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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124555, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454746

RESUMO

Pesticide residues in bee products is still a major issue. However, the relations to botanical source and land use characteristics are not clear. The large variability of residues detected questions the suitability of bee-collected- and other hive materials as indicators for environmental contamination. The aim of our study was to clarify whether different beehive matrices contain similar pesticide residues, and how these are correlated with forage preferences and land use types in foraging areas. We tested bee-collected pollen, beebread, honey, nurse bees and honey bee larvae for the presence of concurrently used agricultural pesticides in Estonia. Samples were collected at the end of May and mid-July to include the main crop in northern region - winter and spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We saw that different beehive matrices contained various types of pesticide residues in different proportions: pollen and beebread tended to contain more insecticides and fungicides, whereas herbicides represented the primary contaminant in honey. The variations were related to collection year and time but were not related to crops as basic forage resource nor the land use type. We found few positive correlations between amount of pesticides and proportion of pollen from any particular plant family. None of these correlations were related to any land-use type. We conclude that pesticide residues in different honey bee colony components vary largely in amount and composition. The occurrence rate of pesticide residues was not linked to any particular crop.


Assuntos
Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mel/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Pólen/química , Animais , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estônia , Estações do Ano
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 500, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits in many crops due to its influence on lodging resistance and yield performance. Although progress has been made in the use of dwarfing genes in crop improvement, identification of new dwarf germplasm is still of significant interest for breeding varieties with increased yield. RESULTS: Here we describe a dominant, dwarf mutant G7 of Brassica napus with down-curved leaves derived from tissue culture. To explore the genetic variation responsible for the dwarf phenotype, the mutant was crossed to a conventional line to develop a segregating F2 population. Bulks were formed from plants with either dwarf or conventional plant height and subjected to high throughput sequencing analysis via mutation mapping (MutMap). The dwarf mutation was mapped to a 0.6 Mb interval of B. napus chromosome C05. Candidate gene analysis revealed that one SNP causing an amino acid change in the domain II of Bna.IAA7.C05 may contribute to the dwarf phenotype. This is consistent with the phenotype of a gain-of-function indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) mutant in Bna.IAA7.C05 reported recently. GO and KEGG analysis of RNA-seq data revealed the down-regulation of auxin related genes, including many other IAA and small up regulated response (SAUR) genes, in the dwarf mutant. CONCLUSION: Our studies characterize a new allele of Bna.IAA7.C05 responsible for the dwarf mutant generated from tissue culture. This may provide a valuable genetic resource for breeding for lodging resistance and compact plant stature in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Mutação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109659, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541946

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) affects crop growth and productivity by disrupting normal plant metabolism. To determinate whether ultrasonic (US) seed treatment can alleviate Cd stress in rape (Brassica napus L.), the seeds of two oilseed rape cultivars i.e., 'Youyanzao18' and 'Zaoshu104' were exposed to ultrasonic waves for 1 min at 20 KHz frequency. Seeds without US treatment were taken as control (CK). Results revealed that the germination rate of both cultivars was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in US treatment than CK only at 0 and 10 mg Cd L-1. The shoot and root length of both cultivars were significantly higher in US treatment than CK at all Cd treatments except the root length of Youyanzao18 at 50 mg Cd L-1. The fresh weight Youyanzao18 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in US than CK except for Youyanzao18 at 25 mg Cd L-1. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and the proline, glutathione (GSH), and soluble protein contents in Youyanzao18 were relatively higher in the US treatment than CK. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were prominently reduced in US treatment than CK. The pods per plant, seeds per pod and rapeseed yield were increased by 15.9, 11.4, and 16.4% in Youyanzao18 and 10.3, 9.5, and 11.5% in Zaoshu104, respectively in US treatment, compared to CK. Moreover, the contents of Cd in root, stem, leaf, rape pod shell, and rapeseeds were comparatively less in US treatment than CK whereas the Cd concentrations in different plant parts of both rape cultivars were recorded as: leaf ˃ root ˃ stem ˃ rape pod shell ˃ rapeseed. In sum, the US treatment improved the morphological growth and rapeseed yield whereas reduced the Cd accumulation in different plant parts of rapeseed under Cd contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 336, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: APETALA2-like genes encode plant-specific transcription factors, some of which possess one microRNA172 (miR172) binding site. The miR172 and its target euAP2 genes are involved in the process of phase transformation and flower organ development in many plants. However, the roles of miR172 and its target AP2 genes remain largely unknown in Brassica napus (B. napus). RESULTS: In this study, 19 euAP2 and four miR172 genes were identified in the B. napus genome. A sequence analysis suggested that 17 euAP2 genes were targeted by Bna-miR172 in the 3' coding region. EuAP2s were classified into five major groups in B.napus. This classification was consistent with the exon-intron structure and motif organization. An analysis of the nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates revealed that the euAP2 genes had gone through purifying selection. Whole genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication events played a major role in the expansion of the euAP2 gene family. A cis-regulatory element (CRE) analysis suggested that the euAP2s were involved in the response to light, hormones, stress, and developmental processes including circadian control, endosperm and meristem expression. Expression analysis of the miR172-targeted euAP2s in nine different tissues showed diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Most euAP2 genes were highly expressed in the floral organs, suggesting their specific functions in flower development. BnaAP2-1, BnaAP2-5 and BnaTOE1-2 had higher expression levels in late-flowering material than early-flowering material based on RNA-seq and qRT-PCR, indicating that they may act as floral suppressors. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, analyses of the evolution, structure, tissue specificity and expression of the euAP2 genes were peformed in B.napus. Based on the RNA-seq and experimental data, euAP2 may be involved in flower development. Three euAP2 genes (BnaAP2-1, BnaAP2-5 and BnaTOE1-2) might be regarded as floral suppressors. The results of this study provide insights for further functional characterization of the miR172 /euAP2 module in B.napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109529, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416013

RESUMO

Radioactive cesium (Cs) is more likely to be trans-located via rainfall into surrounding environments. Upon Cs-contaminated water reaching soil, Cs is retained on soil components, mainly organic matter and clay fraction. This study aims are i) comparing the relative ability of five arid soils, differing in their textural and chemical properties, to accumulate Cs when subjected to Cs-artificially contaminated rain droplets and ii) testing whether K fertilizer can decrease the uptake of Cs and its translocation within plants or not. A lab experiment was then conducted to simulate artificial rain droplets contaminated with 1000 becquerel (Bq) of 134Cs L-1 precipitated on soil columns each of 10.5 cm inner diameter at a rate of 1.15 mL cm-2 over a period of 2-months. At least 89% of 134Cs accumulated within the uppermost 5-cm layer of these soils. Another greenhouse experiment was set to test the hypothesis which indicates that Cs uptake increases unexpectedly by supplying plants with K-fertilizers. In this experiment, canola (Brassica napus L.) seeds were cultivated into three K-deficient soils (Typic Haplotorrent, Typic Haplocalcid, and Typic Torripsamment) which were contaminated with 100 mg Cs kg-1 soil (stable-Cs was used instead of radioactive-Cs to designate its behavior on the long run). Canola plants were fertilized with 0, 80 and 120 mg K2SO4 kg-1 soil. Results carried on Typic Haplotorrent soil confirmed the aforementioned assumption as K-addition increased Cd-uptake up to 40.1%. Contradictory results were achieved in the other two soils where Cs-uptake decreased by 21.5 and 15.3% in Typic Haplocalcid and Typic Torripsamment soils, respectively due to the application of the aforementioned dose of K. In the K non-amended soils, Cs shoot-root translocation factor was >1; yet, it was <1 in response to K addition, regardless of its application rate.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Césio/toxicidade , Fertilizantes/análise , Potássio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Césio/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Clima Desértico , Egito , Chuva/química , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
6.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 636, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transition to flowering at the right time is critical for local adaptation and to maximize grain yield in crops. Canola is an important oilseed crop with extensive variation in flowering time among varieties. However, our understanding of underlying genes and their role in canola productivity is limited. RESULTS: We report our analyses of a diverse GWAS panel (300-368 accessions) of canola and identify SNPs that are significantly associated with variation in flowering time and response to photoperiod across multiple locations. We show that several of these associations map in the vicinity of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) paralogs and its known transcriptional regulators. Complementary QTL and eQTL mapping studies, conducted in an Australian doubled haploid population, also detected consistent genomic regions close to the FT paralogs associated with flowering time and yield-related traits. FT sequences vary between accessions. Expression levels of FT in plants grown in field (or under controlled environment cabinets) correlated with flowering time. We show that markers linked to the FT paralogs display association with variation in multiple traits including flowering time, plant emergence, shoot biomass and grain yield. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that FT paralogs not only control flowering time but also modulate yield-related productivity traits in canola.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Fotoperíodo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 153007, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310905

RESUMO

Previous studies have proven that graphene oxide (GO) regulates abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents and modulates plant root growth. To better understand the mechanism of plant growth and development regulated by GO and crosstalk between ABA and GO, Zhongshuang No. 9 seedlings were treated with GO and ABA. The results indicated that GO and ABA significantly affected the morphological properties and endogenous phytohormone contents in seedlings, and there was significant crosstalk between GO and ABA. ABA treatments combined with GO led to a rapid decrease in triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction intensity, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing ABA concentration. The treatments significantly affected the transcriptional levels of some key genes involved in the ABA, IAA, cytokinin (CTK), salicylic acid (SA), and ethane (ETH) pathways and increased the ABA and gibberellin (GA) contents in rapeseed seedlings. The effects of the treatments on the IAA and CTK contents were complex, but, importantly, the treatments suppressed root elongation. Correlation analysis also indicated that the relationship between root length and IAA/ABA could be described by a polynomial function: y = 88.11x2 - 25.15x + 4.813(R²â€¯= 0.912). The treatments increased the ACS2 transcript abundance for ETH biosynthesis and the ICS1 transcriptional level of the key genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, as well as the downstream signaling genes CBP60 and SARD1. This finding indicated that ABA is an important factor regulating the effects of GO on the growth and development of Brassica napus L., and that ETH and SA pathways may be potential pathways involved in the response of rape seedlings to GO treatment.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/administração & dosagem , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grafite/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/enzimologia , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 59-72, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272036

RESUMO

This study was intended to investigate how an agronomically important crop Brassica napus will be able to cope with the combined impact of a heatwave (21/14 °C vs. 33/26 °C day/night) and drought under ambient or elevated CO2 (800 vs. 400 µmol mol-1) and to what degree their recovery will be ensured after the stress, when additional CO2 is also removed. The obtained results revealed that, in the presence of an adequate water supply, B. napus performed well under heatwave conditions. However, drought fully negated all the advantages gained from hotter climate and led to a slower and incomplete recovery of gas exchange and retarded growth after the stress, regardless mitigating the effect of elevated CO2 during the stress. The mechanism by which the elevated CO2 diminished the adverse effect of a combined heat and drought stress on photosynthetic rate at saturating light (Asat) was attributed to the improved plant water relations. However, it had little effect on the recovery of Asat. In contrast, the mechanism by which photosynthesis was more impaired under the combination of heatwave and drought, compared to single drought treatment, was attributed mainly to the faster soil drying as well as faster and sharper decrease in stomatal conductance and subsequent in Ci/Ca. Keeping in mind that photosynthesis can acclimatize by downregulation to higher CO2, the results of this study, showing a weak memory of mitigating the effect of elevated CO2, highlight a potential risk of more intense and frequent heatwaves and droughts on B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/fisiologia , Secas , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dióxido de Carbono , Temperatura Alta , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284614

RESUMO

We examined the substrate preference of Cuphea paucipetala acyl-ACP thioesterases, CpFatB4 and CpFatB5, and gene expression changes associated with the modification of lipid composition in the seed, using Brassica napus transgenic plants overexpressing CpFatB4 or CpFatB5 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. CpFatB4 seeds contained a higher level of total saturated fatty acid (FA) content, with 4.3 times increase in 16:0 palmitic acid, whereas CpFatB5 seeds showed approximately 3% accumulation of 10:0 and 12:0 medium-chain FAs, and a small increase in other saturated FAs, resulting in higher levels of total saturated FAs. RNA-Seq analysis using entire developing pods at 8, 25, and 45 days after flowering (DAF) showed up-regulation of genes for ß-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I/II, stearoyl-ACP desaturase, oleate desaturase, and linoleate desaturase, which could increase unsaturated FAs and possibly compensate for the increase in 16:0 palmitic acid at 45 DAF in CpFatB4 transgenic plants. In CpFatB5 transgenic plants, many putative chloroplast- or mitochondria-encoded genes were identified as differentially expressed. Our results report comprehensive gene expression changes induced by alterations of seed FA composition and reveal potential targets for further genetic modifications.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/enzimologia , Brassica napus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Tioléster Hidrolases/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Planta ; 250(4): 1073-1088, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165231

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The 5-leaf-stage rape seedlings were more insensitive to Pi starvation than that of the 3-leaf-stage plants, which may be attributed to the higher expression levels of ethylene signaling and sugar-metabolism genes in more mature seedlings. Traditional suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and RNA-Seq usually screen out thousands of differentially expressed genes. However, identification of the most important regulators has not been performed to date. Here, we employed two methods, namely, a two-round SSH and two-factor transcriptome analysis derived from the two-factor ANOVA that is commonly used in the statistics, to identify development-associated inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation-induced genes in Brassica napus. Several of these genes are related to ethylene signaling (such as EIN3, ACO3, ACS8, ERF1A, and ERF2) or sugar metabolism (such as ACC2, GH3, LHCB1.4, XTH4, and SUS2). Although sucrose and ethylene may counteract each other at the biosynthetic level, they may also work synergistically on Pi-starvation-induced gene expression (such as PT1, PT2, RNS1, ACP5, AT4, and IPS1) and root acid phosphatase activation. Furthermore, three new transcription factors that are responsive to Pi starvation were identified: the zinc-finger MYND domain-containing protein 15 (MYND), a Magonashi family protein (MAGO), and a B-box zinc-finger family salt-tolerance protein. This study indicates that the two methods are highly efficient for functional gene screening in non-model organisms.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosfatos/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Análise de Variância , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Técnicas de Hibridização Subtrativa , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Planta ; 250(4): 1051-1072, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161396

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Genome-wide identification, classification, expression analyses, and functional characterization of GRAS genes in oil crop, Brassica napus, indicate their importance in root development and stress response. GRAS proteins are a plant-specific transcription factor gene family involved in tissues development and stress response. We classified 87 putative GRAS genes in the Brassica napus genome (BnGRASs) into 13 subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis. The C-terminal GRAS domains of Brassica napus (B. napus) proteins were less conserved among subfamilies, but were conserved within each subfamily. A series of analyses revealed that 89.7% of the BnGRASs did not have intron insertions, and 24 specific-motifs were found at the N-terminal. A highly conserved microRNA 171 (miRNA171) target was observed specifically in the HAM subfamily across land plants. A total of 868 pairs of interaction proteins were predicted, the primary of which were transcription factors involved in transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. Integrated comparative analysis of GRAS genes across 26 species of algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms revealed that this gene family originated in early mosses and was classified into 19 subfamilies, 14 of which may have originated prior to bryophyte evolution. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that most BnGRASs were widely expressed in different tissues/organs at different stages in B. napus, and 24 BnGRASs were highly/specifically expressed in roots. Results from a qRT-PCR analysis suggested that two BnGRASs belonging to SCR and LISCL subfamilies potentially have important roles in the stress response of roots.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 231: 562-570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151016

RESUMO

Soil contamination in mining areas is an important environmental concern. In these areas, phytoremediation is often impeded because of the low fertility and pH. Assisted phytoremediation is increasingly being used in polluted areas. Biochar could assist plant growth via enhanced soil fertility. An experiment was performed in a mining soil (RIII) from the mining area of Riotinto (Spain) contaminated with Cu, Pb, Zn and As in order to study: (i) The effects of biochar on soil fertility; (ii) Biochar temperature of preparation effect and (iii) Effect of biochar on phytoremediation potential. A mesocosm experiment was designed using Brassica napus as test specie. Soil (RIII) was treated with rabbit manure biochars prepared at 450 °C (BM450) and 600 °C (BM600) at a rate of 10% in mass and incubated for 60 days with or without Brassica napus. Results showed that the combination of BM450 or BM600 with Brassica napus growth decreased the amount of As, Cu, Co, Cr, Se and Pb in the soil. Values of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for Cd were particularly elevated (>10) in the unamended soil and reached values higher than 1 for other elements, indicating the potential of Brassica napus to accumulate several heavy metals. Translocation Factor (TF) was reduced for Co, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and As after biochar addition indicating root accumulation of these metals. In all cases, biochar addition increased biomass production. Finally, the addition of BM450 increased GMea index indicating also an improvement on soil quality.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal/química , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/química , Animais , Biomassa , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espanha
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 203, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica napus is of substantial economic value for vegetable oil, biofuel, and animal fodder production. The breeding of yellow-seeded B. napus to improve seed quality with higher oil content, improved oil and meal quality with fewer antinutrients merits attention. Screening the genes related to this phenotype is valuable for future rapeseed breeding. RESULTS: A total of 85,407 genes, including 4317 novel genes, were identified in the developing seeds of yellow- and black-seeded B. napus, and yellow rapeseed was shown to be an introgression line between black-seeded B. napus and yellow-seeded Sinapis alba. A total of 15,251 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among all the libraries, and 563 and 397 common DEGs were identified throughout black and yellow seed development, including 80 upregulated and 151 downregulated genes related to seed development and fatty acid accumulation. In addition, 11 up-DEGs and 31 down-DEGs were identified in all developmental stages of yellow rapeseed compared with black seed. Enrichment analysis revealed that many DEGs were involved in biosynthetic processes, pigment metabolism, and oxidation-reduction processes, such as flavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism. We found that more than 77 DEGs were related to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, including 4CL, C4H, and PAL, which participated in phenylalanine metabolism, and BAN, CHI/TT5, DFR, F3H, FLS, LDOX, PAP, CHS/TT4, TT5, bHLH/TT8, WD40, MYB, TCP, and CYP, which were involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Most of these DEGs were downregulated in yellow rapeseed and were consistent with the decreased flavonoid and lignin contents. Both up- and down-DEGs related to fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism were also analyzed, which could help to explain the improved oil content of yellow rapeseed. CONCLUSION: This research provided comprehensive transcriptome data for yellow-seeded B. napus with a unique genetic background, and all the DEGs in comparison with the black-seeded counterpart could help to explain seed quality differences, such as lower pigmentation and lignin contents, and higher oil content.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Sementes/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
14.
Plant Sci ; 283: 157-164, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128685

RESUMO

Combining ability is crucial for parent selection in crop hybrid breeding. Many studies have attempted to provide reliable and quick methods to identify genome regions in parental lines correlating with improved hybrid performance. The local haplotype patterns surrounding densely spaced DNA markers include a large amount of genetic information, and analysis of the relationships between haplotypes and hybrid performance can provide insight into the underlying genome regions which might contribute to enhancing combining ability. Here, we generated 24,403 single-copy, genome-wide SNP loci and calculated the general combining ability (GCA) of 950 hybrids from a diverse panel of 475 pollinators of spring-type canola inbred lines crossed with two testers for days to flowering (DTF) and seed glucosinolate content (GSL). We performed a genome-wide analysis of the haplotypes and detected eight and seven haplotype regions that were significantly associated with the GCA values for DTF and seed GSL, respectively. Additionally, two haplotype blocks containing orthologs of flowering time genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) on chromosome A02 showed additive epistatic interactions influencing flowering time. Moreover, two homoeologous haplotype regions on chromosomes A02 and C02 corresponded to major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for GSL which showed additive effects related to reduction of seed GSL in F1 hybrids. Our study showed that haplotype analysis has the potential to substantially improve the efficiency of hybrid breeding programs.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos/genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(8): 2309-2323, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101925

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Application of a low-cost and high-efficiency hydroponic system in a rapeseed population verified two types of genetic factors ("persistent" and "stage-specific") that control root development. The root system is a vital plant component for nutrient and water acquisition and is targeted to enhance plant productivity. Genetic dissection of the root system generally focuses on a single stage, but roots grow continuously during plant development. To reveal the temporal genetic patterns of root development, we measured nine root-related traits in a rapeseed recombinant inbred line population at six continuous stages during vegetative growth, using a modified hydroponic system with low-cost and high-efficiency features that could synchronize plant growth under controlled conditions. Phenotypic correlation and growth dynamic analysis suggested the existence of two types of genetic factors ("persistent" and "stage-specific") that control root development. Dynamic (unconditional and conditional) quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping detected 28 stage-specific and 23 persistent QTLs related to root growth. Among them, 13 early stage-specific, 19 persistent and 8 later stage-specific QTLs were detected at 7 DAS (days after sowing), 16 DAS and 5 EL (expanding leaf stage), respectively, providing efficient and adaptable stages for QTL identification. The effective prediction of biomass accumulation using root morphological traits (up to 96.6% or 92.64% at a specific stage or the final stage, respectively) verified that root growth allocation with maximum root uptake area facilitated biomass accumulation. Furthermore, marker-assistant selection, which combined the "persistent" and "stage-specific" QTLs, proved their effectiveness for root improvement with an excellent uptake area. Our results highlight the potential of high-throughput and precise phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of root growth and provide new insights into ideotype root system-based biomass breeding.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/genética , Custos e Análise de Custo , Hidroponia/economia , Hidroponia/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Biomassa , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Endogamia , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(6): 579-590, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980735

RESUMO

Excessive cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soil can adversely affect plants, animals, microbes, and humans; therefore, novel and uncharacterized Cd-resistant plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are required to address this issue. In the paper, 13 bacteria were screened, their partial 16S rRNA sequences determined, and the isolates, respectively, clustered into Curtobacterium (7), Chryseobacterium (4), Cupriavidus (1), and Sphingomonas (1). Evaluation of PGP traits, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, siderophore secretion, and cyanhydric acid production, identified Cupriavidus necator GX_5, Sphingomonas sp. GX_15, and Curtobacterium sp. GX_31 as promising candidates for PGPR based on high IAA or ACC deaminase production. Additionally, root-elongation assays indicated that inoculating GX_5, _15, or _31 increased Brassica napus root length both in the presence and absence of Cd by 19.75-29.96% and 19.15-31.69%, respectively. Pot experiments indicated that inoculating B. napus with GX_5, _15, and _31 significantly increased the dry weight of above-ground tissues and root biomass by 40.97-85.55% and 18.99-103.13%, respectively. Moreover, these isolates significantly increased Cd uptake in the aerial parts and root tissue of B. napus by 7.38-11.98% and 48.09-79.73%, respectively. These results identified GX_5, _15, or _31 as excellent promoters of metal remediation by using microorganism-associated phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Carbono-Carbono Liases/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/classificação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214885, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958842

RESUMO

Auxin response factor (ARF) is a member of the plant-specific B3 DNA binding superfamily. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive analysis of ARF genes in allotetraploid Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC). Sixty-seven ARF genes were identified in B. napus (BnARFs) and divided into four subfamilies (I-IV). Sixty-one BnARFs were distributed on all chromosomes except C02; the remaining were on Ann and Cnn. The full length of the BnARF proteins was highly conserved especially within each subfamily with all members sharing the N-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) and the middle region (MR), and most contained the C-terminal dimerization domain (PBI). Twenty-one members had a glutamine-rich MR that may be an activator and the remaining were repressors. Accordingly, the intron patterns are highly conserved in each subfamily or clade, especially in DBD and PBI domains. Several members in subfamily III are potential targets for miR167. Many putative cis-elements involved in phytohormones, light signaling responses, and biotic and abiotic stress were identified in BnARF promoters, implying their possible roles. Most ARF proteins are likely to interact with auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) -related proteins, and members from different subfamilies generally shared many common interaction proteins. Whole genome-wide duplication (WGD) by hybridization between Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea and segmental duplication led to gene expansion. Gene loss following WGD is biased with the An-subgenome retaining more ancestral genes than the Cn-subgenome. BnARFs have wide expression profiles across vegetative and reproductive organs during different developmental stages. No obvious expression bias was observed between An- and Cn-subgenomes. Most synteny-pair genes had similar expression patterns, indicating their functional redundancy. BnARFs were sensitive to exogenous IAA and 6-BA treatments especially subfamily III. The present study provides insights into the distribution, phylogeny, and evolution of ARF gene family.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Brassica/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poliploidia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215661, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998771

RESUMO

Resynthesized (RS) Brassica napus can be used to increase the genetic diversity of this important crop plant and to develop the heterotic gene pool required for successful hybrid breeding programmes. The level of heterosis in F1 hybrids depends on the individual performance of the parents and on the degree of genetic difference between them. However, RS forms obtained from crosses of B. rapa ssp. with B. oleracea ssp. possess many undesirable agronomic traits, such as low quality of seeds, low yield and seed oil content, high erucic acid level in the oil and high glucosinolate content in seed meal. Therefore, RS oilseed rape needs to be improved by crossing with natural double-low oilseed rape, leading to selected double-low quality semi-RS lines that can be used for breeding. In this study, we evaluated the seed yield potential of F1 hybrids derived from crosses between Ogura cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) lines and doubled haploid (DH) semi-RS lines with restorer gene in three locations in Poland. The genotype by environment interaction (GE interaction) and general combining ability (GCA) of the restorer and CMS line effects, as well as the effects of heterosis, were also assessed. The results of the study provide the first insights into the use of semi-RS lines as components for the development of new hybrid cultivars. Even the introduction of 50% of the RS oilseed rape genotype to natural restorer lines resulted in a marked heterosis effect, with seed yield ranging from 4.56% to 90.17% more than that of the better parent. The yield of the best hybrid amounted to 108.6% of the seed yield of the open-pollinated cultivar Monolit and 94.4% of that of the hybrid cultivar Arsenal. The best DH semi-RS line S1, which had a significantly positive GCA for seed yield, can be recommended as a possible parent for inclusion in breeding programmes aimed at developing new hybrid cultivars.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucosinolatos/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Haploidia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(18): 5085-5095, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986052

RESUMO

Plant-growth-promoting bacteria show promises in crop production; nevertheless, innovation in their stable delivery is required for practical use by farmers. Herein, the composite of poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) plasticized with glycerol and loaded with the microbial consortium ( Bacillus subtilis plus Seratia marcescens) was fabricated and engineered onto canola ( Brassica napus L.) seed via electrospinning. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the biocomposite is a one-dimensional membrane, which encapsulated microbes in a multilayered nanostructure, and their interfacial behavior between microorganism and seed is beneficial for safer farming. A universal testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the biocomposite holds sufficient thermomechanical properties for stable handling and practical management. A spectroscopic study resolved the living hybrid-polymer structure of the biocomposite and proved the plasticizing role of glycerol. A swelling study supports the degradation of the biocomposite in the hydrophilic environment as a result of the leaching of the plasticizer, which is important for the sustained release of microbial cells. A shelf life study supported that the biocomposite seed coat placed a threshold level of microbes [5.675 ± 0.48 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/seed] and maintained their satisfactory viability for 15 days at room temperature. An antifungal and nutrient-solubilizing study supported that the biocomposite seed coat could provide opportunities to biocontrol diseases and improve nutrient acquisition by the plant. A pot study documents the better performance of the biocomposite seed coat on seed germination, seedling growth, leaf area, plant dry biomass, and root system. A chemical and microbial study demonstrated that the biocomposite seed coat improved the effectiveness of the bioinoculant in the root-soil interface, where they survive, flourish, and increase the nutrient pool status. In particular, this study presents advances in the fabrication of the biocomposite for encapsulation, preservation, sustained release, and efficacious use of microorganisms onto seeds for precision farming.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/química , Bacillus subtilis/química , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gammaproteobacteria/química , Plastificantes/química , Álcool de Polivinil/análogos & derivados , Povidona/análogos & derivados , Sementes/microbiologia , Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Gammaproteobacteria/fisiologia , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Povidona/química , Rizosfera , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(4)2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979089

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that enhances transcriptome diversity, thereby affecting plant growth, development, and stress responses. To identify the new transcripts and changes in the isoform-level AS landscape of rapeseed (Brassica napus) infected with the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans, we compared eight RNA-seq libraries prepared from mock-inoculated and inoculated B. napus cotyledons and stems. The AS events that occurred in stems were almost the same as those in cotyledons, with intron retention representing the most common AS pattern. We identified 1892 differentially spliced genes between inoculated and uninoculated plants. We performed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify eight co-expression modules and their Hub genes, which are the genes most connected with other genes within each module. There are nine Hub genes, encoding nine transcription factors, which represent key regulators of each module, including members of the NAC, WRKY, TRAF, AP2/ERF-ERF, C2H2, C2C2-GATA, HMG, bHLH, and C2C2-CO-like families. Finally, 52 and 117 alternatively spliced genes in cotyledons and stems were also differentially expressed between mock-infected and infected materials, such as HMG and C2C2-Dof; which have dual regulatory mechanisms in response to L. maculans. The splicing of the candidate genes identified in this study could be exploited to improve resistance to L. maculans.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/genética
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