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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749583

RESUMO

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Gado/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Bovinos/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Coelhos/virologia , Reto/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Células Vero , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Vísceras/virologia
2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696406

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Gatos/virologia , Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Cães/virologia , Gado/virologia , Fusão de Membrana/fisiologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos/virologia , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia
3.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714225

RESUMO

Calf diarrhoea has been a major cause of economic losses in the global dairy industry. Many factors, including multiple pathogen infections, can directly or indirectly cause calf diarrhoea. This study compared the faecal virome between 15 healthy calves and 15 calves with diarrhoea. Significantly lower diversity of viruses was found in samples from animals with diarrhoea than those in the healthy ones, and this feature may also be related to the age of the calves. Viruses belonging to the families Astroviridae and Caliciviridae that may cause diarrhoea in dairy calves have been characterized, which revealed that reads of caliciviruses and astroviruses in diarrhoea calves were much higher than those in healthy calves. Five complete genomic sequences closely related to Smacoviridae have been identified, which may participate in the regulation of the gut virus community ecology of healthy hosts together with bacteriophages. This research provides a theoretical basis for further understanding of known or potential enteric pathogens related to calf diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Bovinos/virologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Intestinos/virologia , Viroma , Animais , Caliciviridae/classificação , Caliciviridae/genética , Caliciviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/genética , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Metagenômica , Filogenia
4.
Prev Vet Med ; 195: 105446, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365125

RESUMO

A study was implemented to estimate the pestivirus seroprevalence in sheep and goats in Belgium, to identify circulating species and to check for a potential association between seropositivity of small ruminants and presence of cattle in the same farm. It was based on the testing of serum samples and bulk tank milk samples (BTM) collected in sheep and goat flocks in 2018-2019 all over the country. 7460 serum samples collected from 410 flocks were tested by a commercial ELISA able to detect antibodies (Ab) against Border Disease Virus (BDV), and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). BTM samples (n = 144) were collected from dairy flocks in November 2019 and tested with the same Ab ELISA. ELISA positive serum samples were also tested by virus neutralization test (VNT) for neutralizing antibodies against BDV, BVDV-type1 and BVDV-type2. Virological tests (RT-PCR) were performed on pools of serum samples from pestivirus-exposed flocks with at least two seropositive animals and on all Antibody-positive BTM samples. Information about serum and milk samples (identification, test results, farm of origin and location, presence of cattle) were gathered in animal-level and farm-level databases. Based on this study, the apparent animal seroprevalence for pestiviruses in small ruminant flocks in Belgium in 2018 was estimated to be 0.87 % (95 % C.I. [0.68 %-1.11 %]). The prevalence of flocks exposed to pestivirus (i.e. with at least one seropositive animal) was estimated to be 8.5 % (95 % C.I. [6.4 % - 11.6 %]). In exposed flocks, the average within-flock seroprevalence was 9.9 %. In dairy sheep and goats, the estimated proportion of exposed flocks in 2019, based on the detection of pestivirus antibodies in the bulk tank milk, was 9.7 % [5.9 %-15.7 %]. All PCR tests were negative, indicating the likely absence of active pestivirus circulation in these flocks. Although the observed pestivirus seroprevalence was found to be low in Belgian small ruminants, this study also showed, based on VNT results, that they are exposed to several pestivirus species: BDV, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. 22.4 % of the farms included in the serological survey were holding both a small ruminant flock and a cattle herd, hence with a potential risk of contact between the two species. There was a significant positive association between pestivirus seropositivity in the sheep/goat flocks and the presence of a cattle herd in the same farm (OR = 2.42 (95 %C.I. [1.18-4.94]) but this association was not found for Ab-positive BTM in dairy flocks.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Infecções por Pestivirus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Bovinos/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
5.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2835-2839, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319454

RESUMO

The bovine adenovirus 7 (BAdV-7) isolate SD18-74 was recovered from lung tissue of calves in South Dakota. The 30,043-nucleotide (nt) genome has the typical organization of Atadenovirus genus members. The sequence shares over 99% nt sequence identity with two Japanese BAdV-7 sequences, followed by 74.9% nt sequence identity with the ovine adenovirus 7 strain OAV287, a member of the species Ovine atadenovirus D. SD18-74 was amplified in both bovine and ovine primary nasal turbinate cells, demonstrating greater fitness in bovine cells. The genomic and biological characteristics of BAdV-7 SD18-74 support the inclusion of the members of the BAdV-7 group in a new species in the genus Atadenovirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Atadenovirus/classificação , Atadenovirus/genética , Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Atadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Atadenovirus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Linhagem Celular , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Ovinos , Estados Unidos , Replicação Viral
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 342, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) belongs to the genus Orthonairovirus (Nairovididae) and is a (re)emerging tick-borne pathogen. It is endemic in most parts of Africa, Asia and southern Europe, and can cause severe hemorrhagic symptoms in humans, with high fatality rates (5-30%). METHODS: Hyalomma ticks were collected from four different livestock herds (cattle and camels) in Mauritania in 2018. The tick species were determined morphologically and confirmed molecularly by using the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene marker. For the detection of CCHFV, ticks were tested individually by one-step multiplex real-time reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The small segment of all positive samples was sequenced to determine the CCHFV genotype. RESULTS: In total, 39 of the 1523 ticks (2.56%) collected from 63 cattles and 28 camels tested positive for CCHFV. Three Hyalomma species were identified. Hyalomma rufipes had the largest proportion of positivity (5.67%; 16/282), followed by Hyalomma dromedarii (1.89%; 23/1214). No Hyalomma impeltatum tested positive (0%; 0/21). Positive ticks were found in only six out of 91 host animals. Viral sequence analysis revealed the presence of two different CCHFV lineages (Africa I and Africa III). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 2.56% of Hyalomma ticks collected from camels and cattle in Mauritania tested positive for CCHFV. However, the true prevalence of CCHFV in unfed ticks may be lower, as a considerable number of ticks may have been passively infected during blood-feeding by co-feeding ticks or due to viremia of the host. The results indicate the need to track the actual area of circulation of this virus.


Assuntos
Sangue , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Gado/parasitologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Animais , Camelus/parasitologia , Camelus/virologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Bovinos/virologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Genótipo , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Gado/virologia , Masculino , Mauritânia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Carrapatos/genética , Carrapatos/fisiologia
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 192: 105375, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989913

RESUMO

We present a new modelling framework to address the evaluation of national control/surveillance programs planned in line with the European Animal Health Law (AHL) for livestock diseases. Our modelling framework is applied to the cattle sector in Ireland where there is need for policy support to design an optimal programme to achieve bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) free status under the AHL. In this contribution, we show how our framework establishes a regional model that is able to mechanistically reproduce the demography, management practices and transport patterns of an entire cattle population without being dependent on continuous livestock registry data. An innovative feature of our model is the inclusion of herd typing, thereby extending these beyond the categories of dairy, beef and mixed herds that are frequently considered in other regional modelling studies. This detailed representation of herd type-specific management facilitates comparative assessment of BoHV-1 eradication strategies targeting different production types with individual strategy protocols. Finally, we apply our model to support current discussions regarding the structure and implementation of a potential national BoHV-1 eradication programme in Ireland.


Assuntos
Bovinos/virologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1 , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina , Animais , Tomada de Decisões , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/epidemiologia , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/prevenção & controle , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos
8.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847554

RESUMO

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian species. Animals act as a potential reservoir to RVA human infections by direct virion transmission or by contributing genes to reassortants. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a rare human RVA strain Ni17-46 with a genotype G15P[14], isolated in Japan in 2017 during rotavirus surveillance in a paediatric outpatient clinic. The genome constellation of this strain was G15-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A13-N2-T9-E2-H3. This is the first report of an RVA with G15 genotype in humans, and sequencing and phylogenetic analysis results suggest that human infection with this strain has zoonotic origin from the bovine species. Given the fact that this strain was isolated from a patient with gastroenteritis and dehydration symptoms, we must take into account the virulence of this strain in humans.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus , Zoonoses Virais/virologia , Adolescente , Animais , Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 190: 105318, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740596

RESUMO

The study investigated the important epidemiological parameters and farm-level economic costs of FMD incidence in cattle and buffaloes during 2013-14 to 2015-16 in various states of India. Multistage random sampling procedure was adopted for the primary survey and data was collected through face-to-face personal interview from 18,609 cattle and buffalo rearing farm households from 123 districts across twelve states and one Union Territory. Besides epidemiological parameters, different farm-level direct and indirect loss associated with FMD was assessed at disaggregated level (states) by employing deterministic mathematical models. Highest number of affected villages and disease incidence was observed in non- FMD control programme (FMD-CP) implemented Madhya Pradesh and Assam states, respectively whereas negligible incidence was in FMD-CP implemented Punjab state. The disease incidence was high during 2013-14 and declined during 2014-15 and 2015-16, respectively implied severe incidence scenario (2013-14) succeeded by moderate (2014-15) and mild (2015-16) scenarios. The crossbred and high productive animals were severely affected than local breeds whereas on sexwise and agewise comparison revealed higher incidence in females and adult animals. During severe incidence scenario, milk loss/animal ranged from USD 6.87-47.44, 18.42-125.88, 16.33-91.43, and 27.17-123.62; mortality loss/animal ranged from USD 32.61-804.27, 30.76-577.7, 65.36-502.2, and 188.04-413.7; distress sale loss/animal ranged from USD 3.22-188.63, 64.34-519.3, 214.47-341.8, and 209.11-450.3; and opportunity cost of labour/animal from USD 5.49-54.29, 5.49-67.78; 7.95-31.37 and 9.83-72.38 in indigenous cattle, crossbred cattle, local and improved buffalo, respectively. The estimated draught power loss/animal varied from USD 39.46-142.94 with least being in Madhya Pradesh and highest in Assam states whereas the median treatment cost/animal was USD 9.18 and USD 27.07 in indigenous cattle and upgraded buffaloes, respectively. The total farm-level economic loss projected due to FMD in cattle and buffaloes in India was USD 3159 million (INR 221,110 million), USD 270 million (INR 18,910 million) and USD 152 million (INR 10,610 million), respectively during the severe, moderate and mild incidence scenarios at 2015-16 constant prices. The loss varied across the states, and in severe incidence scenario, the country might lose USD 3.2 billion/year and hence, the bi-annual vaccination schedule need to be strictly implemented in all the states. Besides timely vaccination coverage, managing unabated animal movement, educating and motivating the farmers to vaccinate their animals might reduce the incidence and consequential losses to various stakeholders in endemic states like India.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Búfalos/virologia , Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fazendas/economia , Feminino , Febre Aftosa/economia , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 68, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors for many arboviruses. At least 20 species are considered as vectors or potential vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) which cause bluetongue disease in ruminants. A BTV prevalence of 30-50% among cattle and goats in tropical southern Yunnan Province, China, prompted an investigation of the potential BTV vectors in this area. METHODS: Culicoides were collected by light trapping at three sites in the tropical region of Yunnan Province. Species were identified based on morphology and DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). PCR and quantitative PCR following reverse transcription were used to test for the presence of BTV RNA in these specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was used to analyze the cox1 sequences of Culicoides specimens infected with BTV. RESULTS: Approximately 67,000 specimens of Culicoides were collected, of which 748 were tested for the presence of BTV. Five specimens, including two of Culicoides jacobsoni, one of C. tainanus and two of C. imicola, were identified as infected with BTV. No specimens of C. (subgenus Trithecoides) or C. oxystoma tested were positive for BTV infection. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report of C. jacobsoni as a potential BTV vector and the fourth report of an association between C. tainanus and BTV, as well as the first direct evidence of an association between BTV and C. imicola in Asia. A fourth potential cryptic species within C. tainanus was identified in this study. Further analysis is required to confirm the importance of C. jacobsoni and C. tainanus in BTV epidemiology in Asia.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Bluetongue/transmissão , Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Bovinos/virologia , Ceratopogonidae/classificação , Ceratopogonidae/genética , China/epidemiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Feminino , Cabras/virologia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , RNA Viral/genética , Sorogrupo
11.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418939

RESUMO

Most picornaviruses of the family Picornaviridae are relatively well known, but there are certain "neglected" genera like Bopivirus, containing a single uncharacterised sequence (bopivirus A1, KM589358) with very limited background information. In this study, three novel picornaviruses provisionally called ovipi-, gopi- and bopivirus/Hun (MW298057-MW298059) from enteric samples of asymptomatic ovine, caprine and bovine respectively, were determined using RT-PCR and dye-terminator sequencing techniques. These monophyletic viruses share the same type II-like IRES, NPGP-type 2A, similar genome layout (4-3-4) and cre-localisations. Culture attempts of the study viruses, using six different cell lines, yielded no evidence of viral growth in vitro. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses show that bopivirus/Hun of bovine belongs to the species Bopivirus A, while the closely related ovine-origin ovipi- and caprine-origin gopivirus could belong to a novel species "Bopivirus B" in the genus Bopivirus. Epidemiological investigation of N = 269 faecal samples of livestock (ovine, caprine, bovine, swine and rabbit) from different farms in Hungary showed that bopiviruses were most prevalent among <12-month-old ovine, caprine and bovine, but undetectable in swine and rabbit. VP1 capsid-based phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of multiple lineages/genotypes, including closely related ovine/caprine strains, suggesting the possibility of ovine-caprine interspecies transmission of certain bopiviruses.


Assuntos
Bovinos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Cabras/virologia , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Hungria , Filogeografia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1216-1228, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767733

RESUMO

Eliminating rabies is challenging in many developing countries, especially in rural areas. In contrast to the annual decline of human cases in China in last decade, the incidence of rabies in livestock has been increasingly reported. This paper reports the rabies outbreaks in beef cattle (Angus) in Shaanxi Province, China, which caused 31 and 5 deaths at an attack rate of 19.4% (95% CI: 13.6%-26.4%) and 0.25% (95% CI: 0.1%-0.6%) in a satellite cow farm (farm A) and a core intensive farm (farm B), respectively. The rabies infection was confirmed by several laboratory tests, and rabies virus (RABV) strains SXBJ15 and SXYL15 were isolated and characterized from farm A and B, respectively. The two strains were found to have a high genomic sequence similarity to the dog-associated China clade I strains previously identified in the neighbouring area. SXBJ15 was shown to have a higher mouse pathogenicity (1.07) than SXYL15 (0.45). RABV was also detected in the saliva and salivary glands from the affected cattle. The potential causes were investigated on the farm, and the biosecurity scores were 20 and 64 (a full score of 82) for farms A and B, respectively. The rabies infection is likely to result from rabid free-roaming dogs (FRDs). On farm A with more cow deaths, the rabies transmission between animals can be attributed to the improper disposal of aborted foetuses and placental materials as a food source for rabid FRDs, high stocking density and drinking water sharing. Additionally, vaccinating cattle with a canine vaccine was shown to help stop the spread of rabies in herds. These results indicate that the occurrence of RABV on cattle farms can be prevented by improving biosecurity measures to control the entry of rural FRDs on the farm and immunizing farm cattle against rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendas , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Placenta , Gravidez , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108933, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278734

RESUMO

There is strong evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, originated from an animal reservoir. However, the exact mechanisms of emergence, the host species involved, and the risk to domestic and agricultural animals are largely unknown. Some domestic animal species, including cats, ferrets, and minks, have been demonstrated to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while others, such as pigs and chickens, are not. Importantly, the susceptibility of ruminants to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, even though they often live in close proximity to humans. We investigated the replication and tissue tropism of two different SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the respiratory tract of three farm animal species - cattle, sheep, and pigs - using respiratory ex vivo organ cultures (EVOCs). We demonstrate that the respiratory tissues of cattle and sheep, but not of pigs, sustain viral replication in vitro of both isolates and that SARS-CoV-2 is associated to ACE2-expressing cells of the respiratory tract of both ruminant species. Intriguingly, a SARS-CoV-2 isolate containing an amino acid substitution at site 614 of the spike protein (mutation D614G) replicated at higher magnitude in ex vivo tissues of both ruminant species, supporting previous results obtained using human cells. These results suggest that additional in vivo experiments involving several ruminant species are warranted to determine their potential role in the epidemiology of this virus.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Ruminantes/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Tropismo Viral , Replicação Viral , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Bovinos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Ovinos/virologia , Suínos/virologia
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06914, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1340359

RESUMO

HoBi-like pestiviruses (HoBiPeV) constitute a novel group of bovine pestiviruses, genetically and antigenically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2. Recent data shows that HoBiPeV are endemic among Brazilian cattle, yet bovine reproductive/respiratory vaccines contain only BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. The present study investigated the neutralizing antibody response against these pestiviruses induced by two commercial vaccines (VA = attenuated, VI = inactivated) and by three experimental, replicative, vaccine formulations (VAC1 = monovalent, BVDV-1; VAC2 = bivalent, BVDV-1 + BVDV-2; VAC3 = trivalent, BVDV-1 + BVDV-2 and HoBiPeV). Seronegative beef calves were immunized once (replicative vaccines) or twice (inactivated vaccine) and serum samples were tested by virus-neutralization (VN) 30 days after vaccination (dpv) (replicative vaccines) or 30 days after the second dose (VI). We considered a threshold VN titer of ≥60 indicative of protection against clinical disease. At 30 dpv, VA induced protective titers against BVDV-2 in 7/7 animals (GMT=289.8) and against BVDV-1 and HoBiPeV in 5/7 animals (GMTs=97.5 and 80, respectively). VI induced protective titers against BVDV-1 in 1/7 animal (GMT=16.4), 2/7 animals against BVDV-2 (GMT=53.8) and in none of the calves against HoBiPeV (GMT=12.2). When a pool of sera of each vaccine group was tested against individual Brazilian isolates, VA induced protective titers against 3/7 BVDV-1 isolates, to 9/10 (BVDV-2) and 1/8 (HoBiPeV); VI induced protective titers against 1/7 (BVDV-1), 1/10 (BVDV-2) and none (0/8) HoBiPeV isolates. The experimental vaccine VAC1 induced protective titers against BVDV-1 in 9/9 animals (GMT=320) but in no animal against BVDV-2 or HoBiPeV (GMT<10). VAC2 induced protective titers to BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in 9/9 animals (GMTs=160 and 640, respectively), and against HoBiPeV in 7/9 animals (GMT=108.5). Finally, VAC3 induced protective titers in all animals against BVDV-1 (GMT=234.3), BVDV-2 (294.9) and HoBiPeV (201.1). Testing the pool of sera against pestivirus isolates, VAC1 induced titers ≥ 60 against 4/7 BVDV-1 but to none BVDV-2/HoBiPeV isolate; VAC2 induced protective titers against 4/7 BVDV-1; 10/10 BVDV-2 and 2/8 HoBiPeV; VAC3 induced protective titers against all BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and HoBiPeV isolates. These results indicate that vaccines composed by BVDV-1+BVDV-2, especially those containing inactivated virus, may not induce serological response against a variety of HoBiPeV isolates. Thus, the need of inclusion of HoBiPeV in vaccine formulations should be considered.(AU)


Os pestivírus HoBi-like (HoBiPeV) compõe um grupo novo de pestivírus de bovinos, genética e antigenicamente relacionados com os vírus da diarreia viral bovina 1 e 2 (BVDV-1, BVDV2). Dados recentes indicam que os HoBiPeV são endêmicos na população bovina do Brasil, mas as vacinas respiratórias e reprodutivas bovinas contêm apenas cepas de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2. O presente estudo investigou a atividade neutralizante contra estes pestivírus induzidas por duas vacinas comerciais (VA = atenuada, VI = inativada) e por três vacinas experimentais replicativas (VAC1 = monovalente, BVDV-1; VAC2 = bivalente, BVDV-1 + BVDV-2; VAC3 = trivalente, BVDV-1 + BVDV-2 e HoBiPeV). Bezerros soronegativos foram imunizados uma vez (vacinas replicativas) ou duas (vacina inativada) e amostras de soro foram testadas por vírus-neutralização (VN) 30 dias após a vacinação (dpv) (vacinas replicativas) ou 30 dias após a segunda dose (VI). Títulos neutralizantes ≥60 foram considerados indicativos de proteção contra doença clínica. Nesta data, a VA induziu títulos protetivos contra o BVDV-2 em 7/7 animais (GMT=289,8) e contra BVDV-1 e HoBiPeV em 5/7 animals (GMTs=97,5 e 80, respectivamente). VI induziu títulos protetores contra BVDV-1 em 1/7 animal (GMT=16,4), em 2/7 animais contra BVDV-2 (GMT=53,8) e em nenhum contra HoBiPeV (GMT=12,2). Quando um pool de soro de cada grupo vacinal foi testado frente a isolados Brasileiros, a VA induziu títulos protetores contra 3/7 isolados de BVDV-1, 9/10 (BVDV-2) e 1/8 (HoBiPeV); VI induziu títulos protetores em 1/7 contra BVDV-1, 1/10 (BVDV-2) e em nenhum (0/8) contra isolados de HoBiPeV. A VAC1 induziu títulos protetores contra BVDV-1 em 9/9 animais (GMT=320) mas em nenhum animal contra BVDV-2 ou HoBiPeV (GMT<10). VAC2 induziu títulos protetores contra BVDV-1e BVDV-2 em 9/9 animais (GMTs=160 e 640, respectivamente),e contra HoBiPeV em 7/9 animais (GMT=108,5). Finalmente, VAC3 induziu títulos protetores em todos os animais contra BVDV-1 (GMT=234,3), BVDV-2 (294,9) e HoBiPeV (201,1). No teste de pool de soro contra isolados de pestivírus, VAC1 induziu títulos ≥60 contra 4/7 BVDV-1 mas contra nenhum isolado de BVDV-2/HoBiPeV; VAC2 induziu títulos protetores contra 4/7 BVDV-1; 10/10 BVDV-2 e 2/8 HoBiPeV; VAC3 induziu títulos protetores contra todos BVDV-1, BVDV-2 e HoBiPeV. Esses resultados indicam que vacinas contendo apenas BVDV-1 BVDV-2, especialmente aquelas inativadas, podem não conferir resposta sorológica protetora contra vários isolados de HoBiPeV. Portanto, a necessidade de se incluir cepas de HoBiPeV nas vacinas deve ser considerada.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/virologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Pestivirus/química , Variação Antigênica
15.
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1344698

RESUMO

A serological survey was carried out to assess the frequency of leptospirosis, small ruminants lentivirus (SRLV), and brucellosis in small ruminant herds in the Recôncavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil, from February to December 2017. In four goat herds, 125 animals were tested for SRLV and leptospirosis, while in five sheep herds, 378 animals were tested for leptospirosis, brucellosis, and SRLV. Regarding leptospirosis, MAT detected 80% of goats and 15.34% of sheep seroreactive. Reactivity was most frequent to serogroups Autumnalis and Grippotyphosa in goats and sheep, respectively. Regarding SRLV, 8.8% of goats and 0.79% of sheep were reactive. Search for anti-B. ovis antibodies revealed 0.52% reactivity. In sheep, three animals showed simultaneous seroreactivity for SRLV and leptospirosis, while one animal had a serological response for brucellosis and leptospirosis. In goats, simultaneous seroreactivity for SRLV and leptospirosis was observed in only one animal. Leptospirosis was the most frequent of the three infectious diseases in investigated herds.(AU)


Foi realizado um inquérito sorológico para avaliar a frequência de ocorrência de leptospirose, lentiviroses de pequenos ruminantes (LVPR) e brucelose em rebanhos de pequenos ruminantes no Recôncavo Baiano, estado da Bahia, Brasil, no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2017. Em quatro rebanhos de caprinos, foram testados 125 animais para LVPR e leptospirose, enquanto em cinco rebanhos de ovinos, foram testados 378 animais para leptospirose, brucelose e LVPR. Em relação à leptospirose, 80% das cabras e 15,34% das ovelhas foram sororreativas. Os sorogrupos de Leptospira spp. predominantes foram Autumnalis e Grippotyphosa para caprinos e ovinos, respectivamente. Em relação as LVPR, 8,8% dos caprinos e 0,79% dos ovinos foram reativos. Adicionalmente, a pesquisa de anticorpos Anti-B. ovis revelou 0,52% de ovinos reativos. Em ovinos, três animais apresentaram sororreatividade simultânea para LVPR e leptospirose, enquanto um animal teve resposta sorológica para brucelose e leptospirose. Em caprinos, sororreatividade simultânea para LVPR e leptospirose foi observada em apenas um animal. A leptospirose foi a doença infecciosa mais frequente nos rebanhos investigados.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Bovinos/virologia , Testes Sorológicos , Infecções por Lentivirus/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Artrite
16.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339352

RESUMO

Microbial RNA is detectable in host samples by aligning unmapped reads from RNA sequencing against taxon reference sequences, generating a score proportional to the microbial load. An RNA-Seq data analysis showed that 83.5% of leukocyte samples from six dairy herds in different EU countries contained bovine herpes virus-6 (BoHV-6). Phenotypic data on milk production, metabolic function, and disease collected during their first 50 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows with low (1-200 and n = 114) or high (201-1175 and n = 24) BoHV-6 scores. There were no differences in milk production parameters, but high score cows had numerically fewer incidences of clinical mastitis (4.2% vs. 12.2%) and uterine disease (54.5% vs. 62.7%). Their metabolic status was worse, based on measurements of IGF-1 and various metabolites in blood and milk. A comparison of the global leukocyte transcriptome between high and low BoHV-6 score cows at around 14 DIM yielded 485 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The top pathway from Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was the immune system process. Down-regulated genes in the high BoHV-6 cows included those encoding proteins involved in viral detection (DDX6 and DDX58), interferon response, and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. This suggested that BoHV-6 may largely evade viral detection and that it does not cause clinical disease in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/virologia , Gammaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma , Animais , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Fenótipo , Prevalência
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 977-984, Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1155042

RESUMO

Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an infectious disease caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) that affects cattle worldwide. Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) was the reference test for EBL diagnosis for many years, but enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed higher sensitivity, was faster to perform, and resulted in an objective reading. However, the importation of ELISA kits is lengthy and expensive, and currently, no AGID kits are available in Brazil. The aim of this work was to standardize an indirect ELISA (iELISA) for EBL diagnosis using BLV antigens produced in Tadarida brasiliensis lung (Tb1Lu) cells, which are Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) free, unlike fetal lamb kidney (FLK) cells, currently used for this purpose. Following standardization, iELISA results were compared with those obtained by AGID and the commercial Chekit Leucose-Serum ELISA. Compared to AGID, iELISA had 94,44% sensitivity, 75.68% specificity, 79.10% positive predictive value (PPV) and 93.30% negative predictive value (NPV), with 84% concordance and a Kappa index of 0.699. Compared to the Chekit Leucose-Serum ELISA, iELISA showed 92.60% sensitivity, 87.09% specificity, 90.27% PPV and 90,00% NPV, with 90.27% concordance and a Kappa index of 0.801. Taking into account the high agreement with the traditional tests and the absence of non-specific reactions with BVDV, the developed assay could be used as diagnostic method to control EBL in Brazil.(AU)


A leucose enzoótica bovina (LEB) é uma doença infecciosa natural dos bovinos com distribuição mundial causada pelo "bovine leukemia virus" (BLV). A imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA) foi considerada por muitos anos o teste de eleição, porém ensaios imunoenzimáticos (ELISA) apresentam sensibilidade mais elevada e leitura mais rápida e objetiva. No entanto, a importação de kits de ELISA é um processo dispendioso e demorado, e atualmente não há kits de IDGA comercialmente disponíveis no Brasil. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi padronizar um ELISA indireto (iELISA) para diagnóstico da LEB utilizando antígenos produzidos a partir do cultivo do BLV em linhagem celular Tadarida brasiliensis "lung" (Tb1Lu) livre de "bovine viral diarrhea virus" (BVDV), diferentemente do que acontece com as linhagens "fetal lamb kidney" (FLK) atualmente utilizadas na produção desses antígenos para uso em ensaios sorológicos. Após a padronização do iELISA, os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos por IDGA e pelo ELISA comercial "Chekit Leucose-Serum". Comparado ao IDGA, o iELISA apresentou 94,44% de sensibilidade, 75,68% de especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) de 79,1% e valor preditivo negativo (VPN) de 93,3%, com concordância entre os testes de 84% e o índice Kappa 0,699. Quando comparado ao ELISA "Chekit Leucose-Serum", o iELISA apresentou sensibilidade de 92,6%, especificidade de 87,09%, VPP de 90,27% e VPN de 90%, com concordância de 90,27% e o índice Kappa 0,801. Portanto, devido à alta concordância com os testes tradicionais e ausência da ocorrência de reações inespecíficas com BVDV, o ensaio desenvolvido pode ser utilizado como ferramenta diagnóstica para o controle da LEB no Brasil.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/diagnóstico
18.
Virol J ; 17(1): 152, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae causes pseudocowpox in cattle worldwide and presents a zoonotic concern. Most poxviruses produce diseases of similar clinical signs in affected animals, which are impossible to differentiate clinically or by serology. It is, therefore, vital to use molecular assays to rapidly identify the causative agents of poxvirus infections. This study aimed to detect, diagnose, and characterize the causative agent of pox-like skin lesions in a cattle herd in Zambia, initially suspected to be infected with Lumpy Skin Disease virus. METHODS: We used a High-Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis assay to detect the PCPV genome and sequenced the major envelope protein (B2L gene) for comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Our field investigations showed cattle presenting atypical skin lesions and high morbidity within the herd. The laboratory diagnosis, based on the HRM assay revealed PCPV DNA in the samples. Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analyses confirmed PCPV in the samples and revealed genomic differences between samples collected in 2017 and 2018 from the same farm. CONCLUSION: Our work is the first documented report of PCPV in Zambia. It shows the strength of molecular methods to diagnose pox-like infections in cattle and discriminate between diseases causing similar clinical signs. This rapid and accurate diagnosis improves the response time for more accurate veterinary interventions.


Assuntos
Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Pseudovaríola das Vacas/genética , Vírus da Pseudovaríola das Vacas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Vírus da Pseudovaríola das Vacas/classificação , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 2979-2981, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034284

RESUMO

We inoculated 6 cattle with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and kept them together with 3 uninoculated cattle. We observed viral replication and specific seroreactivity in 2 inoculated animals, despite high levels of preexisting antibody titers against a bovine betacoronavirus. The in-contact animals did not become infected.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Bovinos/virologia , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão , Replicação Viral
20.
BMC Genet ; 21(Suppl 1): 70, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the biodiversity and properties of Bovine leukemia virus in Western Siberia. This paper explores the effect of different genotypes of the env gene of the cattle leukemia virus on hematological parameters of infected animals. The researchers focused on exploring the polymorphism of the env gene and, in doing so, discovered the new genotypes Ia and Ib, which differ from genotype I. Several hypotheses on the origin of the different genotypes in Siberia are discussed. RESULTS: We obtained varying length of the restriction fragments for genotypes I. Additionally using restrictase Hae III were received fragments was named genotype Ia, and genotype Ib. There are 2.57 ± 0.55% (20 out of 779) samples of genotype Ib which does not differ significantly from 1% (χ2 = 2.46). Other genotypes were observed in the cattle of Siberia as wild type genotypes (their frequency varied from 17.84 to 32.73%). The maximum viral load was observed in animals with the II and IV viral genotypes (1000-1400 viral particles per 1000 healthy cells), and the minimum viral load was observed animals with genotype Ib (from 700 to 900 viral particles per 1000 healthy cells). CONCLUSIONS: The probability of the direct introduction of genotype II from South America to Siberia is extremely small and it is more likely that the strain originated independently in an autonomous population with its distribution also occurring independently. A new variety of genotype I (Ib) was found, which can be both a neoplasm and a relict strain.


Assuntos
Bovinos/virologia , Genes env , Genótipo , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/genética , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sibéria
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