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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 373, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flowering is an important inflection point in the transformation from vegetative to reproductive growth, and premature bolting severely decreases crop yield and quality. RESULTS: In this study, a stable early-bolting mutant, ebm3, was identified in an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized population of a Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) line 'FT'. Compared with 'FT', ebm3 showed early bolting under natural cultivation in autumn, and curled leaves. Genetic analysis showed that the early-bolting phenotype was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Modified MutMap sequencing, genotyping analyses and allelism test provide strong evidence that BrEBM3 (BraA04g017190.3 C), encoding the histone methyltransferase CURLY LEAF (CLF), was the strongly candidate gene of the emb3. A C to T base substitution in the 14th exon of BrEBM3 resulted in an amino acid change (S to F) and the early-bolting phenotype of emb3. The mutation occurred in the SET domain (Suppressor of protein-effect variegation 3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax), which catalyzes site- and state-specific lysine methylation in histones. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that BrEBM3 was highly expressed in the flower and bud. Promoter activity assay confirmed that BrEBM3 promoter was active in inflorescences. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that BrEBM3 localized in the nucleus. Transcriptomic studies supported that BrEBM3 mutation might repress H3K27me3 deposition and activate expression of the AGAMOUS (AG) and AGAMOUS-like (AGL) loci, resulting in early flowering. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that an EMS-induced early-bolting mutant ebm3 in Chinese cabbage was caused by a nonsynonymous mutation in BraA04g017190.3 C, encoding the histone methyltransferase CLF. These results improve our knowledge of the genetic and genomic resources of bolting and flowering, and may be beneficial to the genetic improvement of Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Brassica rapa/enzimologia , Histona Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/enzimologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Histona Metiltransferases/química , Histona Metiltransferases/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 145-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270010

RESUMO

Culture of isolated microspores is a widely used method to obtain haploid and doubled haploid plants for many crop species. This protocol describes the steps necessary to obtain a large number of microspore derived embryos for pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) and zicaitai (Brassica rapa L. ssp. сhinensis Hanelt var. purpuraria Kitam).


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Cromossomos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Germinação/genética , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Ploidias , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 181-199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270012

RESUMO

The production of haploid and doubled haploid plants is a biotechnological tool that shortens the breeding process of new cultivars in many species. Doubled haploid plants are homozygous at every locus and they can be utilized as parents to produce F1 hybrids. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis using androgenesis induced by isolated microspore cultures.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Aclimatação/genética , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Diploide , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Regeneração/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199515

RESUMO

Leaf senescence is a developmental process induced by various molecular and environmental stimuli that may affect crop yield. The dark-induced leaf senescence-91 (DLS-91) plants displayed rapid leaf senescence, dramatically decreased chlorophyll contents, low photochemical efficiencies, and upregulation of the senescence-associated marker gene BrSAG12-1. To understand DLS molecular mechanism, we examined transcriptomic changes in DLS-91 and control line DLS-42 following 0, 1, and 4 days of dark treatment (DDT) stages. We identified 501, 446, and 456 DEGs, of which 16.7%, 17.2%, and 14.4% encoded TFs, in samples from the three stages. qRT-PCR validation of 16 genes, namely, 7 MADS, 6 NAC, and 3 WRKY, suggested that BrAGL8-1, BrAGL15-1, and BrWRKY70-1 contribute to the rapid leaf senescence of DLS-91 before (0 DDT) and after (1 and 4 DDT) dark treatment, whereas BrNAC046-2, BrNAC029-2/BrNAP, and BrNAC092-1/ORE1 TFs may regulate this process at a later stage (4 DDT). In-silico analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements of BrAGL8-1, BrAGL42-1, BrNAC029-2, BrNAC092-1, and BrWRKY70-3 of B. rapa provides insight into the regulation of these genes. Our study has uncovered several AGL-MADS, WRKY, and NAC TFs potentially worthy of further study to understand the underlying mechanism of rapid DLS in DLS-91.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
6.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110934, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134841

RESUMO

With the discovery of essential genes regulating tillering, such as MONOCULM 1 (MOC1) in rice and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LAS in Arabidopsis, LS in tomato), research on tillering mechanisms has made great progress; however, the study of tillering in non-heading Chinese cabbage (NHCC) is rare. Here, we report that BcLAS, as a member of the GRAS family, plays an important role in the tillering of NHCC during its vegetative growth. BcLAS was almost not expressed in other examed parts except leaf axils throughout life. When the expression of BcLAS was silenced utilizing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology, we found that the tiller number of 'Maertou' decreased sharply. In 'Suzhouqing', overexpression of BcLAS significantly promoted tillering. BcCCS52, the orthologue to CELL CYCLE SEITCH 52 (CCS52), interacts with BcLAS. Downregulation of the expression of BcCCS52 promoted tillering of 'Suzhouqing'; therefore, we conclude that BcCCS52 plays a negative role in tillering regulation. Our findings reveal the tillering regulation mechanism of NHCCs at the vegetative stage and report an orthologue of CCS52 regulating tillering in NHCC.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Domínios Proteicos
7.
Plant Sci ; 307: 110900, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902859

RESUMO

The hybrid production of winter rapeseed is limited by the difficult vernalization processes. Thus, floral regulation of winter rapeseed parental lines cannot be executed through selection of sowing time during hybrid production. Therefore, in this study, strong winter rapeseed was used as the material to analyse the floral transition mechanism of germinating seed vernalization. Results demonstrated that germinating seeds could sense low temperatures and complete vernalization following a low temperature treatment for 56.5 d with a 100 % vernalization rate. The regression equation between vernalization rate (y) and vernalization treatment days (x) was determined as y = 0.019x - 0.0765 (R² = 0.8529). When the vernalization treatment time was prolonged, the vernalization rate and fruiting ability increased rapidly, and variations were observed in the membrane lipid oxidation and physiological characteristics. Furthermore, at the prolonged treatment time of 10-50 d, the salicylic acid (SA) content continued to decrease, with values significantly lower than those of the control. SA content is significantly positively correlated with the level of BrFLC transcription and a significantly negatively correlated with the vernalization rate of germinating seeds. Moreover, the expressions of genes associated with SA biosynthesis, SA signal transduction, the flowering key negative regulators were suppressed and that of positive regulators were promoted during vernalization. These results suggest that SA as a floral repressor is involved in the regulation of the vernalization process of winter rapeseed germination seeds. In addition, SA may be related to the counting dosage of vernalization.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Baixa , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630837

RESUMO

Decision making is constantly present in agriculture. Choosing the wrong variety carries the risk that the investment in terms of sowing does not pay off at all. Therefore, it is necessary to choose the variety that gives the best results. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to apply multi-criteria decision-making of available varieties, which is, in this paper, done on the example of hybrid varieties of rapeseed that were created by selection at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. By applying fuzzy logic, a novel integrated Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) model is developed and rapeseed varieties were evaluated. For determining four main and 20 subcriteria, fuzzy PIPRECIA (PIvot Pairwise RElative Criteria Importance Assessment) method has been applied based on fuzzy Bonferroni operator, while for ranking alternatives fuzzy MABAC (Multi-Attributive Border Approximation area Comparison) method has been used. The results obtained using the novel integrated fuzzy MCDM model showed that the variety A2 - Zorica has the best results, followed by A1 - NS Ras, while the worst results were seen by the variety A5 - Zlatna. These results were confirmed using other five fuzzy MCDM methods. Sensitivity analysis-changing criteria weights showed the worst results in the variety A6 - Jovana, which took last place in the application of 18 scenarios. The presented model and the results of this research will help farmers to solve this decision problem.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Lógica Fuzzy
9.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(1): 339-345, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996612

RESUMO

Volatiles play major roles in mediating ecological interactions between soil (micro)organisms and plants. It is well-established that microbial volatiles can increase root biomass and lateral root formation. To date, however, it is unknown whether microbial volatiles can affect directional root growth. Here, we present a novel method to study belowground volatile-mediated interactions. As proof-of-concept, we designed a root Y-tube olfactometer, and tested the effects of volatiles from four different soil-borne fungi on directional growth of Brassica rapa roots in soil. Subsequently, we compared the fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) previously profiled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Using our newly designed setup, we show that directional root growth in soil is differentially affected by fungal volatiles. Roots grew more frequently toward volatiles from the root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, whereas volatiles from the other three saprophytic fungi did not impact directional root growth. GC-MS profiling showed that six VOCs were exclusively emitted by R. solani. These findings verify that this novel method is suitable to unravel the intriguing chemical cross-talk between roots and soil-borne fungi and its impact on root growth.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 340: 128167, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007694

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GLs), found in Brassicaceae family, are precursor metabolites with anti-cancer properties. Increased GLs have been studied under various environmental growth conditions. Pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) is a GL-rich vegetable. We hypothesize that long exposure to light and drought will increase the biomass of, and GL production in, pak choi. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks. Long light exposure (20 h/day) increased, whilst drought exposure (12 h/week) decreased the plant growth. The plants exposed to a combination of drought and long light conditions showed similar growth pattern as control plants. GL production increased at week 6 in plants exposed to long light, while drought exposure had no impact on GL production, with the exception of glucoraphanin. Significant positive correlations were observed between plant growth and GL yield with accumulated light exposure time. Our findings suggest that long exposure to light can be used to increase both the biomass and GL production in pak choi.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Secas , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Luz , Estresse Fisiológico , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/efeitos da radiação
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 538, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pistil development is a complicated process in plants, and female sterile mutants are ideal material for screening and cloning pistil development-related genes. Using the female sterile mutant (fsm1), BraA04g009730.3C was previously predicted as a candidate mutant gene encoding the STERILE APETALA (SAP) transcriptional regulator. In the current study, a parallel female sterile mutant (fsm2) was derived from EMS mutagenesis of a Chinese cabbage DH line 'FT' seeds. RESULTS: Both fsm2 and fsm1 mutant phenotypes exhibited pistil abortion and smaller floral organs. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of mutant fsm2 was also controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Allelism testing showed that the mutated fsm1 and fsm2 genes were allelic. A single-nucleotide mutation (G-to-A) in the first exon of BraA04g009730.3C caused a missense mutation from GAA (glutamic acid) to GGA (glycine) in mutant fsm2 plants. Both allelic mutations of BraA04g009730.3C in fsm1 and fsm2 conferred the similar pistil abortion phenotype, which verified the SAP function in pistil development. To probe the mechanism of SAP-induced pistil abortion, we compared the mutant fsm1 and wild-type 'FT' pistil transcriptomes. Among the 3855 differentially expressed genes obtained, 29 were related to ovule development and 16 were related to organ size. CONCLUSION: Our study clarified the function of BraA04g009730.3C and revealed that it was responsible for ovule development and organ size. These results lay a foundation to elucidate the molecular mechanism of pistil development in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Mutação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111409, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011510

RESUMO

To improve the effect of coal fly ash on the remediation of heavy metal polluted soils, the active silicate material (ASM) was prepared by coal fly ash and the remediation of lead polluted soils by ASM was investigated in this study. To study the reaction mechanism between ASM and Pb(II) in soil, the Pb(II) adsorption by ASM was investigated by a series of batch experiments. The result shows that the maximum adsorption capacity of ASM was 300.62 mg g-1 according to the Langmuir isotherm model. The average adsorption energy obtained from the D-K model revealed that the adsorption process of ASM is the ion-exchange process. To apply the ASM to the remediation of lead polluted soils, the soil stabilization experiment and pot experiment were carried out. The results reveal that ASM can reduce the mobility and bioavailability of lead in the soils by transforming the lead from exchangeable fraction, carbonate fraction and reducible fraction to oxidizable fraction and residual fraction. Moreover, ASM can improve the growth of pakchoi by promoting the production of chlorophyll. Furthermore, ASM can reduce the Pb accumulation of pakchoi by inhibiting the absorption of lead in the roots. It is anticipated that this study can provide a novel active silicate material for the application of coal fly ash in heavy metal pollution treatment.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/análise , Silicatos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(9): 6887-6897, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914263

RESUMO

The objective of the present work was the selection of cultivar, suitable medium and explant type for callus, root production, ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic and total protein of non-heading Chinese cabbage in two cultivars 'Caixin' and 'Suzhouqing'. We compared 10 types of MS media supplemented with 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/l TDZ; 0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mg/l NAA and 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 and 9.0 mg/l AgNO3 and 5 kinds of explants as embryo, leaf, root, cotyledon and hypocotyl. Maximum frequency of callus fresh weight was recorded with hypocotyl explant, which were cultured on MS + 2.0 mg/l TDZ + 1.0 mg/l NAA + 9.0 mg/l AgNO3 in 'Suzhouqing', optimum callus dry weight was obtained on the same media. The highest result for root fresh and dry weight recorded with 'Caixin' with MS + 3.0 mg/l TDZ + 1.0 mg/l NAA + 9.0 mg/l AgNO3 when we used embryo as explant. The highest ascorbic acid content was found with callus cultured on MS + 1.0 mg/l TDZ + 0.25 mg/l NAA + 5.0 mg/l AgNO3, when used leaf explant in 'Caixin' or root in 'Suzhouqing', and there were no significant difference between them. While the highest value of total AsA content was registered with callus cultured on MS + 2.0 mg/l TDZ + 0.25 mg/l NAA + 5.0 mg/l AgNO3 extracted from cotyledon in 'Caixin'. The highest content of DHA was registered with MS + 2.0 mg/l TDZ + 0.25 mg/l NAA + 5.0 mg/l AgNO3 with cotyledon in 'Caixin'. Also, in 'Caixin' MS + 3.0 mg/l TDZ + 0.25 mg/l NAA + 5.0 mg/l AgNO3 recorded the highest value of total protein content with embryo explant.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Calo Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Calo Ósseo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Calo Ósseo/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Cultivadas , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Nitrato de Prata/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756478

RESUMO

Auxins play a pivotal role in clubroot development caused by the obligate biotroph Plasmodiophora brassicae. In this study, we investigated the pattern of expression of 23 genes related to auxin biosynthesis, reception, and transport in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) after inoculation with P. brassicae. The predicted proteins identified, based on the 23 selected auxin-related genes, were from protein kinase, receptor kinase, auxin responsive, auxin efflux carrier, transcriptional regulator, and the auxin-repressed protein family. These proteins differed in amino acids residue, molecular weights, isoelectric points, chromosomal location, and subcellular localization. Leaf and root tissues showed dynamic and organ-specific variation in expression of auxin-related genes. The BrGH3.3 gene, involved in auxin signaling, exhibited 84.4-fold increase in expression in root tissues compared to leaf tissues as an average of all samples. This gene accounted for 4.8-, 2.6-, and 5.1-fold higher expression at 3, 14, and 28 days post inoculation (dpi) in the inoculated root tissues compared to mock-treated roots. BrNIT1, an auxin signaling gene, and BrPIN1, an auxin transporter, were remarkably induced during both cortex infection at 14 dpi and gall formation at 28 dpi. BrDCK1, an auxin receptor, was upregulated during cortex infection at 14 dpi. The BrLAX1 gene, associated with root hair development, was induced at 1 dpi in infected roots, indicating its importance in primary infection. More interestingly, a significantly higher expression of BrARP1, an auxin-repressed gene, at both the primary and secondary phases of infection indicated a dynamic response of the host plant towards its resistance against P. brassicae. The results of this study improve our current understanding of the role of auxin-related genes in clubroot disease development.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plasmodioforídeos/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmodioforídeos/parasitologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(10): 2937-2948, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656681

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Mapping and resequencing of two allelic early bolting mutants ebm5-1 and ebm5-2 revealed that the BrSDG8 gene is related to bolting in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Bolting influences the leafy head formation and seed yield of Chinese cabbage therefore being an important agronomic trait. Herein, two allelic early bolting mutants, ebm5-1 and ebm5-2, stably inherited in Chinese cabbage were obtained from wild-type 'FT' seeds by ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis. Both mutants flowered significantly earlier than 'FT,' and genetic analysis revealed that the early bolting of the two mutants was controlled by one recessive nuclear gene. With BSR-seq, the mutations originating lines ebm5-1 and ebm5-2 were located to the same region in chromosome A07. Using the 1741 F2 individuals with the ebm5-1 phenotype as the mapping population, this region was narrowed to 56.24 kb between markers InDel18 and InDel45. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was aligned to the BraA07g040740.3C (BrSDG8) region by whole-genome resequencing of ebm5-1 mutant and 'FT.' BrSDG8 is a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana SDG8 encoding a histone methyltransferase affecting H3K4 trimethylation in FLOWERING LOCUS C chromatin. Comparative sequencing established that the SNP occurred on BrSDG8 17th exon in ebm5-1. Genotype analysis showed full co-segregation of the early bolting phenotype with this SNP. Cloning of allelic mutant ebm5-2 indicated that it harbors a deletion mutation on the 12th exon of BrSDG8. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that BrSDG8 expression level was observably lower in mutant ebm5-1 than in 'FT.' Overall, the present results provide strong evidence that BrSDG8 mutation leads to early bolting in Chinese cabbage, thereby providing a basis to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Ligação Genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236829, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730367

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widely used trait in angiosperms caused by perturbations in nucleus-mitochondrion interactions that suppress the production of functional pollen. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulatory molecules of transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants. The discovery of miRNAs and their possible implications in CMS induction provides clues for the intricacies and complexity of this phenomenon. Previously, we characterized an Ogura-CMS line of turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapifera) that displays distinct impaired anther development with defective microspore production and premature tapetum degeneration. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing was employed for a genome-wide investigation of miRNAs. Six small RNA libraries of inflorescences collected from the Ogura-CMS line and its maintainer fertile (MF) line of turnip were constructed. A total of 120 pre-miRNAs corresponding to 89 mature miRNAs were identified, including 87 conversed miRNAs and 33 novel miRNAs. Among these miRNAs, the expression of 10 differentially expressed mature miRNAs originating from 12 pre-miRNAs was shown to have changed by more than two-fold between inflorescences of the Ogura-CMS line and inflorescences of the MF line, including 8 down- and 2 up-regulated miRNAs. The expression profiles of the differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, to identify the targets of the identified miRNAs, a degradome analysis was performed. A total of 22 targets of 25 miRNAs and 17 targets of 28 miRNAs were identified as being involved in the reproductive development for Ogura-CMS and MF lines of turnip, respectively. Negative correlations of expression patterns between partial miRNAs and their targets were detected. Some of these identified targets, such as squamosa promoter-binding-like transcription factor family proteins, auxin response factors and pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, were previously reported to be involved in reproductive development in plants. Taken together, our results can help improve the understanding of miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways that might be involved in CMS occurrence in turnip.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Inflorescência/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Interferência de RNA
17.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1459-1476, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683543

RESUMO

Polyploidy promotes morphological, physiological, and reproductive diversity in plants. The imminent effect of chromosome doubling in plants is the enlargement of organs such as flowers and fruits, which increases the commercial value of crops. Flowering plays a vital role in the growth and development of angiosperms. Here, we prepared an isolated microspore culture of 'FT', a doubled haploid (DH) line of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), and obtained diploid and autotetraploid plants with the same genetic background. Compared with diploids, the autotetraploids were characterized by large floral organs, dark petals, delayed flowering, and reduced fertility. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in autotetraploid petals were significantly higher and the abscisic acid (ABA) level was significantly lower than those in the diploid petals. The lutein level in autotetraploid petals was nearly two times higher than that in the diploid petals. A comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 14,412 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the diploids and autotetraploids, and they were enriched in 117 Gene Ontology terms and 110 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. We detected 231 DEGs related to phytohormone signal transduction and 29 DEGs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. An miRNA-target mRNA analysis showed that 32 DEGs regulated by 16 DEMs were associated with flowering timing (BraA03000336, BraA09004319, and BraA09000515), petal development (BraA05002408, BraA01004006, BraA09004069, and BraA04000966), flower opening (BraA07000350), and pollen development (BraA01000720, BraA09005727, and BraA01000253). This study provides information to help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic variations induced by autopolyploidy in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Diploide , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Tetraploidia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/classificação , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
18.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 26: 28-33, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718684

RESUMO

To increase efficiency, and reduce energy loss and waste, we propose to improve the photosynthetic action spectrum resemblance (SRPAS) of LED light with the absorption spectra of the fresh leaf, for accelerating the growth of Chinese Cabbages. Eight spectral LED lights were adopted to irradiate Chinese Cabbages under 150 µmol•m-2 s-1 for a 16 hd-1 photoperiod. Of these, under the irradiation of blue + broad red + more yellow (BRY2) light with high spectrum resemblance of 75%, the fresh weight and dry weight are 5.1times and 3.0 times, respectively, and the leaf area and leaf number are 1.7 times, as high as under the blue light. The results demonstrate that the optimized LED light can be presumed to have the highest spectrum resemblance (SRPAS) with the absorption spectra of Chinese Cabbages, and the highest energy-conversion efficiency. These conclusions may be of great benefit to further assess and find either an ideal light applied for plant growth or design of better light sources for growing different plants.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Iluminação , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Iluminação/métodos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 252, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterosis is biologically important but the molecular basis of the phenomenon is poorly understood. We characterized intergeneric hybrids between B. rapa cv. Chiifu and R. sativus cv. WK10039 as an extreme example of heterosis. Taking advantage of clear heterosis phenotypes and the genetic distance between parents, we performed transcriptome and metabolite analysis to decipher the molecular basis of heterosis. RESULTS: The heterosis was expressed as fresh weight in the field and as inflorescence stem length in the glass house. Flowering time, distributed as a normal segregating population, ranged from the early flowering of one parent to the late flowering of the other, in contrast to the homogeneous flowering time in a typical F1 population, indicating unstable allelic interactions. The transcriptome and metabolome both indicated that sugar metabolism was altered, suggesting that the change in metabolism was linked to the heterosis. Because alleles were not shared between the hybridized genomes, classic models only partly explain this heterosis, indicating that other mechanisms are involved. CONCLUSION: The differential expression of genes for primary and secondary metabolism, along with the altered metabolite profiles, suggests that heterosis could involve a change in balance between primary and secondary metabolism.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Diploide , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Raphanus/genética , Biomassa , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Hibridização Genética/genética , Metabolômica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14552-14560, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513689

RESUMO

Both inorganic fertilizer inputs and crop yields have increased globally, with the concurrent increase in the pollution of water bodies due to nitrogen leaching from soils. Designing agroecosystems that are environmentally friendly is urgently required. Since agroecosystems are highly complex and consist of entangled webs of interactions between plants, microbes, and soils, identifying critical components in crop production remain elusive. To understand the network structure in agroecosystems engineered by several farming methods, including environmentally friendly soil solarization, we utilized a multiomics approach on a field planted with Brassica rapa We found that the soil solarization increased plant shoot biomass irrespective of the type of fertilizer applied. Our multiomics and integrated informatics revealed complex interactions in the agroecosystem showing multiple network modules represented by plant traits heterogeneously associated with soil metabolites, minerals, and microbes. Unexpectedly, we identified soil organic nitrogen induced by soil solarization as one of the key components to increase crop yield. A germ-free plant in vitro assay and a pot experiment using arable soils confirmed that specific organic nitrogen, namely alanine and choline, directly increased plant biomass by acting as a nitrogen source and a biologically active compound. Thus, our study provides evidence at the agroecosystem level that organic nitrogen plays a key role in plant growth.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Colina/química , Colina/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos da radiação , Metabolômica , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos da radiação , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Luz Solar
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