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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941459

RESUMO

Winter rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) is the main oilseed crop in northern China and can safely overwinter at 35 (i.e., Tianshui, China) to 48 degrees north latitude (i.e., Altai, Heilongjiang, Raohe, and Xinjiang, China). In order to identify stable reference genes to understand the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in winter rapeseed, internal reference genes of winter rapeseed under four abiotic stresses were analyzed using GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder software. The most stable combinations of internal reference genes were ß-actin and SAND in cold-stressed leaves, ß-actin and EF1a in cold-stressed roots, F-box and SAND in high temperature-stressed leaves, and PP2A and RPL in high temperature-stressed roots, SAND and PP2A in NaCl-stressed leaves, RPL and UBC in NaCl-stressed roots, RPL and PP2A in PEG-stressed leaves, and PP2A and RPL in PEG-stressed roots. Expression profiles of PXG3 were used to verify these results. The stable reference genes identified in this study are useful tools for identifying stress-responsive genes to understand the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in winter rapeseed.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Estações do Ano
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 962-969, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608758

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal. Brassica rapa (pak choi) is a vastly common vegetable, which readily accumulates Cd. Given the current conditions of Cd contamination in domestic soil, it is important to reduce Cd accumulation in the edible part of pak choi. Research has shown that selenium (Se) can regulate Cd uptake by plants. Cd accumulation (three cultivars) and Cd uptake kinetics in pak choi were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Results showed that the three levels of selenite significantly reduced Cd content in the Hangzhouyoudonger shoot by 50%, while the levels in Suzhouqinggen and Shanghaiqing shoots were not significantly decreased with elevated levels of selenite. Selenite reduces the Cd translocation factors, and higher levels had more obvious effects; 50 µmol·L-1 of selenite significantly decreased the factors by 50% in Hangzhouyoudonger and Suzhouqinggen shoots. Selenite also increased iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) contents in pak choi, especially in the Hangzhouyoudonger shoot, where 50 µmol·L-1 increased the Fe content by approximately 50%. In the uptake kinetics of Cd, both selenite and selenate significantly increased Cd uptake rates and Vmax by over 100%. Therefore, Se could reduce Cd accumulation in pak choi. This also depended on the tested cultivar. Therefore, reduction effects of Se on the Cd content mainly stemmed from the alteration of Cd translocation in pak choi instead of the uptake competition between Cd and Se.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico , Ácido Selenioso
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236829, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730367

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widely used trait in angiosperms caused by perturbations in nucleus-mitochondrion interactions that suppress the production of functional pollen. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulatory molecules of transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants. The discovery of miRNAs and their possible implications in CMS induction provides clues for the intricacies and complexity of this phenomenon. Previously, we characterized an Ogura-CMS line of turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapifera) that displays distinct impaired anther development with defective microspore production and premature tapetum degeneration. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing was employed for a genome-wide investigation of miRNAs. Six small RNA libraries of inflorescences collected from the Ogura-CMS line and its maintainer fertile (MF) line of turnip were constructed. A total of 120 pre-miRNAs corresponding to 89 mature miRNAs were identified, including 87 conversed miRNAs and 33 novel miRNAs. Among these miRNAs, the expression of 10 differentially expressed mature miRNAs originating from 12 pre-miRNAs was shown to have changed by more than two-fold between inflorescences of the Ogura-CMS line and inflorescences of the MF line, including 8 down- and 2 up-regulated miRNAs. The expression profiles of the differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, to identify the targets of the identified miRNAs, a degradome analysis was performed. A total of 22 targets of 25 miRNAs and 17 targets of 28 miRNAs were identified as being involved in the reproductive development for Ogura-CMS and MF lines of turnip, respectively. Negative correlations of expression patterns between partial miRNAs and their targets were detected. Some of these identified targets, such as squamosa promoter-binding-like transcription factor family proteins, auxin response factors and pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, were previously reported to be involved in reproductive development in plants. Taken together, our results can help improve the understanding of miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways that might be involved in CMS occurrence in turnip.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Inflorescência/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Interferência de RNA
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14552-14560, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513689

RESUMO

Both inorganic fertilizer inputs and crop yields have increased globally, with the concurrent increase in the pollution of water bodies due to nitrogen leaching from soils. Designing agroecosystems that are environmentally friendly is urgently required. Since agroecosystems are highly complex and consist of entangled webs of interactions between plants, microbes, and soils, identifying critical components in crop production remain elusive. To understand the network structure in agroecosystems engineered by several farming methods, including environmentally friendly soil solarization, we utilized a multiomics approach on a field planted with Brassica rapa We found that the soil solarization increased plant shoot biomass irrespective of the type of fertilizer applied. Our multiomics and integrated informatics revealed complex interactions in the agroecosystem showing multiple network modules represented by plant traits heterogeneously associated with soil metabolites, minerals, and microbes. Unexpectedly, we identified soil organic nitrogen induced by soil solarization as one of the key components to increase crop yield. A germ-free plant in vitro assay and a pot experiment using arable soils confirmed that specific organic nitrogen, namely alanine and choline, directly increased plant biomass by acting as a nitrogen source and a biologically active compound. Thus, our study provides evidence at the agroecosystem level that organic nitrogen plays a key role in plant growth.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Colina/química , Colina/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos da radiação , Metabolômica , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos da radiação , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Luz Solar
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15305-15315, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541052

RESUMO

Small RNAs are abundant in plant reproductive tissues, especially 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Most 24-nt siRNAs are dependent on RNA Pol IV and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) and establish DNA methylation at thousands of genomic loci in a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In Brassica rapa, RdDM is required in the maternal sporophyte for successful seed development. Here, we demonstrate that a small number of siRNA loci account for over 90% of siRNA expression during B. rapa seed development. These loci exhibit unique characteristics with regard to their copy number and association with genomic features, but they resemble canonical 24-nt siRNA loci in their dependence on RNA Pol IV/RDR2 and role in RdDM. These loci are expressed in ovules before fertilization and in the seed coat, embryo, and endosperm following fertilization. We observed a similar pattern of 24-nt siRNA expression in diverse angiosperms despite rapid sequence evolution at siren loci. In the endosperm, siren siRNAs show a marked maternal bias, and siren expression in maternal sporophytic tissues is required for siren siRNA accumulation. Together, these results demonstrate that seed development occurs under the influence of abundant maternal siRNAs that might be transported to, and function in, filial tissues.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alelos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110748, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470678

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an inauspicious abiotic traction that not only influences crop productivity and its growth parameters, but also has adverse effects on human health if these crops are consumed. Among crops, leafy vegetables which are the good source of mineral and vitamins accumulate more Cd than other vegetables. It is thus important to study photosynthetic variables, amino acid composition, and ultrastructural localization of Cd differences in response to Cd accumulation between two low and high Cd accumulating Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L. (pak choi) cultivars, differing in Cd accumulation ability. Elevated Cd concentrations significantly lowered plant growth rate, biomass, leaf gas exchange and concentrations of amino acids collated to respective controls of both cultivars. Electron microscopy indicated that the impact of high Cd level on ultrastructure of leaf cells was associated to affecting cell functionalities, i.e. irregular cell wall, withdrawal of cell membrane, and chloroplast structure which has negative impact on photosynthetic activities, thus causing considerable plant growth suppression. Damage in root cells were observed in the form of enlargement of vacuole. The energy dispersive micro X-ray spectroscopy of both cultivars leaves indicated that cellular structure exhibited exudates of Cd-dense material. Ultrastructural damages and phytotoxicity were more pronounced in high accumulator cultivar as compared to the low accumulator cultivar. These findings are useful in determining the mechanisms of differential Cd-tolerance among cultivars with different Cd tolerance abilities at cellular level.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/análise , Biomassa , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura
7.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(3): 508-517, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237544

RESUMO

In this study, pot and field experiments were conducted to study the enrichment of soil cadmium by Kochia scoparia. Further, rotations in pot experiments were carried out with four varieties of Brassica rapa to verify the remediation effect of Kochia scoparia on cadmium contamination in soil. The enrichment capacity of Kochia scoparia was leaf > root > stem with bioconcentration factors (BCFCd) of 15.07, 5.44 and 2.96, respectively. The total cadmium in soil decreased by 6.02% to 13.60% after planting Kochia scoparia, and the activities of soil urease and acid phosphatase also increased. The results of pot cultivation shows that the above-ground cadmium content of Brassica rapa in Kochia scoparia-Brassica rapa rotation system decreased by 17.21% on average compared with the control group without rotation, whereas the biomass increased slightly, and the above-ground translocation factors (TFCd) did not change significantly. These results suggest that the rotation of Brassica rapa with Kochia scoparia could increase the yield of Brassica rapa, and effectively reduce the cadmium content in edible parts of Brassica rapa, toward the purpose of realizing the green agricultural concept of "harnessing while producing".


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bassia scoparia , Brassica rapa , Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Bassia scoparia/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4295, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152363

RESUMO

Annexins (ANN) are a multigene, evolutionarily conserved family of calcium-dependent and phospholipid-binding proteins that play important roles in plant development and stress resistance. However, a systematic comprehensive analysis of ANN genes of Brassicaceae species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In this study, we identified 13, 12, and 26 ANN genes in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus, respectively. About half of these genes were clustered on various chromosomes. Molecular evolutionary analysis showed that the ANN genes were highly conserved in Brassicaceae species. Transcriptome analysis showed that different group ANN members exhibited varied expression patterns in different tissues and under different (abiotic stress and hormones) treatments. Meanwhile, same group members from Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus demonstrated conserved expression patterns in different tissues. The weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) showed that BnaANN genes were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and played important roles in jasmonate (JA) signaling and multiple stress response in B. napus.


Assuntos
Anexinas/metabolismo , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Anexinas/genética , Brassica/classificação , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(1-2): 123-141, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776846

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Conserved motif, gene structure, expression and interaction analysis of C2H2-ZFPs in Brassica rapa, and identified types of genes may play essential roles in flower development, and BrZFP38 was proved to function in flower development by affecting pollen formation. Flower development plays a central role in determining the reproduction of higher plants, and Cys2/His2 zinc-finger proteins (C2H2-ZFPs) widely participate in the transcriptional regulation of flower development. C2H2-ZFPs with various structures are the most widespread DNA-binding transcription factors in plants. In this study, conserved protein motif and gene structures were analyzed to investigate systematically the molecular features of Brassica rapa C2H2-ZFP genes. Expression of B. rapa C2H2-ZFPs in multiple tissues showed that more than half of the family members with different types ZFs were expressed in flowers. The specific expression profiles of these C2H2-ZFPs in different B. rapa floral bud stages were further evaluated to identify their potential roles in flower development. Interaction networks were constructed in B. rapa based on the orthology of flower-related C2H2-ZFP genes in Arabidopsis. The putative cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of these C2H2-ZFP genes were thoroughly analyzed to elucidate their transcriptional regulation. Results showed that the orthologs of known-function flower-related C2H2-ZFP genes were conserved and differentiated in B. rapa. A C2H2-ZFP was proved to function in B. rapa flower development. Our study provides a systematic investigation of the molecular characteristics and expression profiles of C2H2-ZFPs in B. rapa and promotes further work in function and transcriptional regulation of flower development.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1064-1071, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites, mainly existing in Brassica vegetables. Their breakdown products have health benefits and contribute to the distinctive taste of these vegetables. Because of their high value, there is a lot of interest in developing breeding strategies to increase the content of beneficial GSLs in Brassica species. GSLs are synthesized from certain amino acids and their biological roles depend largely on the structure of their side chains. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX ) genes are involved in the synthesis of these side chains. To better understand GSL biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) tubers at four developmental stages (S1-S4) and determined their GSL content. RESULTS: The total GSL content was high at the early stage (S1) of tuber development and increased up to S3, then decreased at S4. We detected 61 differentially expressed genes, including five FMOGS-OX genes, that were related for GSL biosynthesis among the four developmental stages. Most of these genes were highly expressed at stages S1 to S3, but their expression was much lower at S4. We estimated the effect of the five FMOGS-OX genes on GSL content by overexpressing them in turnip hairy roots and found that the amount of aliphatic GSLs increased significantly in the transgenic plants. CONCLUSION: The transcriptome data and characterization of genes involved in GSL biosynthesis, particularly the FMOGS-OX genes, will be valuable for improving the yield of beneficial GSLs in turnip and other Brassica crops. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/enzimologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Dinitrocresóis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
11.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113414, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662260

RESUMO

The accurate assessment of soil selenium (Se) bioavailability is crucial for Se biofortification in Se-deficient areas and risk assessment in selenosis areas. However, a universally accepted approach to evaluate Se bioavailability in soil is currently lacking. This research investigated Se bioavailability in six soils treated with selenite (Se(IV)) or selenate (Se(VI)) by comparing diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique and chemical extraction methods through pot experiments. A bioindicator method was used to evaluate Se concentrations in pak choi and compare the results with the Se concentration measured by other methods. Results showed that chemical extraction methods presented different extraction efficiencies for available Se over a range of soil types, and the same extraction method had various extraction efficiencies for different Se species in the same soil. DGT measured Se concentrations (CDGT-Se) for Se(VI) treatment were 2.3-34.1 times of those for Se(IV) treatment. KH2PO4-K2HPO4 and AB-DTPA extractable Se could predict the bioavailability of soil Se, but they were disturbed by soil properties. HAc extraction was unsuitable for evaluating Se bioavailability in different Se(IV)-treated soils. By contrast, DGT technique was preferable for predicting plant uptake of Se(IV) over chemical extraction methods. Although DGT technique was independent of soil properties, KH2PO4-K2HPO4 extraction provided the best fitting regression equation for Se(VI) when it was dependent on soil organic matter. Thus, KH2PO4-K2HPO4 extraction may be preferred to assess Se(VI) bioavailability in different soil types on a large scale.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Ácido Selênico , Ácido Selenioso , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109961, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759737

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals that reduces crop productivity and is a threat to all the food chain including human health. Phytoremediation is an environmentally friendly strategy to clean up soil contaminated with heavy metals. Researchers are selecting new varieties with an enhanced capacity for phytoremediation purposes. Three Brassica rapa mutants for CAX1 transporter were obtained through TILLING. The objective of this work is to evaluate the tolerance of these mutants to Cd toxicity and its potential for Cd phytoremediation. For this, the mutants and the parental R-o-18 were grown under control and Cd toxicity conditions (100 µM CdCl2) and growth, Cd accumulation and physiological parameters were analyzed. The results show that BraA.cax1a mutation provides greater Cd uptake capacity although only BraA.cax1a-12 would be useful for phytoremediation because it registered more than three-fold the Cd content of R-o-18 and presented greater Cd tolerance. This tolerance could be due to the higher Ca and Mg accumulations, the maintaining of photosynthesis performance, the enhanced ROS detoxification and AsA/GSH and TCA cycles, the higher malate, and GA4 concentrations and the lower ethylene levels. Briefly, this study identifies BraA.cax1a-12 as a potential mutant for phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil and identifies possible physiological elements that contribute to this capacity.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassica rapa/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Mutação , Fotossíntese , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109877, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704320

RESUMO

Salinity represents a serious environmental threat to crop production and by extension, to world food supply, social and economic prosperity of the developing world. Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant signal molecule involved in regulating various plant responses to stress. In the present study, we characterized the regulatory role of exogenous SA for their ability to ameliorate deleterious effects of salt stress (0, 100, 150, 200 mM NaCl) in choysum plants through coordinated induction of antioxidants, ascorbate glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, and the glyoxalase enzymes. An increase in salt stress dramatically declined root and shoot growth, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC), subsequently increased electrolyte leakage (EL) and osmolytes accumulation in choysum plants. Salt stress disrupted the antioxidant and glyoxalase defense systems which persuaded oxidative damages and carbonyl toxicity, indicated by increased H2O2 generation, lipid peroxidation, and methylglyoxal (MG) content. However, application of SA had an additive effect on the growth of salt-affected choysum plants, which enhanced root length, plant biomass, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and RWC. Moreover, SA application effectively eliminated the oxidative and carbonyl stress by improving AsA and GSH pool, upregulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes associated with AsA-GSH cycle and glyoxalase system. Overall, SA application completely counteracted the salinity-induced deleterious effects of 100 and 150 mM NaCl and partially mediated that of 200 mM NaCl stress. Therefore, we concluded that SA application induced tolerance to salinity stress in choysum plants due to the synchronized increase in activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, enhanced efficiency of AsA-GSH cycle and the MG detoxification systems.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/genética , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/genética , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 308: 125657, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669950

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of drought stress on Chinese cabbage (Chcab) by measuring plant growth responses, total antioxidant enzyme activities, the contents of bioactive compounds including glucosinolates (GLS, aliphatic and indolic), and binding with human serum albumin (HSA). Forty-day-old Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) seedlings were transplanted into pots and maintained for three weeks at 10% (drought-treated, D-T) and 30% (control, C) soil water. The total leaf number, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights were significantly lower in D-T Chcab than in controls. Total GLSs and catalase activities were found to be significantly higher in D-T Chcab than in controls. Indolic GLSs were significantly higher than aliphatic GLSs in D-T Chcab. These results show that D-T Chcab reduced growth parameters and binding properties with HSA and influenced total contents of GLSs, polyphenols, flavonoids, total antioxidant enzyme activities, catalase and peroxidase.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Secas , Glucosinolatos/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12408-12418, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644287

RESUMO

Vegetables are an ideal source of human Se intake; it is important to understand selenium (Se) speciation in plants due to the distinct biological functions of selenocompounds. In this hydroponic study, the accumulation and assimilation of selenite and selenate in pak choi (Brassica rapa), a vastly consumed vegetable, were investigated at 1-168 h with HPLC speciation and RNA-sequencing. The results showed that the Se content in shoots and Se translocation factors with selenate addition were at least 10.81 and 11.62 times, respectively, higher than those with selenite addition. Selenite and selenate up-regulated the expression of SULT1;1 and PHT1;2 in roots by over 240% and 400%, respectively. Selenite addition always led to higher proportions of seleno-amino acids, while SeO42- was dominant under selenate addition (>49% of all Se species in shoots). However, in roots, SeO42- proportions declined substantially by 51% with a significant increase of selenomethionine proportions (63%) from 1 to 168 h. Moreover, with enhanced transcript of methionine gamma-lyase (60% of up-regulation compared to the control) plus high levels of methylselenium in shoots (approximately 70% of all Se species), almost 40% of Se was lost during the exposure under the selenite treatment. This work provides evidence that pak choi can rapidly transform selenite to methylselenium, and it is promising to use the plant for Se biofortification.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hidroponia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/análise , Ácido Selenioso/análise , Selênio/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA
16.
DNA Res ; 26(5): 433-443, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622476

RESUMO

Brassica rapa L. is an important vegetable and oilseed crop. We investigated the distribution of the histone mark tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) in B. rapa and its role in the control of gene expression at two stages of development (2-day cotyledons and 14-day leaves) and among paralogs in the triplicated genome. H3K27me3 has a similar distribution in two inbred lines, while there was variation of H3K27me3 sites between tissues. Sites that are specific to 2-day cotyledons have increased transcriptional activity, and low levels of H3K27me3 in the gene body region. In 14-day leaves, levels of H3K27me3 were associated with decreased gene expression. In the triplicated genome, H3K27me3 is associated with paralogs that have tissue-specific expression. Even though B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana are not closely related within the Brassicaceae, there is conservation of H3K27me3-marked sites in the two species. Both B. rapa and A. thaliana require vernalization for floral initiation with FLC being the major controlling locus. In all four BrFLC paralogs, low-temperature treatment increases H3K27me3 at the proximal nucleation site reducing BrFLC expression. Following return to normal temperature growth conditions, H3K27me3 spreads along all four BrFLC paralogs providing stable repression of the gene.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Código das Histonas , Histonas/metabolismo , Poliploidia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
17.
Genes Genomics ; 41(12): 1475-1492, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WS24-3A is a newly bred non-heading Chinese cabbage genic male-sterile line, in which sterility is controlled by a recessive gene, designated as Bra2ms. WS24-3A has been used for hybrid breeding. OBJECTIVE: To reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the sterility of WS24-3A. METHODS: Cytological observation of the process of sterile/fertile anther development was performed to determine the tissue and stage in which sterility occurs. Phenotyping and transcriptomic analyses were performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between sterile and fertile flower buds at different stages. RESULTS: Cytological analysis revealed no tetrads at stage 7 or at later stages of anther development, and the degradation of callose was delayed. Abnormal meiocytes were surrounded by sustaining callose that degenerated gradually in WS24-3A. Comparative transcript profiling identified 3282 DEGs during three anther developmental stages, namely, pre-meiotic anther, meiotic anther, and anthers with single-celled pollen stage. The difference in DEG percentage between up-regulated and down-regulated at meiotic anther stage was obviously larger than at the other two stages; further, most DEGs are important for male meiosis, callose synthesis and dissolution, and tapetum development. Ten DEGs were found to be involved in anther and pollen development, which were analyzed by quantitative PCR. CONCLUSION: Bra2ms affected gene expression in meiocytes and associated with callose synthesis, degradation and tapetum development. Our results provide clues to elucidate the molecular mechanism of genic male sterility in non-heading Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Brassica rapa/anatomia & histologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Recessivos , Glucanos/biossíntese , Meiose/genética , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113115, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476671

RESUMO

There is a lack of understanding about the potential accumulation of antibiotics in plants exposed to low-dose contaminated soil. 12 Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis cultivars were used to investigate the different accumulation capacities of sulfamethoxypyridazine, tetracycline, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and difloxacin from the soil. The results showed a significant variation (p < 0.05) among the 12 cultivars in the accumulation of antibiotics. Cultivars Y1 and Y2 had the highest accumulation capacity with average concentrations of 3.26 and 3.00 µg kg-1, respectively, while cultivars Y4 and Y9 had the lowest accumulation capacity with average concentrations of 0.83 and 0.89 µg kg-1. The average antibiotic concentration in all edible part samples (2.74 µg kg-1) of the treatment group was about 3.0-fold of that of the control group (0.93 µg kg-1). The average bioconcentration factors of sulfamethoxypyridazine, tetracycline, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and difloxacin were 0.051, 0.031, 0.017, 0.036 and 0.034, respectively, indicating a higher uptake of sulfamethoxypyridazine compared to ofloxacin. And the mobility of antibiotics in soil is a main factor affecting the bioavailability for plants. The average concentration of antibiotics in edible parts of cultivar Y12 on the 25th and 45th day were 1.52 and 1.73 µg kg-1 and that of the roots were 3.73 and 6.61 µg kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of tetracycline and difloxacin in the edible parts and roots significantly increased with growing time, while the concentration of sulfamethoxypyridazine and ofloxacin changed little throughout the growing period. The potential risks of antibiotics in vegetables on human health cannot be ignored. Overall, attention should be paid to the translocation of antibiotics from soil to plants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Verduras
19.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498838

RESUMO

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a major crop that is widely cultivated, especially in Korea, Japan, and China. With the advent of next generation sequencing technology, the cost and time required for sequencing have decreased and the development of genome research accelerated. Genome sequencing of Chinese cabbage was completed in 2011 using the variety Chiifu-401-42, and since then the genome has been continuously updated. In the present study, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of Chinese cabbage inbred line CT001, a line widely used in traditional or molecular breeding, to improve the accuracy of genetic polymorphism analysis. The constructed CT001 pseudomolecule represented 85.4% (219.8 Mb) of the Chiifu reference genome, and a total of 38,567 gene models were annotated using RNA-Seq analysis. In addition, the spontaneous mutation rate of CT001 was estimated by resequencing DNA obtained from individual plants after sexual propagation for six generations to estimate the naturally occurring variations. The CT001 pseudomolecule constructed in this study will provide valuable resources for genomic studies on Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
PLoS Genet ; 15(9): e1008367, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513571

RESUMO

Plant developmental dynamics can be heritable, genetically correlated with fitness and yield, and undergo selection. Therefore, characterizing the mechanistic connections between the genetic architecture governing plant development and the resulting ontogenetic dynamics of plants in field settings is critically important for agricultural production and evolutionary ecology. We use hierarchical Bayesian Function-Valued Trait (FVT) models to estimate Brassica rapa growth curves throughout ontogeny, across two treatments, and in two growing seasons. We find genetic variation for plasticity of growth rates and final sizes, but not the inflection point (transition from accelerating to decelerating growth) of growth curves. There are trade-offs between growth rate and duration, indicating that selection for maximum yields at early harvest dates may come at the expense of late harvest yields and vice versa. We generate eigengene modules and determine which are co-expressed with FVT traits using a Weighted Gene Co-expression Analysis. Independently, we seed a Mutual Rank co-expression network model with FVT traits to identify specific genes and gene networks related to FVT. GO-analyses of eigengene modules indicate roles for actin/cytoskeletal genes, herbivore resistance/wounding responses, and cell division, while MR networks demonstrate a close association between metabolic regulation and plant growth. We determine that combining FVT Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and MR genes/WGCNA eigengene expression profiles better characterizes phenotypic variation than any single data type (i.e. QTL, gene, or eigengene alone). Our network analysis allows us to employ a targeted eQTL analysis, which we use to identify regulatory hotspots for FVT. We examine cis vs. trans eQTL that mechanistically link FVT QTL with structural trait variation. Colocalization of FVT, gene, and eigengene eQTL provide strong evidence for candidate genes influencing plant height. The study is the first to explore eQTL for FVT, and specifically do so in agroecologically relevant field settings.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
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