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1.
Animal ; 14(S1): s187-s195, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024562

RESUMO

In this position paper, I shall summarise the current status of sensor technologies in ruminant livestock farming with emphasis on dairy cattle, outline the case for why I believe that sensor technologies could revolutionise global dairy farming in a positive way, describe the significant barriers that exist if that goal is to be achieved and highlight the benefits to animal wellbeing, profitability and sustainability that could result if the technologies are implemented to a significant extent. I shall not provide a comprehensive review of the sensor technology literature since that has been done before, but I intend to provide a sensible amount of background information and data that will allow the reader to obtain a picture not only of today's sensor usage but, more importantly, the possible future direction of dairy animal-oriented sensor technologies, and I shall substantiate my claims and conclusions with relevant literature.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Técnicas Biossensoriais/veterinária , Bovinos/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física/veterinária , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Agricultura , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Gado
2.
Animal ; 14(S1): s144-s154, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024563

RESUMO

Inflammatory cascades are a critical component of the immune response to infection or tissue damage, involving an array of signals, including water-soluble metabolites, lipid mediators and several classes of proteins. Early investigation of these signaling pathways focused largely on immune cells and acute disease models. However, more recent findings have highlighted critical roles of both immune cells and inflammatory mediators on tissue remodeling and metabolic homeostasis in healthy animals. In dairy cattle, inflammatory signals in various tissues and in circulation change rapidly and dramatically, starting just prior to and at the onset of lactation. Furthermore, several observations in healthy cows point to homeostatic control of inflammatory tone, which we define as a regulatory process to balance immune tolerance with activation to keep downstream effects under control. Recent evidence suggests that peripartum inflammatory changes influence whole-body nutrient flux of dairy cows over the course of days and months. Inflammatory mediators can suppress appetite, even at levels that do not induce acute responses (e.g. fever), thereby decreasing nutrient availability. On the other hand, inhibition of inflammatory signaling with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis, leading to hypoglycemia in some cases. Over the long term, though, peripartum NSAID treatment substantially increases peak and whole-lactation milk synthesis by multiparous cows. Inflammatory regulation of nutrient flux may provide a homeorhetic mechanism to aid cows in adapting to rapid changes in metabolic demand at the onset of lactation, but excessive systemic inflammation has negative effects on metabolic homeostasis through inhibition of appetite and promotion of immune cell activity. Thus, in this review, we provide perspectives on the overlapping regulation of immune responses and metabolism by inflammatory mediators, which may provide a mechanistic underpinning for links between infectious and metabolic diseases in transition dairy cows. Moreover, we point to novel approaches to the management of this challenging phase of the production cycle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Homeostase , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Período Periparto
3.
Animal ; 14(S1): s103-s112, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024564

RESUMO

Assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) provide access to early stage embryos whose analysis and assessment deliver valuable information. The handling of embryos, including the in vitro production of bovine embryos, is a rapidly evolving area which nonetheless exposes the embryos to unnatural conditions for a period of time. The Fallopian tube provides innumerable quantitative and qualitative factors, all of which guarantee the successful development of the embryo. It is well known that the Fallopian tube can be bypassed, using embryo transfer, resulting in successful implantation in the target recipient animal and the birth of calves. However, the question arises as to whether such circumvention has a negative impact on the embryo during this sensitive development period. First crosstalk between the embryo and its environment confirms mutual recognition activities and indicate bilateral effects. Nowadays, in vitro production of bovine embryos is a well-established technology. However, it is still evident that in vitro generated embryos are not qualitatively comparable to embryos obtained ex vivo. To counteract these differences, comparative studies between in vitro and ex vivo embryos are advantageous, as embryos grown in their physiological environment can provide a blueprint or gold standard against which to compare embryos produced in vitro. Attempts to harness the bovine oviduct were sometimes very invasive and did not result in wide acceptance and routine use. Long-term development and refinement of transvaginal endoscopy for accessing the bovine oviduct has meanwhile been routinely applied for research as well as in practice. Comparative studies combining in vitro development with development in the cattle oviduct revealed that the environmental conditions to which the embryo is exposed before activation of the embryonic genome can have detrimental and lasting effects on its further development. These effects are manifested as deviations in gene expression profiles and methylation signatures as well as frequency of whole chromosomal or segmental aberrations. Furthermore, it was shown that hormonal superstimulation (multiple ovulation and embryo transfer), varying progesterone concentrations as well as metabolic disorders caused by high milk production, markedly affected embryo development in the postpartum period. Assisted reproductive techniques that allow the production and handling of extra numbers of generated embryos promise to have a very high impact on scientific and practical application. Any influence on the early embryonic life, both in animals and in vitro, is accompanied by a sensitive change in embryonic activity and should be assessed in vivo on the basis of physiological conditions before being used for ART.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos/embriologia , Implantação do Embrião , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Tubas Uterinas/embriologia , Tubas Uterinas/fisiologia , Feminino , Oviductos/embriologia , Oviductos/fisiologia , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo
4.
Animal ; 14(S1): s87-s102, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024565

RESUMO

Making dairy farming more cost-effective and reducing nitrogen environmental pollution could be reached through a reduced input of dietary protein, provided productivity is not compromised. This could be achieved through balancing dairy rations for essential amino acids (EAA) rather than their aggregate, the metabolizable protein (MP). This review revisits the estimations of the major true protein secretions in dairy cows, milk protein yield (MPY), metabolic fecal protein (MFP), endogenous urinary loss and scurf and associated AA composition. The combined efficiency with which MP (EffMP) or EAA (EffAA) is used to support protein secretions is calculated as the sum of true protein secretions (MPY + MFP + scurf) divided by the net supply (adjusted to remove the endogenous urinary excretion: MPadj and AAadj). Using the proposed protein and AA secretions, EffMP and EffAA were predicted through meta-analyses (807 treatment means) and validated using an independent database (129 treatment means). The effects of MPadj or AAadj, plus digestible energy intake (DEI), days in milk (DIM) and parity (primiparous v. multiparous), were significant in all models. Models using (MPadj, MPadj × MPadj, DEI and DEI × DEI) or (MPadj/DEI and MPadj/DEI × MPadj/DEI) had similar corrected Akaike's information criterion, but the model using MPadj/DEI performed better in the validation database. A model that also included this ratio was, therefore, used to fitting equations to predict EffAA. These equations predicted well EffAA in the validation database except for Arg which had a strong slope bias. Predictions of MPY from predicted EffMP based on MPadj/DEI, MPadj/DEI × MPadj/DEI, DIM and parity yielded a better fit than direct predictions of MPY based on MPadj, MPadj × MPadj, DEI, DIM and parity. Predictions of MPY based on each EffAA yielded fairly similar results among AA. It is proposed to ponder the mean of MPY predictions obtained from each EffAA by the lowest prediction to retain the potential limitation from AA with the shortest supply. Overall, the revisited estimations of endogenous urinary excretion and MFP, revised AA composition of protein secretions and inclusion of a variable combined EffAA (based on AAadj/DEI, AAadj/DEI × Aadj/DEI, DIM and parity) offer the potential to improve predictions of MPY, identify which AA are potentially in short supply and, therefore, improve the AA balance of dairy rations.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Leite/química , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez
5.
Animal ; 14(S1): s155-s164, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024570

RESUMO

The average productive lifespan is approximately 3 to 4 years in countries with high-producing dairy cows. This is much shorter than the natural life expectancy of dairy cattle. Dairy farmers continue to cull cows primarily for reasons related to poor health, failure to conceive or conformation problems prior to culling. These reasons may indicate reduced welfare leading up to culling. Improvements in health care, housing and nutrition will reduce forced culling related to these welfare reasons. However, productive lifespan has remained similar in decades, despite large improvements in cow comfort and genetic selection for the ability to avoid culling. On the other hand, genetic progress for economically important traits is accelerating within the last decade, which should slightly shorten the average economically optimal productive lifespan. A major driver of productive lifespan is the availability of replacement heifers that force cows out when they calve. The average productive lifespan could be extended by reducing the supply of dairy heifers, which would also have benefits for environmental sustainability. Improvements in culling decision support tools would strengthen economically optimal replacement decisions. In conclusion, major factors of the relatively short productive lifespan of dairy cows are welfare-related, but other economic factors like supply of heifers, genetic progress and non-optimal decision-making also play important roles.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Fertilização , Longevidade , Seleção Genética
6.
Animal ; 14(S1): s65-s77, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024569

RESUMO

Improvements in feed intake of dairy cows entering the early lactation period potentially decrease the risk of metabolic disorders, but before developing approaches targeting the intake level, mechanisms controlling and dysregulating energy balance and feed intake need to be understood. This review focuses on different inflammatory pathways interfering with the neuroendocrine system regulating feed intake of periparturient dairy cows. Subacute inflammation in various peripheral organs often occurs shortly before or after calving and is associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. These cytokines are released into the circulation and sensed by neurons located in the hypothalamus, the key brain region regulating energy balance, to signal reduction in feed intake. Besides these peripheral humoral signals, glia cells in the brain may produce pro-inflammatory cytokines independent of peripheral inflammation. Preliminary results show intensive microglia activation in early lactation, suggesting their involvement in hypothalamic inflammation and the control of feed intake of dairy cows. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced activation of the vagus nerve transmits signalling to the brain, but this pathway seems not exclusively necessary to signal feed intake reduction. Yet, less studied in dairy cows so far, the endocannabinoid system links inflammation and the hypothalamic control of feed intake. Distinct endocannabinoids exert anti-inflammatory action but also stimulate the posttranslational cleavage of neuronal proopiomelanocortin towards ß-endorphin, an orexigen promoting feed intake. Plasma endocannabinoid concentrations and hypothalamic ß-endorphin levels increase from late pregnancy to early lactation, but less is known about the regulation of the hypothalamic endocannabinoid system during the periparturient period of dairy cows. Dietary fatty acids may modulate the formation of endocannabinoids, which opens new avenues to improve metabolic health and immune status of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Inflamação/veterinária , Leite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Lactação , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Gravidez
7.
Animal ; 14(S1): s165-s175, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024571

RESUMO

Coordinated changes in energy metabolism develop to support gestation and lactation in the periparturient dairy cow. Maternal physiology involves the partitioning of nutrients (i.e. glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FA)) for fetal growth and milk synthesis. However, the inability of the dairy cow to successfully adapt to a productive lactation may trigger metabolic stress characterized by uncontrolled adipose tissue lipolysis and reduced insulin sensitivity. A consequence is lipotoxicity and hepatic triglyceride deposition that favors the development of fatty liver disease (FLD) and ketosis. This review describes contemporary perspectives pertaining to FA surfeit and complex lipid metabolism in the transition dairy cow. The role of saturated and unsaturated FA as bioactive signaling molecules capable of modulating insulin secretion and sensitivity is explored. Moreover, the metabolic fate of FA as influenced by mitochondrial function is considered. This includes the influence of inadequate mitochondrial oxidation on acylcarnitine status and the use of FA for lipid mediator synthesis. Lipid mediators, including the sphingolipid ceramide and diacylglycerol, are evaluated considering their established ability to inhibit insulin signaling and glucose transport in non-ruminant diabetics. The mechanisms of FLD in the transition cow are revisited with attention centered on glycerophospholipid phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride secretion. The relationship between oxidative stress and oxylipids within the context of insulin antagonism, hepatic steatosis and inflammation is also reviewed. Lastly, peripartal hormonal involvement or lack thereof of adipokines (i.e. leptin, adiponectin) and hepatokines (i.e. fibroblast growth factor-21) is described. Similarities and differences in ruminant and non-ruminant physiology are routinely showcased. Unraveling the lipidome of the dairy cow has generated breakthroughs in our understanding of periparturient lipid biology. Therapeutic approaches that target FA and complex lipid metabolism holds promise to enhance cow health, well-being and productive lifespan.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Leite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicerofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Lactação , Lipólise , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
Animal ; 14(S1): s133-s143, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024575

RESUMO

Feeding management of the postnatal and preweaning calf has an important impact on calf growth and development during this critical period and affects the health and well-being of the calves. After birth, an immediate and sufficient colostrum supply is a prerequisite for successful calf rearing. Colostrum provides high amounts of nutrient as well as non-nutrient factors that promote the immune system and intestinal maturation of the calf. The maturation and function of the neonatal intestine enable the calf to digest and absorb the nutrients provided by colostrum and milk. Therefore, colostrum intake supports the start of anabolic processes in several tissues, stimulating postnatal body growth and organ development. After the colostrum feeding period, an intensive milk feeding protocol, that is, at least 20% of BW milk intake/day, is required to realise the calf potential for growth and organ development during the preweaning period. Insufficient milk intake delays postnatal growth and may have detrimental effects on organ development, for example, the intestine and the mammary gland. The somatotropic axis as the main postnatal endocrine regulatory system for body growth is stimulated by the intake of high amounts of colostrum and milk and indicates the promotion of anabolic metabolism in calves. The development of the forestomach is an important issue during the preweaning period in calves, and forestomach maturation is best achieved by solid feed intake. Unfortunately, intensive milk-feeding programmes compromise solid feed intake during the first weeks of life. In the more natural situation for beef calves, when milk and solid feed intake occurs at the same time, calves benefit from the high milk intake as evidenced by enhanced body growth and organ maturation without impaired forestomach development during weaning. To realise an intensive milk-feeding programme, it is recommended that the weaning process should not start too early and that solid feed intake should be at a high extent despite intensive milk feeding. A feeding concept based on intensive milk feeding prevents hunger and abnormal behaviour of the calves and fits the principles of animal welfare during preweaning calf rearing. Studies on milk performance in dairy cows indicate that feeding management during early calf rearing influences lifetime performance. Therefore, an intensive milk-feeding programme affects immediate as well as long-term performance, probably by programming metabolic pathways during the preweaning period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Colostro/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Fome , Gravidez , Desmame
9.
Animal ; 14(S1): s196-s203, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024578

RESUMO

The so-called global change refers to changes on a planetary scale. The term encompasses various issues like resource use, energy development, population growth, land use and land cover, carbon and nitrogen cycle, pollution and health, and climate change. The paper deals with challenges for dairy cattle production systems in Europe arising from climate change as one part of global changes. Global warming is increasing, and therefore ecosystems, plant and animal biodiversity, and food security and safety are at risk. It is already accepted knowledge that the direct and indirect effects of global warming in combination with an increasing frequency of weather extremes are a serious issue for livestock production, even in moderate climate zones like Central Europe. The potential and already-measurable effects of climate change (including increase in temperature, frequency of hot days and heat waves), in particular the challenges on grassland production, fodder quality, nutrition in general, cow welfare, health as well as performance of dairy production, will be reviewed. Indirect and direct effects on animals are correlated with their performance. There are clear indications that with selection for high-yielding animals the sensitivity to climate changes increases. Cumulative effects (e.g. higher temperature plus increased pathogen and their vectors loads) do strengthen these impacts. To cope with the consequences several possible adaptation and mitigation strategies must be established on different levels. This includes changes in the production systems (e.g. management, barn, feeding), breeding strategies and health management.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Bovinos/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Ração Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Temperatura Alta
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917428

RESUMO

Five ruminally cannulated heifers were used in an incomplete 6 × 6 Latin square design to determine the effects of cereal silage (barley vs. corn), cereal grain (barley vs. corn vs. a 50:50 blend of barley and corn), and their interaction (S × G) on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, nitrogen balance, and in situ degradation. Corn silage (CS) or barley silage (BS) was included at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM). Within each silage source, diets contained (DM basis) either dry-rolled barley (BG; 86%), dry-rolled corn (CG; 85%), or an equal blend of barley and corn (BLEND; 85%). Periods were 25 d, with 5 d of dietary transition, 13 d of dietary adaptation, and 7 d of data and sample collection. Samples collected included feed and refusals, total urine and feces, and ruminal fluid. All data were analyzed using the Mixed model of SAS with the fixed effects of silage, grain, and the S × G. Dry matter intake (P ≥ 0.19) and mean ruminal pH (P ≥ 0.096) were not affected by the silage, grain, or S × G. Total short-chain fatty acid concentrations were greater for BLEND than BG or CG (grain, P = 0.003) and for CS (silage, P = 0.009) relative to BS. The molar proportion of acetate was greater for BS-BG and BS-CG (S × G, P < 0.001), while molar proportion of propionate was greater for CS-BG (S × G, P < 0.001) relative to other silage and grain source combinations. Rumen ammonia-N concentration was greater for CG than BG, or BLEND (grain, P < 0.001), and greater for CS compared to BS (silage, P = 0.023). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy were greatest for BG (grain, P ≤ 0.035). Digestible energy content (Mcal/kg) was greater for BG (grain, P = 0.029) than CG and BLEND. Total nitrogen retention (g/d and % of intake) was greatest for CS-BG (S × G, P ≤ 0.033) relative to all other treatments. In situ degradation rates of DM, crude protein, and starch were greater for BG than CG (P ≤ 0.004). The potentially degradable fraction of DM, crude protein, and starch was greater for CG (P ≤ 0.031), while the undegradable fraction was greater for BG (P ≤ 0.046). For silage sources, CS had greater 24 h in situ DM digestibility (P = 0.009) and starch digestibility (24, 48, and 72 h incubations, P ≤ 0.034) relative to BS. Results suggest that while feeding a combination of CS and BG promotes propionate production and greater N retention; few other additive effects were observed.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Digestão , Hordeum , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha , Silagem/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903482

RESUMO

The cow herd consumes approximately 70% of the annual feed resources. To date, most genetic evaluations of feed intake in beef cattle have been made in growing animals and little information is available for mature cows. Genetic evaluations in mature cows have predominately been confined to lactating dairy cows and the relationship between feed intake as growing heifers and mature cows has not been addressed. It was the purpose of this study to estimate the heritability of feed intake when measured as growing heifers and mature cows and determine the genetic correlation between these measurements. Individual feed intake and BW gain were measured on 687 heifers and 622 5-yr-old cows. The heritability of average daily DMI (ADDMI) estimated in heifers was 0.84 ±â€…0.12 and 0.53 ±â€…0.12 in cows. The heritability of ADG estimated in heifers was 0.53 ±â€…0.12 and 0.34 ±â€…0.11 in cows. The genetic correlation between heifer and cow ADDMI was 0.84 ±â€…0.09. The genetic correlation between heifer and cow ADG was 0.73 ±â€…019. Heritability of residual feed intake in heifers was 0.25 ±â€…0.11 and 0.16 ±â€…0.10 in cows. Heritability for residual gain in heifers was 0.21 ±â€…0.11 and 0.14 ±â€…0.10 in cows. Feed intake and ADG are heritable and genetically correlated between heifers and cows. Selection for decreased feed intake and ADG in growing animals will probably have the same directional effects on mature cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Ganho de Peso/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Fenótipo
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 42-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733850

RESUMO

Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein highly expressed in milk, where it is hypothesized to be involved in immunological signaling via the conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding sequence. Intervention studies have indicated beneficial effects of orally administered OPN in animal and human infants, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well described. To induce physiological effects, OPN must resist gastrointestinal transit in a bioactive form. In this study, we subjected bovine milk OPN to in vitro gastrointestinal transit, and characterized the generated fragments using monoclonal antibody and mass spectrometric analyses. We found that the fragment Trp27-Phe151 containing the integrin-binding RGD sequence resisted in vitro gastric digestion. This resistance was dependent on glycosylation of threonine residues near the integrin-binding sequence in both human and bovine milk OPN. Furthermore, the fragment Trp27-Phe151 retained the ability to interact with integrins in an RGD-dependent process. These results suggest a mechanism for how ingested milk OPN can induce physiological effects via integrin signaling in the intestine.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Integrinas/metabolismo , Leite/química , Osteopontina/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Integrinas/química , Osteopontina/química , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1831-1842, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864731

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to test the efficiency of a management system combining metabolic clustering of cows based on Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectra of milk and targeted treatment of metabolically imbalanced cows with propylene glycol drench. We hypothesized that cows identified in a metabolically imbalanced status during early lactation were associated with subsequent impaired health, reproduction, and production, and that treatment with propylene glycol treatment would improve health, reproduction, and production relatively more in these cows than in control cows. We completed a prospective, randomized controlled trial with 356 early-lactation cows in 2 private dairy herds in Denmark from December 2017 to April 2018. Milk samples of cows were collected before treatment, from 4 to 9 d in milk, and after treatment, from 22 to 27 d in milk. Milk samples were analyzed using FT-MIR spectroscopy. We also measured 4 milk metabolites (ß-hydroxybutyrate, isocitrate, malate, and glutamate) and fat and protein contents. Based on FT-MIR spectra and cluster analyses, cows were clustered into groups of metabolically imbalanced and healthy cows. Within each group, cows were allocated randomly to treatment with propylene glycol (500 mL for 5 d) or no treatment. We analyzed the effect of the treatment on cow-level variables: metabolic cluster, milk metabolites, fat and protein contents, and fat-to-protein ratio at a milk sampling after the treatment. Furthermore, we analyzed daily milk yield, calving to first service interval, and disease occurrence. Results showed only a few effects of propylene glycol treatment and few interactions between treatment and metabolic clusters. We found no significant main effects of propylene glycol treatment in any of these analyses. A negative effect of the imbalanced metabolic cluster was found for the outcome of calving to first service interval for multiparous cows. In conclusion, we found a longer calving to first service interval in metabolically imbalanced cows, but we were not able to demonstrate overall benefits from the applied detection of cows in imbalanced metabolic status in early lactation and follow-up by treatment with propylene glycol.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Leite/química , Propilenoglicol/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/análise , Animais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Isocitratos/análise , Lactação , Malatos/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/veterinária
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 823-839, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677831

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate whether health, survival, and performance of dairy heifers from birth through first lactation are associated with parity and health status of their dams. Holstein heifers (n = 1,811) derived from artificial insemination were categorized as (1) daughters of primiparous cows that, consequently, were nonlactating heifers during gestation (Prim-NoL; n = 787); (2) daughters of multiparous cows that did not have any clinical diseases in the previous lactation (Mult-NoCD; n = 638); and (3) daughters of multiparous cows that had at least one clinical disease in the previous lactation (Mult-CD; n = 386). Clinical diseases of the multiparous dams included retained placenta, metritis, mastitis, lameness, and digestive and respiratory problems. Data collected for evaluation of daughters included genotypic and phenotypic characteristics at birth, morbidity, reproductive performance, and culling from birth through 305 d in milk of first lactation. Orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate the effect of the parity of the dam (Prim-NoL vs. Mult-NoCD + Mult-CD) and the effect of clinical disease occurrence in the previous lactation among multiparous dams (Mult-NoCD vs. Mult-CD). Compared with daughters of multiparous cows, daughters of Prim-NoL were lighter at birth (36 vs. 41 kg), had greater genetic merit for production traits (e.g., genomic estimated breeding value for milk yield: 875 vs. 746 kg), were less likely to leave the herd (17 vs. 28%) and to lose pregnancy as a heifer (9 vs. 14%), calved earlier (703 vs. 711 d old), were less likely to have clinical diseases as a first lactation cow (30 vs. 37%), and had reduced performance in the first lactation when considering their genetic merit (e.g., 305-d yield of energy-corrected milk: 11,270 vs. 11,539 kg). Compared with daughters of Mult-NoCD, daughters of Mult-CD were less likely to have digestive problems as a heifer (17 vs. 27%) and clinical disease as a first lactation cow (32 vs. 42%), but were also more likely to leave the herd as a heifer (32 vs. 25%) even though genetic merit for production traits were similar (e.g., genomic estimated breeding value for milk: 744 vs. 749 kg). In conclusion, both parity and health status of the dam in the previous lactation were associated with morbidity, survival, and performance of their daughters from birth through 305 d in milk of the first lactation and might represent factors affecting developmental programming of dairy heifers in utero.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Paridade , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Leite , Parto , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , Reprodução , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875222

RESUMO

Ovariectomy (spaying) using the trans-vaginal dropped ovary technique (DOT) is performed to prevent pregnancy in cull female beef cattle that are not retained for breeding stock in areas practicing extensive grazing management. There are no reports describing analgesia for this surgical procedure. The objective of this study was to measure behavioral and physiological responses to determine whether an analgesic protocol of BXK [butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg), and ketamine (0.04 mg/kg)] injected intramuscularly (i.m.) before spaying could mitigate procedural and immediate postsurgical pain, and whether oral meloxicam (1 mg/kg) administered at the time of spaying could mitigate postsurgical inflammatory pain. Forty-four red Angus and Angus crossbred yearling heifers (322 ± 27.0 kg BW) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups: PALP (control; palpated but not spayed; n = 14), SPAY (spayed with no analgesia; n = 15), and BXKM (spayed with analgesia; n = 15). Behavioral measurements included visual analog scale (VAS) score, flight speed (FS), stride length (SL), and gait score (GS), as well as activity (lying, standing) and feeding behavior. Physiological measurements included salivary cortisol (SC), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), substance P (SP), complete blood count (CBC), and rectal temperature (RT). Saliva and blood samples were collected, and RT, FS, SL, and GS were measured on day -1, day 0 (time of palpation/spaying), and hours 1, 2, 4, and days 1, 2, 4, and 7 after palpation/spaying. The BXKM heifers had lower SC concentrations than SPAY heifers at 1 h (P = 0.01) and 2 h (P = 0.004). Heifers treated with BXKM had Hp concentrations lower than SPAY heifers at 2 d (P = 0.01), 4 d (P < 0.001), and 7 d (P = 0.008), and lower Hp concentrations than PALP heifers at 4 d (P < 0.001). Concentrations of SAA were greater (P = 0.04) in BXKM heifers than in PALP heifers at 1 h and lower in PALP heifers than in BXKM heifers (P = 0.02) and SPAY heifers (P = 0.05) at 1 d. Heifers in the BXKM group had higher RT than PALP and SPAY heifers at 1 h (P < 0.001) and 2 h (P = 0.004). Results suggest that DOT ovariectomy is acutely stressful and painful and administration of BXK before spaying and meloxicam at the time of spaying mitigated the procedural and postsurgical stress, pain, and inflammation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Cruzamento , Bovinos/cirurgia , Feminino , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/terapia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ovário/cirurgia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Dor/veterinária
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1541-1552, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864753

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY; Celmanax Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) on transition dairy cattle. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by predicted transmitting ability and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (EHY, n = 20; or control, CON, n = 20) from 21 d before expected calving to 60 d postpartum. The EHY cows received 56 and 28 g/d in close-up and lactating diets, respectively. Dry matter intake, health events, milk production parameters, feed efficiency, colostrum quality, reproductive parameters, body weight, and body condition score were monitored. Fecal samples collected on -21, -14, -7, 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 d relative to calving were analyzed for total coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Blood samples were collected at 7, 14, and 21 d postpartum for analysis of ß-hydroxybutyrate. Sterile quarter milk samples collected at dry-off, calving, and wk 1, 2, and 3 of lactation were analyzed for milk pathogens and somatic cell count. Pre- or postpartum dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, and milk protein and fat yields did not differ among treatments. Milk fat and protein concentrations were greater in EHY cows than CON cows. ß-Hydroxybutyrate and health events were not different among treatments. The presence of fecal C. perfringens did not differ prepartum, but was lower in EHY cows postpartum. Milk pathogens and total intramammary infections did not differ between treatments at dry-off, calving, wk 1, or wk 2, but more EHY cows were infected with Staphylococcus sp. during wk 3 than CON cows. The EHY cows showed heat earlier than CON cows, but no other reproductive parameters were affected. The EHY supplementation during the transition period did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, health events, or reproductive parameters but did increase milk protein and fat concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Bovinos/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Reprodução , Fermento Seco/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Colostro/química , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 702-713, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629510

RESUMO

Little is known about the combination of factors that motivate changes in calf management on dairy farms. Providing information to farmers may help promote change, but it is unclear how this approach affects and is affected by the farmer's relationship with the advisors such as the herd veterinarian. The goal of this study was to understand how benchmarking measures related to calf immune development and growth affected farmer and veterinarian cooperation and influenced the farmer's view of the veterinarian as an advisor for calf management. Veterinarians provided their clients (n = 18 dairy farms in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia) with 2 benchmark reports providing information on transfer of passive immunity and calf growth. Farmers were interviewed before and after receiving these reports to understand how they perceived their veterinarian as a calf advisor. Qualitative analysis identified 2 major themes indicating that benchmarking (1) improved farmer perception of their veterinarian's capacities to advise on calves and (2) strengthened the social influence of the veterinarian. We conclude that benchmarking can help promote stronger relationships between farmers and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Benchmarking , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Fazendeiros , Médicos Veterinários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 929-939, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668438

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the reproductive performance of frozen sex-sorted sperm at 4 × 106 sperm per dose (SexedULTRA 4M, Sexing Technologies, Navasota, TX) relative to frozen conventional sperm in seasonal-calving pasture-based dairy cows. Semen from Holstein-Friesian (n = 8) and Jersey (n = 2) bulls was used. Four of the Holstein bulls used were resident at or near a sex-sorting laboratory (Cogent, UK, or ST Benelux, the Netherlands). The remaining 6 bulls were located at studs in Ireland. For these 6 bulls, ejaculates were collected, diluted with transport medium, and couriered to Cogent in parcel shippers. Transit time from ejaculation to arrival at the sorting laboratory was 6 to 7 h. For all bulls, ejaculates were split and processed to provide frozen conventional sperm (CONV) at 15 × 106 sperm per straw and frozen sex-sorted (SS) sperm at 4 × 106 sperm per straw and used to inseminate lactating dairy cows after spontaneous estrus. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound scanning (n = 7,246 records available for analysis). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine effects on pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at first artificial insemination, with sperm treatment (CONV vs. SS), bull (n = 10), and treatment × bull interaction as the fixed effects, and herd (n = 142) as a random effect. Overall, P/AI was greater for cows inseminated with CONV than for those inseminated with SS (59.9% vs. 45.5%; 76.0% relative to CONV). This study was not designed to compare resident bulls vs. shipped ejaculates, but the magnitude of the difference between P/AI achieved by CONV and SS was apparently less for resident bulls (60.3% vs. 50.2%) than for shipped ejaculates (58.6% vs. 40.7%). We discovered a treatment × bull interaction for shipped ejaculates (P/AI ranged from 45 to 86% relative to CONV) but not for the resident bulls (P/AI ranged from 81 to 87% relative to CONV). Relative P/AI of SS compared with CONV was greater in cows with high or average fertility potential (76.1% and 78.3%, respectively) than in cows with low fertility potential (58.1%). In 33.1% of the enrolled herds, the P/AI achieved with SS was 90% or more of the P/AI achieved with CONV; this was mainly explained by herds in which SS performed exceptionally well but CONV performed poorly. In conclusion, SS had lower overall P/AI compared with CONV; however, P/AI achieved with SS was dependent on the bull, fertility potential of the cow, and herd. Strategies to improve the P/AI with SS in seasonal-calving pasture-based lactating dairy cows require further research.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Pré-Seleção do Sexo/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Congelamento , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Sêmen , Espermatozoides
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 965-971, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668447

RESUMO

First colostrum yield and constituents as well as milk yield during established lactation vary considerably among mammary quarters in dairy cows. However, data on the development of milk yield, IgG concentration, and their distribution per quarter within cows during the first milkings after calving are scarce. We analyzed milk production and IgG concentration at the individual quarter level in 29 multiparous Holstein cows during the first 5 milkings after calving. Cow- and calf-related factors (time interval between calving and first milking, parity number, previous lactation yield, gestation length, dry period length, sex, and birth weight of the calf) potentially affecting first colostrum quality and quantity were assessed. Milking of first colostrum was carried out between 30 and 180 min after parturition. Further milkings were performed twice daily. Quarter milk yield varied between 0.1 and 5.5 kg at the first milking and between 1.4 and 5.1 kg at the fifth milking relative to parturition. Quarter IgG concentration ranged between 18.8 and 106.0 mg/mL at the first milking and between 0.8 and 46.1 mg/mL at the fifth milking. Distribution of milk yield and IgG concentration among quarters was not entirely repeatable during the first 5 successive milkings after parturition; that is, the ranking of quarters changed (intraclass correlation coefficients for quarter milk yield and IgG concentration: 0.64 and 0.79, respectively). The average hourly milk production increased in all quarters, ranging from 0.02 to 0.26 kg/h between the first 2 milkings up to 0.11 to 0.45 kg/h between the fourth and fifth milkings. First colostrum yield was not affected by any of the evaluated cow- and calf-related factors. Quarter colostrum IgG concentration was higher in cows with a higher previous lactation yield, whereas a lower colostrum IgG content was observed in cows with a longer gestation period and consequently heavier calves. In conclusion, milk yield and IgG concentration of individual quarters varied considerably, and their distribution among quarters within cows was moderately repeatable in consecutive milkings and changed partially over time. The decline of IgG concentration was independent of the concomitant increase in milk secretion, with changes occurring at different rates in individual quarters. Our results confirm the independence of the single mammary quarters at the onset of lactation despite an identical exposure to endocrine stimuli.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Colostro/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina G/química , Leite/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Animais , Colostro/química , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 1002-1015, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677840

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between corpus luteum (CL) status, uterine health, body condition score (BCS), metabolic status, and parity at wk 3 and 7 postpartum in seasonal-calving, pasture-based, lactating dairy cows. The associations between those phenotypes and individual genetic traits were also evaluated. First- and second-parity spring-calving lactating dairy cows (n = 2,600) from 35 dairy farms in Ireland were enrolled. Farms were visited every 2 weeks; cows that were at wk 3 (range 14 to 27 DIM) and wk 7 (range 42 to 55 DIM) postpartum were examined. Body condition score was measured using a scale of 1 to 5 with 0.25 increments. Transrectal ultrasound examination was performed at wk 3 and 7 postpartum to determine presence or absence of CL and ultrasound reproductive tract score. Blood samples were collected at each visit and the concentrations of glucose, ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acids (FA) were analyzed by using enzymatic colorimetry. Cows were grouped into 3 BCS categories [low (≤2.5), target (≥2.75 and ≤3.25), and high (≥3.5)]; 2 CL status categories: (present or absent); 2 uterine health status (UHS) categories (normal and abnormal); and 3 metabolic status categories [good (high glucose, low fatty acids and BHB), poor (low glucose, high fatty acids and BHB), and moderate (all other combinations)]. Fisher's exact test was used to test associations between variables and was supplemented by logistic regression. We found associations between UHS (wk 3 and 7), BCS (wk 3 and 7), parity (wk 3 and 7) metabolic status (wk 3), and predicted transmitting ability for calving interval (PTA for CIV; wk 3) and CL status. Cows that had abnormal UHS, low BCS, primiparity, and poor metabolic status, and were in the quartile with the greatest PTA for CIV were less likely to have had CL present at wk 3 and 7 postpartum. We also found associations between CL status (wk 3 and 7), BCS (wk 3 and 7), parity (wk 3 and 7), and PTA for CIV (wk 3) and UHS. Cows that did not have a CL present had low BCS, primiparity, and that were in the quartile with greatest PTA for CIV, had a greater risk of abnormal UHS at wk 3 and 7 postpartum. We observed strong associations between CL status, UHS, BCS, metabolic status, parity, and individual genetic traits at wk 3 and 7 postpartum in seasonal-calving, pasture-based lactating dairy cows. Achieving target BCS and good metabolic status, and selecting cows based on PTA for CIV, are all expected to increase the likelihood of hastening the resumption of estrous cyclicity and enhancing uterine health during the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Lactação/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Irlanda , Lactação/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estações do Ano
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