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1.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13454, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959464

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of substituting ear corn silage (ECS) for commercial formula feed on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles in grazing dairy farms during the summer season. A field survey was conducted on five grazing dairy farms in every summer month of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Three of the five farms substituted fresh ECS for the commercial formula feed at a ratio of 2:1 from July of each year (ECS farms). Other farms maintained the same feeding management as before (non-ECS farms). An interview survey was conducted on each farm to calculate feed intake and milk yield per cow. Feed and milk samples were collected in each survey. Milk compositions and milk fatty acid profiles were determined. The substitution of ECS for the commercial formula feed did not affect milk yield or milk composition, but ECS farms maintained low levels of milk urea compared with non-ECS farms (p < .01). The ECS substitution also influenced some of the milk fatty acid proportions; C16:0 and C16:1 increased, and trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while these fatty acid proportions were maintained in non-ECS farms throughout the summer season (p < .05).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761765

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the influence of crude protein (CP) content in a fattening diet on feed intake, body weight gain, nitrogen excretion, and carcass traits in Holstein steers. Steers (initial body weight 241 ± 26 kg) consumed feed with the following CP content: (a) 17.7% during the early period (from 7 to 10 months of age) and 13.9% during the late period (from 11 to 18 months of age) (HIGH, n = 3), and (b) 16.2% during the early period and 12.2% during the late period (LOW, n = 4). The CP intake was lower in the LOW than the HIGH group. Urinary and total nitrogen excretion in the late period tended to be lower (p < .10) in the LOW than the HIGH group. However, growth performance and carcass traits were not affected by dietary CP content. Free histidine and total amino acid contents in the longissimus thoracis muscle tended to be higher (p < .10) in the HIGH than the LOW group, however, the CP contents were not affected by dietary CP content. The results of this experiment suggest that decreasing dietary CP to 16% (early period) or 12% (late period) of dry matter would reduce nitrogen excretion from Holstein fattening farms without affecting productivity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Masculino
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512645

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) during the pre- and post-weaning periods on growth, metabolic and hormonal responses, and rumen fermentation in calves. Three-week-old Holstein calves were assigned to either control (n = 12) or SC group (n = 12), the latter of which received 2 × 109  cfu/day of SC. The experiment was conducted over a period of 7 weeks around weaning. Daily gain (DG) in the SC group was higher (p < .05) than that in the control group. In the SC group, plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were higher (p < .05) and concentrations of glucagon and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) tended to be higher (p < .1) than in the control group. Proportion of rumen propionate and concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen at 10 weeks of age were greater (p < .05) in the SC group than that in the control group. Supplementation of SC around weaning may improve dietary nutrient and energy availability and increase plasma GH and IGF-1 concentrations. These changes observed in SC-supplemented calves could be closely related to the improvement of DG.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucagon , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Desmame
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515521

RESUMO

Efforts to improve dairy performance have been focused on increasing milk productivity of cows through improved feeding systems and genetic potential. However, methods for evaluating milking system performance based on milk productivity have not yet been established. Milking system performance was evaluated by measuring the claw vacuum at five flow rates (1.9-8.7 kg/min) produced using a flow simulator for a single eight-swing milking parlor with a high-line system. Based on these results, a double eight-parallel milking parlor with a low-line system was installed and tested. Farmers can take data obtained from evaluations of milking system performance into account for future management decisions, such as renewing the milking system. By renewing the milking system, average milking productivity, somatic cell linear score (LS) of bulk milk, and LS of each cow were significantly improved in the year after installing the new system (p < .01). In addition to checking conventional milking systems, this novel diagnostic method using a flow simulator can be used for checking new installations and also for proposing renovations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497112

RESUMO

The efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is low due to the strong resistance of somatic donor cells to epigenetic reprogramming. Many epigenetic drugs targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been used in attempts to improve the in vitro and in vivo development of SCNT embryos. H3K9me3 has been shown to be an important reprogramming barrier for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and SCNT embryos in mice and humans. In this study, we examined the effects of selective siRNA and chemical inhibition of H3K9me3 in somatic donor cells on the in vitro development of bovine SCNT embryos. Chaetocin, an inhibitor of SUV39H1/H2, was supplemented during the culture of donor cells. In addition, the siRNA knockdown of SUV39H1/H2 was performed in the donor cells. The effects of chaetocin and siSUV39H1/H2 on H3K9me3 and H3K9ac were quantified using flow cytometry. Furthermore, we assessed chaetocin treatment and SUV39H1/H2 knockdown on the blastocyst formation rate. Both chaetocin and siSUV39H1/H2 significantly reduced and elevated the relative intensity level of H3K9me3 and H3K9ac in treated fibroblast cells, respectively. siSUV39H1/H2 transfection, but not chaetocin treatment, improved the in vitro development of SCNT embryos. Moreover, siSUV39H1/H2 altered the expression profile of the selected genes in the derived blastocysts, similar to those derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF). In conclusion, our results demonstrated H3K9me3 as an epigenetic barrier in the reprogramming process mediated by SCNT in bovine species, a finding which supports the role of H3K9me3 as a reprogramming barrier in mammalian species. Our findings provide a promising approach for improving the efficiency of mammalian cloning for agricultural and biomedical purposes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410280

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for predicted methane-related traits in Japanese Black steers. The methane production and yield traits were predicted using on-farm measurable traits, such as dry matter intake and average daily gain. A total of 4,578 Japanese Black steers, which were progenies of 362 sires genotyped with imputed 551,995 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), had phenotypes of predicted methane-related traits during the total fattening period (52 weeks). For the estimation of genetic parameters, the estimated heritabilities were moderate (ranged from 0.57 to 0.60). In addition, the estimated genetic correlations of methane production traits with most of carcass traits and feed-efficiency traits were unfavorable, but those of methane yield traits were favorable or low. For the GWAS, no genome-wide significant SNP was detected, but a total of four quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions that explained more than 5.0% of genetic variance were localized on the genome, and some candidate genes associated with growth and feed-efficiency traits were located on the regions. Our results suggest that the predicted methane-related traits are heritable and some QTL regions for the traits are localized on the genome in Japanese Black steers.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genoma/genética , Metano/metabolismo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5090-5101, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229110

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercially available fermentation by-product in a diet containing adequate rumen-degradable protein (RDP) on milk performance, intake, and total-tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cattle. Primiparous (n = 48) and multiparous (n = 144) lactating dairy cattle were stratified by milk production and randomly allocated into 12 pens containing 4 primiparous and 12 multiparous animals each. Cattle averaged 118 d in milk and 712 kg of body weight at trial start. Treatment diets, on a dry matter (DM) basis, consisted of 42% corn silage, 13% alfalfa hay and silage, 20% grain corn, and 25% protein premix containing either soybean meal, wheat middlings, and urea (SBM+U), soybean meal and fermentation by-product (SBM+F), or soybean meal and rumen-protected soybean meal (RP-SBM). All 3 diets provided a similar level (DM basis) of neutral detergent fiber analyzed using α-amylase and sodium sulfite and corrected for ash content (31%), crude protein (CP, 14.9%), starch (26%), and metabolizable energy (2.7 Mcal/kg), and differed in sources of RDP. The trial consisted of a 2-wk adaptation and covariate period during which all cows were fed the RP-SBM diet and covariate measurements were taken. Pens were then randomly allocated to treatments, and weekly measurements of milk production, intake, body weight, and condition score were taken for 10 wk. All data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Increased DM intake was observed for cows fed SBM+F compared with cows fed SBM+U and RP-SBM (28.3 vs. 26.9 and 26.7 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed SBM+F produced more energy-corrected milk (45.3 kg/d) compared with cows fed SBM+U and RP-SBM (43.6 and 43.7 kg/d, respectively). Milk protein yield was also increased in cows fed SBM+F. No differences were observed with body weight or condition score gain throughout the trial. Apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber was decreased in cows fed SBM+F, likely as a result of increased intake. Responses are consistent with previous research in our laboratory that demonstrated a decrease in ruminal CP degradation, leading to an increase in metabolizable protein supply in the small intestine. The fermentation by-product might be useful in diets containing adequate amounts of RDP from soybean meal or alfalfa. The results from this experiment demonstrate beneficial milk performance responses to fermentation by-product when fed with a source of RDP.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Medicago sativa , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Silagem , Soja , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum , Ureia , Zea mays
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4765-4776, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229118

RESUMO

Dairy cows consume inadequate amounts of feed in early lactation and during conditions and diseases such as excessive fatness, heat stress, and infectious diseases. Affected cows often experience increases in plasma concentrations of acute phase proteins consistent with the negative effect of inflammation on appetite. The acute phase protein orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), also known as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, was recently reported to reduce appetite in the mouse through its ability to bind the full-length leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and activate appetite-suppressing signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. These observations raise the possibility that ORM1 exerts appetite-suppressing effects in dairy cattle during periods of increased inflammatory tone. The applicability of this model was assessed in 2 ways. First, we asked whether ORM1 is regulated during periods of inadequate appetite such as the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation and periods of increased inflammatory tone. Plasma ORM1 was invariant in late pregnancy but increased 2.5-fold between parturition and d 7 of lactation. Gene expression studies showed that liver was the major source of this elevation with little contribution by adipose tissue or mammary gland. Additional studies showed that plasma ORM1 was not increased further by excessive fatness or by reproductive dysfunction in early lactation and was completely unresponsive to inflammatory stimuli such as heat stress or intravascular administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide during established lactation. Second, we tested the ability of ORM1 to trigger STAT3 signaling through Ob-Rb using Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells transfected with a STAT3 expression plasmid. In this configuration, CHO-K1 cells did not express Ob-Rb and were incapable of leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Leptin responsiveness was conferred by co-transfecting with bovine Ob-Rb, with leptin causing increases of 5.7-fold in STAT3 phosphorylation and 2.1-fold in the expression of the STAT3-dependent gene, SOCS3. In contrast, neither bovine or human ORM1 triggered STAT3 phosphorylation irrespective of dose and period of incubation tested. In summary, bovine ORM1 is not increased during periods of increased inflammatory tone except in early lactation and is incapable of Ob-Rb-dependent STAT3 signaling. Overall, these data are inconsistent with ORM1 mediating the appetite-suppressing effects of inflammation in cattle through Ob-Rb.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Orosomucoide/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Leptina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Regulação para Cima
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4846-4857, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229123

RESUMO

In lactating dairy cattle, the corpus luteum (CL) is a dynamic endocrine tissue vital for pregnancy maintenance, fertility, and cyclicity. Understanding processes underlying luteal physiology is therefore necessary to increase reproductive efficiency in cattle. A common technique for investigating luteal physiology is reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), a valuable tool for quantifying gene expression. However, reference-gene-based RT-qPCR quantification methods require utilization of stably expressed genes to accurately assess mRNA expression. Historically, selection of reference genes in cattle has relied on subjective selection of a small pool of reference genes, many of which may have significant expression variation among different tissues or physiologic states. This is particularly concerning in dynamic tissues such as the CL, with its capacity for rapid physiologic changes during luteolysis, and likely in the less characterized period of CL maintenance during pregnancy. Thus, there is a clear need to identify reference genes well suited for the bovine CL over a wide range of physiological states. Whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing stands as an effective method to identify new reference genes by enabling the assessment of the expression profile of the entire pool of mRNA transcripts. We report the identification of 13 novel putative reference genes using RNA sequencing in the bovine CL throughout early pregnancy and luteolysis: RPL4, UQCRFS1, COX4I1, RPS4X, SSR3, CST3, ZNF266, CDC42, CD63, HIF1A, YWHAE, EIF3E, and PPIB. Independent RT-qPCR analyses were conducted confirming expression stability in another set of CL tissues from pregnancy and regression, with analyses performed for 3 groups of samples: (1) all samples, (2) samples from pregnancy alone, and (3) samples throughout the process of CL regression. Seven genes were found to be more stable in all states than 2 traditional reference genes (ACTB and GAPDH): RPS4X, COX4I1, PPIB, SSR3, RPL4, YWHAE, and CDC42. When CL tissues from pregnant animals alone were analyzed, CST3, HIF1A, and CD63 were also identified as more stable than ACTB and GAPDH. Identification of these new reference genes will aid in accurate normalization of RT-qPCR results, contributing to proper interpretation of gene expression relevant to luteal physiology. Furthermore, our analysis sheds light on the effects of luteolysis and pregnancy on the stability of gene expression in the bovine CL.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Corpo Lúteo/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Lactação , Luteólise/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos/metabolismo , Manutenção do Corpo Lúteo , Feminino , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171017

RESUMO

Functional properties and integrity of skeletal muscle mitochondria (mt) during the early postmortem period may influence energy metabolism and pH decline, thereby impacting meat quality development. Angus typically produce more tender beef than Brahman, a Bos indicus breed known for heat tolerance. Thus, our objectives were to compare mt respiratory function in muscle collected early postmortem (1 h) from Angus and Brahman steers (n = 26); and to evaluate the effect of normal and elevated temperature on mt function ex vivo. We measured mt oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in fresh-permeabilized muscle fibers from Longissimus lumborum (LL) at 2 temperatures (38.5 and 40.0 °C) and determined citrate synthase (CS) activity and expression of several mt proteins. The main effects of breed, temperature, and their interaction were tested for mt respiration, and breed effect was tested for CS activity and protein expression. Breed, but not temperature (P > 0.40), influenced mt OCR (per tissue weight), with Brahman exhibiting greater complex I+II-mediated oxidative phosphorylation capacity (P = 0.05). Complex I- and complex II-mediated OCR also tended to be greater in Brahman (P = 0.07 and P = 0.09, respectively). Activity of CS was higher in LL from Brahman compared to Angus (P = 0.05). Expression of specific mt proteins did not differ between breeds, except for higher expression of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase subunit 5 alpha in Brahman muscle (P = 0.04). Coupling control ratio differed between breeds (P = 0.05), revealing greater coupling between oxygen consumption and phosphorylation in Brahman. Our data demonstrate that both Angus and Brahman mt retained functional capacity and integrity 1-h postmortem; greater oxidative phosphorylation capacity and coupling in Brahman mt could be related to heat tolerance and impact early postmortem metabolism.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 126-132, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172001

RESUMO

The objectives were to evaluate differences in circulating prepartum metabolites, minerals, cytokines and hormones based on postpartum disease category and determine critical circulating concentrations of prepartum analytes associated with postpartum disease in 229 cattle from 11 commercial dairies in Alberta, Canada. Blood was collected at 8.8 ± 2.1 d prepartum and analyzed for a wide array of analytes. Cattle were categorized as healthy (n = 76) or as having inflammatory (INF; n = 28), metabolic (MET; n = 34) or inflammatory and metabolic (INFMET; n = 91) postpartum diseases. The prepartum circulating concentrations of Cu were lesser (0.84 vs. 0.90 µg/mL; P = 0.02) and concentrations of Mo (19.1 vs. 16.5 ng/mL; P = 0.04) and NEFA (0.27 vs. 0.18 mmol/L; P = 0.01) were greater in INFMET cattle compared with healthy cattle. The critical threshold for Cu, Mo and NEFA prepartum concentration that predicted INFMET was ≤ 0.81 µg/mL (sensitivity 45.5% and specificity 74.3%), ≥ 9.91 ng/mL (sensitivity 70.0% and specificity 52.7%) and ≥ 0.19 mmol/L (sensitivity 62.2% and specificity 79.7%), respectively. Regardless of differences in the prepartum circulating concentrations of Cu, Mo and NEFA among healthy cattle and those with postpartum disease, the use of these analytes to predict the incidence of postpartum diseases was limited.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Hormônios/sangue , Minerais/sangue , Alberta , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Período Periparto/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto
12.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13331, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219923

RESUMO

This study evaluated the concentration and expression of lactoferrin (LF) in cows selected for once a day (OAD) milking compared to twice a day (TAD) milking. Milk samples were collected from the Massey University TAD and OAD herds. Milk traits and expression of LF and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were analyzed with a general linear model that included the fixed effects of milking frequency, lactation number, interaction between milking frequency and lactation number, and as covariates proportion of F, heterosis F × J and deviation from the herd median calving date. Cows milked OAD produced milk with higher (p < .01) concentrations of protein and lactose than TAD milked cows. Compared to TAD cows, cows milked OAD had higher expression of the LF gene (1.40 vs. 1.29 folds, p = .03) and the IGF-1 gene (1.69 vs. 1.48 folds, p = .007). The correlation between the expression of LF gene and the concentration of LF in milk was strong (r = .66 p < .001), but the correlation between the expression of the IGF-1 gene and LF concentration was stronger (r = .94, p < .001). These results suggest that milking frequency affects the milk composition and expression of milk composition genes at early lactation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Lactação/genética , Lactação/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/genética , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo
13.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219938

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop a prediction equation for methane-related traits in beef cattle and evaluate this equation using datasets with different cattle breeds and roughage rates. Enteric methane emission (CH4 , l/day) was measured using open-circuit respiration chambers. Dry matter intake (DMI, kg/day), body weight (BW, kg), daily gain (DG, kg), total digestible nutrients (TDN, %DMI), and roughage rate (Rrate, %) were used as independent variables, and methane-related traits-CH4 , CH4 per DMI (CH4 /DMI, l/kg), and methane conversion factor (MCF, %)-were used as dependent variables. The best-fit equations to predict methane-related traits using a total of 76 records were CH4  = -676.7 + 0.04194 × BW + 29.88 × DMI + 7.883 × TDN + 4.367 × Rrate, CH4 /DMI = -52.24 - 1.193 × 10-3  × BW - 5.905 × DG + 1.077 × TDN + 0.5008 × Rrate, and MCF = -11.43 - 5.308 × 10-4  × BW - 1.223 × DG + 0.2336 × TDN + 0.1157 × Rrate. The predictive ability of the developed equations differed between roughage rates but not between breeds. For CH4 , the predictive ability of the developed equations was better compared with previously reported equations in the low roughage rate dataset, but not in the high roughage rate dataset. Our results suggest that the developed equations of methane-related traits can be applied in beef cattle fed with low roughage diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Metano/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Previsões
14.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219958

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the anti-heat stress effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription, rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (RP-GABA), and CHM plus RP-GABA co-medication on growth performance, apparent digestibility, and serum parameters in heat-stressed beef cattle. Forty beef cattle were randomly divided into four groups. Control group was supplied with basal diet, while CHM, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and CHM + GABA groups were, respectively, supplied with CHM, RP-GABA, and CHM plus RP-GABA in basal diet. Our result indicated that CHM + GABA elevated apparent digestibility including crude protein, Ca, P, crude fat (CF) (p < .01), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (p < .05), but no difference was found with CF and NDF digestibility both in CHM and GABA group (p > .05). More importantly, average daily gain (ADG) was improved in CHM, GABA, and CHM + GABA groups, while average daily feed intake (ADFI) significantly increased only in CHM + GABA groups (p < .05). Meanwhile, CHM + GABA displayed notably more positive effect in serum hormones, immune globulin, ions contents, and blood inflammatory cytokines than other treatment groups and control group. These results demonstrated that both CHM and GABA are effective in alleviating heat stress response and the co-medication has a synergistic effect on anti-heat stress.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Fitoterapia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/administração & dosagem
15.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219969

RESUMO

The effect of blue LED on melatonin secretion, feeding behaviour and growth was addressed in Holstein female dairy calves. In Exp.1, six animals (8 weeks old, 97 ± 4.1 kg BW) were exposed to yellow or blue LED for 2 hr before darkness over 7 days under a long-day photoperiod (LDPP). In Exp. 2, six animals (8 weeks old, 88.5 ± 4.8 kg BW) were exposed to blue light from a white LED all daytime or a yellow LED for 2 hr before the darkness of LDPP (blue light cut) over 3 weeks. In Exp. 1, blue light mildly suppressed melatonin secretion during the 2-hr treatment but did not affect the timing of the nightly melatonin rise. However, the rise in nighty melatonin levels was higher with yellow than blue LED. In Exp. 2, white LED completely suppressed melatonin secretion during the 2-hr treatment, but plasma melatonin concentrations were similar during the darkness. Grass hay intake, rumination time, frequency of water intake and body weight gain were higher in animals exposed to the yellow rather than the white LED. Overall results indicate that exposure to blue light from white LEDs under an LDPP suppresses melatonin secretion and might negatively impact the development of female dairy calves.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Escuridão , Comportamento Alimentar , Luz/efeitos adversos , Melatonina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/psicologia , Cor , Feminino
16.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219980

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of type-I interferon (IFN) on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) of the bovine endometrial stromal cells (BES) and epithelial cells (BEE). The cells were separated and purified from the caruncles and cultured in DMEM/F-12 containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Spheroids were generated by using ascorbate. Zymograms of the supernatant showed that BEE predominantly expressed MMP-9, whereas MMP-2 was expressed in BES and homo-spheroids. While MMPs expression was not detected in hetero-spheroids. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that type-I IFN and P4 suppressed the gene expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in hetero-spheroids, respectively. On the other hand, gelatin zymography analysis of the supernatant showed that type-I IFN strongly promote the clearance of MMPs. While zymograms of the MMPs stocked in the hetero-spheroids were significantly reduced by type-I IFN. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and leupeptin (both are serine proteinase inhibitors) significantly repressed the clearance of MMP-2 and MMP-9 induced by type-I IFN. Moreover, collagen fibers in hetero-spheroids significantly decreased after the treatment with type-I IFN. In conclusion, it was suggested that type-I IFN participate in the tissue remodeling by regulation the clearance of MMPs.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Endométrio/citologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157294

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of quality grade and steak location on color stability of semitendinosus (ST) steaks during a 9-d refrigerated study. Twenty-one ST muscles (12 Choice and 9 Select) were purchased from a commercial beef packing plant and fabricated into twelve 2.54-cm thick steaks per muscle. Steaks 1, 6, and 12 were designated for immunohistochemistry while remaining steak locations of proximal (steaks 2 to 4), middle (5 to 8), and distal (9 to 11) were randomly assigned to 0, 4, or 9 d of simulated retail display. Surface color attributes of day-9 steaks were recorded daily by a visual color panel and spectrophotometer. On days 0, 4, and 9 of display, steaks were analyzed for metmyoglobin reducing ability (MRA) and oxygen consumption (OC). Grade × day of display (DOD) interactions were detected for L*, a*, surface oxymyoglobin (OMb) and metmyoglobin (MMb) percentages, and visual panel surface redness and discoloration scores (P ≤ 0.02); however, no Grade × DOD interactions were observed for MRA or OC (P > 0.17). There were location main effect (LOC) × DOD interactions for L*, a*, surface MMb, visual panel surface redness and discoloration, and MRA (P ≤ 0.02). Distal steaks had lower L* values compared with the other locations (P < 0.01), which coincided with steaks being rated visually darker red (P < 0.01). Proximal steaks had greater a* values and had less surface discoloration than middle steaks (P < 0.05), which had an increased percentage of surface MMb (P ≤ 0.04). Distal and proximal steaks had increased MRA compared with middle steaks on days 0 and 4 (P < 0.05), and distal steaks had greater OC than the other locations throughout display (P < 0.01). There were fewer type I fibers at the proximal end with a greater percentage located at the middle and distal ends, and an increased percentage of type IIX fibers at the middle and proximal locations (P ≤ 0.01). Less type IIA fibers were detected at the middle LOC compared with the other two locations (P < 0.10). Larger type I, IIA, and IIX fibers were located at the proximal and middle locations compared with the distal LOC (P < 0.01). ST color and color-stability characteristics were influenced by DOD and LOC, which may partially be explained by differences in fiber types among locations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Carne Vermelha/normas , Animais , Cor , Músculos Isquiossurais/metabolismo , Metamioglobina/análise , Metamioglobina/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Mioglobina/análise , Mioglobina/metabolismo , NAD/análise , NAD/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Carne Vermelha/análise
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4858-4862, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113751

RESUMO

Glycogen, a complex polysaccharide, is the form of storage of glucose in mammals that can be released rapidly when needed. Recent studies have mainly reported hepatic glycogen concentration for early-lactating cows, when the energy demand is higher than the energy supply from dry matter intake, driving the cow to use the energy stored as hepatic glycogen. Generally, liver samples are obtained through percutaneous needle biopsies in the right lobe of the liver. Our objective was to analyze the variation of glycogen concentration in the livers of Holstein and Jersey cows among different liver locations representing all lobes, to evaluate whether samples obtained by liver biopsies are representative of the whole organ. Liver from 10 culled lactating cows (5 Holstein and 5 Jersey cows) from 30 to 113 mo of age at slaughter were obtained. Each liver was sampled no more than 3 h after death on the following sites: 3 sites in the right lobe (1 to 3), 2 in the diaphragmatic surface of the left lobe (4 and 5), 3 in the visceral surface of the left lobe (6 to 8), 1 in the quadrate lobe (9), and 1 in the caudate lobe (10). Samples were snap frozen in liquid N2 and were then analyzed for glucose concentration after conversion of glycogen to glucose using amyloglucosidase (EC 3.2.1.3). Glycogen results are reported as grams of glucose per 100 g of wet weight of liver (i.e., percent of wet weight of liver). Liver weights averaged 5.1 [standard deviation (SD) 1.2, minimum 3.3, maximum 6.2] kg for Holstein and 6.0 (SD 1.8, minimum 4.7, maximum 8.9) kg for Jersey cows. Holstein cows [1.31, standard error of the mean (SEM) 0.05% of wet weight] had greater liver glycogen concentration than did Jersey cows (0.75, SEM 0.05% of wet weight). No significant difference was noted among the 10 liver locations regarding glycogen concentration and averaged, for both breeds, 1.03% of wet weight (SEM 0.10). These results suggest that, in dairy cows, percutaneous needle liver biopsy in the right lobe is an accurate technique to fairly extrapolate glycogen concentration of the whole organ.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Glicogênio Hepático/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactação
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4795-4805, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113768

RESUMO

Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation is related to alteration of metabolic status. However, the relationships among energy balance, metabolic profile in plasma, and metabolic profile in milk have not been reported. In this study our aims were: (1) to reveal the metabolic profiles of plasma and milk by integrating results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with data from liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS); and (2) to investigate the relationship between energy balance and the metabolic profiles of plasma and milk. For this study 24 individual dairy cows (parity 2.5 ± 0.5; mean ± standard deviation) were studied in lactation wk 2. Body weight (mean ± standard deviation; 627.4 ± 56.4 kg) and milk yield (28.1 ± 6.7 kg/d; mean ± standard deviation) were monitored daily. Milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose) and net energy balance were calculated. Plasma and milk samples were collected and analyzed using LC-MS and NMR. From all plasma metabolites measured, 27 were correlated with energy balance. These plasma metabolites were related to body reserve mobilization from body fat, muscle, and bone; increased blood flow; and gluconeogenesis. From all milk metabolites measured, 30 were correlated with energy balance. These milk metabolites were related to cell apoptosis and cell proliferation. Nine metabolites detected in both plasma and milk were correlated with each other and with energy balance. These metabolites were mainly related to hyperketonemia; ß-oxidation of fatty acids; and one-carbon metabolism. The metabolic profiles of plasma and milk provide an in-depth insight into the physiological pathways of dairy cows in negative energy balance in early lactation. In addition to the classical indicators for energy balance (e.g., ß-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, and glucose), the current study presents some new metabolites (e.g., glycine in plasma and milk; kynurenine, panthothenate, or arginine in plasma) in lactating dairy cows that are related to energy balance and may be of interest as new indicators for energy balance.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Lactação/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Leite/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactose/análise , Gravidez
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4863-4873, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113778

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate, through a survey conducted on commercial farms, the global warming potential (GWP) of different lactating cow total mixed rations (TMR) and to identify the best dietary strategies to increase feed efficiency (FE) and reduce enteric CH4 emission. A total of 171 dairy herds were selected: data about dry matter intake (DMI), lactating cow TMR composition, and milk production and composition were provided by farmers. Diet GWP (kg of CO2 equivalents; CO2eq) was calculated as sum of GWP (kg of CO2eq) of each included ingredient, considering inputs needed at field level, feed processing, and transport. For soybean solvent meal, land use change was included in the assessment. Enteric methane production (g/d) was estimated [using the equation CH4 (g/d) = 2.54 + 19.14 × DMI] to calculate CH4 emission for kilograms of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The data set was analyzed by generalized linear model and logistic analysis using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The frequency distribution showed wide variation among farms for GWP (kg of CO2eq) of TMR: approximately 25% of the surveyed farms showed a diet GWP of 15 kg of CO2eq, 20% showed a GWP of 13 kg of CO2eq, and 16.7% showed a GWP of 17 kg of CO2eq. The variation among farms was due to the feedstuffs used. Among feedstuffs, soybean meal (SBM) had the highest correlation with the GWP of the TMR as shown by the following equation: TMR GWP (kg of CO2eq) = 2.49 × kg of SBM + 6.9 (R2 = 0.547). Moreover, diets with inclusion of SBM >15% of dry matter (DM) did not result in higher milk production than diets with a lower inclusion of SBM (≤15%). Average daily milk production of cows was 29.8 [standard deviation (SD) 4.83] kg with fat and protein contents of 3.86% (SD 0.22) and 3.40% (SD 0.14), respectively. The average DMI (kg/d) of lactating cows was 22.3 (SD 2.23). Logistic analysis demonstrated that corn silage ≤30% of diet DM was associated with higher FE. Almost 50% of farms had an average value of 15.0 g of CH4/kg of FPCM and about 30% of farms had an average of 12.5 g of CH4/kg of FPCM. The results demonstrated that lower enteric CH4 production was related to inclusion (% of diet DM) of ≤12% alfalfa hay and >30% corn silage. Diets with >34% neutral detergent fiber had higher CH4 production (>14.0 g/kg of FPCM) than those with lower neutral detergent fiber content. In contrast, lower enteric CH4 production (≤14.0 g/kg of FPCM) was related to diets characterized by net energy of lactation (NEL) >1.61 Mcal/kg and >4% ether extract. The variability in TMR GWP shows significant potential for reducing the GWP of a diet through choice and inclusion levels of ingredients (mainly SBM) and the possibility of decreasing methane enteric emission associated with milk production on a commercial scale.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação , Metano/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Itália , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Soja , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zea mays
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