min/d) than RES calves. However, higher appetite for solid feeds by UNRES calves may not be explained by milk intake per se. Rather, this is likely due to their opportunity to have larger milk meals, which appeared to increase their appetite for milk (as indicated by longer time spent in the milk feeder; 64.0 vs. 48.8 min/d) as well as for solid feeds. Among CON calves, the UNRES treatment resulted in higher ADG 2 wk postweaning, but not among STEP calves. These findings partially support that relaxing restriction on milk portions helps calves to transition from milk to solid feeds before weaning off milk. However, more research is needed to determine how restriction on milk portions interacts with milk feeding strategy when a higher total milk allowance is offered.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Leite , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino
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