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1.
Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc ; 28(1): 57-58, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834650

RESUMO

Foreign body (FB) aspiration in adults is usually associated with predisposing risk factors. Clinical manifestations are immediate but less frequently it could lead to insidious lung damage, as demonstrated by the presented case. We present a case of unsuspected FB aspiration, mimicking an infection vs lung tumour. After left lower lobectomy, pathology revealed a foreign body (animal bone) at the origin of the lingular bronchus.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Corpos Estranhos , Adulto , Animais , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Pulmão , Traqueia
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 295-298, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605923

RESUMO

Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA), a common pediatric presentation to emergency departments, is still a public healthcare problem affecting children all over the world. There are several types of foreign bodies reported from different parts of the world, including both organic or nonorganic substances. Pica, another interesting clinical entity, is characterized by persistent eating of nonnutritive substances, which is inappropriate for the maturation stage of the individual. A 3-year-old pediatric patient was admitted to our emergency department with a 3-day history of coughing and new onset respiratory distress. A chest X-ray was performed and it showed a suspicious radiopaque foreign body in the localization of left bronchi. Urgent rigid bronchoscopy was performed. The foreign body in the left main bronchi was, surprisingly, a 0.5-1 cm diameter, irregularly shaped stone particle. The laboratory evaluations and patient history revealed the diagnosis of severe iron deficiency anemia and accompanying pica. Stone aspiration, as an FBA, is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of pica. Iron deficiency anemia accompanied by pica should be diagnosed and treated in the early stage of the disease because of their complications. According to our knowledge and literature search, this is the first case of stone aspiration as a complication of severe iron deficiency anemia and pica.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Broncoscopia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Pica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(5): 1477-1481, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A long-standing retained foreign body in the bronchus is unusual. In majority of cases, an adequate history is not obtained, the clinical picture is usually clouded by superadded pathological changes. CASE SERIES: We report three cases of long-standing foreign body in the airway who presented with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection. Examination of respiratory system revealed no significant abnormality. Chest radiograph was normal. CT scan of the chest was useful to indicate endobronchial opacity in the airway suggestive of a foreign body. The patients underwent rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia for successful removal of the foreign body. CONCLUSION: So the patients with non-resolving or recurrent lower respiratory symptoms in spite of medical treatment and without any obstructive findings must undergo diagnostic bronchoscopy evaluation and imaging.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos , Infecções Respiratórias , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Broncoscopia , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Traqueia
5.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(4): 762-765, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389572

RESUMO

We report successful engraftment by autologous transplantation of the bronchial wall of the resected specimen in extensive tracheobronchial resection with left pneumonectomy. Since the adenoid cystic carcinoma had spread beyond the carina to the right bronchus, we resected three rings of tracheal cartilage and three rings of left main bronchus cartilage. Reconstruction was performed using the bronchial wall of the resected specimen to relieve tension on the anastomosis. No stricture or recurrence was observed four years after the operation. Further research relating to maximization of blood flow to the reconstructed tissue based on engraftment area and shape is required.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Brônquicas , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Autoenxertos , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Brônquios/cirurgia , Neoplasias Brônquicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Brônquicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Pneumonectomia , Traqueia/cirurgia , Transplante Autólogo
7.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(11): 947-952, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137861

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of non-tuberculous mycobacterium(NTM) pulmonary disease complicated with tracheobronchial lesions. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2018, there were 1 006 patients who were admitted to Guangzhou Chest Hospital for the first time and received examination by bronchoscopy. A total of 89 patients with complete data were selected, including 40 males and 49 females, aged 20 to 85 years, with 46 patients (52%) aged 60 years or older. The clinical symptoms and signs of the patients were analyzed with chest imaging, bronchoscopy and pathological examination results. Comparisons between groups were made by Chi-square test and t test. Results: The number of patients with NTM complicated with tracheobronchial lesions accounted for 8.9%(89/1 006) of those hospitalized with NTM and received bronchoscopy during the same period. Clinical symptoms included cough and sputum (89/89), different degrees of hemoptysis or blood sputum (52/89), and shortness of breath (50/89). Chest CT showed that 72 cases (72/89, 81%) had lung lesions involving more than 3 lung fields, and 83 cases (93%) had bronchiectasis and 63 cases (63/89, 71%) with cavities. Pulmonary atelectasis was shown in 45 cases (45/89, 51%). By bronchoscopy, 39 cases (39/89, 44%) were diagnosed as tuberculous lesions involving bilateral upper bronchi, while lesions of the right lower bronchus was found in 27 cases (27/89, 30%).The percentage of patients with multilobar bronchial involvement was 50.6%(45/89). The morphological characteristics of the bronchial lesions included scar stenosis or atresia in 63 cases (63/89, 71%), hyperemia and edema in 46 cases (46/89, 52%), and multiple types of lesions in 48 cases (48/89, 54%). Conclusions: Patients with NTM lung disease complicated with tracheobronchial inflammatory lesions did not have specific manifestations clinically. Lung lesions are extensive, often accompanied by bronchiectasis and cavity formation. Endoscopic changes were mostly manifested as multilobar tracheobronchial involvement characterized by scar stenosis, congestion and edema, mainly involving bilateral upper bronchi and the right lower bronchus.


Assuntos
Brônquios/patologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/patologia , Traqueia/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Broncoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093775

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the Right Upper Lobe Bronchus Angle (RUL-BA) on chest CT in patients with Stage 4 sarcoidosis and compare to others with non-fibrotic sarcoidosis. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for review of all chest CT scans performed from January 2015 through December 2017 that contained the word sarcoidosis using the computer program Montage. The most recent CT scans of 633 people were reviewed. The patients' age and sex at the time of their most recent CT scan were recorded. The radiographic diagnosis and the Right Upper Lobe Bronchus Angle (RUL-BA) were determined by a chest radiologist with 20 years of experience. Results: The RUL-BA increased with Stage 4 sarcoidosis, measuring on average 104 degrees, compared to the average angle of 88 degrees for those without fibrotic sarcoid. More often men's CT scans exhibited the earlier stages of sarcoidosis, and a higher number of women's scans showed fibrotic sarcoidosis. As would be expected, scans with advanced disease were typically from older patients; however, there was no correlation between age and degree of fibrosis as measured by increasing RUL-BA. Conclusion: The RUL-BA assists radiologists in differentiating fibrotic sarcoidosis from non-fibrotic sarcoidosis. Further research will determine if the RUL-BA measurement can help differentiate fibrotic sarcoid from other fibrotic lung diseases and if the angle can be used to follow disease progression. (Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2020; 37 (2): 99-103).


Assuntos
Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859619

RESUMO

We report the case of a bronchial foreign body, following a tracheostomy site swab for SARS-CoV-2, aiming to raise awareness and vigilance. A qualified nurse was performing a routine SARS-CoV-2 swab on a 51-year-old woman, fitted with a tracheostomy in the recent past following a craniotomy. This was part of the discharging protocol to a nursing home. During the sampling, part of the swab stylet snapped and was inadvertently dropped through the tracheostomy site. Initial CT imaging was reported as showing no signs of a foreign body but some inflammatory changes. Bedside flexible endoscopy through the tracheostomy site revealed the swab in a right lobar bronchus. This was subsequently removed by flexible bronchoscopy. This case highlights the need for clear guidance on how samples for SARS-CoV-2 are taken from patients with front of neck airways (laryngectomy/tracheοstomy) and the potential pitfalls involved.


Assuntos
Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Traqueostomia , Betacoronavirus , Brônquios/cirurgia , Broncoscopia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Manejo de Espécimes/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 165, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is a rapid, cost effective and safe procedure. AIM: To analyze demographic information and endoscopic findings in adult patients with airway foreign body aspiration and its removal. METHODS: Fifty-seven adults (40 males, 17 females; average age 40 years old) with airway foreign body aspiration were analyzed. Cough (37, 65%) was the most common clinical presentation. The most common foreign body was bone followed by dental prosthesis and food debris. RESULTS: In the current study, 42 out of the 57 (74%) airway foreign bodies were successfully removed under flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. However, it was failed in 15 patients and thus, rigid bronchoscopy was used to remove foreign bodies successfully in 13 of the 15 patients. Thoracotomy was performed for the 2 patients whose foreign body removal was unsuccessful even with rigid bronchoscopy. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current study revealed that flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of adult airway foreign bodies in the majority of cases. Rigid bronchoscopy can be a backup procedure in case flexible bronchoscopy is failed.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Corpos Estranhos , Aspiração Respiratória/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Brônquios/cirurgia , Broncoscopia/instrumentação , Broncoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aspiração Respiratória/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare objective and subjective image quality of bronchial structures between a 512-pixel and a 1024-pixel image matrix for chest CT in phantoms and in patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, a two-size chest phantom was imaged at two radiation doses on a 192-slice CT scanner. Datasets were reconstructed with 512-, 768-, and 1024-pixel image matrices and a sharp reconstruction kernel (Bl64). Image sharpness and normalized noise power spectrum (nNPS) were quantified. Second, chest CT images of 100 patients were reconstructed with 512- and 1024-pixel matrices and two blinded readers independently assessed objective and subjective image quality. In each patient dataset, the highest number of visible bronchi was counted for each lobe of the right lung. A linear mixed effects model was applied in the phantom study and a Welch's t-test in the patient study. RESULTS: Objective image sharpness and image noise increased with increasing matrix size and were highest for the 1024-matrix in phantoms and patients (all, P<0.001). nNPS was comparable among the three matrices. Objective image noise was on average 16% higher for the 1024-matrix compared to the 512-matrix in patients (P<0.0001). Subjective evaluation in patients yielded improved sharpness but increased image noise for the 1024- compared to the 512-matrix (both, P<0.001). There was no significant difference between highest-order visible bronchi (P>0.07) and the overall bronchial image quality between the two matrices (P>0.22). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated superior image sharpness and higher image noise for a 1024- compared to a 512-pixel matrix, while there was no significant difference in the depiction and subjective image quality of bronchial structures for chest CT.


Assuntos
Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagens de Fantasmas , Doses de Radiação , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/normas , Radiografia Torácica/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas
14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536069

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the measurement of small airways by high-resolution CT and image post-processing software. Screen and analyze the reconstructed airway parameters in order to find the best imaging biomarker parameters of small airway changes and calculate the reference value range; meanwhile, explore its influencing factors. Methods: From a water plant and a medical school, 169 cases of the general population aged 20 to 60 were selected as research objects, and questionnaire surveys and CT tests were performed, and CT data were reconstructed with image post-processing software. The reference value range of the general population was evaluated, and a linear mixed effect model was used to adjust the age, gender, height, BMI, and smoking status, and analyze the influencing factors of airway parameters. Results: The ratio of sixth-grade tracheal wall area to total tracheal area in the Left B1+2 to carina was (53.01±13.35) %, Left B9 to carina was (50.44±12.98) %, Right B1 to carina was (52.73±12.22) %, and Right B9 to carina was (52.93±11.85) %. The ratio of nineth-grade tracheal wall area to total tracheal area in the Left B1+2 to carina was (44.08±14.66) %, Left B9 to carina was (42.44±15.89) %, Right B1 to carina was (46.51±14.03) %, and Right B9 to carina is (43.54±15.87) %. BMI affect the area of the tracheal wall, all p value<0.05. Conclusion: High-resolution CT small airway morphology can make a preliminary assessment of the susceptible population of small airway-related diseases based on a range of reference values, and prevent and control it in combination with influencing factors.


Assuntos
Brônquios , Traqueia , Adulto , Brônquios/anatomia & histologia , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Traqueia/anatomia & histologia , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 130, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvage surgery has been frequently performed, increasing the opportunity to actively perform surgery for recurrence after a function-preserving operation. However, re-operation after airway reconstruction surgery on the proximal side and the effect of prior treatment, such as radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, make the operation more difficult. In addition, cases of sleeve pneumonectomy after sleeve lobectomy with bronchoplasty are uncommon. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old lung cancer patient underwent right upper sleeve lobectomy with bronchoplasty combined with perioperative chemotherapy in 2007. A new undiagnosed right hilar mass that appeared 9 years post-operation showed a temporary response to radiotherapy but progressed thereafter. Sleeve pneumonectomy was completed 14 months after radiotherapy by the following procedures: dividing the right pulmonary artery at the proximal site under median sternotomy and then reconstructing the bronchus by telescoping the left main bronchus into the distal trachea after pneumonectomy under posterolateral thoracotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Sleeve pneumonectomy for recurrent lung cancer could be safely performed under good vision using a two-stage approach as salvage surgery, even in high-risk patients who received various treatments and proximal airway reconstruction.


Assuntos
Brônquios/cirurgia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia , Idoso , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Terapia de Salvação , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Traqueia/cirurgia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20246, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481391

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Left bronchial isomerism is generally associated with abnormal arrangement of the atrium and abdominal viscera; therefore, its diagnosis is confirmed in early childhood. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here we report a rare case involving a 36-year-old man with isolated left bronchial isomerism that presented as an asymptomatic severe obstructive ventilatory disturbance during pulmonary function tests performed as part of routine assessments for an orbital wall fracture. The patient was a current smoker and did not show any respiratory symptoms. DIAGNOSIS: Chest computed tomography revealed left bronchial isomerism, and further tests showed that there was no involvement of other organs. INTERVENTIONS: We recommended smoking cessation and the long-term use of an inhaled long-acting bronchodilator. OUTCOMES: The findings from this case highlight the causative role of left bronchial isomerism in asymptomatic adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. LESSONS: Physicians should consider this condition as a cause of obstructive ventilatory disturbances in asymptomatic adult patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Brônquios/anormalidades , Achados Incidentais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 125, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cluster of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia were discharged from hospitals in Wuhan, China. We aimed to determine the cumulative percentage of complete radiological resolution at each time point, to explore the relevant affecting factors, and to describe the chest CT findings at different time points after hospital discharge. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia confirmed by RT-PCR who were discharged consecutively from the hospital between 5 February 2020 and 10 March 2020 and who underwent serial chest CT scans on schedule were enrolled. The radiological characteristics of all patients were collected and analysed. The total CT score was the sum of non-GGO involvement determined at discharge. Afterwards, all patients underwent chest CT scans during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks after discharge. Imaging features and distributions were analysed across different time points. RESULTS: A total of 149 patients who completed all CT scans were evaluated; there were 67 (45.0%) men and 82 (55.0%) women, with a median age of 43 years old (IQR 36-56). The cumulative percentage of complete radiological resolution was 8.1% (12 patients), 41.6% (62), 50.3% (75), and 53.0% (79) at discharge and during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks after discharge, respectively. Patients ≤44 years old showed a significantly higher cumulative percentage of complete radiological resolution than patients > 44 years old at the 3-week follow-up. The predominant patterns of abnormalities observed at discharge were ground-glass opacity (GGO) (125 [83.9%]), fibrous stripe (81 [54.4%]), and thickening of the adjacent pleura (33 [22.1%]). The positive count of GGO, fibrous stripe and thickening of the adjacent pleura gradually decreased, while GGO and fibrous stripe showed obvious resolution during the first week and the third week after discharge, respectively. "Tinted" sign and bronchovascular bundle distortion as two special features were discovered during the evolution. CONCLUSION: Lung lesions in COVID-19 pneumonia patients can be absorbed completely during short-term follow-up with no sequelae. Two weeks after discharge might be the optimal time point for early radiological estimation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pleura/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Bras Pneumol ; 46(2): e20180183, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in non-neoplastic patients with isolated intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (IL). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with isolated IL referred for EBUS-TBNA. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of granulomatous, reactive, and neoplastic lymphadenopathy. In cases of nonspecific granulomas, reactive lymphadenopathy, or inconclusive results, a definitive diagnosis was established by other diagnostic procedures or during a follow-up period of at least 18 months. RESULTS: Among the 58 patients included in the study, EBUS-TBNA established a diagnosis of granulomatous disease in 22 (38%), reactive lymphadenopathy in 15 (26%), cancer in 8 (14%), and other diseases in 3 (5%). Results were inconclusive in 10 (17%), the diagnosis being established by other bronchoscopic procedures in 2 (20%) and by surgical procedures in 8 (80%). A final diagnosis of reactive lymphadenopathy was established in 12. Of those, 11 (92%) had their diagnosis confirmed during follow-up and 1 (8%) had their diagnosis confirmed by mediastinoscopy. In another 3, a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis or neoplasm was established. For the diagnosis of granulomatous disease, neoplasms, and reactive lymphadenopathy, EBUS-TBNA was found to have a sensitivity of 73%, 68%, and 92%, respectively; a specificity of 100%, 100%, and 93%, respectively; an accuracy of 86%, 93%, and 93%, respectively; a PPV of 100%, 100%, and 80%, respectively; and an NPV of 78%, 92%, and 98%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In non-neoplastic patients, granulomatous disease and reactive lymphadenopathy appear to be common causes of isolated IL. EBUS-TBNA shows promising results as a first-line minimally invasive diagnostic procedure. The results obtained by EBUS-TBNA can be optimized by examining clinical and radiological findings during follow-up or by comparison with the results obtained with other bronchoscopic methods.


Assuntos
Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Broncoscopia , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Brônquios/patologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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