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1.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414634

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of including low-fat dried distillers grains (DDG) on young Nellore bulls performance, nutritional parameters, and nitrogen metabolism. Thirty-five Nellore cattle were randomly divided into four diets: without dried distillers grains (D0) or with the inclusion of DDG at 150 g/kg (D150), 300 g/kg (D300), or 450 g/kg (D450). The evaluation period lasted 126 days, and three periods of collection of feces and urine were carried out. Final body weight (P = 0.099) and average daily gain (P = 0.097) tended to decrease linearly; the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), ether extract (P < 0.001) and nonfiber carbohydrates (P < 0.001), and intakes of total digestible nutrients (TDN, P < 0.001) decreased linearly. The increase in crude protein intake (P < 0.001) did not result in an increase in the amount of nitrogen retained (P = 0.540). We concluded that the inclusion of low-fat DDG in finishing diets up to the level of 450 g/kg tends to reduce animal performance and the intake of TDN.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Animais , Peso Corporal , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445082

RESUMO

Cultured meat is an emerging alternative food technology which aims to deliver a more ethical, sustainable, and healthy muscle-tissue-derived food item compared to conventional meat. As start-up companies are rapidly forming and accelerating this technology, many aspects of this multi-faceted science have still not been investigated in academia. In this study, we investigated if bovine satellite cells with the ability to proliferate and undergo myogenic differentiation could be isolated after extended tissue storage, for the purpose of increasing the practicality for cultured meat production. Proliferation of bovine satellite cells isolated on the day of arrival or after 2 and 5 days of tissue storage were analyzed by metabolic and DNA-based assays, while their myogenic characteristics were investigated using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. Extended tissue storage up to 5 days did not negatively affect proliferation nor the ability to undergo fusion and create myosin heavy chain-positive myotubes. The expression patterns of myogenic and muscle-specific genes were also not affected after tissue storage. In fact, the data indicated a positive trend in terms of myogenic potential after tissue storage, although it was non-significant. These results suggest that the timeframe of which viable myogenic satellite cells can be isolated and used for cultured meat production can be greatly extended by proper tissue storage.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Carne Vermelha , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Carne Vermelha/provisão & distribuição , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos
3.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13621, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448516

RESUMO

To determine the effects of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) treatment and subsequent withdrawal on uterine proliferation and estrogen receptor (ESR), Brahman crossbred heifers (n = 12) were twice daily injected with FSH (4, 3, and 2 mg/injection) on Days 17-19 of the estrous cycle (FSH 3 days) and (4 and 3 mg/injection) on Days 17-18 (FSH 2 days) and withdrawal with saline on Day 19 and (4 mg/injection) on Day 17 (FSH 1 day) and withdrawal with saline on Days 18-19. Uterine tissue was subjectively collected on Day 20 and microscopically classified to four regions: endometrial stroma (ES), surface endometrial gland (EG), deep endometrial gland (DG), and myometrium (Myo). The cell proliferation marker, Ki-67, was quantified as labeling index (LI) in uterine regions, and tissues were immunostained to detect ESR2 followed by image analysis. The LI of ES, EG, and DG was greater (P = 0.0018, P = 0.0005, and P = 0.0103; respectively) in heifers received FSH for 3 days. The expression of ESR2 protein on ES and EG was greatest (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0036, respectively) in FSH 3 days-treated group. Thus, FSH administration during proestrus stimulates uterine cell proliferation, and ESR2 expressions are affected by FSH during proestrus and differentially distributed in the uterine regions.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Útero/citologia , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Estral/genética , Feminino
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 67-75, July. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adipogenesis and fibrogenesis can be considered as a competitive process in muscle, which may affect the intramuscular fat deposition. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPb) plays an important role in adipogenesis, which is well-characterized in mice, but little known in bovine so far. RESULTS: In this study, real-time qPCR revealed that the level of C/EBPb was increased during the developmental stages of bovine and adipogenesis process of preadipocytes. Overexpression of C/EBPb promoted bovine fibroblast proliferation through mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), a necessary process for initiating adipogenesis, by significantly downregulating levels of p21 and p27 (p < 0.01). Also, the PPARc expression was inhibited during the MCE stage (p < 0.01). 31.28% of transfected fibroblasts adopted lipid-laden adipocyte morphology after 8 d. Real-time qPCR showed that C/EBPb activated the transcription of early stage adipogenesis markers C/EBPa and PPARc. Expression of ACCa, FASN, FABP4 and LPL was also significantly upregulated, while the expression of LEPR was weakened. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded C/EBPb can convert bovine fibroblasts into adipocytes without hormone induction by initiating the MCE process and promoting adipogenic genes expression, which may provide new insights into the potential functions of C/EBPb in regulating intramuscular fat deposition in beef cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Células Clonais , Proliferação de Células , Adipogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Mitose , Músculos
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(14): 5737-5746, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091911

RESUMO

Cows are adapted to degrade structural plant carbohydrates (SC), such as cellulose and hemicelluloses, prevailing in grasses. Yet, the need for energy-dense diets in many intensive dairy production systems has shifted the dairy cattle's diet from SC-rich to high levels of starch. Feeding of starch-rich diets increases the risk of ruminal acidosis in cows, and feeding starch in the form of grains intensifies the competition over cereal grains and arable land among different livestock species, as well as between livestock and humans. Besides cellulose and hemicelluloses, grasses are also often rich in water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which comprise mono-, di-, oligo- and polysaccharides (fructans). Although the ruminal fermentation profile of mono- and disaccharides resembles that of starch, the degradation of oligo- and polysaccharides is slower, and their fermentation elicits a rather protecting effect on ruminal pH. When harvested in an early phase (i.e. ear emergence), grass hay and silages can reach WSC levels up to 150-200 g kg-1 dry matter and energy levels close to starch-rich diets, allowing a significantly reduced inclusion of concentrate supplements. By doing so, this will enhance both rumen health and the sustainability of milk production. However, because the WSC are chemically very heterogeneous, the patterns and extent of their ruminal fermentation are difficult to predict without a clear analytical characterization. This review article aims to summarize both the benefits and potentials, as well as the challenges, with respect to using WSC-rich feedstuffs in the nutrition of dairy cattle and their effects on ruminal fermentation characteristics and milk production. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
6.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2405, jan-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | ID: biblio-1252937

RESUMO

O setor de nutrição e produção animal busca constantemente por fontes de alimentos que oportunizem os fatores custo e benefício para a elaboração de formulação de dietas. A mandioca é um alimento mundialmente cultivado e apresenta diversos subprodutos ao decorrer de sua produção com excelente característica energética, que podem ser utilizados, como é o caso de sua parte aérea, em substituição à silagem de milho na dieta de vacas leiteiras. Porém, sua inclusão na dieta de vacas em lactação deve ser realizada com cautela, necessitando de estudos que viabilizem o processamento e as formulações em quantidades aceitáveis, tendo em vista seus fatores antinutricionais.(AU)


The animal nutrition and production industry is constantly looking for feed sources that are both cost efficient and beneficial for the preparation of diet formulation. Cassava is cultivated worldwide and has several by-products during its production, with excellent energetic characteristics, such as in the aerial part of the plant, that can be used to replace corn silage in the diet of dairy cows. However, its inclusion in the diet of lactating cows must be carried out with caution, with the need of further studies on the feasibility of its processing and the development of formulations in acceptable amounts, taking into consideration its anti-nutritional factors.(AU)


El sector de nutrición y producción animal busca constantemente por fuentes de alimentos que proporcionen factores de costo y beneficio para la preparación de formulaciones dietéticas. La yuca es un alimento cultivado a nivel mundial y presenta varios subproductos durante su producción, con excelentes características energéticas, que pueden ser utilizados, como en el caso de su parte aérea, en reemplazo al ensilaje de maíz en la dieta de vacas lecheras. Sin embargo, su inclusión en la dieta de vacas lactantes debe realizarse con cautela, necesitando de estudios que viabilicen el procesamiento y las formulaciones en cantidades aceptables, en vista de sus factores anti nutricionales.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Lactente , Bovinos , Silagem , Bovinos/metabolismo , Manihot , Ração Animal/análise , Ciências da Nutrição
7.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13551, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847030

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate whether feeding selenium (Se)-replete cows a Se-yeast supplement in late pregnancy affects nutrient metabolism and inflammatory response during the periparturient period. Twenty cows were randomly assigned to two groups with 10 cows each. Cows in one group received Se-yeast at 0.3 mg Se/kg DM during the last 4 weeks before calving in addition to fed a TMR containing supplemented sodium selenite at 0.3 mg Se/kg DM (Se-yeast), while cows in another group were only fed a TMR containing supplemented sodium selenite at 0.3 mg Se/kg DM (Control). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and albumin. In control cows, plasma NEFA, IL-1ß, IL-6, SAA, and Hp levels increased after calving, but glucose, insulin, and albumin levels decreased after parturition. Se-yeast supplemental cows had lower postpartum concentrations of NEFA, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, SAA, and Hp, and higher postpartum levels of glucose, insulin, and albumin compared with control cows. The results indicate that feeding Se-replete cows a Se-yeast supplement in late pregnancy improves nutrient metabolism and attenuates the inflammatory response after calving.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Período Periparto/metabolismo , Selenito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13535, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682299

RESUMO

The intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation properties; the antioxidative activity; and the physical effectiveness of pineapple residue (PR) from the cut-fruit industry as a feed for cattle were investigated. Four nonlactating Holstein cows were fed a basal diet and diets with 1.4- and 3.6-kg dry matter (DM)/day of PR (low-PR and high-PR diets, respectively). The DM digestibility and total digestible nutrients were 71% and 70%, respectively. Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia-N did not differ among the diets. The numbers of total viable, amylolytic, cellulolytic, and methanogenic bacteria and protozoa, and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen also did not differ significantly. Blood triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, urea nitrogen, and aspartate transaminase were lower in the high-PR diet. Feeding PR did not affect blood malondialdehyde, although PR has a higher antioxidative value than other commonly used feeds. The particle distribution of PR satisfied the recommended range for haylage. The chewing time for ingestion and rumination did not change with PR content, and the roughage value index of PR was 57-min/kg DM. These results suggest that PR has good intake and digestion properties and satisfactory physical effectiveness. Even a high-PR-content feed unlikely induces the risk of ruminal acidosis.


Assuntos
Ananas , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fermentação , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Bovinos/sangue , Fenômenos Químicos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13543, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738872

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the effect of puerarin on performance, meat quality, and serum indexes of beef cattle under hot environment. Thirty-two bulls were divided into four groups and fed diet supplemented with puerarin at 0, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg. Results showed that heat stress was employed for 54 out of 60 days, 400 mg/kg group declined serum cortisol (COR) contents, all treatments increased the contents of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total superoxide dismutase activity; in addition, glutathione peroxidase activity of 200 mg/kg group were enhanced, only 800 mg/kg group enhanced immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, and IgG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol contents compared with the control (p < .05). Moreover, 400-mg/kg puerarin increased serum growth hormone levels compared with 200 mg/kg group but declined COR concentrations compared with 200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg groups (p < .05). More importantly, average daily gain and daily matter intake, and intramuscular fat contents of 400 mg/kg group were enhanced, but the shear force of beef in 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg groups were declined compared with the control (p < .05). These findings indicated that supplemental with puerarin enhanced immune and antioxidant, and 400 mg/kg of puerarin improved performance and meat quality by normalizing levels of stress hormones and increasing intramuscular fat deposition of beef cattle under hot environment.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos/imunologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Masculino
10.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13547, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786940

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding high and low concentrate diets on feed intake and feed efficiency, the morphological characteristics of the rumen papillae, and meat quality of Holstein steers fattened under hot climate conditions in Oman. Ten male Holstein calves, of 5 months of age, were selected for the experiment. The animals were fed concentrate and Rhodes grass hay and were divided into two groups of high concentrate (HC, n = 5) and low concentrate diets (LC, n = 5), in which their feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency were evaluated across three growing periods. Feed intake and efficiency and average daily gain (ADG) of the HC group were significantly greater than for the LC group and were affected by the diet (p < .01) and the period (p < .001). Across the fattening periods, ADG declined in both groups, with ADG improved by 35% for steers on the HC diet compared to steers on the LC diet. Carcass meat quality was not affected significantly by the dietary concentrate level. In conclusion, our results can be used to make improvements in feed efficiency of Holstein steers under hot climate conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Omã , Ganho de Peso
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 205, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712888

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of shortening dry period (DP) on milk yield, milk composition, and blood parameters in cows under heat stress. For this purpose, three DP groups were considered (30, 45, and 60 days), and 14 heat-stressed high-producing dairy cows (7 primiparous and 7 multiparous) were assigned to each DP group. The results showed that shortening the DP (from 60 to 30 days) decreased a 305-day milk yield in subsequent lactation. The difference in milk yield between 30- and 60-day DP groups was significant in the second 100 days of lactation. Accounting for additional milk yield before calving completely compensate for the loss of milk production resulting from shortening the DP. Milk protein, lactose, and solids non-fat percentages were significantly lower for cows with a 60-day DP compared to cows with a 45- or 30-day DP. Serum BHBA and urea concentrations were significantly higher, and serum glucose concentration was significantly lower for cows with a 60-day DP compared to cows with a 30-day DP. In conclusion, results showed that shortening the DP improved the metabolic status of heat-stressed transition dairy cows without decreasing total milk yield.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Secas , Metabolismo Energético , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Desidratação , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Proteínas do Leite/análise
12.
J Dairy Res ; 88(1): 23-28, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726882

RESUMO

For this research communication our objective was to investigate to what extent milk coagulation properties and milk fatty acid (FA) composition were affected by different feeding systems, season and their interaction. Eighteen cows in total were subjected to one of three different feeding system treatments: full-time grazing or part-time grazing combined with indoor feeding of fresh grass with low or high concentrate supplementation. Milk was sampled in spring, summer and autumn. Milk coagulation time was 15.0, 19.0 and 17.7 min, coagulation dynamics 1.67, 3.41 and 1.79 min, and curd firmness 52.7, 32.4 and 47.0 mm in spring, summer and autumn, respectively. Thus, milk coagulation properties of the milk were lower during summer. There were strong seasonal effects on milk FA proportions, but there were not always changes with progressing season, or changes were different with respect to the impact of the feeding systems (system × season interaction). The milk fat was favourably rich in oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid and had a low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in all systems. Factors like seasonal variations in grass composition and the energy balance of the cows were considered relevant for the milk FA composition. Overall, seasonal variations in milk quality were less pronounced with part-time grazing with fresh grass indoors as compared to full-time grazing without concentrate.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Poaceae , Estações do Ano , Animais , Queijo/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas do Leite/análise
13.
J Dairy Res ; 88(1): 3-7, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745462

RESUMO

The global dairy sector is facing the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whilst increasing productivity to feed a growing population. Despite the importance of this challenge, many developing countries do not have the required resources, specifically funding, expertise and facilities, for quantifying GHG emissions from dairy production and research. This paper aims to address this challenge by discussing the magnitude of the issue, potential mitigation approaches and benefits in quantifying GHG emissions in a developing country context. Further, the paper explores the opportunities for developing country dairy scientists to leverage resources from developed countries, such as using existing relevant GHG emission estimation models. It is clear that further research is required to support developing countries to quantify and understand GHG emissions from dairy production, as it brings significant benefits including helping to identify and implement appropriate mitigation strategies for local production systems, trading carbon credits and achieving the nationally determined contribution obligations of the Paris Agreement.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Pesquisa , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo
14.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 469-478, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745389

RESUMO

To evaluate the utility of random-effects linear modeling for herd-level evaluation of trace mineral status, we performed a retrospective analysis of the results for trace mineral testing of bovine liver samples submitted to the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between 2011 and 2017. Our aim was to examine random-effects models for their potential utility in improving interpretation with minimal sample numbers. The database consisted of 1,658 animals distributed among 121 herds. Minerals were assayed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and included cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, manganese, selenium, and zinc. Intraclass correlation coefficients for each mineral were significantly different (p < 0.001) from zero and ranged from 0.38 for manganese to 0.82 for selenium, indicating that the strength of herd effects, which are presumably related to diet, vary greatly by mineral. Analysis of the distribution and standard errors of best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) values suggested that testing 5-10 animals per herd could place herds within 10 percentile units across the population of herds with 70-95% confidence, the confidence level varying among minerals. Herd means were generally similar to BLUPs, suggesting that means could be reasonably compared to BLUPs with respect to the distributions reported here. However, caution in interpreting means relative to BLUPs should be exercised when animal numbers are small, the standard errors of the means are large, and/or the values are near the extremes of the distribution.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Lineares , Michigan , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13516, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522059

RESUMO

This study was designed to compare the fatty acid profiles of four types of fat depots from bulls, steers, and heifers. All animals were Polish Holstein-Friesian and Limousin crossbreds fattened semi-intensively-silage at libitum and concentrate in the amount corresponding to 30% of their net energy requirements. The fatty acid profile in intramuscular, intermuscular, and external and internal fat was determined. The intramuscular fat of bulls was most abundant in total PUFAs and n-6 PUFAs, and functional fatty acids C 18:2, C 20:4, and C 22:5 in comparison with steers and heifers. Regardless of sex category, intramuscular and external fat were characterized by higher levels of UFAs and a more desirable MUFA/SFA ratio than the remaining fat types. It should also be noted that external fat was more abundant in CLA than other fat types, and that the highest CLA content was found in bull fat, compared with the remaining sex categories of cattle.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hibridização Genética/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Silagem , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
16.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13521, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554418

RESUMO

Sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 (SREBP1) plays an important role in the lipogenesis which affects fatty acid (FA) composition in backfat and consequently influences beef nutritional quality. This study analyzed the association of 84 bp-indel, both short (S) and long (L) alleles in intron 5 of SREBP1, with FA composition and gene expression of SREBP1 in backfat of northern Spanish beef breeds (Pirenaica, Salers and Holstein-Friesian). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that 84 bp-indel of ruminants is a highly conserved region compared with those in the full-length sequence of intron 5 or mRNA of SREBP1 among species. Overall, higher content of polyunsaturated FAs was observed in SL genotype compared to LL genotype of 84 bp-Indel (p < .05). In particular, in Pirenaica, SL genotype was associated with a higher content of stearic (18:0), α-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid, and total n-3 content (p < .05). However, the gene expression of SREBP1 did not differ among genotypes of 84 bp-Indel (p > .05).


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Dorso , Feminino , Genótipo , Íntrons/genética , Valor Nutritivo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha
17.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13531, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638258

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding Bacillus subtilis on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, nutrient digestibility, and energy and nitrogen balances in non-lactating crossbred (Holstein-Friesian × Bos indicus) cows. Four cows were assigned to the control and B. subtilis diets in a crossover design, and respiratory and metabolic experiments were conducted. For the B. subtilis diet, B. subtilis DSM15544 spores were added at the rate of 1.0 × 1010  CFU/head/day to the control diet. At 4 hr after feeding, cows fed the B. subtilis diet had increased levels of i-butyric acid in the rumen fluid and tended to have lower concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids when compared with cows fed the control diet. This suggests that feeding B. subtilis could improve energy efficiency. However, there was no effect on energy retention in this study. Although there were no effects on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, or methane production, heat production was significantly higher in cows fed the B. subtilis diet than in those fed the control diet.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/fisiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Bovinos/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Hibridização Genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Termogênese/fisiologia
18.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13533, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638306

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop mathematical equations for describing the change in marbling in Japanese Black steers using longitudinal measurements. Serial ultrasound measurements were taken at 14, 16, 20, and 26 months of age and analyzed using an image analysis software. The longitudinal marbling measurements from the ultrasound images and carcasses were fitted into a nonlinear logistic curve. Data used for the analysis consisted of 749 steers that converged in nonlinear curve fitting and showed reasonable estimated parameters of the logistic curves. The average predicted mature beef marbling score (BMS) and maturation rate were 6.26 and 0.353, respectively, and the average maturity levels at 24 months of age were 83.9%. The heritability estimates for the predicted maturity traits were moderate, indicating that these traits may have potential for genetic improvement. There was a negative relationship between the expected progeny differences between carcass BMS and maturity traits, suggesting that genetic improvement by carcass BMS may lead to the selection of bulls with late maturity for marbling. The results indicate that ultrasound and model building for marbling can be useful tools to correctly select candidate bulls with high marbling in the early fattening period.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Matemática/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Dinâmica não Linear , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
19.
J Dairy Res ; 88(1): 89-94, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622420

RESUMO

Our objective was to determine the content of the bioactive protein osteopontin (OPN) in bovine milk and identify factors influencing its concentration. OPN is expressed in many tissues and body fluids, with by far the highest concentrations in milk. OPN plays a role in immunological and developmental processes and it has been associated with several milk production traits and lactation persistency in cows. In the present study, we report the development of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of OPN in bovine milk. The method was used to determine the concentration of OPN in milk from 661 individual Danish Holstein cows. The median OPN level was determined to 21.9 mg/l with a pronounced level of individual variation ranging from 0.4 mg/l to 67.8 mg/l. Breeding for increased OPN in cow's milk is of significant interest, however, the heritability of OPN in milk was found to be relatively low, with an estimated value of 0.19 in the current dataset. The variation explained by the herd was also found to be low suggesting that OPN levels are not affected by farm management or feeding. Interestingly, the concentration of OPN was found to increase with days in milk and to decrease with parity.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Leite/química , Osteopontina/análise , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Dinamarca , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Osteopontina/genética
20.
Mol Immunol ; 132: 53-59, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545625

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is a leading cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. The study of the immune response against N. caninum is critical to understand its epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and, ultimately, in preventing and controlling bovine neosporosis. Herein, we determined the gene expression of innate immune components endosomal RNA-sensing TLRs, BMAP28 cathelicidin, TNF-α and IL-10 and characterized the variation in both IgG ratio and avidity at delivery in N. caninum-infected heifers challenged at day 210 of gestation, colostrum and their calves. Increased BMAP28 expression was observed not only in colostrum but also in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and umbilical cord of calves from N. caninum-infected heifers in comparison with mock-infected control group. In addition, statistically significant decrease of TLR7 and IL-10 expression levels were observed in umbilical cord, suggesting an attempt to avoid an exacerbated immune response against the parasite. At delivery, serum and colostrum samples from infected group evidenced specific IgG anti-N. caninum. Infected heifers showed IgG1/IgG2 ratios <1 and high avidity specific IgG. As expected, colostrum samples of these animals exhibited a high IgG1 concentration and elevated avidity values. Three out of four calves from N. caninum-infected heifers had specific IgG with IgG1/IgG2 ratios>1 and lower avidity values before colostrum intake. Interestingly, both IgG1/IgG2 ratios and avidity values increased in seropositive calves after colostrum intake. Overall, this study provides novel information on neonatal immunity in congenitally infected calves, which is essential to understand how the immune pathways could be manipulated or immune components could be employed in order to improve protection against neosporosis.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade Inata , Neospora/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Bovinos/embriologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo
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