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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125261, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896178

RESUMO

Seedling establishment consists of the former stage (i.e. skotomorphogenesis) and the latter stage (i.e. photomorphogenesis). Due to specific developmental processes in plants, the two stages may have different sensitivities to antibiotics. Tetracycline (TC), for example, is a major-use antibiotic. Radicle length, the relatively sensitive endpoint in plant skotomorphogenesis, is less sensitive than all of the indices of cotyledon colour and pigments in plant photomorphogenesis to TC stress. In conclusion, we suggest that plant photomorphogenesis may be more sensitive than plant skotomorphogenesis to stresses of antibiotics, but which needs further studies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tetraciclina/toxicidade , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/efeitos da radiação , Cotilédone/efeitos dos fármacos , Cotilédone/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Luz , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1064-1071, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites, mainly existing in Brassica vegetables. Their breakdown products have health benefits and contribute to the distinctive taste of these vegetables. Because of their high value, there is a lot of interest in developing breeding strategies to increase the content of beneficial GSLs in Brassica species. GSLs are synthesized from certain amino acids and their biological roles depend largely on the structure of their side chains. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX ) genes are involved in the synthesis of these side chains. To better understand GSL biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) tubers at four developmental stages (S1-S4) and determined their GSL content. RESULTS: The total GSL content was high at the early stage (S1) of tuber development and increased up to S3, then decreased at S4. We detected 61 differentially expressed genes, including five FMOGS-OX genes, that were related for GSL biosynthesis among the four developmental stages. Most of these genes were highly expressed at stages S1 to S3, but their expression was much lower at S4. We estimated the effect of the five FMOGS-OX genes on GSL content by overexpressing them in turnip hairy roots and found that the amount of aliphatic GSLs increased significantly in the transgenic plants. CONCLUSION: The transcriptome data and characterization of genes involved in GSL biosynthesis, particularly the FMOGS-OX genes, will be valuable for improving the yield of beneficial GSLs in turnip and other Brassica crops. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/enzimologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Dinitrocresóis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109877, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704320

RESUMO

Salinity represents a serious environmental threat to crop production and by extension, to world food supply, social and economic prosperity of the developing world. Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant signal molecule involved in regulating various plant responses to stress. In the present study, we characterized the regulatory role of exogenous SA for their ability to ameliorate deleterious effects of salt stress (0, 100, 150, 200 mM NaCl) in choysum plants through coordinated induction of antioxidants, ascorbate glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, and the glyoxalase enzymes. An increase in salt stress dramatically declined root and shoot growth, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC), subsequently increased electrolyte leakage (EL) and osmolytes accumulation in choysum plants. Salt stress disrupted the antioxidant and glyoxalase defense systems which persuaded oxidative damages and carbonyl toxicity, indicated by increased H2O2 generation, lipid peroxidation, and methylglyoxal (MG) content. However, application of SA had an additive effect on the growth of salt-affected choysum plants, which enhanced root length, plant biomass, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and RWC. Moreover, SA application effectively eliminated the oxidative and carbonyl stress by improving AsA and GSH pool, upregulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes associated with AsA-GSH cycle and glyoxalase system. Overall, SA application completely counteracted the salinity-induced deleterious effects of 100 and 150 mM NaCl and partially mediated that of 200 mM NaCl stress. Therefore, we concluded that SA application induced tolerance to salinity stress in choysum plants due to the synchronized increase in activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, enhanced efficiency of AsA-GSH cycle and the MG detoxification systems.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/genética , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/genética , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo
4.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 178-186, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581931

RESUMO

Prohydrojasmon has been reported to improve the quality of crops. However, most previous studies have investigated its application on fruits. Here, we evaluated the effect of prohydrojasmon on the growth and total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity in komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. periviridis) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Prohydrojasmon did not show any serious inhibitory effect. Prohydrojasmon applied to komatsuna at a concentration of 0.5 µM significantly increased the total phenolic content and anthocyanin content, and a concentration of 1 µM increased the antioxidant activity. In lettuce, prohydrojasmon at a concentration of 400 µM significantly increased the total phenolic content and anthocyanin content, while a concentration of 0.5 µM significantly increased the antioxidant activity. These results suggest that prohydrojasmon positively affects the phenolic compound and anthocyanin accumulation and antioxidant activity in komatsuna and lettuce without adversely affecting growth.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclopentanos/síntese química , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/síntese química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/síntese química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/síntese química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12408-12418, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644287

RESUMO

Vegetables are an ideal source of human Se intake; it is important to understand selenium (Se) speciation in plants due to the distinct biological functions of selenocompounds. In this hydroponic study, the accumulation and assimilation of selenite and selenate in pak choi (Brassica rapa), a vastly consumed vegetable, were investigated at 1-168 h with HPLC speciation and RNA-sequencing. The results showed that the Se content in shoots and Se translocation factors with selenate addition were at least 10.81 and 11.62 times, respectively, higher than those with selenite addition. Selenite and selenate up-regulated the expression of SULT1;1 and PHT1;2 in roots by over 240% and 400%, respectively. Selenite addition always led to higher proportions of seleno-amino acids, while SeO42- was dominant under selenate addition (>49% of all Se species in shoots). However, in roots, SeO42- proportions declined substantially by 51% with a significant increase of selenomethionine proportions (63%) from 1 to 168 h. Moreover, with enhanced transcript of methionine gamma-lyase (60% of up-regulation compared to the control) plus high levels of methylselenium in shoots (approximately 70% of all Se species), almost 40% of Se was lost during the exposure under the selenite treatment. This work provides evidence that pak choi can rapidly transform selenite to methylselenium, and it is promising to use the plant for Se biofortification.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hidroponia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/análise , Ácido Selenioso/análise , Selênio/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA
6.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110201, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481218

RESUMO

Nowadays, Zinc (Zn) deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient deficiency but simultaneously Zn toxicity is produced due to environmental pollution. A potential method to alleviate Zn deficiency and to reduce Zn concentration in soils is through the generation of plants with enhanced capacity for Zn accumulation and higher tolerance. This could be achieved through the modification of HMA4 transporter. BraA.hma4a-3 is a TILLING mutant plant that presents one modification in HMA4 transporter. Thus, in this study we analyzed the potential of BraA.hma4a-3 for Zn accumulation and Zn deficiency and toxicity tolerance. BraA.hma4a-3 and parental R-o-18 plants were grown with different Zn doses: 1 µM ZnSO4 (Control), 0.01 µM ZnSO4 (Zn deficiency) and 100 µM ZnSO4 (Zn toxicity). Parameters of biomass, Zn concentration, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, N metabolism and amino acids (AAs) were measured. BraA.hma4a-3 did not affect plant biomass but did increase Zn accumulation in leaves under an adequate Zn supply and Fe under control and Zn deficiency doses. Regarding stress tolerance parameters and N metabolism, BraA.hma4a did not produce alterations under control conditions. In addition, under Zn toxicity, parameters suggest a greater tolerance. Briefly, the obtained results point to BraA.hma4a-3 as a useful mutant to increase Zn accumulation.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofortificação , Biomassa , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Solo/química , Zinco/deficiência , Zinco/toxicidade
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2345-2351, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418238

RESUMO

Clubroot, caused by the soil-borne obligate pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most severe disease in cruciferous crops. Previous studies showed that when oilseed rape was planted after soybean (namely soybean-oilseed rotation), the incidence and severity of clubroot of oilseed rape could be significantly reduced, compared with that with oilseed rape-oilseed rape conti-nuous cropping. Therefore, the soybean-oilseed rape rotation is a good way to suppress clubroot of oilseed rape. In this study, we compared the rhizosphere microbiome of soybean and oilseed rape rhizosphere soil collected from the field by 16S rRNA (for identification of prokaryotes) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) (for identification of fungi) sequencing. The results showed that both soybean and oilseed rape rhizosphere soils had Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Many microbial genera (e.g., Flavobacterium, Sphingomonas, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas, Trichoderma and Coniothyrium) with activities of biological control and plant growth promotion were more abundant in soybean rhizosphere soil than in the oilseed rape rhizosphere soil. The abundance of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi was higher in the oilseed rape rhizosphere soil than in the soybean rhizosphere soil. Moreover, the soybean rhizosphere soil was enriched with Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium (both for nitrogen fixation), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus). These results indicated that soybean rhizosphere soil could promote the growth and proliferation of beneficial microorga-nisms, but inhibit that of plant pathogens. Our results provide evidence for explanation of the effectiveness of soybean-oilseed rape rotation to control clubroot of oilseed rape and provide potential bio-control resources for clubroot prevention.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109403, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276889

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa) paddy is the hotspot of mercury (Hg) methylation. Given distinct influences of rotation systems on the physicochemical properties of paddy soils, we hypothesized different rotation systems in rice paddies inducing a large difference in Hg methylation. Here, we investigated Hg species distribution, dissolved organic matter (DOM) features, and Hg methylation in five rotation systems (Other farmland newly reclaim into paddy field, i.e., NR-R; Drain the water in winter, i.e., DW-R; Flooding in winter, i.e., FW-R; Rape-Rice rotation, i.e., Ra-R; Wheat-Rice rotation, i.e., Wh-R) of paddy fields to identify such hypothesis. Results shown that FW-R had the strongest Hg methylation, followed by Ra-R and Wh-R, then DW-R, and finally NR-R. We further found that much higher soil organic matter (SOM) and organo-chelated Hg (Hg-o) from straw residues and root exudates were the main cause for the greater Hg methylation in FW-R, Ra-R and Wh-R. This was because the protein-like fraction of SOM facilitated the net production of methyl Hg (MeHg), meanwhile the humin-like fraction had a strong affinity to MeHg in paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that paddy soil under DW-R was the optimum pattern in order to reduce the occurrence of Hg methylation. However, paddy soils under Ra-R and Wh-R were the recommendable patterns if the productivity of paddy fields was considered.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Fazendas , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Metilação , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1888-1899, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237979

RESUMO

The chemical and sensory quality of field-grown vegetables may be influenced by cultivar choice and agronomic factors but knowledge is lacking on the new rapeseed vegetables. White- and yellow-flowering rapeseed cultivars were tested in two seasonally different field studies in Denmark at three different growing stages by early sowing the first year and late sowing the second year. Content of glucosinolates (GLSs) was analyzed, and the sensory quality of baby leaf samples was evaluated. The GLS content differed among cultivars across years in all growing stages, with biennial cultivars having the highest GLS content. In the second year, a higher content of all identified GLSs was found at two growing stages except for neoglucobrassicin and gluconasturtiin, compared to the first year. On the contrary, higher contents of all identified GLSs were found at a third stage in the first year except for progoitrin and 4-methoxy glucobrassicin. Sensory evaluation of bitterness revealed differences among cultivars, higher intensities of bitterness in biennial cultivars, and a relationship between bitterness and content of bitter-tasting and total GLSs. The effect of repeated harvesting on GLS content differed between the years and no general pattern was seen, except that the composition of individual GLSs was comparable for the biennial cultivars. We conclude that growing season and life cycle had a stronger influence on GLS content than stage at harvest. The link between bitter-tasting GLSs and bitterness revealed that life cycle and seasonal effects affected the sensory profile of baby leaf rapeseed thereby making a healthier product due to high content of health-beneficial GLSs.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/química , Glucosinolatos/análise , Verduras/química , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cor , Humanos , Indóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Estações do Ano , Paladar
10.
Plant Sci ; 285: 214-223, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203886

RESUMO

Main Conclusion Root gravitropism of primary roots is assisted by curvature of the hypocotyl base. Root gravitropism is typically described as the sequence of signal perception, signal processing, and response that causes differential elongation and the establishment of a new gravitropic set-point angle. We describe two components of the graviresponse of Brassica seedlings that comprise a primary curvature of the root tip and a later onset but stronger curvature that occurs at the base of the hypocotyl. This second curvature is preceded by straightening of the tip region but leads to the completion of the alignment of the root axis. Curvature in both regions require a minimum displacement of 20 deg. The rate of tip curvature is a function of root length. After horizontal reorientation, tip curvature of five mm long roots curved twice as fast as 10 mm long roots (33.6 ±â€¯3.3 vs. 14.3 ±â€¯1.5 deg hr-1). The onset of curvature at the hypocotyl base is correlated with root length, but the rate of this curvature is independent of seedling length. Decapping of roots prevented tip curvature but the curvature at base of hypocotyl was unaffected. Endodermal cells at the root shoot junction show numerous, large and sedimenting amyloplasts, which likely serve as gravity sensors (statoliths). The amyloplasts at the hypocotyl were 3-4 µm in diameter, similar in size to those in the root cap, and twice the size of starch grains in the cortical layers of hypocotyl or elsewhere in the root. These data indicate that the root shoot reorientation of young seedlings is not limited to the root tip but includes more than one gravitropically responsive region.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravitropismo , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Hipocótilo/fisiologia , Coifa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coifa/fisiologia
11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(6): 1403-1420, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222475

RESUMO

Flowering is a key agronomic trait that directly influences crop yield and quality and serves as a model system for elucidating the molecular basis that controls successful reproduction, adaptation, and diversification of flowering plants. Adequate knowledge of continuous series of expression data from the floral transition to maturation is lacking in Brassica rapa. To unravel the genome expression associated with the development of early small floral buds (< 2 mm; FB2), early large floral buds (2-4 mm; FB4), stamens (STs) and carpels (CPs), transcriptome profiling was carried out with a Br300K oligo microarray. The results showed that at least 6848 known nonredundant genes (30% of the genes of the Br300K) were differentially expressed during the floral transition from vegetative tissues to maturation. Functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 5) by comparison with a close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, revealed 6552 unigenes (4579 upregulated; 1973 downregulated), including 131 Brassica-specific and 116 functionally known floral Arabidopsis homologs. Additionally, 1723, 236 and 232 DEGs were preferentially expressed in the tissues of STs, FB2, and CPs. These DEGs also included 43 transcription factors, mainly AP2/ERF-ERF, NAC, MADS-MIKC, C2H2, bHLH, and WRKY members. The differential gene expression during flower development induced dramatic changes in activities related to metabolic processes (23.7%), cellular (22.7%) processes, responses to the stimuli (7.5%) and reproduction (1%). A relatively large number of DEGs were observed in STs and were overrepresented by photosynthesis-related activities. Subsequent analysis via semiquantitative RT-PCR, histological analysis performed with in situ hybridization of BrLTP1 and transgenic reporter lines (BrLTP promoter::GUS) of B. rapa ssp. pekinensis supported the spatiotemporal expression patterns. Together, these results suggest that a temporally and spatially regulated process of the selective expression of distinct fractions of the same genome leads to the development of floral organs. Interestingly, most of the differentially expressed floral transcripts were located on chromosomes 3 and 9. This study generated a genome expression atlas of the early floral transition to maturation that represented the flowering regulatory elements of Brassica rapa.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Flores/genética , Transcriptoma , Brassica rapa/classificação , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 343, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caixin and Zicaitai (Brassica rapa) belong to Southern and Central China respectively. Zicaitai contains high amount of anthocyanin in leaf and stalk resulting to the purple color. Stalk is the major edible part and stalk color is an economically important trait for the two vegetables. The aim of this study is to construct a high density genetic map using the specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technique to explore genetic basis for anthocyanin pigmentation traits via quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. RESULTS: We constructed a high generation linkage map with a mapping panel of F2 populations derived from 150 individuals of parental lines "Xianghongtai 01" and "Yinong 50D" with purple and green stalk respectively. The map was constructed containing 4253 loci, representing 10,940 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers spanning 1030.04 centiMorgans (cM) over 10 linkage groups (LGs), with an average distance between markers of 0.27 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis revealed that a major locus on chromosome 7 and 4 minor QTLs explaining 2.69-61.21% of phenotypic variation (PVE) were strongly responsible for variation in stalk color trait. Bioinformatics analysis of the major locus identified 62 protein-coding genes. Among the major locus, there were no biosynthetic genes related to anthocyanin. However, there were several transcription factors like helix-loop-helix (bHLH) bHLH, MYB in the locus. Seven predicted candidate genes were selected for the transcription level analysis. Only bHLH49 transcription factor, was significantly higher expressed in both stalks and young leaves of Xianghongtai01 than Yinong50D. An insertion and deletion (InDel) marker developed from deletion/insertion in the promoter region of bHLH49 showed significant correlation with the stalk color trait in the F2 population. CONCLUSION: Using the constructed high-qualified linkage map, this study successfully identified QTLs for stalk color trait. The identified valuable markers and candidate genes for anthocyanin accumulation in stalk will provide useful information for molecular regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Overall our findings will lay a foundation for functional gene cloning, marker-assisted selection (MAS) and molecular breeding of important economic traits in B. rapa.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/anatomia & histologia , Brassica rapa/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Fenótipo , Pigmentação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(4): 1097-1109, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994269

RESUMO

One-off fertilization is a new technology of one-time applying base fertilizer near the rhizosphere during whole crop cultivation period. It has the advantages of simplifying fertilization manage-ment and reducing labor costs, but its impacts on environment, such as leaching characteristics need further analysis. We set five treatments in the typical rice-rape rotation system in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including control treatment (CK), farmers' practice treatment (FP), optimal fertilizer treatment (OPT), one-off application of urea fertilizer treatment (UA) and one-off application of controlled release urea treatment (CRF). Using in situ leaching monitoring method, nitrogen (N) leaching characteristics at 90 cm depth of soil in rice-rape rotation system under different treatments were obtained, the impacts of one-off fertilization on N lea-ching were evaluated and its economic benefits were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that the main forms of N in leachate were different for rape and rice. In the rape season, NO3--N was the major component of leachate, while for rice season NO3--N and NH4+-N were equally important. In the whole rotation period, the inorganic N leaching mainly occurred in the rice season, and compared with FP, OPT and UA, the total amount of inorganic N leached by CRF were significantly reduced by 33.7%, 20.8%, and 20.7%, respectively. However, the effects of different fertilization treatments on N leaching in rape season were not significantly different. Under the same N application rates, compared with OPT, UA ensured the stable yield of rape and rice and significantly increased the NAE in rape season by 15.1%, but failed to improve the NAE in rice season. There was no significant difference between OPT and CRF in rice yield and NAE, but rape yield and NAE of CRF significantly increased by 10.7% and 18.9%, respectively. From the economic front, compared with OPT, UA and CRFincreased rapeseed income by 3660 and 3048 yuan·hm-2, and rice income by 3162 and 2220 yuan·hm-2. Therefore, considering the effects of various fertilizer treatments on N leaching, crop yield, and economic benefits, one-off base fertilization application of controlled release fertilizer technology could ensure stable or increase crop yields, and improve farmers' income, while significantly reduce the inorganic N leaching loss. Such technology is recommended for future rice-rape rotation cultivation.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(4): 1235-1242, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994284

RESUMO

There are severe soil erosion, shallow soil, reduction of soil organic matter, and poor soil and water conservation in purple soil areas in Southwest China, which become the main limiting factors for the sustainable development of agriculture. A series of buckets and field experiments in the field were employed to explore the soil aggregate and soil organic carbon in response to Chinese milk vetch intercropped with rape under straw mulching, aiming to improve soil aggregate structure and increase organic carbon content. Results showed that intercropped Chinese milk vetch increased soil micro-aggregate content in rape rhizosphere, and reduced soil aggregate mean mass diameter. The change of soil macro-aggregate in rape rhizosphere was mainly caused by the change of content of soil aggregate on 10-5 mm and 5-2 mm, while the soil micro-aggregate was mainly caused by soil aggregate on 0.25-0.053 mm. Intercropped Chinese milk vetch and straw mulching significantly increased soil organic carbon content after corn growing season, with increasing the content of soil organic carbon on 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Though intercropped Chinese milk vetch and straw mulching had less effect on soil total organic carbon in rape season, more and more significant effect on 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-30 cm with rape growing, especially in stem elongation stage, flowering stage, and harvest stage. Our results showed that the characteristic of soil aggregate in rape rhizosphere could be changed by intercropped Chinese milk vetch, and that the content of soil organic carbon could be increased by Chinese milk vetch intercropped with rape under straw mul-ching.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Astrágalo (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbono/análise , China , Solo/química
15.
Science ; 364(6436): 193-196, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975889

RESUMO

Pollination and herbivory are both key drivers of plant diversity but are traditionally studied in isolation from each other. We investigated real-time evolutionary changes in plant traits over six generations by using fast-cycling Brassica rapa plants and manipulating the presence and absence of bumble bee pollinators and leaf herbivores. We found that plants under selection by bee pollinators evolved increased floral attractiveness, but this process was compromised by the presence of herbivores. Plants under selection from both bee pollinators and herbivores evolved higher degrees of self-compatibility and autonomous selfing, as well as reduced spatial separation of sexual organs (herkogamy). Overall, the evolution of most traits was affected by the interaction of bee pollination and herbivory, emphasizing the importance of the cross-talk between both types of interactions for plant evolution.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Polinização , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 264, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genic male sterility (GMS) line is an important approach to utilize heterosis in Brassica rapa, one of the most widely cultivated vegetable crops in Northeast Asia. However, the molecular genetic mechanisms of GMS remain to be largely unknown. RESULTS: Detailed phenotypic observation of 'Bcajh97-01A/B', a B. rapa genic male sterile AB line in this study revealed that the aberrant meiotic cytokinesis and premature tapetal programmed cell death occurring in the sterile line ultimately resulted in microspore degeneration and pollen wall defect. Further gene expression profile of the sterile and fertile floral buds of 'Bcajh97-01A/B' at five typical developmental stages during pollen development supported the result of phenotypic observation and identified stage-specific genes associated with the main events associated with pollen wall development, including tapetum development or functioning, callose metabolism, pollen exine formation and cell wall modification. Additionally, by using ChIP-sequencing, the genomic and gene-level distribution of trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and H3K27 were mapped on the fertile floral buds, and a great deal of pollen development-associated genes that were covalently modified by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provids a deeper understanding into the gene expression and regulation network during pollen development and pollen wall formation in B. rapa, and enabled the identification of a set of candidate genes for further functional annotation.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Infertilidade das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 4082-4093, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se)-induced phytotoxicity has been linked to oxidative injury triggered by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to the disturbance of anti-oxidative systems. However, the way Se stress induces hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production in plants is a long-standing question. Here we identified the role of polyamine oxidase (PAO) in H2 O2 production in the root of Brassica rapa upon Se stress. RESULTS: Studying Se-induced growth inhibition, H2 O2 accumulation, and oxidative injury in the root of Brassica rapa, we found that excessive Se exposure resulted in a remarkable increase in PAO activity. Inhibition of PAO activity led to decreased H2 O2 content and alleviated oxidative injury in the Se-treated root. These results indicated that Se stress induced PAO-dependent H2 O2 production. A total of six BrPAO family members were discovered in the genome of B. rapa by in silico analysis. Se stress pronouncedly upregulated the expression of most BrPAOs and further transient expression analysis proved that it could lead to H2 O2 production. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Se stress upregulates the expression of a set of BrPAOs which further enhances PAO activity, contributing to H2 O2 generation in roots. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/enzimologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Gene ; 696: 113-121, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776462

RESUMO

Multiple-allele-inherited male sterility (MAMS) is important in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) breeding, but the molecular mechanisms leading to male sterility are poorly understood. In this study, we cloned a novel gene, BrSKS13, that is differentially expressed in fertile and sterile flower buds of Chinese cabbage. BrSKS13 is most similar to Arabidopsis thaliana AT3G13400 (SKS13) and encodes a predicted 61.87 kDa protein with three cupredoxin superfamily conserved domains in the multicopper oxidase family. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (sqRT-PCR) showed that expression of BrSKS13 is higher in fertile buds than in sterile buds. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization showed that BrSKS13 is highly expressed in fertile anthers, peaking at pollen-maturation stage VI, but is weakly expressed in other tissues and floral organs. Expression patterns of BrSKS13 promoter::GUS reporter fusions in Arabidopsis showed that the BrSKS13 promoter drives expression of the GUS gene only in anthers. The relative expression of Brsks13 in fertile buds was higher than in sterile buds for all other MAMS lines of Chinese cabbage examined. These results suggest that BrSKS13 affects pollen development. In situ hybridization analysis of flower stigmas at different times after pollination showed that BrSKS13 expression was first observed in stigmas and immature seeds at 1 h after pollination, and the signal intensity in seeds increased with increasing maturity. Compared to Col-0, A. thaliana sks13 mutant plants have shorter and fewer siliques, shriveled pollen grains, pollen tube abnormalities, and reduced seed number. The phenotype of sks13 mutant was recovered by over-expressing BrSKS13. Our results suggest that BrSKS13 affects pollen development and the pollination/fertilization process, and will enable further study of the genetic mechanisms underlying MAMS in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polinização/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilização/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 193: 18-30, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798151

RESUMO

Carotenoids as part of the photosystems are crucial for their assembly, light-harvesting, and photoprotection. Light of different wavelengths impacts the composition and structure of photosystems, thus offering the possibility to influence the carotenoid concentrations and composition in photosystems by illumination with specific narrow-banded light spectra. Key components involved in the regulation of gene transcription are still poorly characterized, particularly in leafy vegetables as compared to model plants. In particular, the effect of different light qualities and its connection to redox control mechanisms, which also determine the photosystem composition and structure, is not yet well understood. Furthermore, light quality effects are species-dependent, and thus, increase the need to perform research on individual vegetable species such as pak choi Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Here, we investigated the carotenoid concentrations and composition of pak choi sprouts grown for 6 days under blue, red, or white light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light source. After 6 days, the total carotenoid content was the highest under white and slightly reduced under blue or red LEDs. Blue, red, and white light differently affected the carotenoid composition mainly due to variations of the ß-carotene content which could be correlated to changes in the transcript levels of ß-carotene hydroxylase 1 (ß-OHASE1). Further investigations implied a redox controlled gene expression of ß-OHASE1. In addition, transcription factors related to light signaling and the circadian clock differed in their transcriptional abundance after exposure to blue and red light. RNA-Seq analysis also revealed increased transcript levels of genes encoding the outer antenna complex of photosystem II under red compared to blue light, indicating an adjustment of the photosystems to the different light qualities which possibly contributed to the alternations in the carotenoid content and composition.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/biossíntese , Luz , Sítios de Ligação , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Massas , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(2)2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678241

RESUMO

In general, yield and fruit quality strongly rely on efficient nutrient remobilization during plant development and senescence. Transcriptome changes associated with senescence in spring oilseed rape grown under optimal nitrogen supply or mild nitrogen deficiency revealed differences in senescence and nutrient mobilization in old lower canopy leaves and younger higher canopy leaves [1]. Having a closer look at this transcriptome analyses, we identified the major classes of seed storage proteins (SSP) to be expressed in vegetative tissue, namely leaf and stem tissue. Expression of SSPs was not only dependent on the nitrogen supply but transcripts appeared to correlate with intracellular H2O2 contents, which functions as well-known signaling molecule in developmental senescence. The abundance of SSPs in leaf material transiently progressed from the oldest leaves to the youngest. Moreover, stems also exhibited short-term production of SSPs, which hints at an interim storage function. In order to decipher whether hydrogen peroxide also functions as a signaling molecule in nitrogen deficiency-induced senescence, we analyzed hydrogen peroxide contents after complete nitrogen depletion in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis plants. In both cases, hydrogen peroxide contents were lower in nitrogen deficient plants, indicating that at least parts of the developmental senescence program appear to be suppressed under nitrogen deficiency.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo
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