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2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46891

RESUMO

Plataforma com dados indicadores sobre a mortalidade neonatal de 2000 a 2015. Agenda 2030 - objetivo 3 - Saúde e bem estar


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46892

RESUMO

Plataforma com dados indicadores sobre a taxa de incidência de tuberculose no Brasil Agenda 2030 - objetivo 3 - Saúde e bem estar


Assuntos
Tuberculose/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34440-34447, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637613

RESUMO

Water fluoridation is considered a cost-effective and practical method for controlling and preventing dental caries in the general population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dental health status and risk indicators for dental caries in adult Brazilian Indians without exposition to dental caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation. Decayed (DT), missing (MT), and filled (FT) permanent teeth (DMFT), as well as plaque index, unstimulated salivary flow rate, salivary buffering capacity, and fasting blood glucose were examined in 225 adult Indians. Smoking habits and sociodemographic data were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Drinking water samples from 10 Indian villages were analyzed for the natural fluoride concentration. The mean DMFT was 10.33 ± 6.91 (DT, 4.19 ± 3.99; MT, 4.99 ± 5.64; FT, 1.14 ± 1.75). DMFT index ≥ 9 was associated with age ≥ 35 years (p = 0.000), lower education (p = 0.03), and plaque index > 40% (p = 0.003). DT was associated only with plaque index (p = 0.03). MT was associated with age (p < 0.001) and plaque index (p = 0.01). FT was negatively associated with age (p = 0.02) and income (p = 0.02). Fluoride concentration varied from 0.01 to 0.07 mg/L and was not associated with dental health status (p ≥ 0.29). In conclusion, poorer dental health status was associated with older age, higher plaque index, and lower education and income levels. The fluoride level in the drinking water of Kiriri villages was lower than the level recommended for preventing dental caries. Water fluoridation may be recommended for this population.


Assuntos
Fluoretação , Fluoretos , Nível de Saúde , Grupos Populacionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190003.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe reference values for blood counts obtained from laboratory tests in the Brazilian adult population according to laboratory results from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), by gender, age group and skin color. METHODS: The initial sample consisted of 8,952 adults. To determine the reference values, individuals with prior diseases and outliers were excluded. Mean values, standard deviation and limits were stratified by gender, age group and skin color. RESULTS: For red blood cells, men presented a mean value of 5.0 million per mm3 (limits: 4.3-5.8) and women, 4.5 million per mm3 (limits: 3.9-5.1). Hemoglobin levels were higher among men with a mean of 14.9 g/dL (13.0-16.9), and in women, 13.2 g/dL (11.5-14.9). The mean number of white blood cells among men was 6.142/mm3 (2.843-9.440) and 6.426/mm3 (2.883-9.969) for women. Other parameters showed close values between the genders. Regarding age groups and skin color, mean values, standard deviation and limits of the exams presented small variations. CONCLUSION: Hematological reference values based on the national survey allow for the establishment of specific reference limits for gender, age and skin color. The results presented here may contribute to the establishment of better evidence and criteria for the care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Acta Med Port ; 32(6): 441-447, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis is defined as the use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV acquisition in uninfected individuals. Recognizing the increasing use of informal pre-exposure prophylaxis in Portugal, CheckpointLX, a community clinic targeted to men who have sex with men in Lisbon, Portugal, began offering counselling and follow-up services prior to formal introduction. This study aims to characterize pre-exposure prophylaxis users attending CheckpointLX before formal pre-exposure prophylaxis introduction in Portugal, and those who were referred to pre-exposure prophylaxis in the National Health Service following formal approval of pre-exposure prophylaxis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data was collected by peer counsellors between May 2015 and September 2018 and inserted in a database. Medical care followed the European AIDS Clinical Society recommendations for pre-exposure prophylaxis eligibility, initiation and follow-up. For formal pre-exposure prophylaxis, the General-Directorate for Health's Pre-exposure Prophylaxis guidelines checklist was used. RESULTS: Until the end of May 2018, CheckpointLX had a total of 90 appointments for wild pre-exposure prophylaxis, of which 64 (71%) were first time visits. As for the 380 service users referred to the National Health Service, most were Portuguese (n = 318, 84%), and the mean age was 31 (8.9) years old. Condomless sex in the last six months with partners of unknown HIV status was the most common eligibility criteria (n = 59, 83%). DISCUSSION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis delivery should be complemented with effective information on the importance of immunization and education on safer practices of drug administration, in the scope of broader preventive sexual health care. CONCLUSION: Much remains to be done in Portugal to ensure that pre-exposure prophylaxis is available to those who need it the most. Offering pre-exposure prophylaxis at community clinics could be a first step.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/etnologia , Lista de Checagem , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Especializados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/etnologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(8): 2308-2312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to conduct a linguistic validation of the velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) Effects on Life Outcome (VELO) instrument for use in Brazilian-Portuguese patients with VPI. METHODS: The original English version of the VELO instrument was translated into Brazilian-Portuguese, back-translated, and adapted among the Brazilian patients (n = 21) with VPI and their parents, based on the standardized guidelines for the cross-culture adaption process. Discrepancies in the forward and backward translation steps were computed. Comprehension rates were captured for each debriefing interview. The content validity index (CVI) per item (I-CVI) and of the scale (S-CVI universal agreement [S-CVI/UA] and averaging [S-CVI/Ave]) were calculated. RESULTS: Reconciliation of the 2 forward translations and the comparison between the back translation and the original VELO version resulted in some item wordings with discrepancies which were reviewed by the research team (translators, expert committee, and original developers of instrument). Three rounds of cognitive interviews also led to some revisions of wording. Comprehension rates of patients and their parents were 60% to 100%, 80% to 100%, and 100% in the first, second, and third rounds of cognitive interviews, respectively. The I-CVI, S-CVI/AU, and SCI/Ave for the Brazilian-Portuguese VELO version were 0.83 (or higher), 0.83 (or higher), and 0.97, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The linguistic validation process of the VELO instrument created a cross-culturally equivalent Brazilian-Portuguese version for use in Brazilian-Portuguese speaking patients with VPI.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Velofaríngea/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Humanos , Linguística , Pais , Portugal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 459, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-2) is endemic in several indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazon and molecular analyses have shown the exclusive presence of HTLV-2 subtype 2c among the indigenous groups of this geographical region. METHODS: The present study characterizes the prevalence of HTLV-2 infection in three new villages of the Xikrin tribe, in the Kayapo group, according to their distribution by sex and age. The study included 263 samples from individuals from the Kateté, Djujeko and Oodjã villages. Plasma samples were tested for the presence of anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Seropositive samples were confirmed using real-time PCR, nested PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: The serological and molecular results confirmed the sole presence of HTLV-2 in 77 (29%) samples, with a prevalence of 38% among women and 18% among men. In these communities, it was found that the prevalence of HTLV-2 infection increased with age. Nucleotide sequences (642 bp, 5'LTR) from eight samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by the neighbor-joining method to determine the viral subtype, which confirmed the presence of HTLV-2c. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study establish the presence of HTLV-2 infection in three new villages of the Xikrin tribe and confirm the high endemicity of the infection in the Kayapo indigenous group of the Brazilian Amazon.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/patogenicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/imunologia , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
10.
Haemophilia ; 25(4): e231-e239, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, none of the available assessment instruments to evaluate functional abilities for individuals with haemophilia has been translated and validated in Brazil. AIM: To translate, and test the construct validity, internal consistency and the reliability of the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL) for the Brazilian population with severe and moderate haemophilia (type A or B) and to investigate differences in the self-perception of functional abilities in patients adults with haemophilia classified according to the presence of joint bleeding and the performance of orthopaedic surgeries. METHODS: The translation and transcultural adaptation following the steps: (a) translation; (b) synthesis (consensual version); (c) back-translation; (d) review by the committee of experts; (e) pretest in the target population; and (f) final version of the instrument. Correlations between HAL scores and the scores of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were determined for construct validation. Reliability was tested using the test and retest method, and internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's α. RESULTS: The HAL-BR was applied to 52 individuals with haemophilia (34.51 ± 12.87 years). The process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation produced similar versions between the translations A moderate correlation was observed between HAL and the HAQ (r = -0.55) and WOMAC scores (r = -0.58). The reliability was ICC = 0.972, CI (0.917-0.997) ICC = 0.876, CI (0.631-0.978) for inter- and intra-examiners. No difference was found in the total HAL score between the groups with and without bleeding. The group subjected to surgery compared to the group of not subjected to surgery presented in the HAL domains worse function in 'lying down/sitting/kneeling/standing', 'self-care' and 'complex lower extremities activities' as well as in total HAL score. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the HAL was proven to be a valid and reliable evaluation tool for adults with haemophilia in Brazil.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A/psicologia , Linguagem , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Brasil/etnologia , Cultura , Feminino , Hemofilia A/etnologia , Hemofilia A/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 351-357, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of positive antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) according to sex, age strata, and presence of thyroid dysfunction using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thyroid hormone tests were obtained from each study participant at baseline. Levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured using a third-generation immunoenzymatic assay. Antithyroperoxidase antibodies were measured by electrochemiluminescence and were considered to be positive when ≥ 34 IU/mL. RESULTS: The prevalence of TPOAb among 13,503 study participants was 12%. Of participants with positive TPOAb, 69% were women. Almost 60% of the individuals with positive TPOAb were white. The presence of positive TPOAb was associated with the entire spectrum of thyroid diseases among women, but only with overt hyperthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism in men. CONCLUSION: The distribution of positive TPOAb across sex, race, age, and thyroid function in the ELSA-Brasil study is aligned with the worldwide prevalence of positive TPOAb reported in iodine-sufficient areas. In women, the presence of TPOAb was related to the entire spectrum of thyroid dysfunction, while in men, it was only related to the occurrence of overt thyroid disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/sangue , Iodeto Peroxidase/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brasil/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
12.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190036, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038617

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Racial density has not yet been explored in studies of racial inequalities in Brazil. Thisstudy identified categories of racial density in Brazilian cities and described the living and health context in these categories in 2000 and 2010, when demographic censuses were conducted. METHOD: Ecological study which used skin color or race information from the last two censuses to calculate racial density (the ratio of people aggregated to the same racial group) of the Brazilian cities each year. Four categories of racial density (Brown; Mixed-race, predominantly black; White/Caucasian; and Mixed-race, predominantly white). Socioeconomic, demographic and health indicators were described to each category. RESULTS: The categories of racial density captured important inequalities throughout the census and also indicated the continuance of worse living and health conditions in the cities composed by Browns and mixed-race people, predominantly Black; better conditions were indicated in cities where White/Caucasians are predominant. The cities, composed mainly of Browns and mixed-race people, predominantly Black, presented younger age structure, worse human development indexes, greater social vulnerability, income concentration, infant and premature mortality (<65 years) and lower life expectancy in both censuses, as compared to other cities. DISCUSSION: Similarly to other countries, the racial density reflected inequalities in the Brazilian living and health context as well as a time lag among the cities. CONCLUSION: The categories of racial density may contribute to social epidemiology and race relations studies in Brazil.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Expectativa de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(2): 157-163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is common in Brazil and is related to sun exposure, among other risk factors. There are no data on the incidence of malignant skin neoplasm in rural workers in western Paraná. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and profile of rural workers who were diagnosed with skin cancer at a reference service in Cascavel, western Paraná, in the last five years (2011-2016). METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out through a review of the anatomopathological reports of rural workers diagnosed with skin cancer at Cascavel Oncology Center (CEONC), in Cascavel. The following variables were collected: year of diagnosis, age, gender, injury location and histological subtype. RESULTS: A total of 681 cases of malignant epithelial neoplasia were identified, with a higher frequency in the 61-70 age group. Data analysis showed an increase of about 210% in the occurrence of skin cancers in the last 5 years. The cephalic region was the most affected, and the most common histological subtype was nodular basal cell carcinoma. There was no association between gender and location. STUDY LIMITATIONS: This is a retrospective study and analysis of a secondary data bank. CONCLUSION: This study is a regional estimation of the incidence of cutaneous neoplasms and provides evidence of a considerable increase in the number of diagnoses in rural workers from western Paraná, Brazil. Moreover, it is possible to conclude that the sample group studied is at risk of developing skin cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brasil/etnologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos
14.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (31): 57-80, enero-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004713

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo se ocupa da trajetória da Turma OK, grupo fundado em 1961, dedicado a promover a sociabilidade entre homens homossexuais no Rio de Janeiro. Procuro compreender a história desse grupo à luz das tensões entre diferentes processos sociais, identidades e classificações sexuais construídas e reconstruídas pelas turmas de "bichas" nas décadas de 1960 e 1970. Busco compreender também como essa associação passa de um grupo de sociabilidade de "homens homossexuais" da Zona Sul do Rio de Janeiro que fazem reuniões fechadas em apartamentos para um espaço de shows e encontros que pretende se afirmar como um "patrimônio da Lapa". O trabalho de pesquisa foi fundamentado em observação participante, pesquisa documental e entrevistas em profundidade.


Abstract This article analyzes the trajectory of the Turma OK group, founded in 1961 to promote sociability among homosexual men in Rio de Janeiro. The history of this group is understood in light of the tensions between different social processes, identities and sexual classifications constructed and reconstructed by the groups of "bichas" (or "queers") in the decades of 1960 and 1970. The passage of this association from a group of sociability for "homosexual men" from affluent areas of Rio de Janeiro who held closed meetings in apartments to a space of shows and meetings claiming to be a bohemian "Lapa heritage". The research is based on participant observation, document analysis and in-depth interviews.


Resumen Este artículo se ocupa de la trayectoria de la Turma OK. Buscamos comprender la historia de ese grupo a la luz de las tensiones entre diferentes procesos sociales, identidades y clasificaciones sexuales construidas y reconstruidas por las clases de "bichas" en las décadas de 1960 y 1970. Buscamos comprender también cómo esa asociación pasa de un grupo de sociabilidad de "hombres homosexuales" de la Zona Sur de Río de Janeiro que hacen reuniones cerradas en apartamentos para un espacio de shows y encuentros que pretende afirmarse como un "patrimonio de Lapa". El trabajo de investigación fue fundamentado en observación participante, investigación documental y entrevistas en profundidad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Características Culturais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(1): 57-63, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare infant mortality rates of indigenous and non-indigenous children according to microregions in Brazil. METHOD: The study was based on data from the 2010 Population Census and from the Mortality Information System. Rates and proportions were calculated using data from 558 microregions. RESULTS: Indigenous children presented a higher risk of dying before completing one year of age (60% higher compared to non-indigenous), and rates were higher in microregions with < 1%  of indigenous population. Seven out of 10 deaths were in children over one month of age and were mostly caused by infectious diseases. CONCLUSION: In general, indigenous children die mostly due to preventable causes. The study shows that there are important differences in the levels of infant mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous children in Brazil, even in geographical areas with increased presence of indigenous population.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180004, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding racial disparities in Brazil has been very complex and poorly investigated in some population segments, such as the elderly individuals. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present descriptively a comparative analysis in a racial perspective of sociodemographic profile, health conditions, and health service use by older people in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Health, Welfare and Aging Study (SABE). For this study, 1,345 elderly individuals were considered in the cohort of 2010. Data about the black, brown, and white elders were selected. The data were addressed in three major axes: sociodemographic, health conditions, and health service use. The chosen epidemiological measure of association was the prevalence ratio (PR), as well as the percentage values for expressing differences among the groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results showed a more favorable scenario for the aging of the white elderly compared to those of brown or black color, considering sociodemographic indicators, health conditions or use and access to health services.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180005, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The city of São Paulo has the largest community of Japanese descendants outside of Japan. OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographic, economic, functional, and health conditions of non-Japanese, Japanese, and their descendants; and to analyze comparatively the functional and health conditions of older adults born in Japan and their descendants born in Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the city of São Paulo, in 2010, with 1,345 older adults (≥ 60 years) participants in the SABE Study (Health, Welfare and Aging). The participants were classified as non-Japanese (not born in Japan), Japanese (born in Japan) or have reported being a direct descendant of Japanese. For the data analysis, χ2 test with Rao-Scott correction was used. RESULTS: Of the 1,345 older adults, 3.3% were Japanese or descendants. These differed from non-Japanese in terms of higher education and reported income sufficiency. Among older adults born in Japan, there was a higher proportion of oldest old (38.8%), cardiovascular diseases (48.9%) and cognitive decline (26.7%). CONCLUSION: It is noted that Japanese and descendants older adults presented better functionality when compared to non-Japanese. Among Japanese and descendants, differences in the profile of diseases were observed. It is believed that such results may be due to cultural influences.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(2): e00208517, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758456

RESUMO

Although low socioeconomic status (SES) adolescents suffer from higher rates of adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes, evidence on the association between SES and sexual behaviors has been less consistent. A cross-sectional analysis of the association between sociodemographic characteristics (household wealth, maternal education and race/ethnicity) and sexual behaviors (sexual initiation, multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and inconsistent contraceptive use) of Brazilian adolescents was carried out using the 2015 Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE), a nationally representative school-based survey of 102,301 adolescents. Analyses included multivariable logistic models, which accounted for geographic and family characteristics. About 27.5% of adolescents were sexually initiated. Household wealth was associated with female sexual initiation, while race/ethnicity was associated with condom use and multiple sexual partners among males. For instance, black males had 35% higher odds of having multiple partners (aOR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.13-1.62), but 22% lower odds of condom use (aOR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.65-0.94), compared to white males. Frequent parental supervision was positively related to condom use (females, aOR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.10-1.49; and males, aOR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.18- 1.49). Results show the complex relationship between SES and sexual behaviors. Researchers should pay attention to gender, racial and social norms salient to adolescent sexual behaviors, as they can influence data collection and results. National policies should also support active parental supervision, since it can be a protective factor.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Brasil/etnologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol ; 85(1): 92-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In different parts of the world, mutations in the GJB2 gene are associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss, and the homozygous 35delG mutation (p.Gly12Valfs*2) is a major cause of hereditary hearing loss. However, the 35delG mutation is not equally prevalent across ethnicities, making it important to study other mutations, especially in multiethnic countries such as Brazil. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify different mutations in the GJB2 gene in patients with severe to profound nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss of putative genetic origin, and who were negative or heterozygote for the 35delG mutation. METHODS: Observational study that analyzed 100 ethnically characterized Brazilian patients with nonsyndromic severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss, who were negative or heterozygote for the 35delG mutation. GJB2 mutations were detected by DNA-based sequencing in this population. Participants' ethnicities were identified as Latin European, Non-Latin European, Jewish, Native, Turkish, Afro-American, Asian and Others. RESULTS: Sixteen participants were heterozygote for the 35delG mutation; 14 participants, including three 35delG heterozygote's, had nine different alterations in the GJB2 gene. One variant, p.Ser199Glnfs*9, detected in two participants, was previously unreported. Three variants were pathogenic (p.Trp172*, p.Val167Met, and p.Arg75Trp), two were non-pathogenic (p.Val27Ile and p.Ile196Thr), and three variants were indeterminate (p.Met34Thr, p.Arg127Leu, and p.Lys168Arg). Three cases of compound heterozygosity were detected: p.[(Gly12Valfs*2)];[(Trp172*)], p.[(Gly12Valfs*2)](;)[(Met34Thr)], and p.[(Gly12Valfs*2)(;)[(Ser199Glnfs*9)]). CONCLUSION: This study detected previously unclassified variants and one case of previously unreported compound heterozygosity.


Assuntos
Conexinas/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etnologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/etnologia , Surdez/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/congênito , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 32(2): 413-426, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the psychocultural perspectives concerning family quality of life among Brazilian families with children who have severe or profound intellectual disability. METHODS: Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 15 mothers, selected by convenience, were analysed using a categorical thematic analysis technique. The themes were examined to allow for an interpretative approach of the results. RESULTS: Mothers revealed that their children with disabilities had insufficient access to services and support related to health care, transportation and recreation. Family quality of life was negatively affected by financial restrictions and social interaction difficulties. Caring for a child with disabilities seemed to be centred on the mother and religious coping appeared as a common psychological adjustment strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Improving emotional and psychological cares, as well as social and practical measures comprising income support and access to appropriate health care, were inferred to be the mothers' priorities to improve their families' quality of life.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Família/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Deficiência Intelectual/enfermagem , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Família/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
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