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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109659, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541946

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) affects crop growth and productivity by disrupting normal plant metabolism. To determinate whether ultrasonic (US) seed treatment can alleviate Cd stress in rape (Brassica napus L.), the seeds of two oilseed rape cultivars i.e., 'Youyanzao18' and 'Zaoshu104' were exposed to ultrasonic waves for 1 min at 20 KHz frequency. Seeds without US treatment were taken as control (CK). Results revealed that the germination rate of both cultivars was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in US treatment than CK only at 0 and 10 mg Cd L-1. The shoot and root length of both cultivars were significantly higher in US treatment than CK at all Cd treatments except the root length of Youyanzao18 at 50 mg Cd L-1. The fresh weight Youyanzao18 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in US than CK except for Youyanzao18 at 25 mg Cd L-1. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and the proline, glutathione (GSH), and soluble protein contents in Youyanzao18 were relatively higher in the US treatment than CK. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were prominently reduced in US treatment than CK. The pods per plant, seeds per pod and rapeseed yield were increased by 15.9, 11.4, and 16.4% in Youyanzao18 and 10.3, 9.5, and 11.5% in Zaoshu104, respectively in US treatment, compared to CK. Moreover, the contents of Cd in root, stem, leaf, rape pod shell, and rapeseeds were comparatively less in US treatment than CK whereas the Cd concentrations in different plant parts of both rape cultivars were recorded as: leaf ˃ root ˃ stem ˃ rape pod shell ˃ rapeseed. In sum, the US treatment improved the morphological growth and rapeseed yield whereas reduced the Cd accumulation in different plant parts of rapeseed under Cd contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505838

RESUMO

WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 (WIN1) belongs to the AP2/EREBP transcription factor family and plays an important role in wax and cutin accumulation in plants. Here we show that BnWIN1 from Brassica napus (Bn) has dual functions in wax accumulation and oil synthesis. Overexpression (OE) of BnWIN1 led to enhanced wax accumulation and promoted growth without adverse effects on oil synthesis under salt stress conditions. Lipid profiling revealed that BnWIN1-OE plants accumulated more waxes with elevated C29-alkanes, C31-alkanes, C28-alcohol, and C29-alcohol relative to wild type (WT) under salt stress. Moreover, overexpression of BnWIN1 also increased seed oil content under normal growth conditions. BnWIN1 directly bound to the promoter region of genes encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein 1 (BCCP1), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 (GPAT9), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 5 (LPAT5), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) involved in the lipid anabolic process. Overexpression of BnWIN1 resulted in upregulated expression of numerous genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, wax accumulation, and oil production. The results suggest that BnWIN1 is a transcriptional activator to regulate the biosynthesis of both extracellular and intracellular lipids.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Pressão Osmótica , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
3.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(7): 817-828, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509731

RESUMO

Natural competence of mitochondria for DNA uptake has been known for the last 20 years. Until the present time, all studies of this process have been conducted exclusively in isolated mitochondria, as no system for investigation of the DNA transport into the mitochondria in intact cells has been available. The objective of this work was to improve and standardize the existing approaches for investigating DNA import into plant mitochondria in an in organello system. A method for detecting the import of fluorescently labeled DNA substrates has been developed. Based on the features of DNA import into the mitochondria, we suggested an efficient method for the evaluation of the DNA import efficiency by quantitative PCR. We also developed and characterized the in vivo system that allows to detect DNA transport from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. A combination of the proposed techniques for studying the DNA uptake by plant mitochondria might be useful for elucidating whether the properties of the mitochondrial DNA import established in the in organello system are preserved in vivo.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Genoma Mitocondrial , Genoma de Planta , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem
4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 644, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) of Brassica napus facilitates reproductive researches and hybrid seed production. Considering the complexity and little information about the molecular mechanism involved in B. napus TGMS, comparative transcriptomic analyses were peroformed for the sterile (160S-MS) and fertile (160S-MF) flowers to identify potential crucial genes and pathways associated with TGMS. RESULTS: In total, RNA-seq analysis showed that 2202 genes (561 up-regulated and 1641 down-regulated) were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile flowers of 160S-MF at 25 °C when compared the sterile flower of 160S-MS at 15 °C. Detailed analysis revealed that expression changes in genes encoding heat shock proteins, antioxidant, skeleton protein, GTPase and calmodulin might be involved in TGMS of B. napus. Moreover, gene expression of some key members in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as auxin, gibberellins, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid signalings, were significantly surppressed in the flowers of 160S, suggesting that these genes might be involved in the regulation in B. napus TGMS. Here, we also found that transcription factor MADS, NFY, HSF, MYB/C and WRKY might play a crucial role in male fertility under the high temperature condition. CONCLUSION: High temperature can significant affect gene expression in the flowers. The findings in the current study improve our understanding of B. napus TGMS at the molecular level and also provide an effective foundation for male fertility researches in other important economic crops.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
5.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 153007, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310905

RESUMO

Previous studies have proven that graphene oxide (GO) regulates abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents and modulates plant root growth. To better understand the mechanism of plant growth and development regulated by GO and crosstalk between ABA and GO, Zhongshuang No. 9 seedlings were treated with GO and ABA. The results indicated that GO and ABA significantly affected the morphological properties and endogenous phytohormone contents in seedlings, and there was significant crosstalk between GO and ABA. ABA treatments combined with GO led to a rapid decrease in triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction intensity, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing ABA concentration. The treatments significantly affected the transcriptional levels of some key genes involved in the ABA, IAA, cytokinin (CTK), salicylic acid (SA), and ethane (ETH) pathways and increased the ABA and gibberellin (GA) contents in rapeseed seedlings. The effects of the treatments on the IAA and CTK contents were complex, but, importantly, the treatments suppressed root elongation. Correlation analysis also indicated that the relationship between root length and IAA/ABA could be described by a polynomial function: y = 88.11x2 - 25.15x + 4.813(R²â€¯= 0.912). The treatments increased the ACS2 transcript abundance for ETH biosynthesis and the ICS1 transcriptional level of the key genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, as well as the downstream signaling genes CBP60 and SARD1. This finding indicated that ABA is an important factor regulating the effects of GO on the growth and development of Brassica napus L., and that ETH and SA pathways may be potential pathways involved in the response of rape seedlings to GO treatment.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/administração & dosagem , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grafite/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/enzimologia , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 294, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapeseed is the third largest oil seed crop in the world. The seeds of this plant store lipids in oil bodies, and oleosin is the most important structural protein in oil bodies. However, the function of oleosin in oil crops has received little attention. RESULTS: In the present study, 48 oleosin sequences from the Brassica napus genome were identified and divided into four lineages (T, U, SH, SL). Synteny analysis revealed that most of the oleosin genes were conserved, and all of these genes experienced purifying selection during evolution. Three and four important oleosin genes from Arabidopsis and B. napus, respectively, were cloned and analyzed for function in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of these oleosin genes in Arabidopsis increased the seed oil content slightly, except for BnaOLE3. Further analysis revealed that the average oil body size of the transgenic seeds was slightly larger than that of the wild type (WT), except for BnaOLE1. The fatty acid profiles showed that the linoleic acid content (13.3% at most) increased and the peanut acid content (11% at most) decreased in the transgenic lines. In addition, the seed size and thousand-seed weight (TSW) also increased in the transgenic lines, which could lead to increased total lipid production. CONCLUSION: We identified oleosin genes in the B. napus genome, and overexpression of oleosin in Arabidopsis seeds increased the seed weight and linoleic acid content (13.3% at most).


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sintenia
7.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261846

RESUMO

Honey is a natural sweetener composed mostly of sugars, but it contains also pollen grains, proteins, free amino acids, and minerals. The amounts and proportions of these components depend on the honey type and bee species. Despite the low content of honey protein, they are becoming a popular study object, and have recently been used as markers of the authenticity and quality of honey. Currently, the most popular methods of protein isolation from honey are dialysis against distilled water, lyophilization of dialysate, or various precipitation protocols. In this work, we propose a new method based on saturated phenol. We tested it on three popular polish honey types and we proved its compatibility with both 1D and 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and MS (mass spectrometry) techniques. The elaborated technique is also potentially less expensive and less time-consuming than other previously described methods, while being equally effective.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Fenóis/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Polônia , Robinia/metabolismo
8.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 152988, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255878

RESUMO

The diverse biological activities of glucosinolate (GSL) hydrolysis products play significant biological and economical roles in the defense system and nutritional qualities of Brassica napus (oilseed rape). Yet, genomic-based study of the B. napus GSL regulatory mechanisms are scarce due to the complexity of working with polyploid species. To address these challenges, we used transcriptome-based GWAS approach, Associative Transcriptomics (AT), across a diversity panel of 288 B. napus genotypes to uncover the underlying genetic basis controlling quantitative variation of GSLs in B. napus vegetative tissues. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and gene expression markers (GEMs) associations identify orthologues of MYB28/HAG1 (AT5G61420), specifically the copies on chromosome A9 and C2, to be the key regulators of aliphatic GSL variation in leaves. We show that the positive correlation observed between aliphatic GSLs in seed and leaf is due to the amount synthesized, as controlled by Bna.HAG1.A9 and Bna.HAG1.C2, rather than by variation in the transport processes. In addition, AT and differential expression analysis in root tissues implicate an orthologue of MYB29/HAG3 (AT5G07690), Bna.HAG3.A3, as controlling root aromatic GSL variation. Based on the root expression data we also propose Bna.MAM3.A3 to have a role in controlling phenylalanine chain elongation for aromatic GSL biosynthesis. This work uncovers a regulator of homophenylalanine-derived aromatic GSLs and implicates the shared biosynthetic pathways between aliphatic and aromatic GSLs.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Glucosinolatos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2878, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253789

RESUMO

Brassica napus, an allotetraploid crop, is hypothesized to be a hybrid from unknown varieties of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Despite the economic importance of B. napus, much is unresolved regarding its phylogenomic relationships, genetic structure, and diversification. Here we conduct a comprehensive study among diverse accessions from 183 B. napus (including rapeseed, rutabaga, and Siberian kale), 112 B. rapa, and 62 B. oleracea and its wild relatives. Using RNA-seq of B. napus accessions, we define the genetic diversity and sub-genome variance of six genetic clusters. Nuclear and organellar phylogenies for B. napus and its progenitors reveal varying patterns of inheritance and post-formation introgression. We discern regions with signatures of selective sweeps and detect 8,187 differentially expressed genes with implications for B. napus diversification. This study highlights the complex origin and evolution of B. napus providing insights that can further facilitate B. napus breeding and germplasm preservation.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Ploidias , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genômica , Organelas , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
10.
J Biotechnol ; 301: 35-44, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158409

RESUMO

Plant oils are very valuable agricultural commodity. The manipulation of seed oil composition to deliver enhanced fatty acid compositions, which are appropriate for feed or fuel, has always been a main objective of metabolic engineers. The last two decennary have been noticeable by numerous significant events in genetic engineering for identification of different gene targets to improve oil yield in oilseed crops. Particularly, genetic engineering approaches have presented major breakthrough in elevating oil content in oilseed crops such as Brassica napus and soybean. Additionally, current research efforts to explore the possibilities to modify the genetic expression of key regulators of oil accumulation along with biochemical studies to elucidate lipid biosynthesis will establish protocols to develop transgenic oilseed crops along much improved oil content. In this review, we describe current distinct genetic engineering approaches investigated by researchers for ameliorating oil content and its nutritional quality. Moreover, we will also discuss some auspicious and innovative approaches and challenges for engineering oil content to yield oil at much higher rate in oilseed crops.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Engenharia Genética , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Brassica napus/química , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo
11.
Chemosphere ; 231: 562-570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151016

RESUMO

Soil contamination in mining areas is an important environmental concern. In these areas, phytoremediation is often impeded because of the low fertility and pH. Assisted phytoremediation is increasingly being used in polluted areas. Biochar could assist plant growth via enhanced soil fertility. An experiment was performed in a mining soil (RIII) from the mining area of Riotinto (Spain) contaminated with Cu, Pb, Zn and As in order to study: (i) The effects of biochar on soil fertility; (ii) Biochar temperature of preparation effect and (iii) Effect of biochar on phytoremediation potential. A mesocosm experiment was designed using Brassica napus as test specie. Soil (RIII) was treated with rabbit manure biochars prepared at 450 °C (BM450) and 600 °C (BM600) at a rate of 10% in mass and incubated for 60 days with or without Brassica napus. Results showed that the combination of BM450 or BM600 with Brassica napus growth decreased the amount of As, Cu, Co, Cr, Se and Pb in the soil. Values of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for Cd were particularly elevated (>10) in the unamended soil and reached values higher than 1 for other elements, indicating the potential of Brassica napus to accumulate several heavy metals. Translocation Factor (TF) was reduced for Co, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and As after biochar addition indicating root accumulation of these metals. In all cases, biochar addition increased biomass production. Finally, the addition of BM450 increased GMea index indicating also an improvement on soil quality.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal/química , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/química , Animais , Biomassa , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espanha
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 280, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The xylem sap of vascular plants primarily transports water and mineral nutrients from the roots to the shoots and also transports heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd). Proteomic changes in xylem sap is an important mechanism for detoxifying Cd by plants. However, it is unclear how proteins in xylem sap respond to Cd. Here, we investigated the effects of Cd stress on the xylem sap proteome of Brassica napus using a label-free shotgun proteomic approach to elucidate plant response mechanisms to Cd toxicity. RESULTS: We identified and quantified 672 proteins; 67% were predicted to be secretory, and 11% (73 proteins) were unique to Cd-treated samples. Cd stress caused statistically significant and biologically relevant abundance changes in 28 xylem sap proteins. Among these proteins, the metabolic pathways that were most affected were related to cell wall modifications, stress/oxidoreductases, and lipid and protein metabolism. We functionally validated a plant defensin-like protein, BnPDFL, which belongs to the stress/oxidoreductase category, that was unique to the Cd-treated samples and played a positive role in Cd tolerance. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that BnPDFL is cell wall-localized. In vitro Cd-binding assays revealed that BnPDFL has Cd-chelating activity. BnPDFL heterologous overexpression significantly enhanced Cd tolerance in E. coli and Arabidopsis. Functional disruption of Arabidopsis plant defensin genes AtPDF2.3 and AtPDF2.2, which are mainly expressed in root vascular bundles, significantly decreased Cd tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: Several xylem sap proteins in Brassica napus are differentially induced in response to Cd treatment, and plant defensin plays a positive role in Cd tolerance.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Xilema/fisiologia , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Xilema/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(24): 6736-6747, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184154

RESUMO

Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and crop productivity; however, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) decreases with increasing N supply, resulting in a waste of resources. Molecular mechanisms underlying low-nitrogen (LN)-mediated enhancement of NUE are not clear. We used high-NUE Brassica napus genotype H (Xiangyou 15), low-NUE B. napus genotype L (814), and Arabidopsis mutant aux1 to elucidate the mechanism underlying the changes in NUE under different rates of N fertilizer application. NUE of B. napus increased under LN, which enhanced N uptake ability by regulating root system architecture and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity; AUX1 was involved in this process. Additionally, BnNRT1.5 was upregulated and BnNRT1.8 was downregulated under LN, whereby more N was transferred to the shoot through enhanced N transport. Observed changes in photosynthesis under LN were associated with N assimilation efficiency. Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms of plant adaptation to the environment.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Transporte Biológico , Brassica napus/genética , Fertilizantes/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitrogênio/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 733-741, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200201

RESUMO

Heavy metals contamination in agricultural soil has become a worldwide problem, and soil characteristics modulate metal availability in soils. Four field experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate concentration and distribution of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in 39 oilseed rape cultivars at four agricultural locations with different contamination levels of Cd and Pb, as well as the influence of soil characteristics together with soil total and bioavailable Cd and Pb concentration on metal transfer from soil to oilseed rape. Shoot concentrations of Cd and Pb in oilseed rape cultivars ranged from 0.09 to 3.18 and from 0.01 to 10.5 mg kg-1 across four sites. For most cultivars, Cd concentration in root or shoot were higher than pod and lowest in seed, while the highest Pb concentration was observed in root followed by shoot and seed. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis allows for a better estimation of Cd and Pb concentration in oilseed rape while taking soil properties into consideration. The results demonstrated that Cd and Pb concentration in oilseed rape were correlated with soil organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), sand, soil total and available Cd and Pb concentration, and R2 varied from 0.993 to 0.999 (P < 0.05). The Cd and Pb levels found in oilseed rape indicated its phytoextraction potential for Cd and Pb co-contaminated agricultural soils in winter without stopping agricultural activities.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Agricultura , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Modelos Lineares , Metais Pesados/análise , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 264, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica napus L. has little or no primary dormancy, but exhibits great variation in secondary dormancy. Secondary dormancy potential in oilseed rape can lead to the emergence of volunteer plants that cause genetic contamination, reduced quality and biosafety issues. However, the mechanisms underlying secondary dormancy are poorly understood. In this study, cultivars Huaiyou-WSD-H2 (H) and Huaiyou-SSD-V1 (V), which exhibit low (approximately 5%) and high (approximately 95%) secondary dormancy rate, respectively, were identified. Four samples, before (Hb and Vb) and after (Ha and Va) secondary dormancy induction by polyethylene glycol (PEG), were collected to identify the candidate genes involved in secondary dormancy via comparative transcriptome profile analysis. RESULTS: A total of 998 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which are mainly involved in secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, protein modification and signaling pathways, were then detected. Among these DEGs, the expression levels of those involved in the sulfur-rich indole glucosinolate (GLS)-linked auxin biosynthesis pathway were markedly upregulated in the dormant seeds (Va), which were validated by qRT-PCR and subsequently confirmed via detection of altered concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), IAA conjugates and precursors. Furthermore, exogenous IAA applications to cultivar H enhanced secondary dormancy. CONCLUSION: This study first (to our knowledge) elucidated that indole GLS-linked auxin biosynthesis is enhanced during secondary dormancy induced by PEG, which provides valuable information concerning secondary dormancy and expands the current understanding of the role of auxin in rapeseed.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Dormência de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia
16.
Plant Sci ; 285: 132-140, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203877

RESUMO

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc)- responsive soluble and cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids (HAs) and flavonoids accumulation in relation to hormonal changes in two Brassica napus cultivars contrasting disease susceptibility were interpreted with regard to the disease resistance. At 14-day post inoculation with Xcc, disease resistance in cv. Capitol was distinguished by an accumulation of specific (HAs) and flavonoids particularly in cell-wall bound form, and was characterized by higher endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) resulting in a decrease of JA-based balance with other hormones, as well as enhanced expression of JA signaling that was concurrently based on upregulation of PAP1 (production of anthocyanin pigment 1), MYB transcription factor, and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed higher amounts of esterified phenolic acids in cv. Capitol. These results indicate that enhanced JA levels and signaling in resistant cultivar was associated with a higher accumulation of HAs and flavonoids, particularly in the cell wall-bound form, and vice versa in the susceptible cultivar (cv. Mosa) with enhanced SA-, ABA-, and CK- levels and signaling. Thus the JA-mediated phenolic metabolites accumulation is an important feature for the management and breeding program to develop disease-resistant B. napus cultivar.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/imunologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Xanthomonas campestris , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/fisiopatologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Plant Sci ; 284: 57-66, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084879

RESUMO

The transmembrane transport of NO3- and Cd2+ into plant cell vacuoles relies on the energy from their tonoplast proton pumps, V-ATPase and V-PPase. If the activity of these pumps is reduced, it results in less NO3- and Cd2+ being transported into the vacuoles, which contributes to better nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and lower Cd2+ tolerance in plants. The physiological mechanisms that regulate the balance between NUE and Cd2+ tolerance remain unknown. In our study, two Brassica napus genotypes with differential NUEs, xiangyou 15 and 814, and Atclca-2 mutant and AtCAX4 over-expression line (AtCAX4-OE) of Arabidopsis thaliana, were used to investigate Cd2+ stress responses. We found that the Brassica napus genotype, with higher NUE, was more sensitive to Cd2+ stress. The AtCAX4-OE mutant, with higher Cd2+ vacuolar sequestration capacity (VSC), limited NO3- sequestration into root vacuoles and promoted NUE. Atclca-2 mutants, with decreased NO3- VSC, enhanced Cd2+ sequestration into root vacuoles and conferred greater Cd2+ tolerance than the WT. This may be due to the competition between Cd2+ andNO3- in the vacuoles for the energy provided by V-ATPase and V-PPase. Regulating the balance between Cd2+ and NO3- vacuolar accumulation by inhibiting the activity of CLCa transporter and increasing the activity of CAX4 transporter will simultaneously enhance both the NUE and Cd2+ tolerance of Brassica napus, essential for improving its Cd2+ phytoremediation potential.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo
18.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(7): 1556-1566, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073607

RESUMO

Oil crop Brassica napus is subjected to environmental stresses such as drought, cold and salt. Phospholipase Ds (PLDs) have vital roles in regulation of plant growth, development and stress tolerance. In this study, 32 BnaPLD genes were identified and classified into six subgroups depending on the conserved protein structures. High similarity in gene and protein structures exists between BnaPLDs and AtPLDs. Gene expression analysis showed that BnaPLDα1s and BnaPLDδs had higher expression than other PLDs. BnaPLDα1 and BnaPLDδ were significantly induced by abiotic stresses including dehydration, NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA) and 4�C. Lipidomic analysis showed that the content of main membrane phospholipids decreased gradually under stresses, except phosphatidylglycerol increased under the treatment of ABA and phosphatidylethanolamine increased under 4�C. Correspondingly, their product of phosphatidic acid increased often with a transient peak at 8 h. The plant height of mutants of PLDα1 was significantly reduced. Agronomic traits such as yield, seed number, silique number and branches were significantly impaired in PLDα1 mutants. These results indicate that there is a large family of PLD genes in B. napus, especially BnaPLDα1s and BnaPLDδs may play important roles in membrane lipids remodeling and maintaining of the growth and stress tolerance of B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Fosfolipase D/genética , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Brassica napus/enzimologia , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121949

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) are the main inorganic nitrogen (N) sources absorbed by oilseed rape, a plant that exhibits genotypic differences in N efficiency. In our previous study, the biomass, N accumulation, and root architecture of two oilseed rape cultivars, Xiangyou 15 (high N efficiency, denoted "15") and 814 (low N efficiency, denoted "814"), were inhibited under NH4+ nutrition, though both cultivars grew normally under NO3- nutrition. To gain insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms, transcriptomic changes were investigated in the roots of 15 and 814 plants subjected to nitrogen-free (control, CK), NO3- (NT), and NH4+ (AT) treatments at the seedling stage. A total of 14,355 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Among the enriched Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway categories of these DEGs, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, and cell wall biogenesis were inhibited by AT treatment. Interestingly, DEGs such as N transporters, genes involved in N assimilation and CESA genes related to cellulose synthase were also mostly downregulated in the AT treatment group. This downregulation of genes related to crucial metabolic pathways resulted in inhibition of oilseed rape growth after AT treatment.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Nitratos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/genética
20.
Plant Sci ; 283: 424-434, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128714

RESUMO

Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in diverse aspects of plant metabolism. We investigated how the reduced form of glutathione, GSH, applied site-specifically to plants, affects zinc (Zn) distribution and behavior in oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. Foliar-applied GSH significantly increased the Zn content in shoots and the root-to-shoot Zn translocation ratio; furthermore, this treatment raised the Zn concentration in the cytosol of root cells and substantially enhanced Zn xylem loading. Notably, microarray analysis revealed that the gene encoding pectin methylesterase was upregulated in roots following foliar GSH treatment. We conclude that certain physiological signals triggered in response to foliar-applied GSH were transported via sieve tubes and functioned in root cells, which, in turn, increased Zn availability in roots by releasing Zn from their cell wall. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Zn was activated and Zn accumulation in the shoot was markedly increased.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Floema/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo
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