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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48252

RESUMO

O Boletim do Observatório Covid-19 Fiocruz, divulgado nesta sexta-feira (4/6), constatou tendência de crescimento de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave (SRAG) em 12 estados, além do Distrito Federal, na Semana Epidemiológica (SE) 21, período de 23 a 29 de maio.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gestantes
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062783

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern, and the main measures to contain the spread of the coronavirus causing COVID-19 were social distancing, quarantine, and self-isolation. Although these policies are effective in containing the spread of the virus, they might represent a challenge to psychological well-being, increasing levels of depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. AIMS: We explored the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms during COVID-19 restrictions and associations with sociodemographic factors in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: Data of a total of 936 Brazilian adults (68.2% women) aged 18 to 77 years old (M = 38.95, SD = 13.91) were collected through an online survey. RESULTS: In general, we observed a frequency of 17.36% for severe anxiety and 66.13% for severe depression symptoms, in which younger participants (18-39 years old) and women showed higher scores in anxiety and depression scales compared to older age groups. Logistic regressions showed that women were more likely to present severe symptoms of anxiety (20.4%) compared to men (10.9%), as well as respondents in the educational sector (24.3%) compared to those in the health sector (10%). CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the importance of mental health professionals in developing strategies to help younger adults to mitigate the effects of social restriction.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252238, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the excess of deaths by specific causes, in the first half of 2020 in the city of São Paulo-Brazil, during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Ecological study conducted from 01/01 to 06/30 of 2019 and 2020. Population and mortality data were obtained from DATASUS. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) by age was calculated by comparing the standardized mortality rate in 2020 to that of 2019, for overall and specific mortality. The ratio between the standardized mortality rate due to COVID-19 in men as compared to women was calculated for 2020. Crude mortality rates were standardized using the direct method. RESULTS: COVID-19 was responsible for 94.4% of the excess deaths in São Paulo. In 2020 there was an increase in overall mortality observed among both men (SMR 1.3, 95% CI 1.17-1.42) and women (SMR 1.2, 95% CI 1.06-1.36) as well as a towards reduced mortality for all cancers. Mortality due to COVID-19 was twice as high for men as for women (SMR 2.1, 95% CI 1.67-2.59). There was an excess of deaths observed in men above 45 years of age, and in women from the age group of 60 to 79 years. CONCLUSION: There was an increase in overall mortality during the first six months of 2020 in São Paulo, which seems to be related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Chronic health conditions, such as cancer and other non-communicable diseases, should not be disregarded.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210012, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in the lifestyles of Brazilian adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with adolescents who participated in the survey "ConVid Adolescentes - Pesquisa de Comportamentos". The indicators related to lifestyles before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated: consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, physical activity and sedentary behavior, smoking and consumption of alcohol. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the total population and according to sex and age group. RESULTS: A total of 9,470 adolescents participated in the study. During the period of social distancing, there was an increase in the prevalence of vegetables consumption (from 27.34 to 30.5%), frozen foods (from 13.26 to 17.3%), chocolates and sweets (from 48.58 to 52.51%), and time in front of screens (from 44.57 to 70.15%). On the other hand, there was a decrease in the practice of physical activity (from 28.70 to 15.74%) and in the consumption of alcohol (from 17.72 to 12.77%). Differences were observed according to sex and age group. CONCLUSION: The results show changes in the lifestyle of adolescents and an increase in health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105594

RESUMO

This article discusses the epidemic situation of Covid-19 in Brazil, in the face of the emergence of a new strain called P.1, which is more transmissible and may be associated with reinfection. Given the collapse of hospital care in Manaus in January 2021 and the results of three recent preprints, each that reports increased transmissibility of the P.1 variant, we propose some urgent measures. Genomic surveillance based on multi-step diagnostics, starting with RT-PCR type tests and up to sequencing, should be established. Efforts to identify reinfections associated with this variant and the update of its definition in protocols should be prioritized, and studies on the efficacy of currently available vaccines in Brazil concerning the new variant should be conducted. We also propose improving the Brazilian health surveillance system such that genomic surveillance is coordinated and thereby better able to respond to future emergencies in a more timely fashion. We call on the public agents involved in health surveillance to share data and information regarding the epidemic in a clear, fast and transparent way. Finally, we propose a greater engagement in inter-institutional cooperation of all those involved in the response and production of knowledge about the pandemic in our country.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil/epidemiologia , Emergências , Humanos , Saúde Pública
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210033, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usual consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and its association with body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), age, and sex in adults living in Brasília City, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: A total of 506 individuals aged ≥ 20 years old were interviewed. Dietary intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24-h food recalls. The distributions of usual intakes of energy and the amount of UPF were estimated using the Iowa State University method. The association of age, BMI, PA, and sex with the proportions of UPF consumption (%Kcal and %grams) was investigated with linear regression models. RESULTS: UPF represented 9.2% of the total dietary consumption (grams/day) and 25% of total energy intake. Compared to eutrophic, subjects with obesity consumed a higher percentage of UPF in grams, whereas subjects with overweight had a higher percentage of UPF in kilocalories. The share of UPF in energy intake was lower in male than female individuals, and PA and age were inversely associated with UPF consumption. CONCLUSION: Careful monitoring of intake of UPF is recommended. Its consumption should be reduced among people with overweight/obesity and sedentary individuals. Appropriate choices for methods to evaluate the usual distribution of intake will strengthen future analysis of UPF assessment.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the incidence and proportional lethality of human leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, between 2007 and 2016, according to sociodemographic factors and characteristics of the disease, and to assess the temporal trends of incidence, according to age group and region of residence. METHODS: Proportional distributions of leptospirosis cases of residents in the municipality were built and regression models with a Binomial Negative response were adjusted. RESULTS: 2,201 cases of leptospirosis were registered, most of them being males (82%), aged between 20 to 59 years (64.6%), white (39%) or brown (32.8%), residing in the South (27.8%), East (23.8%) and North (18.5%) regions. The overall lethality was 15.1%. The risk was higher in the 20 to 59 age group. There was a downward trend in incidence in all age groups and regions, estimated at 5.6% per year. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the downward trend in incidence, leptospirosis is a serious disease with high lethality, affecting mainly male individuals in the age groups considered economically active and living in the peripheral regions of the municipality.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00332021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parasitic infections are considered a major public health problem due to their associated morbimortality and negative impact on physical and intellectual development, especially in the at-risk pediatric group. Periodic prophylactic administration of antiparasitic agents against soil-transmitted helminths is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to control parasitic infections and disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Brazil. METHODS: We performed a systematic review by searching the literature found in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases, followed by a meta-analysis of the proportions from studies published in English, Portuguese, and/or Spanish from January 2000 to May 2018. This systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018096214). RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (protozoa and/or helminths) in Brazil was 46% (confidence interval: 39-54%), with 99% heterogeneity. Prevalence varied by region: 37%, 51%, 50%, 58%, and 41% in the Southeast, South, Northeast, North, and Central-West regions, respectively. Most studies (32/40) evaluated children (<18 years) and found an average prevalence of 51%. Children also had the highest prevalence in all four regions: Central-West (65%), South (65%), North (58%), Northeast (53%), and Southeast (37%). However, most studies evaluated specific populations, which may have created selection bias. Presumably, this review of intestinal parasitic diseases in Brazil includes the most studies and the largest population ever considered. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections is high in Brazil, and anthelmintic drugs should be administered periodically as a prophylactic measure, as recommended by the WHO.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00402021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD) at an infectious disease referral center. Changes in patient profiles over time were also evaluated. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with CD from November 1986-December 2019. All patients underwent an evaluation protocol that included sociodemographic profile; epidemiological history; anamnesis; and physical, cardiologic, and digestive examinations. Trend differences for each 5-year period from 1986 to 2019 were tested using a nonparametric trend test for continuous and generalized linear models with binomial distribution for categorical variables. RESULTS: A total of 2,168 patients (52.2% women) were included, with a mean age of 47.8 years old. White patients with low levels of education predominated. The reported transmission mode was vectorial in 90.2% of cases. The majority came from areas with a high prevalence (52.2%) and morbidity (67.8%) of CD. The most common clinical presentation was the indeterminate form (44.9%). The number of patients referred gradually decreased and the age at admission increased during the study period, as did the patients' levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical profile of CD is characterized by a predominance of the indeterminate form of the disease. Regarding the patients who were followed up at the referral center, there was a progressive increase in the mean age and a concomitant decrease in the number of new patients. This reflects the successful control of vector and transfusion transmission in Brazil as well as the aging population of patients with CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e01972021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105632

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates the impact of social distancing on the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Using data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, we conducted an interrupted time series analysis to estimate the impact of lockdown on the number of daily cases of COVID-19 in Araraquara, São Paulo. RESULTS: Policy changes neutralized the positive trend of the disease. To provide more reliable evidence, we added two control cases from Araçatuba and São Carlos to the regression model, and the results remained consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Social distancing interventions are effective tools for flattening epidemic curves.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105675

RESUMO

Scorpionic accidents are a major public health problem due to the high occurrence with potential seriousness. In this manner, the research aimed to analyze the occurrence of scorpionic accidents in a municipality in the northeastern of Brazil. An exploratory, descriptive study was made, with a quantitative approach, using secondary data which was gotten from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN), from 2008 to 2018. Data such as neighborhood, presence of street markets were also used, and the existence of sanitation and climatic data such as temperature and season. Geoprocessing was used to identify possible changes in the environment. In the analyzed period, 9,330 cases of scorpion accidents were recorded, with an average of 848 annual notifications. Scorpionic accidents occurred more frequently in women (5,686; 60.94%). Individuals aged 20 to 29 years (1.727; 18.51%) were more frequent to scorpion stings. Regarding the body parts where the stings were made, the highlights were on the foot (3.515; 37.67%) followed by the hand (2.818; 30.20%). No statistically significant relation was observed between climatic factors and scorpionic accidents. However, the high number of cases of scorpionic accidents was observed in the last 11 years studied. It was evident that during the study period there was no statistical relationship when climatic factors were correlated to scorpionic accidents. On its turn, when it was verified the results of the geoprocessing analysis, it was seen that anthropic factors have been motivating the potentiation of the occurrence of these accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Escorpiões , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238383, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105676

RESUMO

In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has become a public health concern due to its high incidence and lethality. This study aimed to analyze the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects of AVL in a state of Brazil. This descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, and quantitative study of notified cases of AVL was carried out in Alagoas between 2008 and 2017 from data obtained from DATASUS/SINAN. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed using absolute values ​​and valid percentages, using tables and/or graphs. Data processing was performed using Stata 12.0®. Results with P <0.05 were considered statistically significant. During the study period, 352 cases of AVL were reported, of which 6.82% died and 38.92% had met a cure criterion. Male patients were predominant (66.76%). Of the total infected patients, 16.76% had attended only the 1st to the 4th grades, with those most affected aged 1 to 4 years (28.69%). Laboratory diagnostic criteria were most commonly used to confirm the notified cases (76.42%), whereas 51.70% and 8.52% of the cases had positive parasitological and immunofluorescence diagnoses, respectively. Finally, the study showed a higher prevalence of the disease in children, men and in rural residents. Although with low lethality, the expressive frequency of AVL in the State of Alagoas was still verified, since there was an increase in the number of cases during the years of the study.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Laboratórios , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065154

RESUMO

Since the end of 2019, the world has been facing an unpredicted COVID-19 pandemic with consequences for the economy, environment, society, and health. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the risk of death, bringing unbearable psychological pressure upon people worldwide. For celiac patients, the pandemic may represent an additional burden concerning the inherent aspects of celiac disease (CD) that compromise these individuals' quality of life (QoL). Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate Brazilian celiac patients' QoL during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by its outbreak and rapid spread and subsequent restrictive measures in addition to the dietary restrictions and other burdens caused by CD. This country-wide cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered instrument previously validated in Brazilian-Portuguese to investigate the QoL of individuals with CD. Data collected through the online self-administration of the Brazilian version of the celiac disease quality of life questionnaire (CDQ) comprised 674 CD individuals' responses. Although pandemics have historically posed a challenge for Brazilian population, this period was not associated with a negative impact on Brazilian CD individuals' QoL. During the pandemic, the QoL of Brazilian's with CD was more affected by gastrointestinal aspects than emotions and social aspects and worries. Gender, age, marital status, having (or not) children, occupation, and a positive test for COVID-19 did not affect CD individuals' QoL. However, the study revealed a larger burden and diminished QoL for individuals not following a gluten-free diet and those using antidepressants. Additional research is necessary to verify how the length of the pandemic will affect celiac individuals and then compare those outcomes compare to the COVID-19 period and after.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Emoções , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067316

RESUMO

This article aims to reflect on the challenges affecting people experiencing homelessness in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, due the COVID-19 pandemic. Participatory research was carried out to identify data related to sociodemographic profile; strategies for survival; health and social care support; and access to services during the pandemic. The research methodology was co-designed with NGOs and people with lived experience of homelessness and involved conducting semi-structured questionnaires with 304 participants in 2020. The results highlighted the worsening of the situation of extreme vulnerability and poverty already experienced by this population before the pandemic. Key strategies led by Third Sector organizations to reduce the spread of the virus, to minimize the financial impact of lockdown, and to increase emotional support and information on COVID-19 were presented. The conclusions show the complexity of issues affecting these groups and the need for urgent response from public policies and Government support to guarantee their rights, dignity, and respect during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Brasil/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social
16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 35, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic of COVID-19 in northeastern Brazil, one of the regions most affected by the virus. METHODS: The official data for COVID-19, from March 2020 to March 2021 in the states of the Northeast Region (NE), were used. The analysis of capital cities and states for accumulated weekly cases and confirmed deaths was made using the JoinPoint Trend Analysis application. RESULTS: In one year, the Northeast region reported 22.9% of the cases and 21.5% of the deaths in the country due to COVID-19. At the beginning of the pandemic, all states showed a growing number of cases, first in the capitals and then in the interior. Following this wave, decreases are observed in all states and their capitals, but with many still reporting a large number of cases. In the middle of the 2nd semester of 2020 the number of cases begins to increase again simultaneously in states and their capitals-some at explosive speed-especially in late 2020 and early 2021. A similar pattern is observed in deaths, which exceed or approach the peak seen in the first wave. In the first wave, all capitals and northeastern states adopted intense isolation measures. Fortaleza, Recife and Teresina reached the highest isolation index of all capitals, close to 0.60. This index decreases, with a slight growth trend until the end of December. With the exception of Fortaleza and Salvador, the other capitals fell to less than 0.40. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian NE and the country are in increasingly complicated health, social and economic situations. It is necessary to speed up vaccinations and maintain non-pharmacological measures: face masks, social distancing measures and hygiene care, in addition to policies to protect workers who have lost their incomes and to subsidize small business owners.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 37, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the perceptions of pregnant women about COVID-19 and the prevalence of common mental disorders during the implemented social distancing period. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study using digital media, of pregnant women exposed to social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Common mental disorders were estimated using the modified Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) scale, and the feelings towards COVID-19 were assessed using the Fear of COVID-19 scale through telephone calls made in May 2020. COX multivariate regression models were used to verify the associations. RESULTS: Of the 1,041 pregnant women, 45.7% (95%CI: 42.7-48.8) had common mental disorders (CMD). All items of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale showed a significant association with the prevalence of CMD (p < 0.001). A CMD risk gradient was observed, going from a prevalence ratio of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.13-2.04) in pregnant women with two positive items to 2.70 (95%CI: 2.08-3.51) for those with four positive items. Early gestational age and the lack of prenatal care were also associated with CMD. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women was high during the period of social distancing and was aggravated by negative feelings towards COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describing the prevalence of chronic diseases and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors, evaluating the patterns of social distancing and the antibodies prevalence against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 symptoms in carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases. METHODS: Data from 77,075 individuals aged 20 to 59 from three steps of the EPICOVID-19 Brazil (a nationwide serological survey conducted between May and June, 2021) were assessed. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was examined by rapid tests. Self-reported prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, asthma, cancer, chronic kidney disease and heart disease were investigated. The prevalence of mask use, adherence to isolation measures and antibodies were evaluated separately amid carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases. The prevalence of symptoms was analyzed among carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases with antibodies. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one chronic disease was 43%, higher in the Southeast region, among white and indigenous individuals, women, less schooled and in lower socioeconomic position. The use of masks when leaving home was similar among carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases (98%). The proportion of participants who reported adherence to isolation measures was higher amid carriers (15.9%) than non-carriers (24.9%) of chronic diseases. The prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was similar amongst carriers and non-carriers (2.4% and 2.3%). The prevalence of cough, dyspnea, palpitations and myalgia was significantly higher among carriers, but the proportion of symptomatic patients was similar between groups. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chronic diseases in Brazil is high and the COVID-19 pandemic affects carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases similarly. Carriers present more severe forms of COVID-19 and higher prevalence of symptoms. Greater adherence to social distancing measures among chronic patients is disassociated from a lower incidence of COVID-19 in this group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069172

RESUMO

COVID-19 is considered by the World Health Organization to be a global public health emergency, which presents regional divergences that affect the epidemiological profile of the disease and are associated with political, economic, social and behavioral aspects. We aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the disease in the microregion of Uberlândia, Brazil, in order to determine risk factors that contributed to progression of SARS-CoV-2 virus. A cross-sectional study was conducted about micro- and macro-determinants combined with the significance analysis of suspected and confirmed cases in 18 municipalities during the epidemiological weeks (EW) 9 to 26. There were 34,046 notifications, of which 4935 (14.49%) people were diagnosed with COVID-19. Of these, 282 (5.71%) required hospital care and 40 (0.81%) died. Age and presence of associated comorbidities were decisive in the variations of incidence and lethality rates. In general, young people were the most affected and the elderly people, the most exposed to the serious and lethal form (p < 0.0001). Comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiopathies increased 33.5 times the death risk. The dispersion of the virus was centrifugal, in the inter as well as in the intra-municipal level. The disorderly implementation of municipal decrees applied in a decentralized manner in the municipalities seems to have contributed for the incidence rates increasing in the EW 25 and 26.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e022620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076050

RESUMO

Efforts to control a zoonotic disease such as visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum can be successful if they rely on comprehensive data on animal infection. In Bahia state, Brazil, human VL is endemic, yet some areas have no epidemiological data on canine L. infantum infection and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) to date. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study describing the spatial distribution and characterizing canine L. infantum infection in two districts of the municipality of Muritiba, where human cases have occurred. Brazilian official serodiagnostic protocol (ELISA and immunochromatographic tests), PCR and clinical examination were performed in 351 owned dogs. A seroprevalence of 15.7% (55/351) was found, and L. infantum identified in 88.8% (32/36) of PCR tested samples. Spatial distribution of positive dogs indicated infection in both urban and rural districts. There was no association between seropositivity and sex or breed, but dogs older than 2 years were 3.8 times more likely to be seropositive (95% CI 1.57 - 9.18) than younger dogs. Among seropositive dogs, 80% (44/55) had clinical manifestations of CanL: 75% (33/44) presented dermatopathy, 50% (22/44) emaciation, and 29.5% (13/44) ophthalmopathy. This is the first report on canine seroprevalence and natural L. infantum infection in Muritiba, Bahia.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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