Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 334
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Food Chem ; 295: 412-422, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174776

RESUMO

Consumption of Brassica vegetables is linked to health benefits, as they contain high concentrations of the following secondary plant metabolites (SPMs): glucosinolate breakdown products, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds. Especially Brassica vegetables are consumed as microgreens (developed cotyledons). It was investigated how different ontogenetic stages (microgreens or leaves) of pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) differ in their SPM concentration. The impact of breadmaking on SPMs in microgreens (7 days) and leaves (14 days) in pak choi and kale as a supplement in mixed wheat bread was assessed. In leaves, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were higher compared to those of microgreens. Breadmaking caused a decrease of SPMs. Chlorophyll degradation was observed, leading to pheophytin and pyropheophytin formation. In kale, sinapoylgentiobiose, a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, concentration increased. Thus, leaves of Brassica species are suitable as natural ingredients for enhancing bioactive SPM concentrations in bread.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Pão , Alimentos Fortificados , Triticum , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Nitrilos , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(1-2): 19-32, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001712

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: BcMAF2 plays a key role in flowering regulation by controlling BcTEM1, BcSOC1 and BCSPL15 in Pak-choi. Flowering is a key event in the life cycle of plants. Flowering time shows an extensive variation from different Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) cultivars. However, the regulation mechanism of flowering in Pak-choi remains rarely known. In this study, a systematic identification and functional analysis of a Pak-choi MADS Affecting Flowering (MAF) gene, BcMAF2, was carried out. BcMAF2 encoded a protein containing a conserved MADS-box domain, which was localized in the nucleus. QPCR analysis indicated that the expression of BcMAF2 was higher in the leaves and flowers. Overexpression of BcMAF2 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF2 repressed flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF2 in Pak-choi. In addition, Tempranillo 1 (TEM1) expression was up-regulated and MAF2 expression was down-regulated in the BcMAF2-overexpressing Arabidopsis. The expression of BcMAF2 and BcTEM1 was down-regulated in BcMAF2-silencing Pak-choi plants. The yeast one-hybrid, dual luciferase and qPCR results revealed that BcMAF2 protein could directly bind to BcTEM1 promoter and activate its expression, which was not reported in Arabidopsis. Meanwhile, a self-inhibition was found in BcMAF2. Taken together, this work suggested that BcMAF2 could repress flowering by directly activating BcTEM1.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Luciferases/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Plântula/genética
3.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 264, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genic male sterility (GMS) line is an important approach to utilize heterosis in Brassica rapa, one of the most widely cultivated vegetable crops in Northeast Asia. However, the molecular genetic mechanisms of GMS remain to be largely unknown. RESULTS: Detailed phenotypic observation of 'Bcajh97-01A/B', a B. rapa genic male sterile AB line in this study revealed that the aberrant meiotic cytokinesis and premature tapetal programmed cell death occurring in the sterile line ultimately resulted in microspore degeneration and pollen wall defect. Further gene expression profile of the sterile and fertile floral buds of 'Bcajh97-01A/B' at five typical developmental stages during pollen development supported the result of phenotypic observation and identified stage-specific genes associated with the main events associated with pollen wall development, including tapetum development or functioning, callose metabolism, pollen exine formation and cell wall modification. Additionally, by using ChIP-sequencing, the genomic and gene-level distribution of trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and H3K27 were mapped on the fertile floral buds, and a great deal of pollen development-associated genes that were covalently modified by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provids a deeper understanding into the gene expression and regulation network during pollen development and pollen wall formation in B. rapa, and enabled the identification of a set of candidate genes for further functional annotation.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Infertilidade das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
J Plant Physiol ; 237: 51-60, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022665

RESUMO

Cation/H+ exchanger transporters (CAXs) are crucial in Ca2+ homeostasis and in the generation of Ca2+ profiles involved in signalling processes. Given the crucial role of CAX1 in Ca2+ homeostasis, CAX1 modifications could have effects on plant metabolism. Three Brassica rapa mutants for CAX1 were obtained through TILLING. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of the different mutations and different Ca2+ doses on plant metabolism. For this, the mutants and the parental line were grown under low, control and high Ca2+ doses and parameters related to nitrogen (N) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolisms, and amino acid (AAs) and phytohormone profiles were measured. The results show that BraA.cax1a mutations affect metabolism especially under high Ca2+ dose. Thus, BraA.cax1a-7 inhibited some N metabolism enzymes and activated photorespiration activity. On the opposite side, BraA.cax1a-12 mutation provides a better tolerance to high Ca2+ dose. This tolerance could be provided by an improved N and TCA metabolisms enzymes, and a higher glutamate, malate, indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid concentrations. Therefore, BraA.cax1a-12 mutation could be used for B. rapa improving; the metabolomics changes observed in this mutant could be responsible for a better tolerance to high Ca2+.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(2): 37-49, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860470

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to assess the quantitative and qualitative changes in soluble proteins as well as some chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in the leaves of a winter canola (Brassica napus L., cv. Licord) under continuous low temperature. Over the experiment, seedlings were initially grown at 15/10 °C (d/n). At fourth fully expanded leafy stage (day 30), a part of the plants were transferred to 4/2°C for 4 weeks. Plants were sampled for protein extraction from leaves in which chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fv, Fm, Fv/Fo, Fm/Fo, Fv/Fm, Fo´, FV´, Fm´ and some other calculated) were also measured. The results showed a clear increase in soluble proteins quantity caused by cold treatment. The enhancements appeared abruptly following the cold exposure to 4°C and lasted. The electrophoretic protein patterns showed changes in the intensity of some polypeptides, besides, induction a new probable protein weighing 47-kW in response to cold treatment. Cold-triggered reduction in maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was connected especially with drastic decreasing Fv and Fm. Interestingly, high quantitative amounts of soluble proteins along with induction of the new probable polypeptide induced at cold temperature, were attributed to low deduction of maximum quantum yield of PSII. Additionally, more imperative chlorophyll fluorescence parameters changed e.g. qP, NPQ, qL, Y(II) or фPSII etc at light. Nowadays, radar charts or spider plots are the most sophisticated multivariate statistical tools representing physiological responses of plants to abiotic stress conditions or even morphophysiological studies of plants. In rapeseed many researches performed by applying the radar charts for low temperature stresses and interpreted their effects more advancely than common statistical tools. We observed a good representation of the chl fluorescence parameters fluctuations using radar plots. Overall, cold-induced soluble proteins accumulated after longer cold-acclimation, can contribute in photosynthetic apparatus protection against low-temperature damages.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Genótipo , Solubilidade
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 126: 313-321, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831153

RESUMO

Examining tissue-specific expression and the measurement of protein abundance are important steps when assessing the performance of genetically engineered crops. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry offers many advantages over traditional methods for protein quantitation, especially when dealing with transmembrane proteins that are often difficult to express or generate antibodies against. In this study, discovery proteomics was used to detect the seven transgenic membrane-bound enzymes from the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthetic pathway that had been engineered into canola. Subsequently, a targeted LC-MS/MS method for absolute quantitation was developed and applied to the simultaneous measurement of the seven DHA biosynthetic pathway enzymes in genetically modified canola grown across three sites. The results of this study demonstrated that the enzymatic proteins that drive the production of DHA using seed-specific promoters were detected only in mature and developing seed of DHA canola. None of the DHA biosynthesis pathway proteins were detected in wild-type canola planted in the same site or in the non-seed tissues of the transgenic canola, irrespective of the sampling time or the tissues tested. This study describes a streamlined approach to simultaneously measure multiple membrane-bound proteins in planta.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/enzimologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/biossíntese , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 92-101, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884416

RESUMO

Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) are utilized in various industries and their release into the environment may lead to the pollution of agricultural areas. However, assessing the toxicity of NiO NPs in major food crops is difficult due to the limited information available on their toxicity. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate how NiO NPs affect plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, and phytochemical content, as well as changes at the transcriptional level of these phytochemicals in Chinese cabbage seedlings. Chlorophyll, carotenoid, and sugar contents were reduced, while proline and the anthocyanins were significantly upregulated in NiO NPs-treated seedlings. The levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and reactive oxygen species, as well as peroxidase (POD) enzyme activity, were all enhanced in seedlings exposed to NiO NPs. The levels of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were also significantly increased in NiO NPs-treated seedlings compared to control seedlings. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress (CAT, POD, and GST), MYB transcription factors (BrMYB28, BrMYB29, BrMYB34, and BrMYB51), and phenolic compounds (ANS, PAP1, and PAL) were significantly upregulated. We suggest that NiO NPs application stimulates toxic effects and enhances the levels of phytochemicals (glucosinolates and phenolic compounds) in Chinese cabbage seedlings.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Níquel/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Níquel/administração & dosagem , Prolina/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 216: 249-257, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904632

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to apply ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to reveal feed molecular structure properties of oil-seeds and co-products and relationship with protein and carbohydrate degradation fractions in ruminant systems. The oil-seeds and co-products were from both various bio-processing industries in Canada and China. The protein and carbohydrate degradation fractions were evaluated with updated CNCPS system. Results showed that in the co-products from canola processing industries there are strong relationship between 1) soluble true protein (PA2) fraction and the following protein molecular structure spectral characteristics; spectral peak area of amide I and amide II (r = 0.56, P = 0.001), area of amide I (r = 0.67, P < 0.001), height of amide I (r = 0.74, P < 0.001), amide I and II ratio (r = 0.57, P = 0.001), α-helix (r = 0.82, P < 0.001), and ß-sheet (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), 2) slowly degradable true protein (PB2) fraction and height of amide I (r = -0.60, P = 0.001), α-helix (r = -0.72, P < 0.001), and ß-sheet (r = -0.51, P = 0.004), 3) soluble fiber (CB2) fraction and α-helix and ß-sheet height ratio (r = -0.63, P < 0.001), and 4) unavailable NDF (CC) fraction and height of amide I (r = 0.55, P = 0.002). These results indicated feed molecular structure spectral properties of the oil-seeds and co-products related to CNCPS protein and carbohydrate degradation fractions in ruminant systems.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Brassica rapa/química , Carboidratos/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Óleo de Brassica napus/metabolismo , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
9.
Plant Sci ; 280: 110-119, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823988

RESUMO

The Brassica rapa (B. rapa) species displays enormous phenotypic diversity, with leafy vegetables, storage root vegetables and oil crops. These different crops all have different flowering time, which determine their growing season and cultivation area. Little is known about the effects of diverse temperature and day-lengths on flowering time QTL associated with FLC paralogues. We phenotyped the flowering time of a doubled haploid population, established from a cross between Yellow sarson and Pak choi under diverse environmental conditions. We identified flowering-time QTL (fQTL) in different photoperiod and temperature regimes in the greenhouse, and studied their colocation with known flowering time genes. As several fQTL colocalized with FLC paralogues, we studied the expression patterns of four FLC paralogues during the course of vernalization in parental lines. Under all environmental conditions tested the major fQTL that mapped to the BrFLC2_A02 locus was detected, however its effect decreased when plants were grown at low temperatures. Another fQTL that mapped to the FLC paralogue, BrFLC5_A03 was also identified under all tested environments, while no fQTL colocated with BrFLC1_A10 or BrFLC3_A03. Furthermore, the vernalization treatment decreased expression of all BrFLC paralogues in the parental lines, and showed the lowest transcript level after 28 days of vernalization. Transcript abundance stayed low after returning the plants for seven days to normal growth temperature. Interestingly, transcript abundance of BrFLC3_A03 and BrFLC5_A03 was repressed much stronger and already reached lowest levels after 14d in the early-flowering type YS-143. This study improves understanding of the effects of daylength and vernalization on flowering time in B. rapa and the role of the different BrFLC paralogues therein.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Food Chem ; 285: 194-203, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797335

RESUMO

Microwave pretreatment of rapeseeds prior to cold-pressing is a simple and desirable method for producing high quality oils. In this study, a rapid and sensitive lipid profiling platform employing an accurate quantification strategy was established based on direct infusion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Using this developed platform, we further investigated the effect of microwave pretreatment of rapeseeds on the contents of important lipids such as triglycerides (TAGs), phospholipids (PLs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) in 15 different rapeseed oils. Our results demonstrated that no significant changes of total FAs and TAGs contents were observed after microwave pretreatment, while FFA contents increased and PLs contents significantly increased up to 40 folds. The potential mechanism of lipid changes was also discussed. The established lipidomics profiling platform can provide reliable lipids profiling data and help to better understand the potential mechanism of microwave pretreatment in oil processing.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Micro-Ondas , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Triglicerídeos/análise
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 4082-4093, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se)-induced phytotoxicity has been linked to oxidative injury triggered by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to the disturbance of anti-oxidative systems. However, the way Se stress induces hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production in plants is a long-standing question. Here we identified the role of polyamine oxidase (PAO) in H2 O2 production in the root of Brassica rapa upon Se stress. RESULTS: Studying Se-induced growth inhibition, H2 O2 accumulation, and oxidative injury in the root of Brassica rapa, we found that excessive Se exposure resulted in a remarkable increase in PAO activity. Inhibition of PAO activity led to decreased H2 O2 content and alleviated oxidative injury in the Se-treated root. These results indicated that Se stress induced PAO-dependent H2 O2 production. A total of six BrPAO family members were discovered in the genome of B. rapa by in silico analysis. Se stress pronouncedly upregulated the expression of most BrPAOs and further transient expression analysis proved that it could lead to H2 O2 production. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Se stress upregulates the expression of a set of BrPAOs which further enhances PAO activity, contributing to H2 O2 generation in roots. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/enzimologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
J Environ Manage ; 230: 110-118, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278274

RESUMO

Rapeseed (RS) waste was used for sequential biosorption from aqueous solutions of two target micropollutants: lead ions and Reactive blue 19 (Rb19) dye, through an integrated approach, combining experimental assessment and statistical modeling. In both cases of sequential biosorption, a pseudo-second order kinetic model fitted the biosorption data well. Intraparticle diffusion proved to be the rate-limiting step in the sequential retention of both micropollutants. A selective desorption of metal ions and anionic dye at pH 2.5 and 10.5, respectively was observed. The quadratic models generated by response surface methodology (RSM) adequately described the sequential biosorption process and the desorption process, respectively. XPS and FTIR analysis indicated the mechanisms involved in the retention of target pollutants.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Difusão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons/química , Cinética , Soluções
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(1)2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587842

RESUMO

In plants, heptahelical proteins (HHPs) have been shown to respond to a variety of abiotic stresses, including cold stress. Up to the present, the regulation mechanism of HHP5 under low temperature stress remains unclear. In this study, BcHHP5 was isolated from Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis cv. Suzhouqing). Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that BcHHP5 in Pak-choi is similar to AtHHP5 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Structure analysis showed that the structure of the BcHHP5 protein is relatively stable and highly conservative. Subcellular localization indicated that BcHHP5 was localized on the cell membrane and nuclear membrane. Furthermore, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that BcHHP5 was induced to express by cold and other abiotic stresses. In Pak-choi, BcHHP5-silenced assay, inhibiting the action of endogenous BcHHP5, indicated that BcHHP5-silenced might have a negative effect on cold tolerance, which was further confirmed. All of these results indicate that BcHHP5 might play a role in abiotic response. This work can serve as a reference for the functional analysis of other cold-related proteins from Pak-choi in the future.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Temperatura Baixa , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/classificação , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208648, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571734

RESUMO

The Chloride Channel (CLC) gene family is reported to be involved in vacuolar nitrate (NO3-) transport. Nitrate distribution to the cytoplasm is beneficial for enhancing NO3- assimilation and plays an important role in the regulation of nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE). In this study, genomic information, high-throughput transcriptional profiles, and gene co-expression analysis were integrated to identify the CLCs (BnaCLCs) in Brassica napus. The decreased NO3- concentration in the clca-2 mutant up-regulated the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, contributing to increase N assimilation and higher NUE in Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome-wide identification of 22BnaCLC genes experienced strong purifying selection. Segmental duplication was the major driving force in the expansion of the BnaCLC gene family. The most abundant cis-acting regulatory elements in the gene promoters, including DNA-binding One Zinc Finger, W-box, MYB, and GATA-box, might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of BnaCLCs expression. High-throughput transcriptional profiles and quantitative real-time PCR results showed that BnaCLCs responded differentially to distinct NO3- regimes. Transcriptomics-assisted gene co-expression network analysis identified BnaA7.CLCa-3 as the core member of the BnaCLC family, and this gene might play a central role in vacuolar NO3- transport in crops. The BnaCLC members also showed distinct expression patterns under phosphate depletion and cadmium toxicity. Taken together, our results provide comprehensive insights into the vacuolar BnaCLCs and establish baseline information for future studies on BnaCLCs-mediated vacuolar NO3- storage and its effect on NUE.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vacúolos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética , Vacúolos/metabolismo
15.
Biomolecules ; 9(1)2018 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591683

RESUMO

Sunflower and rapeseed are among the most important sources of vegetable oil for food and industry. The main components of vegetable oil are triglycerides (TAGs) (about 97%). Ultra- performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC⁻MS) profiling of TAGs in sunflower and rapeseed has been performed and the TAG profiles obtained for these species have been compared. It has been identified that 34 TAGs are shared by sunflower and rapeseed. It was demonstrated that TAGs 52:2, 52:5, 52:6, 54:3; 54:4, 54:7, 56:3, 56:4, and 56:5 had the highest variability levels between sunflower and rapeseed with the higher presence in rapeseed. TAGs 50:2, 52:3, 52:4, 54:5, and 54:6 also showed high variability, but were the most abundant in sunflower. Moreover, the differences in TAG composition between the winter-type and spring-type rapeseed have been revealed, which may be associated with freezing tolerance. It was shown that winter-type rapeseed seeds contain TAGs with a lower degree of saturation, while in spring-type rapeseed highly saturated lipids are the most abundant. These findings may give new insights into the cold resistance mechanisms in plants the understanding of which is especially important in terms of global climate changes.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Helianthus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Triglicerídeos/análise , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562938

RESUMO

The freezing tolerance of roots is crucial for winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) survival in the winter in Northwest China. Cold acclimation (CA) can alleviate the root damage caused by freezing stress. To acknowledge the molecular mechanisms of freezing tolerance in winter turnip rape, two Brassica rapa genotypes, freezing stressed after the induction of cold acclimation, were used to compare the proteomic profiles of roots by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Under freezing stress (-4 °C) for 8 h, 139 and 96 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were identified in the roots of "Longyou7" (freezing-tolerant) and "Tianyou4" (freezing-sensitive), respectively. Among these DAPs, 91 and 48 proteins were up- and down-accumulated in "Longyou7", respectively, and 46 and 50 proteins were up- and down-accumulated in "Tianyou4", respectively. Under freezing stress, 174 DAPs of two varieties were identified, including 9 proteins related to ribosome, 19 DAPs related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (e.g., phenylpropanoid and the lignin pathway), and 22 down-accumulated DAPs enriched in oxidative phosphorylation, the pentose phosphate pathway, fructose and mannose metabolism, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. The expressional pattern of the genes encoding the 15 significant DAPs were consistent with the iTRAQ data. This work indicates that protein biosynthesis, lignin synthesis, the reduction of energy consumption and a higher linolenic acid content contribute to the freezing tolerance of winter turnip rape. Functional analyses of these DAPs would be helpful in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of the stress responses in B. rapa.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Brassica rapa/genética , Congelamento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(38): 9914-9922, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188702

RESUMO

Eugenol, a plant-derived small compound, shows great medicinal potential. However, whether and how eugenol regulates crop physiology remains elusive. Here we reported that eugenol induced Cd (cadmium) tolerance in the root of Brassica rapa. Roots were treated with eugenol and CdCl2 simultaneously (eugenol + Cd) or pretreated with eugenol followed by CdCl2 treatment (eugenol → Cd). Eugenol significantly attenuated Cd-induced growth inhibition, ROS accumulation, oxidative injury, and cell death, which were confirmed by in vivo histochemical analysis. Eugenol remarkably decreased free Cd2+ accumulation in root. Eugenol intensified GSH (glutathione) accumulation in roots upon CdCl2 exposure, which explained the decrease in free Cd2+ and attenuation of oxidative injury. Eugenol stimulated endogenous H2S (hydrogen sulfide) generation by upregulating the expression of BrLCD ( l-cysteine desulfhydrase) and BrDCD ( d-cysteine desulfhydrase) as well as their enzymatic activities in CdCl2-treated root. Application of H2S biosynthesis inhibitor or H2S scavenger led to the decrease in endogenous H2S level in Cd-treated root, which further compromised all the above effects of eugenol. These findings suggested that eugenol triggered H2S → GSH signaling cassette in plants to combat Cd stress, which shed new light on eugenol-modulated plant physiology and the interaction between eugenol and H2S.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Eugenol/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/enzimologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cistationina gama-Liase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 17(10): 1289-1300, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065986

RESUMO

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered the future of greenhouse lighting. This study investigates the carotenoid concentrations of pak choi sprouts after growth under blue, red and white LEDs at six different time points. Furthermore, the diurnal changes of RNA transcripts of key genes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway as well as of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) gene and of the transcription factor genes elongated hypocotyl 5 (HY5) and circadian clock associated 1 (CCA1) were investigated. The carotenoid concentrations were steady throughout the day, but showed a small maximum in the afternoon. An average total carotenoid concentration of 536 ± 29 ng mg-1 DM produced under white LEDs was measured, which is comparable to previously described field-grown levels. The carotenoid concentrations were slightly lower under blue or red LEDs. Moreover, the diurnal RNA transcript rhythms of most of the carotenoid biosynthesis genes showed an increase during the light period, which can be correlated to the carotenoid maxima in the afternoon. Blue LEDs caused the highest transcriptional induction of biosynthetic genes as well as of CCD4, thereby indicating an increased flux through the pathway. In addition, the highest levels of HY5 transcripts and CCA1 transcripts were determined under blue LEDs.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/genética , Relógios Circadianos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Luz , Iluminação , Fotoperíodo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo
19.
Plant Sci ; 275: 28-35, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107879

RESUMO

Coordination of plant circadian rhythms with the external environment provides growth and reproductive advantages to plants as well as enhanced resistance to insects and pathogens. Since glucosinolates (GLSs) play a major role as plant defensive compounds and could affect the palatability and health value of edible crops, the aim of this study was to investigate the species-specific patterns in circadian rhythmicity of these plant phytochemicals. Five different GLS-containing cultivars, from three Brassica crop species were studied. Plants were entrained to light-dark cycles (LD) for five weeks prior to release them into continuous light (LL). GLSs levels were monitored during five consecutive days (two days at LD conditions and three days at LL). The remaining plants were re-entrained to LD cycles (Re-LD plants) and GLS levels were studied as stated before during two consecutive days. Results showed that the period and amplitude of GLSs circadian outputs were cultivar-dependent. In addition, we assessed that the plant endogenous clock can be re-entrained for GLSs accumulation after a period of free-running conditions. Together, these data suggests that Brassica cultivars keep track the time of the day to coordinate their defenses. The demonstration of the cultivar-specific circadian effect on the GLSs levels in plants of different Brassica cultivars have the potential to identify new targets for improving cultivar phytochemicals using temporally informed approaches. In addition, provides an exceptional model to study the complexity of signal integration in plants.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 59(11): 2228-2238, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032266

RESUMO

RNA silencing is a fundamental mechanism to maintain plant growth and development, and regulation of the size distribution of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is critical in the control of normal gene expression throughout a plant's life cycle. However, the cause of organ- and developmental stage-specific accumulation of siRNAs has never been reported. Whereas 24 nt siRNAs accumulated about 5.3-fold more than 21 nt siRNAs in Arabidopsis rosette leaves, 21 and 24 nt siRNAs accumulated to similar levels in Arabidopsis pollen grains, rice spikelets and maize anthers. We successfully detected two distinct double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-cleaving activities that produced 21 and 24 nt RNAs in cell-free extracts prepared from various organs at different developmental stages of A. thaliana, Brassica rapa, rice and maize. Although DCL4 transcript was expressed more than DCL3 transcript in most organs, the 21 nt RNA-producing activity of DCL4 or its orthologs was very low and was 5- to 10-fold lower than the 24 nt RNA-producing activity of DCL3 or its orthologs particularly in leaves, indicating that DCL4 activity is negatively regulated translationally or post-translationally in leaves. High dicing activity of DCL3 and DCL4 was detected in immature inflorescences, developing seeds, germinating embryos and callus, all of which contain actively dividing cells. In various organs at different developmental stages, the size distribution of siRNAs was positively correlated with the dicing activity of two Dicers, DCL3 and DCL4, or their orthologs. Taken together, the size distribution of siRNAs in most organs is primarily determined by the dicing activity of DCL3 and DCL4.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA