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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638707

RESUMO

The B-box zinc-finger transcription factors are important for plant growth, development, and various physiological processes such as photomorphogenesis, light signaling, and flowering, as well as for several biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, there is relatively little information available regarding Brassica B-box genes and their expression. In this study, we identified 51, 52, and 101 non-redundant genes encoding B-box proteins in Brassica rapa (BrBBX genes), B. oleracea (BoBBX genes), and B. napus (BnBBX genes), respectively. A whole-genome identification, characterization, and evolutionary analysis (synteny and orthology) of the B-box gene families in the diploid species B. rapa (A genome) and B. oleracea (C genome) and in the allotetraploid species B. napus (AC genome) revealed segmental duplications were the major contributors to the expansion of the BrassicaBBX gene families. The BrassicaBBX genes were classified into five subgroups according to phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved domains. Light-responsive cis-regulatory elements were detected in many of the BBX gene promoters. Additionally, BrBBX expression profiles in different tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) or hormones (abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, and gibberellic acid) were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The data indicated that many B-box genes (e.g., BrBBX13, BrBBX15, and BrBBX17) may contribute to plant development and growth as well as abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, the identified BBX genes may be useful as functional genetic markers for multiple stress responses and plant developmental processes.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641369

RESUMO

Flavonoids from plants play an important role in our diet. Watercress is a special plant that is rich in flavonoids. In this study, four important watercress varieties were compared with non-heading Chinese cabbage by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). A total of 132 flavonoid metabolites (including 8 anthocyanins, 2 dihydroflavone, 3 dihydroflavonol, 1 flavanols, 22 flavones, 11 flavonoid carbonosides, 82 flavonols, and 3 isoflavones) were detected. Flavonoid metabolites varied widely in different samples. Both the non-heading Chinese cabbage and the variety of watercress from Guangdong, China, had their own unique metabolites. This work is helpful to better understand flavonoid metabolites between the non-heading Chinese cabbage and the other four watercress varieties, and to provide a reliable reference value for further research.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Metaboloma , Nasturtium/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , China
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242257

RESUMO

Proteins make up a large percentage of the Brassica seed and are second only to the oil in economic importance with uses for both animal and human nutrition. The most abundant proteins reported in the seeds of Brassica are the seed storage proteins cruciferin and napin, belonging to the 12S globulin and 2S albumin families of proteins, respectively. To gain insight into the Brassica rapa seed proteome and to confirm the presence and relative quantity of proteins encoded by candidate seed storage genes in the mature seed, shotgun proteomics was carried out on protein extracts from seeds of B. rapa inbred line R-o-18. Following liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, a total of 34016 spectra were mapped to 323 proteins, where 233 proteins were identified in 3 out of 4 biological replicates by at least 2 unique peptides. 2S albumin like napin seed storage proteins (SSPs), 11/12S globulin like cruciferin SSPs and 7S globulin like vicilin SSPs were identified in the samples, along with other notable proteins including oil body proteins, namely ten oleosins and two oil body-associated proteins. The identification of vicilin like proteins in the mature B. rapa seed represents the first account of these proteins in the Brassicaceae and analysis indicates high conservation of sequence motifs to other 7S vicilin-like allergenic proteins as well as conservation of major allergenic epitopes in the proteins. This study enriches our existing knowledge on rapeseed seed proteins and provides a robust foundation and rational basis for plant bioengineering of seed storage proteins.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086824

RESUMO

Brassica rapa is an important leafy vegetable that can potentially accumulate high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), posing a risk to human health. The aim of the present study was to identify cadmium detoxifying molecular mechanisms in B. rapa using a functional cloning strategy. A cDNA library constructed from roots of B. rapa plants treated with Cd was transformed into the Cd sensitive yeast mutant strain DTY167 that lacks the yeast cadmium factor (YCF1), and resistant yeast clones were selected on Cd containing media. Two hundred genes potentially conferring cadmium resistance were rescued from the surviving yeast clones and sequenced. Sequencing analysis revealed that genes encoding for metallothionein (MT)1, MT2a, MT2b and MT3, and phytochelatin synthase (PCS)1 and PCS2 accounted for 35.5%, 28.5%, 4%, 11.3%, 18.7% and 2%, respectively of the genes identified. MTs and PCSs expressing DTY167 cells showed resistance to Cd as well as to Zn. PCS1 expressing yeast cells were also more resistant to Pb compared to those expressing MTs or PCS2. RT-PCR results showed that Cd treatment strongly induced the expression levels of MTs in the root and shoot. Furthermore, the different MTs and PCSs exhibited tissue specific expression. The results indicate that MTs and PCS genes potentially play a central role in detoxifying Cd and other toxic metals in B. rapa.


Assuntos
Aminoaciltransferases/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Aminoaciltransferases/genética , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metalotioneína/genética , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Gene ; 791: 145711, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984445

RESUMO

Clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae infection, occurs in cruciferous vegetable crops in many areas of the world, sometimes leading to yield loss. In this study, a differentially expressed protein (0305), was found between control and clubroot-diseased Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) roots through two-dimensional electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that Bra003466 was highly matched to protein 0305. Because the sequence of Bra003466 had 89% percent identity with ATG6 of Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassica, the gene was named as BrATG6. However, 790 bp sequences were mismatched with the cDNA sequence of the Bra003466 gene from the Brassica database. In this study, we cloned the cDNA of Bra003466 and found the BrATG6 was highly expressed in roots among all organs. When plants were inoculated with P. brassicae Woronin, the expression of BrATG6 was significantly increased in infected roots of Chinese cabbage. This result was verified by reverse transcription-qPCR and in situ hybridization. Examination of disease resistance showed that, compared with wild type plants, A. thaliana ATG6 deletion mutants were more easily infected by P. brassicae than WT. This shows that BrATG6 may play a potential role in the resistance of B. rapa to P. brassicae infection.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Infecções por Protozoários/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plasmodioforídeos/genética , Plasmodioforídeos/patogenicidade
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 236, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vernalization is a type of low temperature stress used to promote rapid bolting and flowering in plants. Although rapid bolting and flowering promote the reproduction of Chinese cabbages (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), this process causes their commercial value to decline. Clarifying the mechanisms of vernalization is essential for its further application. We performed RNA sequencing of gradient-vernalization in order to explore the reasons for the different bolting process of two Chinese cabbage accessions during vernalization. RESULTS: There was considerable variation in gene expression between different-bolting Chinese cabbage accessions during vernalization. Comparative transcriptome analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were performed for different-bolting Chinese cabbage during different vernalization periods. The biological function analysis and hub gene annotation of highly relevant modules revealed that shoot system morphogenesis and polysaccharide and sugar metabolism caused early-bolting 'XBJ' to bolt and flower faster; chitin, ABA and ethylene-activated signaling pathways were enriched in late-bolting 'JWW'; and leaf senescence and carbohydrate metabolism enrichment were found in the two Chinese cabbage-related modules, indicating that these pathways may be related to bolting and flowering. The high connectivity of hub genes regulated vernalization, including MTHFR2, CPRD49, AAP8, endoglucanase 10, BXLs, GATLs, and WRKYs. Additionally, five genes related to flower development, BBX32 (binds to the FT promoter), SUS1 (increases FT expression), TSF (the closest homologue of FT), PAO and NAC029 (plays a role in leaf senescence), were expressed in the two Chinese cabbage accessions. CONCLUSION: The present work provides a comprehensive overview of vernalization-related gene networks in two different-bolting Chinese cabbages during vernalization. In addition, the candidate pathways and hub genes related to vernalization identified here will serve as a reference for breeders in the regulation of Chinese cabbage production.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Brassica , Brassica/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , China , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805479

RESUMO

In 'Tsuda' turnip, the swollen root peel accumulates anthocyanin pigments in a light-dependent manner, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, mutant g120w which accumulated extremely low levels of anthocyanin after light exposure was identified. Segregation analysis showed that the anthocyanin-deficient phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene. By using bulked-segregant analysis sequencing and CAPS marker-based genetic mapping analyses, a 21.6-kb region on chromosome A07 was mapped, in which a calcium-binding EF hand family protein named BrLETM2 was identified as the causal gene. RNA sequencing analysis showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between wild type and g120w in light-exposed swollen root peels were enriched in anthocyanin biosynthetic process and reactive oxygen species (ROS) biosynthetic process GO term. Furthermore, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) staining showed that the ROS level decreased in g120w mutant. Anthocyanins induced by UV-A were abolished by the pre-treatment of seedlings with DPI (an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine nucleoside phosphorylase (NADPH) oxidase) and decreased in g120w mutant. These results indicate that BrLETM2 modulates ROS signaling to promote anthocyanin accumulation in turnip under UV-A and provides new insight into the mechanism of how ROS and light regulate anthocyanin production.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/efeitos da radiação , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Motivos EF Hand , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 180: 14-27, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722620

RESUMO

Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are members of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and the primary partners of phytochromes (PHY) in light signaling. PIFs interact with the Pfr forms of phytochrome to play an important role in the pathways of response to light and temperature in plants. In this study, 30, 12, and 16 potential PIF genes were identified in Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, respectively, which could be divided into three subgroups. The Br/Bo/BnaPIF genes are intron-rich and similar to the PIF genes in Arabidopsis. However, unlike the AtPIFs that exist in multiple alternative-splicing forms, the majority of Br/Bo/BnaPIF genes have no alternative-splicing forms. A total of 52 Br/Bo/BnaPIF proteins have both the conserved active PHYB binding (APB) and bHLH domains. The Ka/Ks ratio revealed that most BnaPIFs underwent purifying selection. A promoter analysis found that light-related, abscisic acid-related and MYB-binding sites were the most abundant in the promoters of BnaPIFs. BnaPIF genes displayed different spatiotemporal patterns of expression and were regulated by light quality, circadian rhythms, cold, heat, and vernalization. Our results are useful for understanding the biological functions of PIF proteins in rapeseed.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Luz , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Genes de Plantas , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sintenia , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 124-136, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676299

RESUMO

The purple pigmentation in the epidermis of swollen roots of 'Tsuda' turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is induced by light, providing a good system to investigate the genetic mechanism of light-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis in B. rapa. Here, we identified the R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (BrPAP1a) as the critical gene in the anthocyanin-defective mutant w68. A nucleotide mutation in the turn region of the R3 domain was screened, which caused an amino acid substitution from glycine to serine (G94S). Functional analysis showed that the interaction of BrPAP1a with two bHLH factors ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (BrEGL3) and TRANSPARENT TESTA 8 (BrTT8) were impaired by the mutation. Expression of BrTT8 was activated by BrPAP1a and enhanced by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) complexes, but blocked by the mutation. Furthermore, BrPAP1a directly bound the MYB-recognizing element (MRE) in the BrTT8 promoter, while the G94S substitution caused a loss of DNA-binding activity. Our findings indicate that G94 is required for protein interaction with BrTT8 and BrEGL3 and DNA-binding of BrPAP1a to activate BrTT8 expression, which leads to anthocyanin biosynthesis. Collectively, our data indicate the importance of the highly conserved amino acids within R2R3 MYB proteins in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and could aid programs to increase anthocyanins in turnip roots.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Brassica , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antocianinas , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245494, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556109

RESUMO

Winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) is an important overwintering oil crop that is widely planted in northwestern China. It considered to be a good genetic resource for cold-tolerant research because its roots can survive harsh winter conditions. Here, we performed comparative transcriptomics analysis of the roots of two winter turnip rape varieties, Longyou7 (L7, strong cold tolerance) and Tianyou2 (T2, low cold tolerance), under normal condition (CK) and cold stress (CT) condition. A total of 8,366 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the two L7 root groups (L7CK_VS_L7CT), and 8,106 DEGs were detected for T2CK_VS_T2CT. Among the DEGs, two ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD3), two delta-9 acyl-lipid desaturase 2 (ADS2), one diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), and one 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 2 (KCS2) were differentially expressed in the two varieties and identified to be related to fatty acid synthesis. Four glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozymes (GLN), serine acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1), and serine acetyltransferase 3 (SAT3) were down-regulated under cold stress, while S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme 1 (AMD1) had an up-regulation tendency in response to cold stress in the two samples. Moreover, the delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), δ-ornithine aminotransferase (δ-OAT), alanine-glyoxylate transaminase (AGXT), branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase (ilvE), alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase (AASS), Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and arginine decarboxylase related to amino acid metabolism were identified in two cultivars variously expressed under cold stress. The above DEGs related to amino acid metabolism were suspected to the reason for amino acids content change. The RNA-seq data were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR of 19 randomly selected genes. The findings of our study provide the gene expression profile between two varieties of winter turnip rape, which lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the highly complex regulatory mechanisms in plants during cold treatment.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Brassica rapa , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Turnip (Brassica rapa L. ssp. rapa) is a leaf and root vegetable grown and consumed worldwide. The consumption of Turnip has been associated with beneficial effects on human health due to their phytochemicals that may control a variety of physiological functions, including antioxidant activity, enzyme regulation, and apoptotic control and the cell cycle. The current systematic review of the literature aims to evaluate both the profile and quantity of phytochemicals commonly found in Turnip greens and to provide perspectives for further investigation. METHODS: This review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Four bibliographic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web-of-Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched to identify published studies until April 8th, 2020 (date last searched) without data and language restriction. Studies were included if they used samples of Turnip greens (the leaves), and evaluated its phytochemical content. Two reviewers independently evaluated the titles and abstracts according to the selection criteria. For each potentially eligible study, two reviewers assessed the full-texts and independently extracted the data using a predesigned data extraction form. RESULTS: Based on the search strategy 5,077 potentially relevant citations were identified and full texts of 37 studies were evaluated, among which 18 studies were eligible to be included in the current review. The majority of included studies were focused on identification of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates (n = 14, 82%), four studies focused on organic acids, and five studies reported phenolic component profile in Turnip greens. Among included studies nine studies (50%) provided information on phytochemical's content. We found 129 phytochemicals (19 glucosinolates, 33 glucosinolate-breakdown products, 10 organic acids and 59 polyphenolic compounds) reported in Turnip greens. Flavonoids were mainly present as quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives; while aliphatic forms were the predominant glucosinolate (gluconapin was the most common across five studies, followed by glucobrassicanapin). In general, the phytochemical content varied among the leaves, tops and Turnip roots. CONCLUSIONS: Emerging evidence suggests the Turnip as a substantial source of diverse bioactive compounds. However, detailed investigation on the pure compounds derived from Turnip green, their bioavailability, transport and metabolism after consumption is further needed. Additional studies on their biological activity are crucial to develop dietary recommendations on the effective dosage and dietary recommendation of Turnip greens for nutrition and health.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Verduras/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(1)2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467565

RESUMO

The LBD (Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain) family are a new group of plant-specific genes, which encode a class of transcription factors containing conserved Lateral Organization Boundary (LOB) domains, and play an important role in regulating the adaxial-abaxial polarity of plant leaves. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2 (AS2) has a typical LOB domain and is involved in determining the adaxial cell fate. In this study, we isolated the BcAS2 gene from the pak choi cultivar "NHCC001", and analyzed its expression pattern. The results showed that the BcAS2 encoded a protein made up of 202 amino acid residues which were located in the nucleus and cytomembrane. The Yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H) assay indicated that BcAS2 interacts with BcAS1-1 and BcAS1-2 (the homologous genes of AS1 gene in pak choi). In the transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana that overexpressed BcAS2 gene, it presented an abnormal phenotype with a curly shape. Taken together, our findings not only validate the function of BcAS2 in leaf development in Arabidopsis thaliana, but also contribute in unravelling the molecular regulatory mechanism of BcAS2, which fulfills a special role by forming complexes with BcAS1-1/2 in the establishment of the adaxial-abaxial polarity of the lateral organs in pak choi.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica rapa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição , Arabidopsis/anatomia & histologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(1): 339-345, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996612

RESUMO

Volatiles play major roles in mediating ecological interactions between soil (micro)organisms and plants. It is well-established that microbial volatiles can increase root biomass and lateral root formation. To date, however, it is unknown whether microbial volatiles can affect directional root growth. Here, we present a novel method to study belowground volatile-mediated interactions. As proof-of-concept, we designed a root Y-tube olfactometer, and tested the effects of volatiles from four different soil-borne fungi on directional growth of Brassica rapa roots in soil. Subsequently, we compared the fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) previously profiled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Using our newly designed setup, we show that directional root growth in soil is differentially affected by fungal volatiles. Roots grew more frequently toward volatiles from the root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, whereas volatiles from the other three saprophytic fungi did not impact directional root growth. GC-MS profiling showed that six VOCs were exclusively emitted by R. solani. These findings verify that this novel method is suitable to unravel the intriguing chemical cross-talk between roots and soil-borne fungi and its impact on root growth.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(8): 3202-3207, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insufficient intake of zinc is associated with various diseases worldwide. To overcome this problem, we aimed to establish a method for cultivating leafy vegetables with high zinc content in hydroponics without inhibiting their growth. Furthermore, we evaluated the effectiveness of the cultivated leafy vegetables with high zinc content in zinc-deficient mice. RESULTS: By adjusting the zinc concentration in the hydroponic solution to 5 mg L-1 starting from 7 days before harvesting, the zinc content in leaf lettuce increased eight times of that in the control, without any inhibition of the growth. Furthermore, when oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was added simultaneously with zinc to the hydroponic solution, the zinc content further doubled (16 times of that in the control). Similar results were obtained with komatsuna and red leaf lettuce, although there was a difference in the effect of GSSG treatment. The effectiveness of leafy vegetables with high zinc content in ameliorating zinc deficiency was evaluated by feeding lettuce with high zinc content to zinc-deficient mice. High zinc content lettuce significantly increased the zinc content in the liver, kidneys, gastrocnemius, and tibia of these mice. CONCLUSION: We established a cultivation method for lettuce and komatsuna with high zinc content without inhibiting growth by adjusting the zinc concentration in the hydroponic solution at an appropriate concentration for an appropriate period. The result of feeding test indicates that the intake of leafy vegetables with high zinc content can ameliorate zinc deficiency and might be useful in protection from several diseases associated with this deficiency. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia/métodos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zinco/deficiência , Animais , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Verduras , Zinco/análise , Zinco/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 340: 128167, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007694

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GLs), found in Brassicaceae family, are precursor metabolites with anti-cancer properties. Increased GLs have been studied under various environmental growth conditions. Pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) is a GL-rich vegetable. We hypothesize that long exposure to light and drought will increase the biomass of, and GL production in, pak choi. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks. Long light exposure (20 h/day) increased, whilst drought exposure (12 h/week) decreased the plant growth. The plants exposed to a combination of drought and long light conditions showed similar growth pattern as control plants. GL production increased at week 6 in plants exposed to long light, while drought exposure had no impact on GL production, with the exception of glucoraphanin. Significant positive correlations were observed between plant growth and GL yield with accumulated light exposure time. Our findings suggest that long exposure to light can be used to increase both the biomass and GL production in pak choi.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Secas , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Luz , Estresse Fisiológico , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/efeitos da radiação
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 504, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the agricultural areas of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, temperature varies widely from day to night during the growing season, which makes the extreme temperature become one of the limiting factors of crop yield. Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) is a traditional crop of Tibet grown in the Tibet Plateau, but its molecular and metabolic mechanisms of freezing tolerance are unclear. RESULTS: Here, based on the changes in transcriptional and metabolic levels of Tibetan turnip under freezing treatment, the expression of the arginine decarboxylase gene BrrADC2.2 exhibited an accumulative pattern in accordance with putrescine content. Moreover, we demonstrated that BrrICE1.1 (Inducer of CBF Expression 1) could directly bind to the BrrADC2.2 promoter, activating BrrADC2.2 to promote the accumulation of putrescine, which was verified by RNAi and overexpression analyses for both BrrADC2.2 and BrrICE1.1 using transgenic hair root. The function of putrescine in turnip was further analyzed by exogenous application putrescine and its inhibitor DL-α-(Difluoromethyl) arginine (DFMA) under freezing tolerance. In addition, the BrrICE1.1 was found to be involved in the ICE1-CBF pathway to increase the freezing stress of turnip. CONCLUSIONS: BrrICE1.1 could bind the promoter of BrrADC2.2 or CBFs to participate in freezing tolerance of turnip by transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics analyses. This study revealed the regulatory network of the freezing tolerance process in turnip and increased our understanding of the plateau crops response to extreme environments in Tibet.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Putrescina/biossíntese , Brassica rapa/enzimologia , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Carboxiliases/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20206, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214575

RESUMO

Precision agriculture requires new technologies for rapid diagnosis of plant stresses, such as nutrient deficiency and drought, before the onset of visible symptoms and subsequent yield loss. Here, we demonstrate a portable Raman probe that clips around a leaf for rapid, in vivo spectral analysis of plant metabolites including carotenoids and nitrates. We use the leaf-clip Raman sensor for early diagnosis of nitrogen deficiency of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as two important vegetable crops, Pak Choi (Brassica rapa chinensis) and Choy Sum (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis). In vivo measurements using the portable leaf-clip Raman sensor under full-light growth conditions were consistent with those obtained with a benchtop Raman spectrometer measurements on leaf-sections under laboratory conditions. The portable leaf-clip Raman sensor offers farmers and plant scientists a new precision agriculture tool for early diagnosis and real-time monitoring of plant stresses in field conditions.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Elife ; 92020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996462

RESUMO

An important challenge of crop improvement strategies is assigning function to paralogs in polyploid crops. Here we describe the circadian transcriptome in the polyploid crop Brassica rapa. Strikingly, almost three-quarters of the expressed genes exhibited circadian rhythmicity. Genetic redundancy resulting from whole genome duplication is thought to facilitate evolutionary change through sub- and neo-functionalization among paralogous gene pairs. We observed genome-wide expansion of the circadian expression phase among retained paralogous pairs. Using gene regulatory network models, we compared transcription factor targets between B. rapa and Arabidopsis circadian networks to reveal evidence for divergence between B. rapa paralogs that may be driven in part by variation in conserved non-coding sequences (CNS). Additionally, differential drought response among retained paralogous pairs suggests further functional diversification. These findings support the rapid expansion and divergence of the transcriptional network in a polyploid crop and offer a new approach for assessing paralog activity at the transcript level.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genoma de Planta/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941459

RESUMO

Winter rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) is the main oilseed crop in northern China and can safely overwinter at 35 (i.e., Tianshui, China) to 48 degrees north latitude (i.e., Altai, Heilongjiang, Raohe, and Xinjiang, China). In order to identify stable reference genes to understand the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in winter rapeseed, internal reference genes of winter rapeseed under four abiotic stresses were analyzed using GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder software. The most stable combinations of internal reference genes were ß-actin and SAND in cold-stressed leaves, ß-actin and EF1a in cold-stressed roots, F-box and SAND in high temperature-stressed leaves, and PP2A and RPL in high temperature-stressed roots, SAND and PP2A in NaCl-stressed leaves, RPL and UBC in NaCl-stressed roots, RPL and PP2A in PEG-stressed leaves, and PP2A and RPL in PEG-stressed roots. Expression profiles of PXG3 were used to verify these results. The stable reference genes identified in this study are useful tools for identifying stress-responsive genes to understand the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in winter rapeseed.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Estações do Ano
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