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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 281: 116667, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964068

RESUMO

Elucidating the absorption and translocation of heavy metal(loid)s by common vegetables across different growth environments and stages is crucial for conducting accurate environmental risk assessments and for associated control. This study investigated temporal variations in the absorption and translocation capacities of pak choi (Brassica rapa L.) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in polluted soils during the plant growth cycle under greenhouse and open-field cultivation modes. Results showed high root metal(loid) bioconcentration factors and root-to-shoot translocation factors for Cd (0.25 and 1.44, respectively) and Zn (0.26 and 1.01), but low values for As (0.06 and 0.88) and Pb (0.06 and 0.87). The Cd concentration in the aerial edible parts peaked during the early slow growth period, whereas other heavy metal(loid)s peaked during the later stable maturity period. Root bioconcentration and root-to-shoot translocation factors did not significantly differ between cultivation modes. However, greenhouse cultivation exhibited lower average Cd and Zn concentrations in the edible parts and cumulative uptake amounts of most metal(loid)s than open-field cultivation during the typical harvest period spanning days 60 and 90. Short-term transitioning from open-field to greenhouse cultivation may reduce health risks associated with heavy metal(loid) intake via pak choi consumption. These findings facilitate sustainable agricultural practices and food safety management.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Metais Pesados , Raízes de Plantas , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos
2.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(8): 294, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976147

RESUMO

Lushan Yunwu tea quality is limited by soil acidity and sterility. This article examined a 3-year localization experiment at 1100 m altitude to demonstrate the sustainable management of conditioners, calcium magnesium phosphate (P), rapeseed cake (C), and combination application (P + C) by one-time application on the soil-tea system in Mount Lushan. The study found that conditioners (P, C, P + C) reduced soil acidification and maintained a pH of 4.75-5.34, ideal for tea tree development for 3 years. Phosphorus activation coefficient (PAC), nitrogen activation coefficient (NAC), and organic matter (OM) content were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the first year after conditioner treatment, with P + C being the best. After P + C, PAC, NAC, and OM rose by 31.25%, 47.70%, and 10.06 g kg-1 compared to CK. In comparison to the CK, tea's hundred-bud weight (BW), free amino acids (AA), tea polyphenols (TPC), and chlorophyll (Chl) content of P + C treatment got 29.98%, 14.41%, 22.49%, and 28.85% increase compared to that of the CK, respectively. In the second year, the three treatments of P, C and P + C still had significant moderating effects on the physicochemical properties of the soil and the quality indexes of the tea leaves. The PAC of the soil under the three treatments increased by 0.06%, 0.07% and 0.18%, respectively, as compared to the control.P + C increased BW, AA, TPC and Chl of tea for 2 years. Three conditioners had 2-year regulatory impacts on soil fertility indicators, tea output, and quality. C and P + C both increased soil OM by 18.59% and 21.78% compared to CK in the third year, outperforming P treatment. Redundancy analysis revealed that the primary physicochemical factors influencing tea output and quality were soil OM and pH, with available phosphorus, urease, acid phosphatase, and available nitrogen following closely afterwards.


Assuntos
Solo , Solo/química , China , Chá/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fertilizantes , Brassica rapa , Fosfatos , Nitrogênio , Clorofila , Fósforo/análise
3.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 704, 2024 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39030492

RESUMO

The growth, yield, and seed quality of rapeseed are negatively affected by drought stress. Therefore, it is of great value to understand the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon. In a previous study, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were found to play a key role in the response of rapeseed seedlings to drought stress. However, many questions remained unanswered. This study was the first to investigate the expression profile of lncRNAs not only under control and drought treatment, but also under the rehydration treatment. A total of 381 differentially expressed lncRNA and 10,253 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified in the comparison between drought stress and control condition. In the transition from drought stress to rehydration, 477 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 12,543 differentially expressed mRNAs were detected. After identifying the differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs, the comprehensive lncRNAs-engaged network with the co-expressed mRNAs in leaves under control, drought and rehydration was investigated. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of co-expressed mRNAs identified the most significant pathways related with plant hormones (expecially abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, and gibberellins) in the signal transduction. The genes, co-expressed with the most-enriched DE-lncRNAs, were considered as the most effective candidates in the water-loss and water-recovery processes, including protein phosphatase 2 C (PP2C), ABRE-binding factors (ABFs), and SMALL AUXIN UP-REGULATED RNAs (SAURs). In summary, these analyses clearly demonstrated that DE-lncRNAs can act as a regulatory hub in plant-water interaction by controlling phytohormone signaling pathways and provided an alternative way to explore the complex mechanisms of drought tolerance in rapeseed.


Assuntos
Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , RNA Longo não Codificante , Plântula , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo
4.
New Phytol ; 243(4): 1571-1585, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922897

RESUMO

Increased temperature can induce plastic changes in many plant traits. However, little is known about how these changes affect plant interactions with insect pollinators and herbivores, and what the consequences for plant fitness and selection are. We grew fast-cycling Brassica rapa plants at two temperatures (ambient and increased temperature) and phenotyped them (floral traits, scent, colour and glucosinolates). We then exposed plants to both pollinators (Bombus terrestris) and pollinating herbivores (Pieris rapae). We measured flower visitation, oviposition of P. rapae, herbivore development and seed output. Plants in the hot environment produced more but smaller flowers, with lower UV reflectance and emitted a different volatile blend with overall lower volatile emission. Moreover, these plants received fewer first-choice visits by bumblebees and butterflies, and fewer flower visits by butterflies. Seed production was lower in hot environment plants, both because of a reduction in flower fertility due to temperature and because of the reduced visitation of pollinators. The selection on plant traits changed in strength and direction between temperatures. Our study highlights an important mechanism by which global warming can change plant-pollinator interactions and negatively impact plant fitness, as well as potentially alter plant evolution through changes in phenotypic selection.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Borboletas , Flores , Aptidão Genética , Temperatura Alta , Polinização , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Flores/fisiologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Borboletas/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Fenótipo , Oviposição/fisiologia , Temperatura , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
5.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 546, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Purple flowering stalk (Brassica rapa var. purpuraria) is a widely cultivated plant with high nutritional and medicinal value and exhibiting strong adaptability during growing. Mitochondrial (mt) play important role in plant cells for energy production, developing with an independent genetic system. Therefore, it is meaningful to assemble and annotate the functions for the mt genome of plants independently. Though there have been several reports referring the mt genome of in Brassica species, the genome of mt in B. rapa var. purpuraria and its functional gene variations when compared to its closely related species has not yet been addressed. RESULTS: The mt genome of B. rapa var. purpuraria was assembled through the Illumina and Nanopore sequencing platforms, which revealed a length of 219,775 bp with a typical circular structure. The base composition of the whole B. rapa var. purpuraria mt genome revealed A (27.45%), T (27.31%), C (22.91%), and G (22.32%). 59 functional genes, composing of 33 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 23 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes, were annotated. The sequence repeats, codon usage, RNA editing, nucleotide diversity and gene transfer between the cp genome and mt genome were examined in the B. rapa var. purpuraria mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis show that B. rapa var. Purpuraria was closely related to B. rapa subsp. Oleifera and B. juncea. Ka/Ks analysis reflected that most of the PCGs in the B. rapa var. Purpuraria were negatively selected, illustrating that those mt genes were conserved during evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our findings provide valuable information on the B.rapa var. Purpuraria genome, which might facilitate molecular breeding, genetic variation and evolutionary researches for Brassica species in the future.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Brassica rapa/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Genoma de Planta , RNA de Transferência/genética , Composição de Bases
6.
New Phytol ; 243(3): 1220-1230, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853408

RESUMO

Shifts in pollinator occurrence and their pollen transport effectiveness drive the evolution of mating systems in flowering plants. Understanding the genomic basis of these changes is essential for predicting the persistence of a species under environmental changes. We investigated the genomic changes in Brassica rapa over nine generations of pollination by hoverflies associated with rapid morphological evolution toward the selfing syndrome. We combined a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach with a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify candidate genes, and assessed their functional role in the observed morphological changes by studying mutations of orthologous genes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We found 31 candidate genes involved in a wide range of functions from DNA/RNA binding to transport. Our functional assessment of orthologous genes in A. thaliana revealed that two of the identified genes in B. rapa are involved in regulating the size of floral organs. We found a protein kinase superfamily protein involved in petal width, an important trait in plant attractiveness to pollinators. Moreover, we found a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) associated with stamen length. Altogether, our study shows that hoverfly pollination leads to rapid evolution toward the selfing syndrome mediated by polygenic changes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Brassica rapa , Genes de Plantas , Polinização , Polinização/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Autofertilização/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Reprodução/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Mutação/genética , Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/fisiologia
7.
Planta ; 260(1): 27, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865018

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In Brassica rapa, the epigenetic modifier BraA.CLF orchestrates flowering by modulating H3K27me3 levels at the floral integrator genes FT, SOC1, and SEP3, thereby influencing their expression. CURLY LEAF (CLF) is the catalytic subunit of the plant Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 that mediates the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), an epigenetic modification that leads to gene silencing. While the function of CURLY LEAF (CLF) has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, its role in Brassica crops is barely known. In this study, we focused on the Brassica rapa homolog of CLF and found that the loss-of-function mutant braA.clf-1 exhibits an accelerated flowering together with pleiotropic phenotypic alterations compared to wild-type plants. In addition, we carried out transcriptomic and H3K27me3 genome-wide analyses to identify the genes regulated by BraA.CLF. Interestingly, we observed that several floral regulatory genes, including the B. rapa homologs of FT, SOC1 and SEP3, show reduced H3K27me3 levels and increased transcript levels compared to wild-type plants, suggesting that they are direct targets of BraA.CLF and key players in regulating flowering time in this crop. In addition, the results obtained will enhance our understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms regulating key developmental traits and will aid to increase crop yield by engineering new Brassica varieties with different flowering time requirements.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histonas , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(26): 14830-14843, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888424

RESUMO

Beyond the key bitter compound kaempferol 3-O-(2‴-O-sinapoyl-ß-d-sophoroside) previously described in the literature (1), eight further bitter and astringent-tasting kaempferol glucosides (2-9) have been identified in rapeseed protein isolates (Brassica napus L.). The bitterness and astringency of these taste-active substances have been described with taste threshold concentrations ranging from 3.3 to 531.7 and 0.3 to 66.4 µmol/L, respectively, as determined by human sensory experiments. In this study, the impact of 1 and kaempferol 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (8) on TAS2R-linked proton secretion by HGT-1 cells was analyzed by quantification of the intracellular proton index. mRNA levels of bitter receptors TAS2R3, 4, 5, 13, 30, 31, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 50 and TAS2R8 were increased after treatment with compounds 1 and 8. Using quantitative UHPLC-MS/MSMRM measurements, the concentrations of 1-9 were determined in rapeseed/canola seeds and their corresponding protein isolates. Depending on the sample material, compounds 1, 3, and 5-9 exceeded dose over threshold (DoT) factors above one for both bitterness and astringency in selected protein isolates. In addition, an increase in the key bitter compound 1 during industrial protein production (apart from enrichment) was observed, allowing the identification of the potential precursor of 1 to be kaempferol 3-O-(2‴-O-sinapoyl-ß-d-sophoroside)-7-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3). These results may contribute to the production of less bitter and astringent rapeseed protein isolates through the optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Glicosídeos , Quempferóis , Proteínas de Plantas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Paladar , Humanos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Brassica napus/química , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(27): 15321-15333, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38917998

RESUMO

Profenofos insecticide poses risks to nontarget organisms including mammals and hydrobionts, and its effects on crops are not known. This study examined the invisible toxicity of profenofos on pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.), using transcriptome and metabolome analyses. Profenofos inhibited the photosynthetic efficiency and light energy absorption by leaves and severely damaged the chloroplasts, causing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metabolomic analysis confirmed that profenofos promoted the conversion of ß-carotene into abscisic acid (ABA), as evidenced by the upregulation of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway genes: zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED3), and xanthoxin dehydrogenase (XanDH). The inhibitory effects on carotenoid accumulation, photosynthesis, and increased ABA and ROS contents of the leaves led to invisible injury and stunted growth of the pakchoi plants. The findings of this study revealed the toxicological risk of profenofos to nontarget crops and provide guidance for the safe use of insecticides.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Carotenoides , Metabolômica , Proteínas de Plantas , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Organotiofosfatos/metabolismo , Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5186, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890322

RESUMO

Although different ecological factors shape adaptative evolution in natural habitats, we know little about how their interactions impact local adaptation. Here we used eight generations of experimental evolution with outcrossing Brassica rapa plants as a model system, in eight treatment groups that varied in soil type, herbivory (with/without aphids), and pollination mode (hand- or bumblebee-pollination), to study how biotic interactions affect local adaptation to soil. First, we show that several plant traits evolved in response to biotic interactions in a soil-specific way. Second, using a reciprocal transplant experiment, we demonstrate that significant local adaptation to soil-type evolved in the "number of open flowers", a trait used as a fitness proxy, but only in plants that evolved with herbivory and bee pollination. Whole genome re-sequencing of experimental lines revealed that biotic interactions caused a 10-fold increase in the number of SNPs across the genome with significant allele frequency change, and that alleles with opposite allele frequency change in different soil types (antagonistic pleiotropy) were most common in plants with an evolutionary history of herbivory and bee pollination. Our results demonstrate that the interaction with mutualists and antagonists can facilitate local adaptation to soil type through antagonistic pleiotropy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Brassica rapa , Herbivoria , Polinização , Solo , Solo/química , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Abelhas/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Evolução Biológica , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Frequência do Gene , Afídeos/fisiologia , Ecossistema
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5470, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937441

RESUMO

Global warming has a severe impact on the flowering time and yield of crops. Histone modifications have been well-documented for their roles in enabling plant plasticity in ambient temperature. However, the factor modulating histone modifications and their involvement in habitat adaptation have remained elusive. In this study, through genome-wide pattern analysis and quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) mapping, we reveal that BrJMJ18 is a candidate gene for a QTL regulating thermotolerance in thermotolerant B. rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis (or Caixin, abbreviated to Par). BrJMJ18 encodes an H3K36me2/3 Jumonji demethylase that remodels H3K36 methylation across the genome. We demonstrate that the BrJMJ18 allele from Par (BrJMJ18Par) influences flowering time and plant growth in a temperature-dependent manner via characterizing overexpression and CRISPR/Cas9 mutant plants. We further show that overexpression of BrJMJ18Par can modulate the expression of BrFLC3, one of the five BrFLC orthologs. Furthermore, ChIP-seq and transcriptome data reveal that BrJMJ18Par can regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis under high temperatures. We also demonstrate that three amino acid mutations may account for function differences in BrJMJ18 between subspecies. Based on these findings, we propose a working model in which an H3K36me2/3 demethylase, while not affecting agronomic traits under normal conditions, can enhance resilience under heat stress in Brassica rapa.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histonas , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji , Proteínas de Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Histonas/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura , Termotolerância/genética , Metilação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Clorofila/metabolismo
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(5)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740521

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiobesity effects of heat-killed Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Shinshu N-07 (N-07) isolated from fermented Brassica rapa L. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mice were divided into three groups (n = 10/group); normal diet, western diet (WD), or WD + N-07 (N-07) group and administered each diet for 56 days. The N-07 group showed significant suppression of body weight gain and epididymal fat, perirenal fat, and liver weights compared with the WD group. Higher levels of fecal total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) were observed in the N-07 group than in the WD group. The mRNA expression of the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter G5 (ABCG5) was significantly increased in the small intestine of N-07-fed mice compared with WD-fed mice. Moreover, N-07 supplementation significantly increased the mRNA expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, the TG- and FFA-removal ability of N-07 was confirmed to evaluate its soybean oil- and oleic acid-binding capacities in in vitro experiments. CONCLUSIONS: The antiobesity effects of N-07 might be due to its ability to promote lipid excretion by regulating cholesterol transporter expression and lipid-binding ability.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental , Obesidade , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Humanos , Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Lactobacillus plantarum , Camundongos Obesos , Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Probióticos , Células CACO-2 , Brassica rapa/química , Temperatura Alta , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 29(5): 198, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DELLA protein is a crucial factor which played pivotal roles in regulating numerous intriguing biological processes in plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, little is known about the function and information of DELLA protein in Chinese cabbage. METHODS: Using 5 DELLA gene sequences in Arabidopsis Thaliana as probes, 5 DELLA genes in Chinese cabbage were identified by Blast search in Chinese cabbage database (Brassica database (BRAD)). The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ExPaSy, SWISS-MODEL, DNAMAN, MEGA 11, PlantCARE were used to identify and analyze the DELLA gene family of Chinese cabbage. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The function of BraA10gRGL3 was verified by overexpression and phenotypic analysis of BraA10gRGL3 and yeast hybrid. RESULTS: In this study, 5 BraDELLAs homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana were identified and cloned based on the Brassica database, namely, BraA02gRGL1, BraA05gRGL2, BraA10gRGL3, BraA06gRGA and BraA09gRGA. All BraDELLAs contain the DELLA, TVHYNP, and GRAS conserved domains. Cis-element analysis revealed that the promoter regions of these 5 DELLA genes all contain light-responsive elements, TCT motif, I-box, G-box, and box 4, which are associated with GA signaling. Transcriptome analysis results proved that the expression of BraA02gRGL1, BraA05gRGL2, and BraA10gRGL3 in Y2 at different growth stages were lower than them in Y7, which is consistent with the phenotype that Y7 exhibited stronger stress tolerance than Y2. It is worth emphasizing that even through the overexpression of BraA10gRGL3-Y7 in Arabidopsis resulted in smaller leaf size and lower fresh weight compared to the wild type (WT) Arabidopsis: Columbia, a stronger response to abiotic stresses was observed in BraA10gRGL3-Y7. It indicated that BraA10gRGL3-Y7 can improve the stress resistance of plants by inhibiting their growth. Moreover, the yeast two-hybrid experiment confirmed that BraA10gRGL3-Y7 can interacted with BraA05gGID1a-Y7, BraA04gGID1b1, BraA09gGID1b3-Y2, and BraA06gGID1c, whereas BraA10gRGL3-Y2 cannot interact with any BraGID1. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, BraDELLAs play important role in plant development and response to abiotic stress. The differences in amino acid sequences between BraA10gRGL3-Y2 and BraA10gRGL3-Y7 may result in variations in their protein binding sites, thus affecting their interaction with the BraGID1 family proteins. This systematic analysis lays the foundation for further study of the functional characteristics of DELLA genes of Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732049

RESUMO

In this study, the variability of major glucosinolates in the leaf lamina of 134 Chinese cabbage accessions was investigated using Acquity ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). A total of twenty glucosinolates were profiled, of which glucobrassicanapin and gluconapin were identified as the predominant glucosinolates within the germplasm. These two glucosinolates had mean concentration levels above 1000.00 µmol/kg DW. Based on the principal component analysis, accessions IT186728, IT120044, IT221789, IT100417, IT278620, IT221754, and IT344740 were separated from the rest in the score plot. These accessions exhibited a higher content of total glucosinolates. Based on the VIP values, 13 compounds were identified as the most influential and responsible for variation in the germplasm. Sinigrin (r = 0.73), gluconapin (r = 0.78), glucobrassicanapin (r = 0.70), epiprogoitrin (r = 0.73), progoitrin (r = 0.74), and gluconasturtiin (r = 0.67) all exhibited a strong positive correlation with total glucosinolate at p < 0.001. This indicates that each of these compounds had a significant influence on the overall glucosinolate content of the various accessions. This study contributes valuable insights into the metabolic diversity of glucosinolates in Chinese cabbage, providing potential for breeding varieties tailored to consumer preferences and nutritional demands.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Glucosinolatos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304054, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776338

RESUMO

This study explores the Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) treatment of lignocellulosic biomass blends, delving into the influence of several key parameters: temperature, additive nature and dosage, residence time, and biomass composition. Rapeseeds, Pinus radiata sawdust, oat husks, and pressed olive served as the studied biomasses. One hundred twenty-eight experiments were conducted to assess the effects on mass yield (MY), energy yield (EY), higher heating value (HHV), and final ash content (ASH) by a Factorial Experimental Design. The derived model equations demonstrated a robust fit to the experimental data, averaging an R2 exceeding 0.94, affirming their predictive accuracy. The observed energy yield ranged between 65% and 80%, notably with sawdust and olive blends securing EY levels surpassing 70%, while rapeseed blends exhibited the highest HHV at 25 MJ/kg. Temperature emerged as the most influential factor, resulting in an 11% decrease in MY and a substantial 2.20 MJ/kg increase in HHV. Contrastingly, blend composition and additive presence significantly impacted ASH and EY, with all blends exhibiting increased ASH in the presence of additives. Higher initial hemicellulose and aqueous extractive content in raw biomass correlated proportionally with heightened HHV.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Biocombustíveis/análise , Lignina/química , Temperatura , Pinus/química , Olea/química , Brassica rapa/química , Temperatura Alta
16.
Gene ; 924: 148558, 2024 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740353

RESUMO

Recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) provides an effective approach for the commercial exploitation of heterosis, especially in Brassica crops. Although some artificial RGMS mutants have been reported in B. rapa, no causal genes derived from these natural mutants have been identified so far. In this study, a spontaneous RGMS mutant Bcajh97-01A derived from the 'Aijiaohuang' line traced back to the 1980 s was identified. Genetic analysis revealed that the RGMS trait was controlled by a single locus in the Bcajh97-01A/B system. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) in combination with linkage analysis was employed to delimit the causal gene to an approximate 129 kb interval on chromosome A02. The integrated information of transcriptional levels and the predicted genes in the target region indicated that the Brmmd1 (BraA02g017420) encoding a PHD-containing nuclear protein was the most likely candidate gene. A 374 bp miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) was inserted into the first exon to prematurely stop the Brmmd1 gene translation, thus blocking the normal expression of this gene at the tetrad stage in the Bcajh97-01A. Additionally, a co-segregating structure variation (SV) marker was developed to rapidly screen the RGMS progenies from Bcajh97-01A/B system. Our findings reveal that BraA02g017420 is the causal gene responsible for the RGMS trait. This study lays a foundation for marker-assisted selection and further molecular mechanism exploration of pollen development in B. rapa.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Genes Recessivos , Infertilidade das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Mutação , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 272(Pt 1): 132656, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810848

RESUMO

Our previous experiments found that rapeseed protein (RP) has applicability in low-moisture textured proteins. The amount of RP added is limited to <20 %, but the addition of 20 % RP still brings some negative effects. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of 20%RP textured protein, this experiment added different proportions of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) to improve the quality of the product, and studied the physical-chemical properties and molecular structure changes of the product to explore the possible modification mechanism. The STPP not only improved the expansion characteristics of extrudates, but also increased the brightness of the extrudates, the rehydration rate. In addition, STPP increased the specific mechanical energy during extrusion, decreased the material mass flow rate. Furthermore, STPP decreased the starch digestibility, increased the content of slow-digesting starch and resistant starch. STPP increased the degree of denaturation of extrudate proteins, the proportion of ß-sheets in the secondary structure of proteins, as well as the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. The gelatinization degradation degree of starch molecules also decreased with the addition of STPP. STPP also increased the protein-starch interactions and enhanced the thermal stability of the extrudate. All these indicate that STPP can improve the physical-chemical properties of extrudate.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Polifosfatos , Proteínas de Soja , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polifosfatos/química , Brassica rapa/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Amido/química , Água/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio
18.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(5): 3496-3505, 2024 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708935

RESUMO

Plant roots are highly sensitive to physical stress in the soil, with appropriate mechanical impedance promoting root elongation and lateral root growth. However, few studies have quantitatively explored the relationship between the mechanical impedance of the growth medium and the phenotypes of plant roots. In this study, we used a tensile machine equipped with a self-made steel needle mimicking the root tip to measure the force needed to penetrate the hydrogel medium (agar, low acyl gellan gum, and κ-carrageenan), providing insights into the force required for the rapeseed root tip to enter the medium following germination. These findings indicate that root penetration length is inversely associated with the mechanical strength of the growth medium, with variations observed in the root system adaptability across different substrates. Specifically, when the gel puncture resistance of the culture medium without adding MS reached approximately 18.4 mN, root penetration and growth were significantly hindered. With the addition of 1/2 MS medium, the polysaccharide concentration is 1.0 wt %, which is more suitable for cultivating rapeseed. This research not only offers a method for quantifying root phenotypes and medium mechanical impedance but also presents an approach for plant growth regulation and crop breeding.


Assuntos
Germinação , Hidrogéis , Teste de Materiais , Raízes de Plantas , Polissacarídeos , Hidrogéis/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/química , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2943, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580637

RESUMO

Increased exposure to environmental stresses due to climate change have adversely affected plant growth and productivity. Upon stress, plants activate a signaling cascade, involving multiple molecules like H2O2, and plant hormones such as salicylic acid (SA) leading to resistance or stress adaptation. However, the temporal ordering and composition of the resulting cascade remains largely unknown. In this study we developed a nanosensor for SA and multiplexed it with H2O2 nanosensor for simultaneous monitoring of stress-induced H2O2 and SA signals when Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis (Pak choi) plants were subjected to distinct stress treatments, namely light, heat, pathogen stress and mechanical wounding. Nanosensors reported distinct dynamics and temporal wave characteristics of H2O2 and SA generation for each stress. Based on these temporal insights, we have formulated a biochemical kinetic model that suggests the early H2O2 waveform encodes information specific to each stress type. These results demonstrate that sensor multiplexing can reveal stress signaling mechanisms in plants, aiding in developing climate-resilient crops and pre-symptomatic stress diagnoses.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 245, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575879

RESUMO

Seed germination is an important development process in plant growth. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role during seed germination. However, the mechanism of rapeseed in response to ABA is still elusive. In order to understand changes of rapeseed under exogenous ABA treatment, we explored differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between mock- and ABA-treated seedlings. A widely targeted LC-MS/MS based metabolomics were used to identify and quantify metabolic changes in response to ABA during seed germination, and a total of 186 significantly DEMs were identified. There are many compounds which are involved in ABA stimuli, especially some specific ABA transportation-related metabolites such as starches and lipids were screened out. Meanwhile, a total of 4440 significantly DEGs were identified by transcriptomic analyses. There was a significant enrichment of DEGs related to phenylpropanoid and cell wall organization. It suggests that exogenous ABA mainly affects seed germination by regulating cell wall loosening. Finally, the correlation analysis of the key DEMs and DEGs indicates that many DEGs play a direct or indirect regulatory role in DEMs metabolism. The integrative analysis between DEGs and DEMs suggests that the starch and sucrose pathways were the key pathway in ABA responses. The two metabolites from starch and sucrose pathways, levan and cellobiose, both were found significantly down-regulated in ABA-treated seedlings. These comprehensive metabolic and transcript analyses provide useful information for the subsequent post-transcriptional modification and post germination growth of rapeseed in response to ABA signals and stresses.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Germinação/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Sementes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma
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