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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2008-2017, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358169

RESUMO

Breeding objectives in the dairy industry have shifted from being solely focused on production to including fertility, animal health, and environmental impact. Increased serum concentrations of candidate biomarkers of health and fertility, such as ß-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB), fatty acids, and urea are difficult and costly to measure, and thus limit the number of records. Accurate genomic prediction requires a large reference population. The inclusion of milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic predictions of biomarkers may increase genomic prediction accuracy of these traits. Our objectives were to (1) estimate the heritability of, and genetic correlations between, selected serum biomarkers and their respective MIR predictions, and (2) evaluate genomic prediction accuracies of either only measured serum traits, or serum traits plus MIR-predicted traits. The MIR-predicted traits were either fitted in a single trait model, assuming the measured trait and predicted trait were the same trait, or in a multitrait model, where measured and predicted trait were assumed to be correlated traits. We performed all analyses using relationship matrices constructed from pedigree (A matrix), genotypes (G matrix), or both pedigree and genotypes (H matrix). Our data set comprised up to 2,198 and 9,657 Holstein cows with records for serum biomarkers and MIR-predicted traits, respectively. Heritabilities of measured serum traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 for BHB, from 0.13 to 0.21 for fatty acids, and from 0.10 to 0.12 for urea. Heritabilities for MIR-predicted traits were not significantly different from those for the measured traits. Genetic correlations between measured traits and MIR-predicted traits were close to 1 for urea. For BHB and fatty acids, genetic correlations were lower and had large standard errors. The inclusion of MIR predicted urea substantially increased prediction accuracy for urea. For BHB, including MIR-predicted BHB reduced the genomic prediction accuracy, whereas for fatty acids, prediction accuracies were similar with either measured fatty acids, MIR-predicted fatty acids, or both. The high genetic correlation between urea and MIR-predicted urea, in combination with the increased prediction accuracy, demonstrated the potential of using MIR-predicted urea for genomic prediction of urea. For BHB and fatty acids, further studies with larger data sets are required to obtain more accurate estimates of genetic correlations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Genômica , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Indústria de Laticínios , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Genótipo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Ureia/sangue
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915803

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were: i) to classify animals into groups of high and low feed efficiency (FE) using three FE indexes (Residual feed intake (RFI), Residual weight gain (RG) and Feed conversion efficiency (FCE)), and ii) to evaluate whether crossbreed Holstein x Gyr heifers divergent for FE indexes exhibit differences in nutrient intake and digestibility, energy partitioning, heat production, methane emissions, nitrogen partitioning and blood parameters. Thirty-five heifers were housed in a tie-stall, received ad libitum TMR (75:25, corn silage: concentrate) and were ranked and classified into high (HE) or low efficiency (LE) for RFI, RG and FCE. The number of animals for each HE group were 13 (< 0.5 standard deviation (SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 11 for FCE (> 0.5 SD) and for the LE were 10 (> 0.5 SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 12 for FCE (< 0.5 SD). Gas exchanges (O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 production) in open-circuit respiratory chambers and whole tract digestibility trial was performed. A completely randomized experimental design was used and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation study. High efficiency animals for RFI produced less CO2, consumed less O2 and had lower heat production (HP). Methane production was positively correlated with RFI. High efficiency RG had higher O2 consumption and CO2 production in relation to LE-RG. High efficiency FCE had greater NFC digestibility, higher positive energy balance (EB) and excreted (11.4 g/d) less nitrogen in urine. High efficiency RG and FCE groups emitted less CH4 per kg of weight gain than LE animals. Animals HE for RFI and FCE had lower ß-hydroxybutyrate and higher glucose concentrations, respectively. The differences in intake, digestibility, energy and nitrogen partition, CH4 emission, blood metabolic variables and heat production between the HE and LE groups varied according to the efficiency indexes adopted. The HP (kcal/d/BW0.75) was lower for HE animals for RFI and FCE indexes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/classificação , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Hibridização Genética , Metano/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672407

RESUMO

Circulating leptin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of production traits in cattle. This study aimed to clarify the correlations between circulating leptin concentrations and growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality indexes in finishing bulls fed high-concentrate diets (concentrate-to-forage ratio 70:30). Fifty-seven Simmental × Luxi F1 crossbred bulls were used for 112-day finishing experiment. Circulating leptin concentrations and relevant indexes of growth performance, and carcass traits and meat quality were measured during or after finishing trail. The results indicated that the leptin concentrations tended to be negatively correlated with dry matter intake (DMI) (r = -.233, p = .081), and were positively correlated with 12th-rib fat thickness (r = .330, p = .012), marbling score (r = .336, p = .011), and intramuscular fat content (r = .368, p = .021). Moreover, the leptin concentrations were negatively correlated with cholesterol content (r = -.339, p = .037) and were not correlated with sensory indexes including tenderness, juiciness, and like flavor (p > .05). In conclusion, circulating leptin concentrations may potentially be used as a predictor of carcass traits related to content of fat and beef quality traits related to content of cholesterol in finishing bulls fed high-concentrate diets.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leptina/sangue , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino
4.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e6, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripartum is a challenging phase for the health of cows. OBJECTIVES: This study analysed the haematological profile of Holstein cows during peripartum. METHOD: Blood samples were collected on days 18, 12, 8, 5 and 2 before calving, at parturition, and on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45 and 60 postpartum. Analyses of red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and RBC distribution width were performed; body condition score (BCS) and milk yield were evaluated. RESULTS: Red blood cell (the highest value was 6.10 × 1012/L at parturition and the lowest recorded value was 5.03 × 1012/L 21 days after parturition), haemoglobin and haematocrit (the highest values were 10.48 g/dL and 33.47% at parturition, respectively and the lowest values were 8.28 g/dL and 26.13% on day 30 after parturition, respectively); BCS (the highest and the lowest values were 3.50 points and 2.73 points on days 18 before parturition and 45 after parturition, respectively) and milk production (the lowest and the highest values were 21.48 L and 27.02 L on days 7 and 45 after parturition, respectively) were significantly different (p 0.05) during the peripartum period. Of the total cows (n = 48), 41.7% had RBC, haemoglobin and haematocrit below the reference intervals during at least one collection point during the postpartum period. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that dairy cows included in this investigation suffered alterations in select haematological variables during the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/sangue , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Período Periparto/sangue , Animais , Feminino
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498088

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted during the winter of two consecutive years to evaluate the effects of feeding green-chopped cool-season forages on digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and blood parameters in beef steers. Nine ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (year 1: 359 ± 79 kg; year 2: 481 ± 105 kg) received ad libitum green-chopped forages from pastures planted with one of the following mixtures: 1) OAT = Horizon 201 oats (Avena sativa L.)/Prine annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at 95 and 17 kg/ha, respectively; 2) RYE = FL401 cereal rye (Secale cereale L.)/Prine annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at 78 and 17 kg/ha, respectively; or 3) TRIT = Trical 342 triticale (X Triticosecale spp.)/Prine annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at 95 and 17 kg/ha, respectively. Intake was measured using the GrowSafe system and orts were discarded prior to subsequent feeding. After a 14-d adaptation, feed and fecal samples were collected twice daily for 4 d to determine apparent total tract nutrient digestibility using indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) as an internal marker. On day 19, blood and ruminal fluid samples were collected every 3 h during a 24-h period to analyze plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and glucose, ruminal pH, and concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Data were analyzed as a generalized randomized block design with repeated measures using the PROC MIX of SAS. No effect of treatment (P > 0.05) was observed for intake of dry matter, organic matter (OM), crude protein, NDF, or acid detergent fiber. Apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients was greater (P < 0.05) for OAT and TRIT when compared with RYE, with OM digestibility being 82.7%, 79.6%, and 69.5%, respectively. An effect of time (P < 0.01) was observed for ruminal pH. Plasma concentration of glucose was greater (P < 0.01) in steers consuming OAT, whereas steers fed RYE had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of ruminal NH3-N and PUN, and the least concentration of total ruminal VFA (P < 0.05), despite having the greatest (P > 0.05) molar proportion of acetate, branched-chain VFA, and acetate:propionate. Increased nutrient digestibility and favorable ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of OAT and TRIT are potentially conducive to enhanced growth performance when compared with RYE.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Avena , Bovinos/sangue , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7431-7450, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475659

RESUMO

Rations including high amounts of corn silage are currently very common in dairy production. Diets with corn silage as forage source result in a low supply of essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, and may lead to low conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production. The present study investigated the effects of abomasal infusion of essential fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, and CLA in dairy cows fed a corn silage-based diet on performance, milk composition, including fatty acid (FA) pattern, and lipid metabolism from late to early lactation. Rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (n = 40) were studied from wk 9 antepartum to wk 9 postpartum and dried off 6 wk before calving. The cows were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Cows were abomasally supplemented with coconut oil (CTRL, 76 g/d), linseed and safflower oil (EFA, 78 and 4 g/d; linseed/safflower oil ratio = 19.5:1; n-6/n-3 FA ratio = 1:3), Lutalin (CLA, 38 g/d; BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany; isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 each 10 g/d) or EFA+CLA. Milk composition was analyzed weekly, and blood samples were taken several times before and after parturition to determine plasma concentrations of metabolites related to lipid metabolism. Liver samples were obtained by biopsy on d 63 and 21 antepartum and on d 1, 28, and 63 postpartum to measure triglyceride concentration. Body composition was determined after slaughter. Supplementation of CLA reduced milk fat concentration, increased body fat mass, and improved energy balance (EB) in late and early lactation, but EB was lowest during late lactation in the EFA group. Cows with CLA treatment alone showed an elevated milk citrate concentration in early lactation, whereas EFA+CLA did not reveal higher milk citrate but did have increased acetone. Milk protein was increased in late lactation but was decreased in wk 1 postpartum in CLA and EFA+CLA. Milk urea was reduced by CLA treatment during the whole period. After calving, the increase of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma was less in CLA groups; liver triglycerides were raised lowest at d 28 in CLA groups. Our data confirm an improved metabolic status with CLA but not with exclusive EFA supplementation during early lactation. Increased milk citrate concentration in CLA cows points to reduced de novo FA synthesis in the mammary gland, but milk citrate was less affected in EFA+CLA cows, indicating that EFA supplementation may influence changes in mammary gland FA metabolism achieved by CLA.


Assuntos
Abomaso , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/farmacologia , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Leite , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Rúmen/metabolismo
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6533-6556, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389476

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 gradual weaning programs and 2 locations of solid feed within individual calf pens on feed intake, growth, and behavior of calves fed milk by an automated milk feeder. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, 60 female calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 weaning treatments and 1 of 2 solid feed placement treatments. Calves were assigned to a continuous gradual weaning program (CG) or a multi-step gradual weaning program (MG). Calves assigned to the CG treatment had their milk allocation reduced in small, equal increments from 12.5 L/d on d 43 to 2 L/d on d 56. Calves assigned to the MG treatment were offered 10 L/d on d 43 to 45, 8 L/d on d 46 to 49, 6 L/d on d 50 to 52, and 3 L/d on d 53 to 56. Solid feed was placed either at the front of the pen adjacent (ADJ) to where the automated milk feeder offered milk or at the back of the pen on the opposite (OPP) side from where the milk was offered. All calves were offered 12.5 L/d of milk replacer from d 2 to 42, fresh solid feed (5% chopped wheat straw mixed with 95% calf starter pellet) from d 5 onward, and ad libitum water starting d 0. Calves were weaned from d 43 to 56 and additionally monitored from d 57 to 70. No interactions of effects of weaning and feed location treatment were detected. Both MG and CG calves had similar water and solid feed consumption, blood ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and behavior. By design, calves on the CG treatment consumed greater amounts of milk during the weaning phase than MG treatment calves (6.7 vs. 6.3 L/d), which resulted in milk drinking behavior differing between the treatments during the weaning phase. Although average daily gain and body weights were similar between treatments, MG calves had greater middle girth gain during wk 7 compared with CG calves (0.6 vs. 0.3 cm/d). Calves on the ADJ treatment consumed 16.7% more solid feed and 0.55 L/d more milk during the preweaning phase compared with OPP treatment calves. In all 3 phases, ADJ treatment calves consumed more water than OPP treatment calves. The ADJ calves spent more time consuming solid feed during the 10-wk period. The ADJ treatment calves had 10% greater average daily gain compared with OPP treatment calves during the preweaning phase. Overall, the results indicate that both gradual weaning treatments resulted in similar performance and behavior. However, placement of solid feed next to the milk source was demonstrated to increase feed, water, and milk intake during the preweaning stage, contributing to greater growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Leite/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Desmame
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6354-6363, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359995

RESUMO

At the beginning of lactation, high-producing cows commonly experience an unbalanced energy status that is often responsible for the onset of metabolic disorders and impaired health and performance. Blood ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are indicators of excessive fat mobilization and circulating ketone bodies. Recently, prediction models based on mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy have been developed to assess blood BHB and NEFA from routinely collected individual milk samples. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters of blood BHB and NEFA predicted from milk MIR spectra and to assess their phenotypic and genetic correlations with milk production and composition traits in early-lactation Holstein cows. The data set comprised the first test-day record within lactation and spectra of individual milk samples (n = 22,718) of 13,106 Holstein cows collected from 5 to 35 d in milk (DIM). Blood BHB and NEFA were predicted from milk MIR spectra using previously developed prediction models. Genetic parameters of blood metabolites and milk traits were estimated for the whole observational period (5-35 DIM) and within 6 classes of DIM. Blood BHB and NEFA showed similar genetic variation across DIM, with the highest heritability in the first 10 d after calving (0.31 ± 0.06 and 0.19 ± 0.05 for BHB and NEFA, respectively). The genetic correlation between BHB and NEFA was moderate (0.51 ± 0.05). Genetic correlations of BHB with milk yield, SCS, protein percentage, lactose percentage, and urea nitrogen content were similar to, or at least in the same direction as, the correlations of NEFA with the same traits, whereas opposite correlations were observed with fat percentage and fat-to-protein ratio. Results of the current study suggest that blood BHB and NEFA predicted from milk MIR spectra have genetic variation that is potentially exploitable for breeding purposes. Therefore, they could be used as indicator traits of hyperketonemia in a selection index aimed to reduce the susceptibility of dairy cows to metabolic disorders in early lactation.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Leite/química , Seleção Artificial , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Padrões de Herança , Cetose/genética , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Fenótipo
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5102-5117, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253042

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an enzymatically hydrolyzed cottonseed protein (HCSP) as a peptide source on performance, blood metabolites, gastrointestinal development, and intestinal microbes. Forty-eight newborn Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments including 0, 2, 4, and 6% of HCSP (dry matter basis). All calves received the same amount of pasteurized whole milk, weaned on d 56 of the experiment, and the study was concluded on d 70. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) as a randomized complete block design with linear and quadratic contrasts. Results showed that increased amount of HCSP linearly decreased the starter intake during the postweaning (d 57 to 70) and overall period (d 1 to 70). In addition, when dietary HCSP increased during the overall period, average daily gain tended to linearly decrease. All skeletal growth variables also linearly decreased as dietary HCSP increased at the end of the study, except for body length, which did not differ among the treatments. Serum cortisol concentration was higher in calves supplemented with 6% of HCSP at weaning and at the end of the study. This indicates that these calves may have experienced a stressful condition compared with calves in other treatments. Total antioxidant capacity was quadratically affected by HCSP supplementation; calves fed 2 and 4% of HCSP diets had the highest total antioxidant capacity, whereas calves fed 0 and 6% HCSP diets had lower total antioxidant capacity at weaning and at end of the study. Calves supplemented with 6% HCSP had lower empty reticulo-rumen and omasum weights and rumen wall thickness compared with calves in other treatments at the end of the study. In conclusion, supplementation of HCSP at the rate of 2% of starter diet enhanced antioxidant status without any detrimental effects on the performance and metabolic status of calves, whereas greater inclusion rates impaired starter intake and growth of calves, and exposed them to a stressful status.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5509-5513, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307153

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to describe the stability of bovine whole-blood electrolytes, glucose, and lactate in samples collected in lithium heparin tubes and stored in thermoconductive modules immersed in ice water. A total of 99 Jersey cows (40 first-parity, 18 second-parity, and 41 third-parity or greater cows) from a commercial dairy farm in West Texas were enrolled between June and July 2018. Blood was collected from the jugular vein using a 60-mL polypropylene syringe and equally distributed into 5 spray-dried evacuated lithium heparin tubes. Baseline samples were analyzed within 90 s of collection using a benchtop blood gas analyzer. The remaining 4 tubes were stored in a thermoconductive, passive-temperature-regulating module inside a cooler with ice water. At 30 min and 2, 4, and 8 h post-collection, samples were removed from the temperature-regulating module, gently inverted for 10 s, and analyzed. Repeated-measures models were built to evaluate the effect of time on the stability of ionized Ca (iCa), ionized Mg (iMg), Na, K, Cl, glucose, and lactate. Most of the analytes investigated remained stable up to 8 h under ice water storage conditions before analysis, including iCa, iMg, Cl, glucose, and lactate. However, Na and K were significantly affected by delayed analysis: Na remained stable up to 4 h post-collection, but K was not stable starting at 2 h post-collection. The results of this study are useful in helping future researchers and consultants to recognize acceptable time delays between whole blood collection and processing or analysis for electrolytes, glucose, and lactate.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Bovinos/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , Heparina/química , Animais , Gasometria/veterinária , Glicemia/análise , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Feminino , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Lítio/química , Magnésio/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Refrigeração/veterinária , Sódio/sangue , Texas , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5575-5590, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307156

RESUMO

An accurate, practical, and low-cost method for predicting parturition is urgently needed in the dairy industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in plasma progesterone concentration ([prog]) and glucose concentration in whole blood ([gluc]b) and plasma ([gluc]p) as predictors of parturition within 6, 12, and 24 h in primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples were obtained daily at approximately 0900 h from 34 primiparous and 72 multiparous Holstein cows in late gestation and the time of calving recorded to the nearest hour. Plasma [prog] was measured using an ELISA, and [gluc]b and [gluc]p using a low-cost point-of-care glucose meter. The optimal cut-point for predicting parturition was determined using binomial logistic regression with general estimating equations, because the data set consisted of repeated measures for each cow. Diagnostic test performance was evaluated by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and κ at the optimal cut-point for predicting parturition. Plasma [prog] was the most accurate predictor of parturition within 24 h (AUC = 0.96) and 12 h (AUC = 0.93), whereas [gluc]b was the most accurate predictor of parturition within 6 h (primiparous, AUC = 0.96; multiparous, AUC = 0.86). We conclude that a decrease in plasma [prog] is currently the most accurate test for predicting calving within 24 h. Measurement of [gluc]b is a promising new test for the cow-side prediction of parturition in dairy cows due to its accuracy, practicality, and low cost.


Assuntos
Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/fisiologia , Parto/sangue , Parto/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Animais , Glicemia , Feminino , Gravidez
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4423-4434, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113755

RESUMO

This study investigated how providing hay mixed with calf starter to dairy calves affected their solid feed intake, feed sorting, growth, and plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. Forty Holstein heifer calves were fed a texturized calf starter (23.4% crude protein, 32.3% starch on a dry matter basis) and chopped Klein grass hay as separate components (CONT) or the same starter and hay mixed at a 90:10 ratio on an as-fed basis (MIX) ad libitum from the date transported to the research farm (4-7 d of life) to 90 d of life. Calves were provided milk replacer (28% crude protein, 15% fat) at up to 557 g/d before the study, 737 g/d from d 14 to 20, 1,105 g/d from d 21 to 41, 737 g/d from d 42 to 48, and 557 g/d from d 49 to 55 on a dry matter basis. calves were fully weaned on d 56. Feed sorting for the MIX calves was evaluated using the Penn State Particle Separator; the sorting index was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake, with values >100% indicating sorting for and values <100% indicating sorting against. Treatment did not affect solid feed intake, growth performance, or plasma metabolite or hormone concentration during the preweaning or weaning periods. However, calves in the MIX treatment had less neutral detergent fiber intake as a percentage of solid feed intake than CONT calves in the preweaning (23.3 vs. 37.0%) and weaning (23.5 vs. 25.8%) periods, although MIX calves sorted (107.2%) for long particles, which were primarily hay, during weaning. During the postweaning period, MIX calves had greater neutral detergent fiber intake as a percentage of solid feed intake compared with CONT calves (23.4 vs. 22.7%), although they sorted against long particles (84.4%), and decreased solid feed dry matter intake compared with CONT calves (3,292 vs. 3,536 g/d) and average daily gain (1.20 vs. 1.31 kg/d). Weaned calves in the MIX treatment also had lower plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide 2 compared with CONT (0.46 vs. 0.77 ng/mg) but had higher plasma concentrations of ghrelin (0.05 vs. 0.03 ng/mg). These results suggest that feeding a mixture of texturized calf starter and chopped hay at the 90:10 ratio to postweaned calves may decrease solid feed intake and growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152623

RESUMO

Creatine stores high-energy phosphate bonds in muscle, which is critical for muscle activity. In animals, creatine is synthesized in the liver from guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) with methylation by S-adenosylmethionine. Because methyl groups are used for the conversion of GAA to creatine, methyl group deficiency may occur as a result of GAA supplementation. With this study, the metabolic responses of cattle to post-ruminal supplementation of GAA were evaluated with and without methionine (Met) supplementation as a source of methyl groups. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein heifers (520 kg) were used in a split-plot design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial. The main plot treatments were 0 or 12 g/d of l-Met arranged in a completely randomized design; three heifers received each main plot treatment throughout the entire experiment. Subplot treatments were 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g/d of GAA, with GAA treatments provided in sequence from lowest to highest over five 6-d periods. Treatments were infused continuously to the abomasum. Heifers were limit-fed twice daily a diet consisting of (dry matter basis) 5.3 kg/d rolled corn, 3.6 kg/d alfalfa hay, and 50 g/d trace-mineralized salt. Plasma Met increased (P < 0.01) when Met was supplemented, but it was not affected by supplemental GAA. Supplementing GAA linearly increased plasma arginine (% of total amino acids) and plasma concentrations of GAA and creatinine (P < 0.001). Plasma creatine was increased at all levels of GAA except when 40 g/d of GAA was supplemented with no Met (GAA-quadratic × Met, P = 0.07). Plasma homocysteine was not affected by GAA supplementation when heifers received 12 g/d Met, but it was increased when 30 or 40 g/d of GAA was supplemented without Met (GAA-linear × Met, P = 0.003); increases were modest and did not suggest a dangerous hyperhomocysteinemia. Urinary concentrations of GAA and creatine were increased by all levels of GAA when 12 g/d Met was supplemented; increasing GAA supplementation up to 30 g/d without Met increased urinary GAA and creatine concentrations, but 40 g/d GAA did not affect urine concentrations of GAA and creatine when no Met was supplemented. Overall, post-ruminal GAA supplementation increased creatine supply to cattle. A methyl group deficiency, demonstrated by modest increases in plasma homocysteine, became apparent when 30 or 40 g/d of GAA was supplemented, but it was ameliorated by 12 g/d Met.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Creatina/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Homocisteína/sangue , Metionina/farmacologia , Abomaso/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Arginina/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Glicina/farmacologia , Medicago sativa , Distribuição Aleatória , Zea mays
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a ubiquitous zoonotic disease globally. It is endemic among bovines, sheep, and goats in Albania. The national control and eradication programs for brucellosis has been applied on sheep and goat farms as well as large dairy cattle farms, i.e., those with more than ten milking cows. The current study aims at estimating the herd and average individual animal prevalence of brucellosis in the national beef cattle herds, the missing information that was essential to propose the most appropriate control measures for this sub-population. Rose Bengal Test (RBT), Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA), and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were used as serological tests and classical bacteriology for isolation. Results were also used to investigate the difference in sensitivity between the assays used. METHODOLOGY: In total, 655 animals from 38 beef cattle herds from six southern districts of Albania were sampled. Sera were tested using RBT, FPA, and ELISA. Fifteen positive cows and a bull from eight high-prevalence positive herds were slaughtered, and particular tissue samples were collected for bacteriology. RESULTS: The overall herd seroprevalence in the tested beef cattle population was 55%, while the overall average within-herd prevalence (including only positive herds) was 38.3%, 42.7%, and 45.6% determined by the RBT, ELISA, and FPA, respectively. FPA was used for the first time in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Albania, and its sensitivity was higher than RBT and ELISA. Three B. abortus strains were identified, two from the supra-mammary lymph node of two cows and one from the epididymis of a seropositive bull. CONCLUSION: Brucellosis was highly prevalent in beef cattle in the southern part of Albania, and B. abortus was isolated from this subpopulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first statistically based survey of bovine brucellosis in beef herds in Albania. Using the FPA in parallel with other serological tests improved overall diagnostic sensitivity. Test and slaughter policy is not a rational approach for the control of brucellosis in beef cattle in Albania, and vaccination is only applicable, including strict control of the movement of animals.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos/microbiologia , Albânia/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Bovinos/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
15.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219931

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding methods on blood biochemical parameters by using a total of 32 Japanese Black breeding cows. The diet (silage) was distributed at a rough estimate for 18 days (FN period), and stanchions were not used in this period. After the FN period, the cows were separated in stanchions for feeding and were fed specified amount of silage by using scales on a feeder wagon, which was determined according to the diet formulation and average body weight of cows, for 30 days (FW period). On the last day of the two experiment periods, the body weight of all cows was recorded and blood samples were collected from 10 randomly selected cows. ß-hydroxybutyric acid and albumin (Alb) levels were significantly higher after the FW period than after FN period. The variation of glucose, Alb, calcium and lactic acid was significantly smaller after the FW period. Several blood parameters of the FW period were approximately the appropriate range of a Japanese Black breeding herd in the dry period. Our results suggest that the feeding method by use of a stanchion and proper diet formulation affects blood biochemical parameters and improves nutritional conditions for breeding cows.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Análise Química do Sangue , Cruzamento , Bovinos/sangue , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Feminino , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Albumina Sérica
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4236-4251, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171512

RESUMO

This study evaluated how feeding colostrum- or a colostrum-milk mixture for 3 d postnatal affects plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and small intestinal histomorphology in calves. Holstein bulls (n = 24) were fed colostrum at 2 h postnatal and randomly assigned to receive either colostrum (COL), whole milk (WM), or a 1:1 COL:WM mixture (MIX) every 12 h from 12 to 72 h. A jugular venous catheter was placed at 1 h postnatal to sample blood frequently for the duration of the experiment. Samples were collected at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 11, and 12 h. Following the 12-h meal, blood was collected at half-hour intervals until 16 h and then at 1-h intervals from 16 to 24 h. A 27-h sample was taken, then blood was sampled every 6 h from 30 to 60 h. Again, blood was taken at half-intervals from 60 to 64 h, then at 65 and 66 h, following which, a 2-h sampling interval was used until 72 h. Plasma GLP-2 (all time points) and serum IGF-1 (at time points: 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h) were both analyzed. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal tissues were collected at 75 h of age to assess histomorphology and cellular proliferation. Feeding COL, rather than WM, increased plasma GLP-2 by 60% for 2 h and tended to increase GLP-2 by 49.4% for 4 h after the 60-h meal. Insulin-like growth factor-1 area under the curve (from 12 to 72 h) tended to be 27% greater for COL than WM calves but was otherwise unaffected by treatment. Ileal crypts tended to proliferate more with MIX than WM, whereas ileal crypt proliferation did not differ for COL compared with MIX or WM and was not different between treatments in the proximal jejunum. Villi height was increased 1.8 and 1.5× (COL and MIX vs. WM) in the proximal and distal jejunum, respectively, whereas MIX duodenal and ileal villi height tended to be 1.5 and 1.4× that of WM. Crypt depth did not differ in any region. Surface area of the gastrointestinal tract was reduced for WM by 60 and 58% (proximal jejunum) and 38 and 52% (ileum) relative to COL and MIX and was 54% less than MIX in the distal jejunum. Overall, extended COL feeding minimally increased plasma GLP-2 and serum IGF-1 compared with WM feeding. As COL and MIX similarly promoted small intestinal maturation, feeding calves transition milk to promote intestinal development could be a strategy for producers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos , Colostro , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íleo/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Jejuno/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jejuno/metabolismo , Masculino
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4806-4821, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173013

RESUMO

This study applied a quantitative proteomics approach along with bioinformatics analyses to investigate changes in the plasma proteome of normal and overconditioned dairy cows during the transition period. Fifteen weeks before their anticipated calving date, 38 multiparous Holstein cows were selected based on their current and previous body condition scores (BCS) and allocated to either a high or a normal BCS group (19 cows each). They received different diets until dry-off to reach targeted differences in BCS and back fat thickness (BFT) until dry-off. At dry-off, normal BCS cows had a BCS <3.5 (minimum, 2.75) and BFT <1.2 cm (minimum, 0.58), and the high BCS cows had a BCS >3.75 (maximum, 4.50) and BFT >1.4 cm (maximum, 2.90). The proteomics study used a subset of 5 animals from each group. These cows were selected based on their circulating concentrations of fatty acids (FA) on d 14 postpartum and ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on d 21 postpartum, representing the greater or the lower extreme values within their BCS group, respectively. The high BCS subset (HE-HBCS) had 4.50 < BCS > 3.75, FA = 1.17 ± 0.46 mmol/L, and BHB = 2.15 ± 0.42 mmol/L (means ± SD), and the low BCS subset (LE-NBCS) had 3.50 < BCS > 2.75, FA = 0.51 ± 0.28 mmol/L, and BHB = 0.84 ± 0.17 mmol/L. Plasma samples from d -49, +7, and +21 relative to parturition were used for proteome profiling by applying the quantitative tandem mass tags (TMT) approach. Nondepleted plasma samples were subjected to reduction and digestion and then labeled with TMT 10plex reagents. High-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of TMT-labeled peptides was carried out, and the acquired spectra were analyzed for protein identification and quantification. In total, 254 quantifiable proteins (criteria: 2 unique peptides and 5% false discovery rate) were identified in the plasma samples. From these, 24 differentially abundant proteins (14 more abundant, 10 less abundant) were observed in the LE-NBCS cows compared with the HE-HBCS cows during the transition period. Plasma α-2-macroglobulins were more abundant in HE-HBCS versus LE-NBCS cows at d +7 and +21. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses of differentially abundant proteins revealed that the acute inflammatory response, regulation of complement activation, protein activation cascade, and regulation of humoral immune response were the most enriched terms in the LE-NBCS group compared with the HE-HBCS group. In addition, we identified 24 differentially abundant proteins (16 in the LE-NBCS group, and 8 in the HE-HBCS group) during the transition period. The complement components C1q and C5 were less abundant, while C3 and C3d were more abundant in LE-NBCS compared with HE-HBCS cows. Overall, overconditioning around calving was associated with alterations in protein pathways related to acute inflammatory response and regulation of complement and coagulation cascades in transition cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/sangue , Lactação/sangue , Proteoma , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Nível de Saúde , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Leite/química , Parto , Gravidez
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074978

RESUMO

Our study hypothesis is that the interline registered pH of the cow reticulum can be used as an indicator of health and reproductive status. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship of pH, using the indicators of the automatic milking system (AMS), with some parameters of cow blood components. The following four main groups were used to classify cow health status: 15-30 d postpartum, 1-34 d after insemination, 35 d after insemination (not pregnant), and 35 d (pregnant). Using the reticulum pH assay, the animals were categorized as pH < 6.22 (5.3% of cows), pH 6.22-6.42 (42.1% of cows), pH 2.6-6.62 (21.1% of cows), and pH > 6.62 (10.5% of cows). Using milking robots, milk yield, fat protein, lactose level, somatic cell count, and electron conductivity were registered. Other parameters assessed included the temperature and pH of the contents of reticulorumens. Assessment of the aforementioned parameters was done using specific smaX-tec boluses. Blood gas parameters were assessed using a blood gas analyzer (EPOC (Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). The study findings indicated that pregnant cows have a higher pH during insemination than that of non-pregnant ones. It was also noted that cows with a low fat/protein ratio, lactose level, and high SCC had low reticulorumen pH. They also had the lowest blood pH. It was also noted that, with the increase of reticulorumen pH, there was an increased level of blood potassium, a high hematocrit, and low sodium and carbon dioxide saturation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Saúde , Reprodução/fisiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Condutividade Elétrica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3505-3520, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037174

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate effects of pretransport diet (rearing milk vs. electrolytes), type of vehicle (open vs. conditioned truck), and transport duration (6 vs. 18 h) on physiological status of young calves upon arrival at the veal farm. A total of 368 calves were transported in 2 consecutive batches from a collection center to a veal farm. Blood samples were collected from calves before transport; immediately posttransport (T0); and 4, 24, and 48 h, and 1, 3, and 5 wk posttransport. Blood was analyzed for glucose, urea, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), creatine kinase, albumin, total protein, osmolality, calcium, sodium, magnesium, and hematological variables. Body weight, rectal temperature, and skin elasticity were determined before and immediately posttransport. Blood glucose, NEFA, and urea concentrations at T0 showed an interaction between pretransport diet and transport duration. Milk-fed and electrolyte-fed calves transported for 18 h did not significantly differ in plasma glucose concentration or serum NEFA concentrations. However, after 6 h of transport, milk-fed calves had higher plasma glucose and lower serum NEFA concentrations (4.71 mmol/L and 586.5 µmol/L, respectively) than electrolyte-fed calves (3.56 mmol/L and 916 µmol/L, respectively). After 18 h of transport, milk-fed calves had lower urea concentrations (5.40 mmol/L) than electrolyte-fed calves (7.38 mmol/L). In addition, at T0, after 6 h of transport, milk-fed calves gained weight (Δ = 0.41 kg), whereas electrolyte-fed calves lost weight (Δ = -0.16 kg). After 18 h of transport, both milk-fed and electrolyte-fed calves showed body weight losses (Δ = -0.67 and -0.74 kg, respectively). Type of vehicle had a limited influence on blood parameters. Concentrations of NEFA and BHB reached the maximum values at T0 and then decreased until wk 5 posttransport. The increase in NEFA and BHB concentrations between prior to and just posttransport (T0) was less pronounced in calves transported for 6 h (746.1 µmol/L and 0.38 mmol/L, respectively) than in calves transported for 18 h (850.6 µmol/L and 0.50 mmol/L). Overall, the recovery rate of calves at the veal farm seemed rapid; all blood parameters returned to (below) pretransport values within 48 h posttransport. We concluded that feeding milk before short-term transport helps young veal calves cope with transport, whereas this is not the case during long-term transport.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Transportes , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Nível de Saúde , Masculino , Carne Vermelha , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(2): 291-300, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052705

RESUMO

We compared inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) test results for the analysis of heavy metals (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se) in pet foods and routine veterinary diagnostic specimens using intralaboratory and interlaboratory comparisons. Four laboratories, 1 principal laboratory and 3 collaborating laboratories, conducted instrument comparison (limit of detection [LOD], limit of quantification [LOQ], and linear dynamic range [LDR] on 24 data sets), in-house method comparison (accuracy and precision on 120 data sets), and interlaboratory comparison (reproducibility on 528 data sets using Horwitz equation analysis). Matrices tested included 2 types of pet food jerky treats (chicken and sweet potato), bovine blood, and bovine liver and kidney. The instrument comparison study confirmed that ICP-MS provided the sensitivity necessary for the analysis of all heavy metals tested at concentrations below the level of concern for routine diagnostic testing. The "in-house" method comparison samples, spiked at low (0.04 µg/g), medium (0.4 µg/g), and high (8.0 µg/g; note: the high validation level spike for mercury was 2 µg/g) concentration levels, indicated that ICP-MS can meet U.S. FDA acceptance criteria for both accuracy (90-105% recovery) and precision (< 6% coefficient of variation). The interlaboratory comparison studies showed that ICP-MS is a reproducible method for the analysis of heavy metals (HorRat value of 0.5-2.0) except for mercury in one laboratory, which used a different sample preparation method (open block rather than microwave digestion). Overall, our study showed that ICP-MS is a reproducible method for the analysis of heavy metals in spite of minor differences in methodology.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Bovinos/sangue
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