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1.
Gene ; 764: 145062, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860900

RESUMO

Recently, DNA-based methods have proved to be accurate, fast and sensitive for meat authentication. According to the European Union, the food safety standards require accurate and detailed composition information of the meat products. Therefore, an accurate, fast and cost-effective identification methodology is needed. In this study, multiplex PCR coupled with 12S rDNA sequencing was employed for the detection of meat adulteration in two red meat products (frozen beef liver and cold cut samples, respectively) in Egypt. Multiplex PCR allowed the identification of ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey residuals in processed red meat products (cold cuts) in a single step PCR reaction. Preliminary uniplex PCR was performed to evaluate primers specificity using DNA extracted from the positive control samples. The primers produced specific fragments for ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey as follows: 271, 183, 531 and 145 bp, respectively. Multiplex PCR revealed that none of the samples was contaminated by porcine or donkey residuals, but 62.5% of all tested processed beef samples contained poultry contaminants. The sensitivity of this method was 0.01 ng/µL for beef, poultry and donkey and 0.1 ng/µL for pig. Another promising finding is the identification of all frozen beef liver samples as a cattle species (Bos taurus) through PCR-sequencing of a short fragment of 12S rRNA gene. Finally, we recommend the employment of multiplex PCR and PCR-sequencing of 12S rDNA for quality control in routine analysis of processed and frozen meat products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Egito , Limite de Detecção , Produtos da Carne/normas , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Gene ; 764: 145101, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877747

RESUMO

India is the world's largest milk producing country because of massive contribution made by cattle and buffaloes. In the present investigation, comprehensive comparative profiling of transcriptomic landscape of milk somatic cells of Sahiwal cattle and Murrah buffaloes was carried out. Genes with highest transcript abundance in both species were enriched for biological processes such as lactation, immune response, cellular oxidant detoxification and response to hormones. Analysis of differential expression identified 377 significantly up-regulated and 847 significantly down-regulated genes with fold change >1.5 in Murrah buffaloes as compared to Sahiwal cattle (padj <0.05). Marked enrichment of innate and adaptive immune response related GO terms and higher expression of genes for various host defense peptides such as lysozyme, defensin ß and granzymes were evident in buffaloes. Genes related to ECM-receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and keratinization pathway showed more abundant expression in cattle. Network analysis of the up-regulated genes delineated highly connected genes representing immunity and haematopoietic cell lineage (CBL, CD28, CD247, PECAM1 and ITGA4). For the down-regulated dataset, genes with highest interactions were KRT18, FGFR1, GPR183, ITGB3 and DKK3. Our results lend support to more robust immune mechanisms in buffaloes, possibly explaining lower susceptibility to mammary infections as compared to cattle.


Assuntos
Búfalos/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Búfalos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Feminino , Hematopoese/genética , Hematopoese/imunologia , Índia , Lactação/genética , Lactação/imunologia , Leite/citologia , Leite/imunologia , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13474, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159383

RESUMO

Heat stress negatively affects reproductive functions in cows. Increased temperature disturbs fetal development in utero. However, the effect of heat stress on uterine endometrial tissues has not been fully examined. Using qPCR analysis, we measured the mRNA expression of various molecular markers in uterine endometrial tissue of dairy cows from Hokkaido, Japan, in winter and summer. Markers examined were heat shock proteins (HSPs), antioxidant enzymes (catalase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase 4), inflammatory cytokines, and interferon stimulated genes. Our results showed heat stress, body and milk temperatures were higher during summer than during winter. Expression levels of HSP27, HSP60, and HSP90 mRNA, and of catalase and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mRNA were lower in summer than in winter. Tumor necrosis factor alpha expression was higher in summer than in winter. In conclusion, summer heat stress may reduce the expression of HSPs, affecting the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bovine uterine endometrial tissue.


Assuntos
Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Clima Quente Extremo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Metaloproteínas/genética , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Reprodução , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13467, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043536

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for first calving reproductive traits and growth curve characteristics in Japanese Black cattle. The Gompertz growth function was fitted to body weight-age data to obtain the mature weight (MWT) and rate of maturing (ROM) of cows. Data of reproductive traits including the first service conception rate (CR) for heifers, age at the first calving (AFC), and gestation length for the first calving were collected. Records of 3,204 animals were used for analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated using a linear uni- and bivariate animal model. The heritability estimates were moderate (0.29 for ROM) and high (0.57 for MWT) for growth curve parameters and low (0.03-0.11) for reproductive traits. There was a negative genetic correlation between MWT and ROM (-0.26), suggesting that an animal with a faster ROM would show a lower MWT. CR was negatively correlated with MWT (-0.42) but significantly and positively correlated with ROM (0.91). There was a negative genetic correlation between AFC and MWT (-0.49). These results suggest that a heifer with a faster ROM and lower MWT would show a higher CR. Meanwhile, a heifer with a lower MWT would show a higher AFC.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Feminino , Fertilização/genética , Gravidez/genética
5.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 137, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the roof ridge of the world, the yak is a precious cattle species that has been indispensable to the human beings living in this high-altitude area. However, the origin of domestication, dispersal route, and the divergence of domestic yaks from different areas are poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we resequenced the genome of 91 domestic yak individuals from 31 populations and 1 wild yaks throughout China. Using a population genomics approach, we observed considerable genetic variation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the earliest domestications of yak occurred in the south-eastern QTP, followed by dispersal to the west QTP and northeast to SiChuang, Gansu, and Qinghai by two routes. Interestingly, we also found potential associations between the distribution of some breeds and historical trade routes such as the Silk Road and Tang-Tibet Ancient Road. Selective analysis identified 11 genes showing differentiation between domesticated and wild yaks and the potentially positively selected genes in each group were identified and compared among domesticated groups. We also detected an unbalanced pattern of introgression among domestic yak, wild yak, and Tibetan cattle. CONCLUSIONS: Our research revealed population genetic evidence for three groups of domestic yaks. In addition to providing genomic evidence for the domestication history of yaks, we identified potential selected genes and introgression, which provide a theoretical basis and resources for the selective breeding of superior characters and high-quality yak.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , China , Domesticação , Genoma , Genômica , Tibet
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881967

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis (pTB), also known as Johne's disease (JD), is a contagious, chronic, and granulomatous inflammatory disease of the intestines of ruminants which is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection, resulting in billions of dollars in economic losses worldwide. Since, currently, no effective cure is available for MAP infection, it is important to explore the genetic variants that affect the host MAP susceptibility. The aim of this study was to analyze a potential association between EDN2 synonymous gene mutations (rs110287192, rs109651404 and rs136707411), that modifies susceptibility to pTB. EDN2 rs110287192, rs109651404 and rs136707411 mutations were genotyped in 68 infected and 753 healthy animals from East Anatolian Red crossbred, Anatolian Black crossbred and Holstein breed cattle by using Custom TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. For pTB status, serum antibody levels S/P ≥ 1.0 were assessed in carriers of the different EDN2 genotypes. EDN2 rs110287192 mutation showed a significant association with bovine pTB (adj. p < 0.05). For rs110287192 locus, the odd ratios for GG and TG genotypes versus TT genotypes were 1.73; (95% CI = 0.34-8.59) and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.12-2.37) respectively, which indicated that proportion of TG heterozygotes were significantly higher in control animals as compared to pTB animals. On the other hand, while rs136707411 mutation showed a suggestive association with pTB status in the examined cattle population (nominal p < 0.05); no association was detected between rs109651404 genotypes and pTB status. Selecting animals against rs110287192-GG genotype may decrease the risk of pTB in cattle of the Bos taurus taurus subspecies.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/microbiologia , Endotelinas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Paratuberculose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alelos , Animais , Modelos Logísticos , Paratuberculose/microbiologia
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901281

RESUMO

Bovine twin birth is associated with detriments, including increased embryo/fetal losses, malpresentation, and dystocia. Incidence of these is lessened in bilateral compared with unilateral twin pregnancy. This study was undertaken to assess the use of follicular ablation by aspiration to create bilateral twin pregnancies in females with genetic potential for ~3.5 ovulations per cycle (Trio allele carriers). In experiment 1, carriers (n = 30) and noncarriers (n = 10) were synchronized for ovulation and timed artificial insemination (TAI). Follicles (>5 mm) in excess of one per ovary were aspirated ~16 h preceding TAI. Follicle count for females with follicles on only one ovary was reduced to two. Blood was sampled 2 wk post-TAI to assess progesterone (P4) concentrations; embryo count was determined by ultrasound 6 wk post-TAI. Circulating P4 concentration post-TAI was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with both genotype and subsequent pregnancy status (pregnant noncarriers: 7.06 ± 0.68 ng/mL; pregnant carriers: 5.54 ± 0.55 ng/mL; nonpregnant noncarriers: 5.22 ± 1.05 ng/mL; nonpregnant carriers: 3.13 ± 0.42 ng/mL). Experiment 2 was undertaken to offset the negative effects of follicular aspiration on subsequent P4 concentration observed in experiment 1. Carriers (n = 38) and noncarriers (n = 32) were submitted to TAI and follicle ablation as described for experiment 1. Additionally, accessory corpora lutea (CL) were induced in carriers by the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (carriers) at day 6 post-TAI. Consequently, P4 concentration post-TAI was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with subsequent pregnancy status (pregnant: 8.48 ± 0.61 ng/mL; nonpregnant: 6.70 ± 0.63 ng/mL) but not with genotype (carrier: 8.01 ± 0.59 ng/mL; noncarrier: 7.17 ± 0.64 ng/mL). Embryo number was greater in carriers (exp. 1: 1.64 ± 0.81; exp 2: 1.45 ± 0.09) vs. noncarriers (1.00 ± 0.00, both experiments). Single, twin, and triplet pregnancies occurred in carriers in experiment 1, whereas multiples in experiment 2 were limited to twin pregnancies. Genotype effects on pregnancy rate were not significant (P > 0.10) in either experiment. Results suggest that follicular ablation to create bilateral twin pregnancies in Trio carriers is feasible but requires the induction of accessory CL to offset the negative effects of follicular aspiration on subsequent P4 concentration and associated fertility outcomes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Ovulação/genética , Progesterona/análise , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Corpo Lúteo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sincronização do Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4739, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958756

RESUMO

More people globally depend on the water buffalo than any other domesticated species, and as the most closely related domesticated species to cattle they can provide important insights into the shared evolutionary basis of domestication. Here, we sequence the genomes of 79 water buffalo across seven breeds and compare patterns of between breed selective sweeps with those seen for 294 cattle genomes representing 13 global breeds. The genomic regions under selection between cattle breeds significantly overlap regions linked to stature in human genetic studies, with a disproportionate number of these loci also shown to be under selection between water buffalo breeds. Investigation of potential functional variants in the water buffalo genome identifies a rare example of convergent domestication down to the same mutation having independently occurred and been selected for across domesticated species. Cross-species comparisons of recent selective sweeps can consequently help identify and refine important loci linked to domestication.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Domesticação , Genoma/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Búfalos/classificação , Bovinos/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Filogeografia , Seleção Genética
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1008780, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925905

RESUMO

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in large human cohorts have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits and diseases. For identifying the genes and gene-associated variants that underlie complex traits in livestock, especially where sample sizes are limiting, it may help to integrate the results of GWAS for equivalent traits in humans as prior information. In this study, we sought to investigate the usefulness of results from a GWAS on human height as prior information for identifying the genes and gene-associated variants that affect stature in cattle, using GWAS summary data on samples sizes of 700,000 and 58,265 for humans and cattle, respectively. Using Fisher's exact test, we observed a significant proportion of cattle stature-associated genes (30/77) that are also associated with human height (odds ratio = 5.1, p = 3.1e-10). Result of randomized sampling tests showed that cattle orthologs of human height-associated genes, hereafter referred to as candidate genes (C-genes), were more enriched for cattle stature GWAS signals than random samples of genes in the cattle genome (p = 0.01). Randomly sampled SNPs within the C-genes also tend to explain more genetic variance for cattle stature (up to 13.2%) than randomly sampled SNPs within random cattle genes (p = 0.09). The most significant SNPs from a cattle GWAS for stature within the C-genes did not explain more genetic variance for cattle stature than the most significant SNPs within random cattle genes (p = 0.87). Altogether, our findings support previous studies that suggest a similarity in the genetic regulation of height across mammalian species. However, with the availability of a powerful GWAS for stature that combined data from 8 cattle breeds, prior information from human-height GWAS does not seem to provide any additional benefit with respect to the identification of genes and gene-associated variants that affect stature in cattle.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Gado/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822435

RESUMO

Cattle temperament is a complex and economically relevant trait. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and genes associated with cattle temperament. From a Brahman cattle population of 1,370 animals evaluated for temperament traits (Exit velocity-EV, Pen Score-PS, Temperament Score-TS), two groups of temperament-contrasting animals were identified based on their EV-average values ±1/2 standard deviation (SD). To be considered in the calm group, the EV of females ranged between 0.16-1.82 m/s (n = 50) and the EV of males ranged between 0.4-1.56 m/s (n = 48). Females were classified as temperamental if their EV ranged between 3.13-7.66 m/s (n = 46) and males were classified as temperamental if their EV ranged between 3.05-10.83 m/s (n = 45). Selected animals were genotyped using a total of 139,376 SNPs (GGP-HD-150K), evaluated for their association with EV. The Genome-Wide Association analysis (GWAS) identified fourteen SNPs: rs135340276, rs134895560, rs110190635, rs42949831, rs135982573, rs109393235, rs109531929, rs135087545, rs41839733, rs42486577, rs136661522, rs110882543, rs110864071, rs109722627, (P<8.1E-05), nine of them were located on intergenic regions, harboring seventeen genes, of which only ACER3, VRK2, FANCL and SLCO3A1 were considered candidate associated with bovine temperament due to their reported biological functions. Five SNPs were located at introns of the NRXN3, EXOC4, CACNG4 and SLC9A4 genes. The indicated candidate genes are implicated in a wide range of behavioural phenotypes and complex cognitive functions. The association of the fourteen SNPs on bovine temperament traits (EV, PS and TS) was evaluated; all these SNPs were significant for EV; only some were associated with PS and TS. Fourteen SNPs were associated with EV which allowed the identification of twenty-one candidate genes for Brahman temperament. From a functional point of view, the five intronic SNPs identified in this study, are candidates to address control of bovine temperament, further investigation will probe their role in expression of this trait.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/psicologia , Emoções , Temperamento , Ceramidase Alcalina/genética , Animais , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação L da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Masculino , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776133

RESUMO

This experiment investigated phenotypic and genetic relationships between carbon dioxide production, methane emission, feed intake, and postweaning traits in Angus cattle. Respiration chamber data on 1096 young bulls and heifers from 2 performance recording research herds of Angus cattle were analyzed to provide phenotypic and genetic parameters for carbon dioxide production rate (CPR; n = 425, mean 3,010 ± SD 589 g/d) and methane production rate (MPR; n = 1,096, mean 132.8 ± SD 25.2 g/d) and their relationships with dry matter intake (DMI; n = 1,096, mean 6.15 ± SD 1.33 kg/d), body weight (BW) and body composition traits. Heritability estimates were moderate to high for CPR (0.53 [SE 0.17]), MPR (0.31 [SE 0.07]), DMI (0.49 [SE 0.08]), yearling BW (0.46 [SE 0.08]), and scanned rib fat depth (0.42 [SE 0.07]). There was a strong phenotypic (0.83 [SE 0.02]) and genetic (0.75 [SE 0.10]) correlation between CPR and MPR. The correlations obtained for DMI with CPR and with MPR were high, both phenotypically (rp) and genetically (rg) (rp: 0.85 [SE 0.01] and 0.71 [SE 0.02]; rg (0.95 [SE 0.03] and 0.83 [SE 0.05], respectively). Yearling BW was strongly correlated phenotypically (rp ≥ 0.60) and genetically (rg > 0.80) with CPR, MPR, and DMI, whereas scanned rib fat was weakly correlated phenotypically (rp < 0.20) and genetically (rg ≤ 0.20) with CPR, MPR, and DMI. The strong correlation between both CPR and MPR with DMI confirms their potential use as proxies for DMI in situations where direct DMI recording is not possible such as on pasture.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bovinos/genética , Metano/metabolismo , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo
12.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761701

RESUMO

We used test-day records and daily records from provincial weather stations in Japan to evaluate heat tolerance (HT) in Holstein cows according to a random regression test-day model. Data were a total of 1,641,952 test-day records for heritability estimates and 17,245,694 test-day records for genetic evaluation of HT by using milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) in Holstein cows that had calved for the first time in 2000 through 2015. Temperature-humidity index (THI) values were estimated by using average daily temperature and average daily relative humidity records from 60 provincial Japanese weather stations. The model contained herd-test-day, with lactation curves on days in milk within month-age group as a fixed effect. General additive genetic effect and HT of additive genetic effect were included as random effects. The threshold value of THI was set to 60. For milk yield, estimated mean heritabilities were lower during heat stress (THI = 78; 0.20 and 0.28) than when below the heat stress threshold (THI ≤ 60; 0.26 and 0.31). For SCS, heritability estimates (range 0.08-0.10) were similar under all heat stress conditions. Genetic trends of HT indicated that EBVs of HT are changing in an undesirable direction.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Animais , Feminino , Análise de Regressão
13.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779330

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of genotyped bulls with different numbers of phenotyped progenies on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and genomic evaluation using a simulated cattle population. Twelve generations (G1-G12) were simulated from the base generation (G0). The recent population had different effective population sizes, heritability, and number of QTL. G0-G4 were used for pedigree information. A total of 300 genotyped bulls from G5-G10 were randomly selected. Their progenies were generated in G6-G11 with different numbers of progeny per bull. Scenarios were considered according to the number of progenies and whether the genotypes were possessed by the bulls or the progenies. A genome-wide association study and genomic evaluation were performed with a single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction method to calculate the power of QTL detection and the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). We found that genotyped bulls could be available for QTL detection depending on conditions. Additionally, using a reference population, including genotyped bulls, which had more progeny phenotypes, enabled a more accurate prediction of GEBV. However, it is desirable to have more than 4,500 individuals consisting of both genotypes and phenotypes for practical genomic evaluation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Genômica , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853245

RESUMO

Functional and enduring mammary structure is pivotal for producer profitability, and animal health and welfare in beef production. Genetic evaluations for teat and udder score in Canadian Angus cattle have previously been developed. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with teat and udder structure in Canadian Angus cows thereby enhancing knowledge of the biological architecture of these traits. Thus, we performed a weighted single-step genome wide association study (WssGWAS) to identify candidate genes for teat and udder score in 1,582 Canadian Angus cows typed with the GeneSeek® Genomic Profiler Bovine 130K SNP array. Genomically enhanced estimated breeding values (GEBVs) were converted to SNP marker effects using unequal variances for markers to calculate weights for each SNP over three iterations. At the genome wide level, we detected windows of 20 consecutive SNPs that explained more than 0.5% of the variance observed in these traits. A total of 35 and 28 windows were identified for teat and udder score, respectively, with two SNP windows in common for both traits. Using Ensembl, the SNP windows were used to search for candidate genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL). A total of 94 and 71 characterized genes were identified in the regions for teat and udder score, respectively. Of these, 7 genes were common for both traits. Gene network and enrichment analysis, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), signified key pathways unique to each trait. Genes of interest were associated with immune response and wound healing, adipose tissue development and morphology, and epithelial and vascular development and morphology. Genetic architecture from this GWAS confirms that teat and udder score are distinct, polygenic traits involving varying and complex biological pathways, and that genetic selection for improved teat and udder score is possible.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Software , Estatística como Assunto
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609315

RESUMO

Data on calving ease (CE) and birth, weaning weight (WW), and yearling weight (YW) were obtained from the American Simmental Association (ASA) and included pedigree and performance information on 11,640,735 animals. Our objective was to quantify differential response from selection for high CE vs. low birth weight (LBW) in first-calf Simmental heifers. We hypothesized that direct selection for CE should be used as the primary approach to reduce dystocia and mitigate losses in growth-related traits. WW and YW were adjusted to 205 and 365 d of age, respectively. Sire and maternal grandsire (co)variance components for CE, birth weight (BW), and 205-d weaning weight (205-d WW), and sire covariance components for 160-d postweaning gain (160-d gain) were estimated using a sire-maternal grandsire model. Direct and maternal expected progeny differences (EPD) for CE, BW, and 205-d WW and direct EPD for 160-d gain and 365-d yearling weight (365-d YW) for first-calf Simmental heifers population (465,710 animals) were estimated using a threshold-linear multivariate maternal animal model. This population was used to estimate genetic trends and as a selection pool (control) for various selection scenarios. Selection scenarios were high CE (HCE), LBW, the all-purpose selection index (API = -1.8 BW + 1.3 CE + 0.10 WW + 0.20 YW) of the ASA and its two derived subindices: (API1 = 1.3 CE + 0.20 YW) and (API2 = -1.8 BW + 0.20 YW), and lastly Dickerson's selection index (DSI = -3.2 BW + YW). Data for each selection scenario were created by selecting sires with EPD greater than or equal to the average along with the top 75% of dams. Comparison between selection scenarios involved evaluating the direct and maternal genetic trends from these scenarios. Direct heritabilities for CE, BW, 205-d WW, 160-d gain, and 365-d YW of Simmental cattle were 0.23, 0.52, 0.28, 0.21, and 0.33, respectively. The single trait, HCE, selection scenario, as opposed to LBW, increased the intercept for CE by 57.7% and the slopes (P < 0.001) for BW, 205-d WW, 160-d gain, and 365-d YW by 27.9%, 37.5%, 16%, and 28%, respectively. Comparisons of various selection scenarios revealed that the CE-based selection scenarios (HCE, API, and API1) had a greater response for CE and growth traits.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Bovinos/genética , Distocia/veterinária , Seleção Genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Distocia/genética , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614952

RESUMO

Ubiquitin-like with plant homeodomain and really interesting new gene finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a multi-domain nuclear protein that plays an important role in epigenetics and tumorigenesis, but its role in normal ovarian follicle development remains unknown. Thus, the present study evaluated if UHRF1 mRNA abundance in bovine follicular cells is developmentally and hormonally regulated, and if changes in UHRF1 are associated with changes in DNA methylation in follicular cells. Abundance of UHRF1 mRNA was greater in granulosa cells (GC) and theca cells (TC) from small (<6 mm) than large (≥8 mm) follicles and was greater in small-follicle GC than TC. In GC and TC, fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) treatment increased (P < 0.05) UHRF1 expression by 2-fold. Also, luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) increased (P < 0.05) UHRF1 expression in TC by 2-fold, and forskolin (an adenylate cyclase inducer) alone or combined with IGF1 increased (P < 0.05) UHRF1 expression by 3-fold. An E2F transcription factor inhibitor (E2Fi) decreased (P < 0.05) UHRF1 expression by 44% in TC and by 99% in GC. Estradiol, progesterone, and dibutyryl-cAMP decreased (P < 0.05) UHRF1 mRNA abundance in GC. Treatment of GC with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) alone had no effect but when combined with IGF1 enhanced the UHRF1 mRNA abundance by 2.7-fold. Beauvericin (a mycotoxin) completely inhibited the FSH plus IGF1-induced UHRF1 expression in small-follicle GC. Treatments that increased UHRF1 mRNA (i.e., FGF9) in GC tended to decrease (by 63%; P < 0.10) global DNA methylation, and those that decreased UHRF1 mRNA (i.e., E2Fi) in GC tended to increase (by 2.4-fold; P < 0.10) global DNA methylation. Collectively, these results suggest that UHRF1 expression in both GC and TC is developmentally and hormonally regulated, and that UHRF1 may play a role in follicular growth and development as well as be involved in ovarian epigenetic processes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Células Tecais/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Progesterona/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
17.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13415, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671963

RESUMO

Recessive missense mutation in the solute carrier family 12, member 1 (SLC12A1) gene (g.62382825G>A) is associated with hydrallantois, which is the accumulation of fluid in the allantoic cavity of a pregnant animal, and usually causes fetal death in Japanese Black cattle. However, the symptoms of a homozygote with this mutation that do not result in fetal death have not previously been tracked and evaluated. In the present study, we observed a homozygote with the SLC12A1 risk allele over a long-term period. The calf did not show any obvious clinical symptoms, although it did exhibit a slight growth retardation that accompanied mild calciuria. At 28 months of age, the homozygote showed renal dysfunction, which in turn resulted in hydronephrosis. The time course of the symptoms was consistent with the phenotype of Bartter syndrome in humans. Additionally, the risk heterozygous genotype did not any effects on carcass traits, which indicates that eliminating the risk allele would not have any unfavorable effects. Therefore, we emphasize that both the fetal- and late-stage symptoms associated with the SLC12A1 risk allele compromise animal welfare, and consequently may result in severe economic losses for individual farmers if the SLC12A1 risk allele is not eliminated from the population.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bartter/genética , Síndrome de Bartter/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Homozigoto , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Membro 1 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Alelos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Feminino , Hidronefrose/genética , Hidronefrose/veterinária , Gravidez , Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672407

RESUMO

Circulating leptin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of production traits in cattle. This study aimed to clarify the correlations between circulating leptin concentrations and growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality indexes in finishing bulls fed high-concentrate diets (concentrate-to-forage ratio 70:30). Fifty-seven Simmental × Luxi F1 crossbred bulls were used for 112-day finishing experiment. Circulating leptin concentrations and relevant indexes of growth performance, and carcass traits and meat quality were measured during or after finishing trail. The results indicated that the leptin concentrations tended to be negatively correlated with dry matter intake (DMI) (r = -.233, p = .081), and were positively correlated with 12th-rib fat thickness (r = .330, p = .012), marbling score (r = .336, p = .011), and intramuscular fat content (r = .368, p = .021). Moreover, the leptin concentrations were negatively correlated with cholesterol content (r = -.339, p = .037) and were not correlated with sensory indexes including tenderness, juiciness, and like flavor (p > .05). In conclusion, circulating leptin concentrations may potentially be used as a predictor of carcass traits related to content of fat and beef quality traits related to content of cholesterol in finishing bulls fed high-concentrate diets.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leptina/sangue , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino
19.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618083

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of miR-10b on growth hormone (GH) in pituitary cells of Yanbian yellow cattle. According to analysis of GH and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) mRNA and protein expression levels, we found that miR-10b targeted 3'UTR of SSTR2. Compared with the negative control (NC) group, GH mRNA transcription and protein expression in pituitary cells of Yanbian yellow cattle were significantly increased by adding miR-10b mimics (p < .01), while these were significantly decreased by adding miR-10b inhibitor (p < .05); compared with the NC group, SSTR2 mRNA transcription and protein expression were significantly inhibited by the addition of miR-10b mimics (p < .01), while these were significantly increased by the addition of miR-10b inhibitor compared with the iNC group (p < .05). This study suggested that miR-10b could regulate GH level by regulating SSTR2 gene expression in pituitary cells of Yanbian yellow cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Hipófise/citologia , Hipófise/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Transfecção , Animais , Células Cultivadas , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235856, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649732

RESUMO

Gene editing in large animal models for future applications in translational medicine and food production must be deeply investigated for an increase of knowledge. The mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a member of the HMGB subfamily that binds to mtDNA promoters. This gene maintains mtDNA, and it is essential for the initiation of mtDNA transcription. Lately, we generated a new cell line through the disruption of the TFAM gene in bovine fibroblast cells by CRISPR/Cas 9 technology. We showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 design was efficient through the generation of heterozygous mutant clones. In this context, once this gene regulates the mtDNA replication specificity, the study aimed to determine if the post-edited cells are capable of in vitro maintenance and assess if they present changes in mtDNA copies and mitochondrial membrane potential after successive passages in culture. The post-edited cells were expanded in culture, and we performed a growth curve, doubling time, cell viability, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. The editing process did not make cell culture unfeasible, even though cell growth rate and viability were decreased compared to control since we observed the cells grow well when cultured in a medium supplemented with uridine and pyruvate. They also exhibited a classical fibroblastoid appearance. The RT-qPCR to determine the mtDNA copy number showed a decrease in the edited clones compared to the non-edited ones (control) in different cell passages. Cell staining with Mitotracker Green and red suggests a reduction in red fluorescence in the edited cells compared to the non-edited cells. Thus, through characterization, we demonstrated that the TFAM gene is critical to mitochondrial maintenance due to its interference in the stability of the mitochondrial DNA copy number in different cell passages and membrane potential confirming the decrease in mitochondrial activity in cells edited in heterozygosis.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Bovinos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Edição de Genes , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Replicação do DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Dosagem de Genes , Mitocôndrias/genética
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