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5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 549-560, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829588

RESUMO

It has been reported previously that glycosylation of bovine lactoferrin changes over time. A detailed structural overview of these changes over the whole course of lactation, including predry period milk, is lacking. In this study, a high-throughput analysis method was applied to the glycoprofile of lactoferrin isolated from colostrum, mature, and predry period mature milk, which was analyzed over two subsequent lactation cycles for 8 cows from diverse genetic backgrounds. In addition, comparisons are made with commercial bovine lactoferrin samples. During the first 72 h, dynamic changes in lactoferrin glycosylation occurred. Shifts in the oligomannose distribution and the number of sialylated and fucosylated glycans were observed. In some cows, we observed (α2,3)-linked sialic acid in the earliest colostrum samples. The glycoprofiles appeared stable from 1 month after delivery, as well as between cows. In addition, the glycosylation profiles of commercial lactoferrins isolated from pooled mature milk were stable over the year. Lactoferrin glycosylation in the predry period resembles colostrum lactoferrin. The variations in lactoferrin glycosylation profiles, lactoferrin concentrations, and other milk parameters provide detailed information that potentially assists in unraveling the functions and biosynthesis regulation of lactoferrin glycosylation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/química , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Colostro/química , Colostro/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicosilação , Lactoferrina/genética , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 686-696, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877248

RESUMO

Metabolites of serum and milk from genetically modified (GM) cows and contrast check (CK) cows were comparatively investigated. Serum and milk were collected from genetically modified (GM) cows and contrast check (CK) cows, and then, they were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although the level of some blood biochemical indexes for GM cows was shifted up or down, they were generally in normal physiological condition. Serum samples from lactoferrin GM cows exhibited reduced levels of amino acids and elevated levels of indoleacetate, α-keto acids, long-chain fatty acids, etc. GM milk possessed elevated levels of pentose and amino sugar metabolites, including arabitol, xylulose, glucuronate, and N-acetylgalactosamine. Interestingly, some essential nutrients, such as certain unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)), and some necessary rare sugars were significantly upregulated. Compared to the CK group, a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was conducted based on the increased or decreased metabolites identified in the serum and milk samples of the GM group. The results showed that the GM cows were in healthy condition and their milk has improved benefits for customers. The milk from genetically modified cows was found to be a promising milk source for producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) for human beings.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/genética , Leite/química , Soro/química , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácidos Indolacéticos/sangue , Cetoácidos/sangue , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Leite/metabolismo , Soro/metabolismo , Açúcares/sangue
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 714-720, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal data analysis contributes to detect differences in the growing curve by exploiting all the information involved in repeated measurements, allowing to distinguish changes over time within individuals, from differences in the baseline levels among groups. In this research, longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis were compared to evaluate differences in growth in Angus heifers under two different grazing conditions, ad libitum (AG) and controlled (CG) to gain 0.5 kg day-1 . RESULTS: Longitudinal mixed models show differences in growing curve parameters between grazing conditions, that were not detected by cross-sectional analysis. Differences (P < 0.05) in first derivative of growth curves (daily gain) until 289 days were observed between treatments, AG being higher than CG. Correspondingly, pubertal heifer proportion was also higher in AG at the end of rearing (AG, 0.94; CG, 0.67). CONCLUSION: In longitudinal studies, the power to detect differences between groups increases by exploiting the whole information of repeated measures, modelling the relation between measurements performed on the same individual. Under a proper analysis, valid conclusion can be drawn with fewer animals in the trial, improving animal welfare and reducing investigation costs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poaceae/metabolismo
8.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4053-4065, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581299

RESUMO

Selection for production traits with little or no emphasis on health-related traits has the potential to increase susceptibility to disease in food-producing animals. A possible genetic strategy to mitigate such effects is to include both production and health traits in the breeding objective when selecting animals. For this to occur, reliable methodologies are required to assess beneficial health traits, such as the immune capacity of animals. We describe here a methodology to assess the immune competence of beef cattle which is both practical to apply on farm and does not restrict the future sale of tested animals. The methodology also accommodates variation in prior vaccination history of cohorts of animals being tested. In the present study, the immune competence phenotype of 1,100 Angus calves was assessed during yard weaning. Genetic parameters associated with immune competence traits were estimated and associations between immune competence, temperament, and stress-coping ability traits were investigated. Results suggested that immune competence traits, related to an animal's ability to mount both antibody and cell-mediated immune responses, are moderately heritable (h2 = 0.32 ± 0.09 and 0.27 ± 0.08, respectively) and favorably genetically correlated with the temperament trait, flight time (r = 0.63 ± 0.31 and 0.60 ± 0.29 with antibody and cell-mediated immune responses, respectively). Development of methodologies to assess the immune competence phenotype of beef cattle is a critical first step in the establishment of genetic selection strategies aimed at improving the general disease resistance of beef herds. Strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of disease in beef cattle are expected to significantly improve animal health and welfare, reduce reliance on the use of antibiotics to treat disease, and reduce disease-associated costs incurred by producers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/imunologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
9.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4066-4075, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581300

RESUMO

Lactation persistency (LP), defined as the ability of a cow to maintain milk production at a high level after milk peak, is an important phenotype for the dairy industry. In this study, we used a targeted genotyping approach to scan for potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 57 potential candidate genes derived from our previous genome wide association study on LP and from the literature. A total of 175,490 SNPs were annotated within 10-kb flanking regions of the selected candidate genes. After applying several filtering steps, a total of 105 SNPs were retained for genotyping using target genotyping arrays. SNP association analyses were performed in 1,231 Holstein cows with 69 polymorphic SNPs using the univariate liner mixed model with polygenic effects using DMU package. Six SNPs including rs43770847, rs208794152, and rs208332214 in ADRM1; rs209443540 in C5orf34; rs378943586 in DDX11; and rs385640152 in GHR were suggestively significantly associated with LP based on additive effects and associations with 4 of them (rs43770847, rs208794152, rs208332214, and rs209443540) were based on dominance effects at P < 0.05. However, none of the associations remained significant at false discovery rate adjusted P (FDR) < 0.05. The additive variances explained by each suggestively significantly associated SNP ranged from 0.15% (rs43770847 in ADRM1) to 5.69% (rs209443540 in C5orf34), suggesting that these SNPs might be used in genetic selection for enhanced LP. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by dominance effect ranged from 0.24% to 1.35% which suggests that genetic selection for enhanced LP might be more efficient by inclusion of dominance effects. Overall, this study identified several potentially functional variants that might be useful for selection programs for higher LP. Finally, a combination of identification of potentially functional variants followed by targeted genotyping and association analysis is a cost-effective approach for increasing the power of genetic association studies.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Lactação/genética , Leite/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Bovinos/classificação , Bovinos/genética , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genótipo , Leite/normas , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1695-1702, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038648

RESUMO

Utilizaram-se registros de pesos corporais padronizados aos 120, 210, 365 e 450 dias de idade, provenientes de 30.481 animais da raça Nelore, progênies de 211 reprodutores acasalados com 19.229 matrizes, oriundos de rebanhos dos estados de Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul e Goiás, com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de interação genótipo x ambiente entre os estados. As estimativas de herdabilidade entre os estados variaram de 0,09 a 0,14; 0,11 a 0,17; 0,16 a 0,27 e 0,17 a 0,35, respectivamente, para os pesos 120, 210, 365 e 450 dias de idade. As estimativas de correlação genética aditiva entre a mesma característica para os diferentes estados apresentaram valores inferiores a 0,80. As correlações de Spearman entre os valores genéticos para os pesos corporais se reduziram à medida que se aumentou a intensidade de seleção sobre os reprodutores. A presença de interação genótipo x ambiente causa maior impacto sobre a avaliação genética dos reprodutores sob intensidade de seleção elevada, sendo interessante sua consideração no processo de avaliação genética. Estimativas de tendências genéticas para todos os pesos corporais apresentaram-se crescentes ao longo dos anos nos três estados.(AU)


Data of adjusted alive weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age of 30,481 records of animals of the Nellore beef cattle breed from herds of states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás were used to study the influence of environment genotype interaction on genetic evaluation of sires. Estimates of heritability between the states ranged from 0.09 to 0.14; 0.11 to 0.17; 0.16 to 0.27 and 0.17 to 0.35, respectively for live weights 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age. The estimates of additive genetic correlation between the same characteristic for the different states presented values lower than 0.80. Spearman correlations between breeding values obtained from live weights of sires lowered as the intensity of selection on sires increased. The presence of environment genotype interaction has greater impact on the genetic evaluation of breeding under high intensity of selection, being an interesting consideration in the process of genetic evaluation. Estimates of genetic trends for all body weights have been increasing over the years in all three states.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Seleção Genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9983-9994, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521359

RESUMO

The susceptibility of animals to periparturient diseases has a great effect on the economic efficiency of dairy industries, on the frequency of antibiotic treatment, and on animal welfare. The use of selection for breeding cows with reduced susceptibility to diseases offers a sustainable tool to improve dairy cattle farming. Several studies have focused on the association of distinct bovine chromosome 18 genotypes or haplotypes with performance traits. The aim of this study was to test whether selection of Holstein Friesian heifers via SNP genotyping for alternative paternal chromosome 18 haplotypes associated with favorable (Q) or unfavorable (q) somatic cell scores influences postpartum reproductive and metabolic diseases. Thirty-six heifers (18 Q and 18 q) were monitored from 3 wk before calving until necropsy on d 39 (± 4 d) after calving. Health status and rectal temperature were measured daily, and body condition score and body weight were assessed once per week. Blood samples were drawn twice weekly, and levels of insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin-like growth factor-I, growth hormone, and ß-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Comparisons between the groups were performed using Fisher's exact test, chi-squared test, and the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS. Results showed that Q-heifers had reduced incidence of metritis compared with q-heifers and were less likely to develop fever. Serum concentrations of ß-hydroxybutyrate were lower and insulin-like growth factor-I plasma concentrations were higher in Q- compared with q-heifers. However, the body condition score and withers height were comparable between haplotypes, but weight loss tended to be lower in Q-heifers compared with q-heifers. No differences between the groups were detected concerning retained fetal membranes, uterine involution, or onset of cyclicity. In conclusion, selection of chromosome 18 haplotypes associated with a reduced somatic cell score resulted in a decreased incidence of postpartum reproductive and metabolic diseases in this study. The presented data add to the existing knowledge aimed at avoiding negative consequences of genetic selection strategies in dairy cattle farming. The underlying causal mechanisms modulated by haplotypes in the targeted genomic region and immune competence necessitate further investigation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos , Haplótipos , Período Pós-Parto , Reprodução , Seleção Genética , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Lactação , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez
12.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 54, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inbreeding decreases animal performance (inbreeding depression), but not all inbreeding is expected to be equally harmful. Recent inbreeding is expected to be more harmful than ancient inbreeding, because selection decreases the frequency of deleterious alleles over time. Selection efficiency is increased by inbreeding, a process called purging. Our objective was to investigate effects of recent and ancient inbreeding on yield, fertility and udder health traits in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows. METHODS: In total, 38,792 first-parity cows were included. Pedigree inbreeding ([Formula: see text]) was computed and 75 k genotype data were used to compute genomic inbreeding, among others based on regions of homozygosity (ROH) in the genome ([Formula: see text]). RESULTS: Inbreeding depression was observed, e.g. a 1% increase in [Formula: see text] was associated with a 36.3 kg (SE = 2.4) decrease in 305-day milk yield, a 0.48 day (SE = 0.15) increase in calving interval and a 0.86 unit (SE = 0.28) increase in somatic cell score for day 150 through to 400. These effects equalled - 0.45, 0.12 and 0.05% of the trait means, respectively. When [Formula: see text] was split into generation-based components, inbreeding on recent generations was more harmful than inbreeding on more distant generations for yield traits. When [Formula: see text] was split into new and ancestral components, based on whether alleles were identical-by-descent for the first time or not, new inbreeding was more harmful than ancestral inbreeding, especially for yield traits. For example, a 1% increase in new inbreeding was associated with a 2.42 kg (SE = 0.41) decrease in 305-day fat yield, compared to a 0.03 kg (SE = 0.71) increase for ancestral inbreeding. There were no clear differences between effects of long ROH (recent inbreeding) and short ROH (ancient inbreeding). CONCLUSIONS: Inbreeding depression was observed for yield, fertility and udder health traits. For yield traits and based on pedigree, inbreeding on recent generations was more harmful than inbreeding on distant generations and there was evidence of purging. Across all traits, long and short ROH contributed to inbreeding depression. In future work, inbreeding depression and purging should be assessed in more detail at the genomic level, using higher density information and genomic time series.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Endogamia , Animais , Feminino , Países Baixos
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11167-11178, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542928

RESUMO

Milk contains a number of beneficial fatty acids including short and medium chain and unsaturated conjugated and nonconjugated fatty acids. In this study, microRNA sequencing of mammary tissue collected in early-, peak-, mid-, and late-lactation periods was performed to determine the miRNA expression profiles. miR-16a was one of the differentially expressed miRNA and was selected for in-depth functional studies pertaining to fatty acid metabolism. The mimic of miR-16a impaired fat metabolism [triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol] while knock-down of miR-16a promoted fat metabolism in vitro in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). In addition, the in vitro work with BMECs also revealed that miR-16a had a negative effect on the cellular concentration of cis 9-C18:1, total C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, these data suggesting a negative effect on fatty acid metabolism extend the discovery of the key role of miR-16a in mediating adipocyte differentiation. Through a combination of bioinformatics analysis, target gene 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting, we identified large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) as a target of miR-16a. Transfection of siRNA-LATS1 into BMECs led to increases in TAG, cholesterol, and cellular fatty acid concentrations, suggesting a positive role of LATS1 in mammary cell fatty acid metabolism. In summary, data suggest that miR-16a regulates biological processes associated with intracellular TAG, cholesterol, and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis through LATS1. These data provide a theoretical and experimental framework for further clarifying the regulation of lipid metabolism in mammary cells of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4657-4667, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563947

RESUMO

We examined the effects of dietary supplementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on the growth performance, whole-blood immune gene expression, serum biochemistry, and plasma metabolome of newly weaned beef steers during a 42 d receiving period. Forty newly weaned Angus crossbred steers (7 d post-weaning; 210 ± 12 kg of BW; 180 ± 17 d of age) from a single source were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: basal diet with no additive (CON; n = 20) or a basal diet top-dressed with 19 g of the DFM (PROB; n = 20). Daily DMI and weekly body weights were measured to calculate average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE). Expression of 84 immune-related genes was analyzed on blood samples collected on days 21 and 42. Serum biochemical parameters and plasma metabolome were analyzed on days 0, 21, and 42. On day 40, fecal grab samples were collected for pH measurement. Compared with CON, dietary supplementation of PROB increased final body weight (P = 0.01) and ADG (1.42 vs. 1.23 kg; P = 0.04) over the 42 d feeding trial. There was a tendency for improved FE with PROB supplementation (P = 0.10). No treatment effect (P = 0.24) on DMI was observed. Supplementation with PROB increased (P ≤ 0.05) the concentrations of serum calcium, total protein, and albumin. Compared with CON, dietary supplementation with PROB increased (P ≤ 0.05) the expression of some immune-related genes involved in detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (such as TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6), T-cell differentiation (such as STAT6, ICAM1, RORC, TBX21, and CXCR3) and others such as TNF and CASP1, on day 21 and/or day 42. Conversely, IL-8 was upregulated (P = 0.01) in beef steers fed CON diet on day 21. Plasma untargeted plasma metabolome analysis revealed an increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the concentration of metabolites, 5-methylcytosine and indoleacrylic acid involved in protecting the animals against inflammation in steers fed PROB diet. There was a tendency for lower fecal pH in steers fed PROB diet (P = 0.08), a possible indication of increased hindgut fermentation. This study demonstrated that supplementation of PROB diet improved the performance, nutritional status, and health of newly weaned beef steers during a 42 d receiving period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metaboloma , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Ração Animal/análise , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Desmame
15.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 52, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In France, implementation of genomic evaluations in dairy cattle breeds started in 2009 and this has modified the breeding schemes drastically. In this context, the goal of our study was to understand the impact of genomic selection on the genetic diversity of bulls from three French dairy cattle breeds born between 2005 and 2015 (Montbéliarde, Normande and Holstein) and the factors that are involved. METHODS: We compared annual genetic gains, inbreeding rates based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) and pedigree data, and mean ROH length within breeds, before and after the implementation of genomic selection. RESULTS: Genomic selection induced an increase in mean annual genetic gains of 50, 71 and 33% for Montbéliarde, Normande and Holstein bulls, respectively, and in parallel, the generation intervals were reduced by a factor of 1.7, 1.9 and 2, respectively. We found no significant change in inbreeding rate for the two national breeds, Montbéliarde and Normande, and a significant increase in inbreeding rate for the Holstein international breed, which is now as high as 0.55% per year based on ROH and 0.49% per year based on pedigree data (equivalent to a rate of 1.36 and 1.39% per generation, respectively). The mean ROH length was longer for bulls from the Holstein breed than for those from the other two breeds. CONCLUSIONS: With the implementation of genomic selection, the annual genetic gain increased for bulls from the three major French dairy cattle breeds. At the same time, the annual loss of genetic diversity increased for Holstein bulls, possibly because of the massive use of a few elite bulls in this breed, but not for Montbéliarde and Normande bulls. The increase in mean ROH length in Holstein may reflect the occurrence of recent inbreeding. New strategies in breeding schemes, such as female donor stations and embryo transfer, and recent implementation of genomic evaluations in small regional breeds should be studied carefully in order to ensure the sustainability of breeding schemes in the future.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , França , Homozigoto , Endogamia , Masculino , Linhagem
16.
Anim Genet ; 50(6): 744-748, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531898

RESUMO

We aimed to identify QTL for serum electrolyte traits by performing a GWAS of calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium and magnesium ion concentrations in Chinese Holstein cattle. We detected five SNPs that had significant associations with calcium ion concentrations and identified GATA2 from Bos taurus chromosome (BTA)22 as having the highest significance. Among the genes with significant results, we speculate that TMEM123 might be related to calcium channel proteins according to the functions of the TMEM family.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Eletrólitos/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/classificação , Bovinos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11137-11147, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532202

RESUMO

MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation is important for the development of the mammary gland and the lactating process. A previous study has shown that the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is different in the dry and early lactation period of the dairy cow mammary gland, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the lactation cycle are not fully understood. Here, the function of miR-21-3p on bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs) was detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, which showed that miR-21-3p significantly promoted the cell viability and proliferation. Then, the regulating mechanism of miR-21-3p on cell viability and proliferation was elucidated. Dual luciferase assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blot results revealed that IGFBP5 was a target gene of miR-21-3p. It was known that lncRNA could act as a competing endogenous RNA to sequester miRNAs and reduce the regulatory effect of miRNA-targeted genes. Based on our previous lncRNA-seq data and bioinformatics analysis, lncRNA NONBTAT017009.2 was potentially associated with miR-21-3p, and its expression was specifically inhibited with the transfection of miR-21-3p mimic into BMECs. Inversely, the overexpression of NONBTAT017009.2 significantly decreased the expression level of miR-21-3p in BMECs, while the expression of IGFBP5, the target gene of miR-21-3p, was significantly upregulated. In addition, the promoter region of miR-21 contained two STAT3 binding sites, and the dual luciferase reporter assays revealed that the overexpression of STAT3 significantly reduced the promoter activity of miR-21, implying that the transcription factor STAT3 may act as an upstream regulator affecting the regulation process of miR-21-3p. The overexpression of STAT3 significantly inhibited the expression of miR-21-3p, while the mRNA expression of IGFBP5 was significantly increased compared with the control group. Besides, there are no STAT3 binding sites in the promoter region of IGFBP5 as we predicted by gene-regulation and JASPAR software. Therefore, it could infer that STAT3 might regulate the expression of IGFBP5 by miR-21-3p. Taken together, these results established a regulatory network of miR-21-3p to illustrate the regulating mechanism on promoting cow mammary epithelial cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 720, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high narrow sense heritability of carcass traits suggests that the underlying additive genetic potential of an individual should be strongly correlated with both animal carcass quality and quantity, and therefore, by extension, carcass value. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to detect genomic regions associated with three carcass traits, namely carcass weight, conformation and fat cover, using imputed whole genome sequence in 28,470 dairy and beef sires from six breeds with a total of 2,199,926 phenotyped progeny. RESULTS: Major genes previously associated with carcass performance were identified, as well as several putative novel candidate genes that likely operate both within and across breeds. The role of MSTN in carcass performance was re-affirmed with the segregating Q204X mutation explaining 1.21, 1.11 and 5.95% of the genetic variance in carcass weight, fat and conformation, respectively in the Charolais population. In addition, a genomic region on BTA6 encompassing the NCAPG/LCORL locus, which is a known candidate locus associated with body size, was associated with carcass weight in Angus, Charolais and Limousin. Novel candidate genes identified included ZFAT in Angus, and SLC40A1 and the olfactory gene cluster on BTA15 in Charolais. Although the majority of associations were breed specific, associations that operated across breeds included SORCS1 on BTA26, MCTP2 on BTA21 and ARL15 on BTA20; these are of particular interest due to their potential informativeness in across-breed genomic evaluations. Genomic regions affecting all three carcass traits were identified in each of the breeds, although these were mainly concentrated on BTA2 and BTA6, surrounding MSTN and NCAPG/LCORL, respectively. This suggests that although major genes may be associated with all three carcass traits, the majority of genes containing significant variants (unadjusted p-value < 10- 4) may be trait specific associations of small effect. CONCLUSIONS: Although plausible novel candidate genes were identified, the proportion of variance explained by these candidates was minimal thus reaffirming that while carcass performance may be affected by major genes in the form of MSTN and NCAPG/LCORL, the majority of variance is attributed to the additive (and possibly multiplicative) effect of many polymorphisms of small effect.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios , Genótipo , Carne/análise , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Anim Genet ; 50(6): 740-743, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475374

RESUMO

The yattle (dzo) is an interspecific hybrid of the taurine cattle (Bos taurus) and the domestic yak (Bos grunniens). F1 hybrid yattle bulls are sterile due to spermatogenic arrest and have misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in the testes. However, the expression pattern of Y chromosome-linked genes in cattle, yaks and yattle testes is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the mRNA expression pattern of 10 genes known to be present as single copies in the X-degenerate region of the bovine male-specific region of the Y chromosome. Using male-specific primers and reverse transcription quantitative PCR, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene, Y-linked (UTY), oral-facial-digital syndrome 1, Y-linked (OFD1Y) and ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked (USP9Y) genes were ubiquitously expressed and significantly more highly expressed in yattle than in cattle and yaks testes (P < 0.001). RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked (RBMY) had testes-specific expression, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A, Y-linked (EIF1AY) was expressed mainly in testis, whereas yattle and cattle did not show significant differences with respect to the expression of RBMY and EIF1AY. Thus, based on the model of yattle bull sterility, the high expression of UTY, OFD1Y and USP9Y may be associated with yattle infertility.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hibridização Genética , Infertilidade Masculina/veterinária , Masculino , Espermatogênese , Transcriptoma , Cromossomo Y
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10012-10019, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495612

RESUMO

Causal variants inferred from sequence data analysis are expected to increase accuracy of genomic selection. In this work we evaluated the gain in reliability of genomic predictions, for stature in US Holsteins, when adding selected sequence variants to a pre-existent SNP chip. Two prediction methods were tested: de-regressed proofs assuming heterogeneous (genomic BLUP; GBLUP) residual variances and by single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP) using actual phenotypes. Phenotypic data included 3,999,631 records for stature on 3,027,304 Holstein cows. Genotypes on 54,087 SNP markers (54k) were available for 26,877 bulls. Additionally, 16,648 selected sequence variants were combined with the 54k markers, for a total of 70,735 (70k) markers. In all methods, SNP in the genomic relationship matrix (G) were unweighted or weighted iteratively, with weights derived either by SNP effects squared or by a nonlinear method that resembles BayesA (nonlinear A). Reliability of genomic predictions were obtained by cross validation. With unweighted G derived from 54k markers, the reliabilities (× 100) were 72.4 for GBLUP and 75.3 for ssGBLUP. With unweighted G derived from 70k markers, the reliabilities were 73.4 and 76.0, respectively. Weighting by nonlinear A changed reliabilities to 73.3, and 75.9, respectively. Addition of selected sequence variants had a small effect on reliabilities. Weighting by quadratic functions reduced reliabilities. Weighting by nonlinear A increased reliabilities for GBLUP but had only a small effect in ssGBLUP. Reliabilities for direct genomic values extracted from ssGBLUP using unweighted G with 54k were higher than reliabilities by any GBLUP. Thus, ssGBLUP seems to capture more information than GBLUP and there is less room for extra reliability. Improvements in GBLUP may be because the weights in G change the covariance structure, which can explain a proportion of the variance that is accounted for when a heterogeneous residual variance is assumed by considering a different number of daughters per bull.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genômica/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Artificial , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Seleção Genética
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