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1.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(3): 441-456, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600242

RESUMO

IGT family genes function critically to regulate lateral organ orientation in plants. However, little information is available about this family of genes in Brassica napus. In this study, 27 BnIGT genes were identified on 16 chromosomes and divided into seven clades, namely LAZY1∼LAZY6 and TAC1 (Tiller Angle Control 1), based on their phylogenetic relationships. Duplication analysis revealed that 91.1% of the gene pairs were derived from whole-genome duplication. Most BnIGT genes had a similar structural pattern with one or two very short exons followed by a long and a shorter exon. Common and specific motifs were identified among the seven clades, and motif 1, containing the family-specific GφL(A/T)IGT sequence, was observed in all clades except LAZY5. Three types of cis-elements pertinent to transcription factor binding, light responses, and hormone signaling were detected in the BnIGT promoters. Intriguingly, more than half of the BnIGT genes exhibited no or very low expression in various tissues, and the LAZY1 and TAC1 clade members showed distinct tissue expression preferences. Coexpression analysis revealed that the LAZY1 members had strong associations with cell wall biosynthesis genes. This analysis provides a deeper understanding of the BnIGT gene family and will facilitate further deduction of their role in regulating plant architecture in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Tetraploidia , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322211

RESUMO

The KT/HAK/KUP (HAK) family is the largest potassium (K+) transporter family in plants, which plays key roles in K+ uptake and homeostasis, stress resistance, and root and embryo development. However, the HAK family has not yet been characterized in Brassica napus. In this study, 40 putative B. napus HAK genes (BnaHAKs) are identified and divided into four groups (Groups I-III and V) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure analysis revealed 10 conserved intron insertion sites across different groups. Collinearity analysis demonstrated that both allopolyploidization and small-scale duplication events contributed to the large expansion of BnaHAKs. Transcription factor (TF)-binding network construction, cis-element analysis, and microRNA prediction revealed that the expression of BnaHAKs is regulated by multiple factors. Analysis of RNA-sequencing data further revealed extensive expression profiles of the BnaHAKs in groups II, III, and V, with limited expression in group I. Compared with group I, most of the BnaHAKs in groups II, III, and V were more upregulated by hormone induction based on RNA-sequencing data. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase reaction analysis revealed that the expression of eight BnaHAKs of groups I and V was markedly upregulated under K+-deficiency treatment. Collectively, our results provide valuable information and key candidate genes for further functional studies of BnaHAKs.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Deficiência de Potássio/genética , Potássio/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111162, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836158

RESUMO

The mechanisms of intercropping increasing plant biomass, cadmium accumulation, and organic acids secreted in rhizosphere soil are still unclear. Oilseed rape and intercrops were grown in boxes separated either with no barrier between the compartments or by a nylon mesh barrier (37 µm) to license partial root interaction, or a solid barrier to stop any root interactions. Two intercropping systems (oilseed rape-faba bean and oilseed rape-ryegrass) were carried out in soil with Cd content of 5 mg/kg. The intermingling of roots between oilseed rape and faba bean enhanced the biomass of oilseed rape. However, the biomass was negatively affected implying the higher nutrient apportionment to the ryegrass than oilseed rape. Oilseed rape intercropping with both faba bean and ryegrass played a positive role in the shoot Cd concentration of oilseed rape. The intermingling of roots played a positive role in the citric and malic acids when intercropping with faba bean. A remarkable increase in water-soluble Cd and DTPA-Cd content was observed during oilseed rape-faba bean complete root interaction treatment, up to 175.00% and 46.65%, respectively, which compare with the monoculture treatment. In both systems, the translocation factor values were higher for oilseed rape (O-F system) than for the other test plants and were always >1. Thus the Cd removal potential of oilseed rape can be further improved in the future by optimizing agronomic practices and intercropping with faba bean.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cádmio/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bioacumulação , Biomassa , Brassica napus/metabolismo , China , Lolium/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Vicia faba/metabolismo
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 970-978, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608759

RESUMO

A hydroponic experiment was conducted to explore the differences in growth status and Cd accumulation characteristics of two Brassica napus L. cultivars (QY-1 and SYH) under different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) stress (0, 2, and 5 mg·L-1). The Cd subcellular compartmentalization and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined to elucidate the intrinsic mechanism of the differences in the Cd accumulation capacity between the two cultivars of Brassica napus L. Furthermore, field trials were conducted to further verify the differences in phytoremediation of the two cultivars. Results show that neither of the cultivars exhibited obvious growth inhibition under Cd stress. Under the 2 mg·L-1 Cd condition, there were no significant differences in shoot Cd concentrations between the two cultivars. Under 5 mg·L-1 Cd condition, however, the Cd concentrations in both shoot and root of SYH were significantly higher than that of QY-1, which increased by 32.05% and 99.57%, respectively. In addition, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the root in SYH is significantly higher than that of QY-1. The subcellular Cd distribution in leaves of the two cultivars of Brassica napus L. showed that, with an increase of Cd stress, Cd concentrations of heat stable protein (HSP) and metal-rich granule (MRG) fractions in leaves significantly increased by 143.69% and 118.91% for QY-1, and by 63.34% and 118.91% for SYH. Thus, the segregation of Cd in HSP and MRG, which was reported to be biological detoxified metal fractions (BDM), might play an important role in the detoxification of Brassica napus L. at a subcellular level under Cd stress. Moreover, the distribution of Cd in the cellular debris fraction might be another important factor contributing to the differences in Cd accumulation of the two Brassica napus L. cultivars, which was 4.41 times higher in SYH than in QY-1 under Cd stress. The results of the antioxidant enzyme activities of two Brassica napus L. cultivars showed that, under the 5 mg·L-1 Cd condition, the antioxidant enzyme system may represent an important detoxification mechanism for QY-1 to cope with stress induced by high concentrations of Cd, while SYH is more effective in reducing the toxicity of Cd by separation of Cd into BDM fractions. The results of the field trial confirmed that the Cd concentrations in the above- and underground parts of SYH were 2.34 and 1.43 times higher than in QY-1, respectively. Therefore, SYH possess a higher Cd phytoextraction capacity than QY-1, and might be a good candidate for the remediation of moderate and mildly Cd-contaminated farmland.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas , Brotos de Planta
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10201, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576948

RESUMO

Waterlogging stress is a common limiting factor for winter rapeseed, which greatly affects the growth and potential production. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of waterlogging with different durations (0day (D0), 6days (D6) and 9days (D9)) and supplemental nitrogen fertilization (N1, 0 kg ha-1; N2, 30 kg ha-1; N3, 60 kg ha-1 and N4, 90 kg ha-1) on the physiological characteristics, dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in winter rapeseed (Chuanyou36). The results showed that the supplementary application of nitrogen fertilizer could effectively improve the physiological indexes of winter rapeseed in both pot and field experiments. The supplemental nitrogen increased the chlorophyll content in leaves, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD, and decreased the MDA content in leaves and roots of rapeseed. The chlorophyll contents, the antioxidant enzyme activity of leaves and roots significantly increased under D6N3 and D9N4 conditions in both (pot and field) experiments. However, MDA contents significantly decreased compared with waterlogging without nitrogen application. Moreover, the application of nitrogen fertilizer after waterlogging increased the accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in rapeseed at different growth stages. Therefore, waterlogging stress significantly inhibited the growth and development of rapeseed, but the application of nitrogen fertilizer could effectively reduce the damage of waterlogging. The N-induced increase in waterlogging tolerance of rapeseed might be attributed to the strong antioxidant defense system, maintenance of photosynthetic pigments and the nutrient balance.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(4): 981-999, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306107

RESUMO

Leaf color is an important characteristic of normal chloroplast development. Variegated plants have green- and white-sectored leaves, which can be used to identify important pathways and molecular mechanisms of chloroplast development. We studied two Brassica napus variegation mutants from same one variegated ancestor, designated ZY-4 and ZY-8, which have different degrees of variegation. When grown in identical conditions, the ratio of white sectors in ZY-4 leaves is higher than in ZY-8. In both mutants, the cells in green sectors contain normal chloroplasts; while, the cells in white sectors contain abnormal plastids. Seedling chloroplasts ultrastructure of both mutants showed that the biogenesis of chloroplasts was blocked in early stages; delayed development and structual damage in ZY-4 were more serious than in ZY-8. Employing bulked segregant analysis(BSA), two bulks (BY142 and BY137) from BC2F1 lines derived from ZY-4 and ZS11, and one bulk (BY56) from BC2F1 lines derived from ZY-8 and ZS11, and screening by Brassica 60K SNP BeadChip Array, showed the candidate regions localized in chromosome A08 (BY142), C04 (BY137), and A08 (BY56), respectively. Transcriptome analysis of five seedling development stages of ZY-4, ZY-8, and ZS11 showed that photosynthesis, energy metabolism-related pathways and translation-related pathways were important for chloroplast biogenesis. The number of down- or up-regulated genes related to immune system process in ZY-4 was more than in ZY-8. The retrograde signaling pathway was mis-regulated in both mutants. DEG analysis indicated that both mutants showed photooxidative damages. By coupling transcriptome and BSA CHIP analyses, some candidate genes were identified. The gene expression pattern of carotene biosynthesis pathway was disrupted in both mutants. However, histochemical analysis of ROS revealed that there was no excessive accumulation of ROS in ZY-4 and ZY-8. Taken together, our data indicate that the disruption of carotene biosynthetic pathways leads to the variegation phenotypes of ZY-4 and ZY-8 and there are some functions that can compensate for the disruption of carotene biosynthesis in ZY-4 and ZY-8 to reduce ROS and prevent seedling mortality.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Plastídeos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Mutação/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 248: 153159, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276152

RESUMO

Due to the rapid decline in oceanic fish stock, ω-3 fatty acid (C18:3) has attracted serious attention and, hence, the identification of genotypes with high ω-3 content has become the main objective of Brassica napus (rapeseed) breeding. A candidate genes association study permitted us to delineate a genomic region linked to ω-3 content, offering a detailed understanding of the complex genetic mechanism of fatty acid biosynthesis in B. napus. Herein, the candidate genes association study, conducted on 324 genetically diverse rapeseed accessions, detected 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ω-3 fatty acid. Furthermore, these loci were functionally characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These associated loci were selected based on their contribution to a high C18:3 ratio, and the selected candidate loci were validated using allele-specific SNPs markers in an inbred population through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These findings may contribute to improving the fatty acid composition by marker-based breeding and will facilitate the development of rapeseed varieties with high ω-3 content.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Marcadores Genéticos , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4295, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152363

RESUMO

Annexins (ANN) are a multigene, evolutionarily conserved family of calcium-dependent and phospholipid-binding proteins that play important roles in plant development and stress resistance. However, a systematic comprehensive analysis of ANN genes of Brassicaceae species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In this study, we identified 13, 12, and 26 ANN genes in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus, respectively. About half of these genes were clustered on various chromosomes. Molecular evolutionary analysis showed that the ANN genes were highly conserved in Brassicaceae species. Transcriptome analysis showed that different group ANN members exhibited varied expression patterns in different tissues and under different (abiotic stress and hormones) treatments. Meanwhile, same group members from Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus demonstrated conserved expression patterns in different tissues. The weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) showed that BnaANN genes were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and played important roles in jasmonate (JA) signaling and multiple stress response in B. napus.


Assuntos
Anexinas/metabolismo , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Anexinas/genética , Brassica/classificação , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
9.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126308, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135439

RESUMO

Recently, oilseed rape has gathered interest for its ability to withstand elevated metal contents in plant, a key feature for remediation of contaminated soils. In this study, comparative and functional metabolomic analyses using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry were undertaken to explore the metabolic basis of this attribute under cadmium (Cd) stress. Results revealed both conserved and differential metabolomic responses between genotype CB671 (tolerant Cd-accumulating) and its sensitive counterpart ZD622. CB671 responded to Cd stress by rearranging carbon flux towards production of compatible solutes, sugar storage forms and ascorbate, as well as jasmonates, ethylene and vitamin B6. Intriguingly, IAA abundance was reduced by 1.91-fold, which was in connection with tryptophan funnelling into serotonin (3.48-fold rise). In ZD622 by contrast, Cd provoked drastic depletion of carbohydrates and vitamins, but subtle hormones alteration. A striking accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids and oxylipins in CB671, paralleled by glycerophospholipids build-up and induction of inositol-derived signalling metabolites (up to 5.41-fold) suggested ability for prompt triggering of detoxifying mechanisms. Concomitantly, phytosteroids, monoterpenes and carotenoids were induced, denoting fine-tuned mechanisms for membrane maintenance, which was not evident in ZD622. Further, ZD622 markedly accumulated phenolics from upstream sub-classes of flavonoids; in CB671 however, a distinct phenolic wiring was activated, prioritizing anthocyanins and lignans instead. Along with cell wall (CW) saccharides, the activation of lignans evoked CW priming in CB671. Current results have demonstrated existence of notable metabolomic-based strategies for Cd tolerance in metal-accumulating oilseed rapes, and provided a holistic view of metabolites potentially contributing to Cd tolerance in this species.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Cádmio/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Genótipo , Metabolômica , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126419, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171133

RESUMO

Due to their release into the environment, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) may come in contact with plants. In elevated concentrations, ZnO NPs induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the metabolism of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and the consequent nitro-oxidative signalling has not been examined so far. In this work, Brassica napus and Brassica juncea seedlings were treated with chemically synthetized ZnO NPs (∼8 nm, 0, 25 or 100 mg/L). At low dose (25 mg/L) ZnO NP exerted a positive effect, while at elevated concentration (100 mg/L) it was toxic to both species. Additionally, B. juncea was more tolerant to ZnO NPs than B. napus. The ZnO NPs could enter the root cells due to their small (∼8 nm) size which resulted in the release of Zn2+ and subsequently increased Zn2+ content in the plant organs. ZnO NPs disturbed superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide homeostasis and modulated ROS metabolic enzymes (NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate and glutathione) inducing similar changes in oxidative signalling in both Brassica species. The homeostasis of RNS (nitric oxide, peroxynitrite and S-nitrosoglutathione) was also altered by ZnO NPs; however, changes in nitrosative signalling proved to be different in the examined species. Moreover, ZnO NPs triggered changes in protein carbonylation and nitration. These results suggest that ZnO NPs induce changes in nitro-oxidative signalling which may contribute to ZnO NP toxicity. Furthermore, difference in ZnO NP tolerance of Brassica species is more likely related to nitrosative than to oxidative signalling.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Oxirredução , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/química
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 115, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene family is one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and is functionally characterized in diverse species. However, less is known about its functions in the economically important allopolyploid oil crop, Brassica napus. RESULTS: We identified 602 potential bHLHs in the B. napus genome (BnabHLHs) and categorized them into 35 subfamilies, including seven newly separated subfamilies, based on phylogeny, protein structure, and exon-intron organization analysis. The intron insertion patterns of this gene family were analyzed and a total of eight types were identified in the bHLH regions of BnabHLHs. Chromosome distribution and synteny analyses revealed that hybridization between Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea was the main expansion mechanism for BnabHLHs. Expression analyses showed that BnabHLHs were widely in different plant tissues and formed seven main patterns, suggesting they may participate in various aspects of B. napus development. Furthermore, when roots were treated with five different hormones (IAA, auxin; GA3, gibberellin; 6-BA, cytokinin; ABA, abscisic acid and ACC, ethylene), the expression profiles of BnabHLHs changed significantly, with many showing increased expression. The induction of five candidate BnabHLHs was confirmed following the five hormone treatments via qRT-PCR. Up to 246 BnabHLHs from nine subfamilies were predicted to have potential roles relating to root development through the joint analysis of their expression profiles and homolog function. CONCLUSION: The 602 BnabHLHs identified from B. napus were classified into 35 subfamilies, and those members from the same subfamily generally had similar sequence motifs. Overall, we found that BnabHLHs may be widely involved in root development in B. napus. Moreover, this study provides important insights into the potential functions of the BnabHLHs super gene family and thus will be useful in future gene function research.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3033-3049, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052629

RESUMO

The high levels of secondary metabolites in rapeseed play important roles in determining the oil quality and feeding value. Here, we characterized the metabolic profiles in seeds of various yellow- and black-seeded rapeseed accessions. Two hundred and forty-eight features were characterized, including 31 phenolic acids, 54 flavonoids, 24 glucosinolates, 65 lipid compounds, and 74 other polar compounds. The most abundant phenolic acids and various flavonoids (epicatechin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives) were widely detected and showed significant differences in distribution between the yellow- and black-seeded rapeseed. Furthermore, the related genes (e.g., BnTT3, BnTT18, BnTT10, BnTT12, and BnBAN) involved in the proanthocyanidin pathway had lower expression levels in yellow-seeded rapeseed, strongly suggesting that the seed coat color could be mainly determined by the levels of epicatechin and their derivatives. These results improve our understanding of the primary constituents of rapeseed and lay the foundation for breeding novel varieties with a high nutritional value.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Brassica napus/classificação , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Catequina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Flavonoides/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023925

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a process through which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule, thereby modifying the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. Increasing evidence has shown that DNA methylation is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development via a number of key processes including genomic imprinting and repression of transposable elements. DNA methylase and demethylase are two crucial enzymes that play significant roles in dynamically maintaining genome DNA methylation status in plants. In this work, 22 DNA methylase genes and six DNA demethylase genes were identified in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) genome. These DNA methylase and DNA demethylase genes can be classified into four (BnaCMTs, BnaMET1s, BnaDRMs and BnaDNMT2s) and three (BnaDMEs, BnaDML3s and BnaROS1s) subfamilies, respectively. Further analysis of gene structure and conserved domains showed that each sub-class is highly conserved between rapeseed and Arabidopsis. Expression analysis conducted by RNA-seq as well as qRT-PCR suggested that these DNA methylation/demethylation-related genes may be involved in the heat/salt stress responses in rapeseed. Taken together, our findings may provide valuable information for future functional characterization of these two types of epigenetic regulatory enzymes in polyploid species such as rapeseed, as well as for analyzing their evolutionary relationships within the plant kingdom.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/química , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Domínios Proteicos , Estresse Salino , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Distribuição Tecidual
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110244, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004946

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of hydrothermally treated coal gangue (HTCG) with and without biochar (BC) on the leaching, bioavailability, and redistribution of chemical fractions of heavy metals (HMs) in copper mine tailing (Cu-MT). An increase in pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) were observed due to the addition of BC in combination with raw coal gangue (RCG) and HTCG. A high Cu and other HMs concentration in pore water (PW) and amended Cu-MT were reduced by the combination of BC with RCG and/or HTCG, whereas individual application of RCG slightly increased the Cu, Cd, and Zn leaching and bioavailability, compared to the unamended Cu-MT. Sequential extractions results showed a reduction in the exchangeable fraction of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn and elevation in the residual fraction following the addition of BC-2% and BC-HTCG. However, individual application of RCG slightly increased the Cu, Cd, and Zn exchangeable fractions assessed by chemical extraction method. Rapeseed was grown for the following 45 days during which physiological parameters, metal uptake transfer rate (TR), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF) were measured after harvesting. In the case of plant biomass, no significant difference between applied amendments was observed for the fresh biomass (FBM) and dry biomass (DBM) of shoots and roots of rapeseed. However, BC-2% and BC-HTCG presented the lowest HMs uptake, TR, BCF (BCFroot and BCFshoot), and TF for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in rapeseed among the other amendments compared to the unamended Cu-MT. Overall, these findings are indicative that using biochar in combination with RCG and/or HTCG led to a larger reduction in HMs leaching and bioavailability, due to their higher sorption capacity and could be a suitable remediation strategy for heavy metals in a Cu-MT.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Carvão Mineral/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cobre/análise , Cobre/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013254

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroid hormones, essentially important for plant development and growth. BR signaling functions to promote cell expansion and cell division, and plays a role in etiolation and reproduction. As the phytohormone originally identified in the pollen grains of Brassica napus, BR promotes the elongation of stigma. Recent studies have revealed that BR is also critical for floral transition, inflorescence stem architecture formation and other aspects of plant reproductive processes. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of BRs in plant reproduction, the spatial and temporal control of BR signaling, and the downstream molecular mechanisms in both the model plant Arabidopsis and crops. The crosstalk of BR with environmental factors and other hormones in reproduction will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(2): e1900399, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909554

RESUMO

Water stress is one of the main abiotic factors that reduces plant growth, mainly due to high evaporative demand and low water availability. In order to evaluate the effects of drought stress on certain morphological and physiological characteristics of two canola cultivars, we conducted a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design. The findings show that drought stress exacerbations result in the plant's response to stress due to increased canola resistance caused by changes in plant pigments, proline, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde, glucose, galactose, rhamnose and xylose. These in turn ultimately influence the morphological characteristics of canola. Drought stress reduces the concentration of carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls; however, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose, proline, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (in leaves and roots) and the chlorophyll a and b ratios were increased. Reduction of plant height, stem height, root length, fresh and dry weight of canola treated with 300 g/l PEG compared to non-treatment were 0.264, 0.236, 0.394, 0.183 and 0.395, respectively. From the two canola cultivars, the morphological characteristics of the NIMA increased compared to the Ks7 cultivar. Interaction effects of cultivar and drought stress showed that NIMA cultivar without treatment had the highest number of morphological characteristics such as carotenoid concentration, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls a and b, whereas the cultivar with 300 g/l PEG (drought stress) had the highest amount of proline, malondialdehyde, soluble sugars and enzymes in leaves and roots. Increasing activity of oxidative enzymes and soluble sugars in canola under drought stress could be a sign of their relative tolerance to drought stress.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Estresse Fisiológico , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ramnose/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 147: 280-288, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891862

RESUMO

As one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants, the R2R3-MYB proteins play important roles in diverse biological processes including growth and development, primary and secondary metabolism such as flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis as well as abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, functions of R2R3-MYB genes in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) remain elusive. Here, we characterized BnaMYB111L, which is homologous to Arabidopsis MYB111 and encodes an R2R3-MYB protein in rapeseed. BnaMYB111L is responsive to abscisic acid (ABA), heat, cold, hydrogen peroxide and fungal pathogen Sclerotinia scelerotiorum treatments through quantitative RT-PCR assay. BnaMYB111L encodes a transcriptional activator and is localized exclusively to nuclei. Interestingly, overexpression of BnaMYB111L in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and rapeseed protoplasts promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hypersensitive response-like cell death, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as degradation of chlorophyll. Furthermore, BnaMYB111L expression evoked the alterations of transcript levels of genes encoding ROS-producing enzyme, vacuolar processing enzymes and genes implicated in defense responses. A further dual luciferase reporter assay indicated that BnaMYB111L activated the expression of RbohB, MC4 and ACRE132, which are involved in ROS generation, cell death as well as defense responses. Taken together, this study characterized the function of rapeseed MYB111L and identified its putative target genes involved in ROS production and cell death.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Morte Celular , Proteínas de Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fatores de Transcrição , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Morte Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 21, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the main composition of plant seed oil. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (LACSs) catalyze the synthesis of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A, which is one of the primary substrates for TAG synthesis. In Arabidopsis, the LACS gene family contains nine members, among which LACS1 and LACS9 have overlapping functions in TAG biosynthesis. However, functional characterization of LACS proteins in rapeseed have been rarely reported. RESULTS: An orthologue of the Arabidopsis LACS2 gene (BnLACS2) that is highly expressed in developing seeds was identified in rapeseed (Brassica napus). The BnLACS2-GFP fusion protein was mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, where TAG biosynthesis occurs. Interestingly, overexpression of the BnLACS2 gene resulted in significantly higher oil contents in transgenic rapeseed plants compared to wild type, while BnLACS2-RNAi transgenic rapeseed plants had decreased oil contents. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that the expression of several genes involved in glycolysis, as well as fatty acid (FA) and lipid biosynthesis, was also affected in transgenic plants. CONCLUSIONS: A long chain acyl-CoA synthetase, BnLACS2, located in the endoplasmic reticulum was identified in B. napus. Overexpression of BnLACS2 in yeast and rapeseed could increase oil content, while BnLACS2-RNAi transgenic rapeseed plants exhibited decreased oil content. Furthermore, BnLACS2 transcription increased the expression of genes involved in glycolysis, and FA and lipid synthesis in developing seeds. These results suggested that BnLACS2 is an important factor for seed oil production in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Coenzima A Ligases , Sementes/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glicólise/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Triglicerídeos/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 252, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937837

RESUMO

As a new plant biostimulant, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) may be an effective anti-drought agent that can efficiently alleviate the damage to plants under drought stress. In this study, the effects of γ-PGA on the physiological responses of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings under drought stress were investigated using hydroponics. Growth and development of the rape seedlings were significantly inhibited in a polyethylene glycol-simulated drought environment. However, 12 d after application of γ-PGA under drought stress, the fresh weight, chlorophyll content, and relative water content of rape seedlings all markedly increased. Moreover, proline content and antioxidant enzyme activity were all markedly enhanced, and the malondialdehyde content was significantly reduced in rape seedlings treated with γ-PGA. Furthermore, the content of the important anti-drought response hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), as well as the expression levels of the ABA metabolism regulation genes BnNCED3, BnZEP, and BnAAO4, significantly increased. These results indicate that γ-PGA may induce elements of a tolerance system to drought stress by promoting ABA accumulation in B. Napus.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Secas , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Estresse Fisiológico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ácido Poliglutâmico/farmacologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/metabolismo
20.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(5): 1241-1254, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705705

RESUMO

Boron (B) deficiency is one of the major causes of growth inhibition and yield reduction in Brassica napus (B. napus). However, the molecular mechanisms of low B adaptation in B. napus are largely unknown. Here, fifty-one BnaWRKY transcription factors were identified as responsive to B deficiency in B. napus, in which BnaAn.WRKY26, BnaA9.WRKY47, BnaA1.WKRY53 and BnaCn.WRKY57 were tested in yeast one-hybrid assays and showed strong binding activity with conserved sequences containing a W box in the promoters of the B transport-related genes BnaNIP5;1s and BnaBOR1s. Green fluorescent protein fused to the target protein demonstrated the nuclear localization of BnaA9.WRKY47. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout lines of BnaA9.WRKY47 in B. napus had increased sensitivity to low B and lower contents of B than wild-type plants. In contrast, overexpression of BnaA9.WRKY47 enhanced the adaptation to low B with higher B contents in tissues than in wild-type plants. Consistent with the phenotypic response and B accumulation in these transgenic lines, the transcription activity of BnaA3.NIP5;1, a B efficiency candidate gene, was decreased in the knockout lines but was significantly increased in the overexpressing lines under low B conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, transient expression experiments in tobacco and in situ hybridizations showed that BnaA9.WRKY47 directly activated BnaA3.NIP5;1 expression through binding to the specific cis-element. Taken together, our findings support BnaWRKYs as new participants in response to low B, and BnaA9.WRKY47 contributes to the adaptation of B. napus to B deficiency through up-regulating BnaA3.NIP5;1 expression to facilitate efficient B uptake.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Ácidos Bóricos , Boro/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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