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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 145-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270010

RESUMO

Culture of isolated microspores is a widely used method to obtain haploid and doubled haploid plants for many crop species. This protocol describes the steps necessary to obtain a large number of microspore derived embryos for pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) and zicaitai (Brassica rapa L. ssp. сhinensis Hanelt var. purpuraria Kitam).


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Cromossomos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Germinação/genética , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Ploidias , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110748, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470678

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an inauspicious abiotic traction that not only influences crop productivity and its growth parameters, but also has adverse effects on human health if these crops are consumed. Among crops, leafy vegetables which are the good source of mineral and vitamins accumulate more Cd than other vegetables. It is thus important to study photosynthetic variables, amino acid composition, and ultrastructural localization of Cd differences in response to Cd accumulation between two low and high Cd accumulating Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L. (pak choi) cultivars, differing in Cd accumulation ability. Elevated Cd concentrations significantly lowered plant growth rate, biomass, leaf gas exchange and concentrations of amino acids collated to respective controls of both cultivars. Electron microscopy indicated that the impact of high Cd level on ultrastructure of leaf cells was associated to affecting cell functionalities, i.e. irregular cell wall, withdrawal of cell membrane, and chloroplast structure which has negative impact on photosynthetic activities, thus causing considerable plant growth suppression. Damage in root cells were observed in the form of enlargement of vacuole. The energy dispersive micro X-ray spectroscopy of both cultivars leaves indicated that cellular structure exhibited exudates of Cd-dense material. Ultrastructural damages and phytotoxicity were more pronounced in high accumulator cultivar as compared to the low accumulator cultivar. These findings are useful in determining the mechanisms of differential Cd-tolerance among cultivars with different Cd tolerance abilities at cellular level.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/análise , Biomassa , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura
3.
N Biotechnol ; 39(Pt A): 110-124, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576101

RESUMO

Lead, as well as other heavy metals, is regarded as priority pollutant due to its non-biodegradability, toxicity and persistence in the environment. In this study, rapeseed biomass was used in the biosorption of Pb(II) ions in batch and dynamic conditions, as well as with tests for industrial wastewater. The influence of initial concentration (5-250mg/L), pH and contact time (0.5-6h) was investigated. The kinetic data modeling resulted in good correlations with the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The maximum sorption capacities of Pb(II) were 18.35, 21.29 and 22.7mg/L at 4, 20 and 50°C, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the spontaneity and endothermic nature of lead biosorption on rapeseed biomass. The biosorption mechanism involves both physical and chemical interactions. The breakthrough curves at 50 and 100mg/L were determined and evaluated under dynamic conditions. The breakthrough time lowered with increasing the influent Pb(II) concentration. The experimental data obtained from fixed-bed column tests were well fitted by Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The calculated sorption capacities were in good agreement with the uptake capacity of Langmuir model. The applicability of rapeseed to be used as a sorbent for Pb(II) ions from real wastewater was tested, and Pb(II) removal efficiency of 94.47% was obtained.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Difusão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Íons , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Soluções , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Termodinâmica , Fatores de Tempo , Águas Residuárias/química
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(14): 10733-43, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25752639

RESUMO

Rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years has raised concerns about nanoparticle (NPs) release into the environment and its adverse effects on living organisms. The present study is the first comprehensive report on the anatomical and ultrastructural changes of a variety of cells after long-term exposure of plant to NPs or bulk material particles (BPs). Light and electron microscopy revealed some anatomical and ultrastructural modifications of the different types of cell in the root and leaf, induced by both types of treatment. Zinc oxide (ZnO) BPs-induced modifications were surprisingly more than those induced by ZnO NPs. The modifications induced by ZnO BPs or ZnO NPs were almost similar to those induced by excess Zn. Zn content of the root and leaf of both ZnO NPs- and ZnO BPs-treated plants was severely increased, where the increase was greater in the plants treated with ZnO BPs. Overall, these results indicate that the modifications induced by ZnO particles can be attributed, at least partly, to the Zn(2+) dissolution by ZnO particles rather than their absorption by root and their subsequent effects.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/ultraestrutura , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/metabolismo
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 530642, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24683549

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L(-1)) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Chumbo/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Células do Mesofilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células do Mesofilo/metabolismo , Células do Mesofilo/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e62099, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23637973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Brassica rapa/citologia , Cruzamento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Organelas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleo de Brassica napus , Sementes/citologia
7.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 75(13-15): 722-34, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22788360

RESUMO

Up to 2 million tons per year of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP) are produced worldwide. This extensive production is postulated to result in release into the environment with subsequent contamination of soils and plants; however, few studies have examined TiO2-NP uptake and impact on plants. In this study, wheat and rapeseed plantlets were exposed to 14 nm or 25 nm anatase TiO2-NP in hydroponics conditions, either through root or leaf exposure. Microparticle-induced x-ray emission (µPIXE) coupled with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was used to quantify absorbed titanium (Ti). Micro x-ray fluorescence (µXRF) based on synchrotron radiation was used to evaluate Ti distribution in roots and leaves. Our results show that both TiO2-NP are accumulated in these plantlets upon root exposure and that Ti content is higher in rapeseed than wheat. Ti distribution in root cross sections depended on NP agglomeration state. NP are also accumulated in plantlets upon leaf exposure. Finally, it was found that TiO2-NP exposure induced increased root elongation but did not affect germination, evapotranspiration, and plant biomass. Taken together, these results confirm that TiO2-NP may be accumulated in plant crops but may only moderately impact plant development.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Titânio/metabolismo , Titânio/toxicidade , Absorção , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Ambientais/química , França , Hidroponia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria por Raios X , Titânio/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/ultraestrutura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Protist ; 162(3): 449-61, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21183405

RESUMO

The plasmodiophorids are a phylogenetically distinct group of parasitic protists that infect plants and stramenopiles, causing several important agricultural diseases. Because of the obligate intracellular part of their lifecycle, none of the plasmodiophorids has been axenically cultured. Further, the molecular biology of the plasmodiophorids is poorly understood because pure cultures are not available from any species. We report on an in-vitro dual culture system of the plasmodiophorids Plasmodiophora brassicae and Spongospora subterranea with their respective plant hosts, Brassica rapa and Solanum tuberosum. We show that these plasmodiophorids are capable of initiating and maintaining stable, long-term plant cell callus cultures in the absence of exogenous plant growth regulators. We show that callus cultures harbouring S. subterranea provide an excellent starting material for gene discovery from this organism by constructing a pilot-scale DNA library. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequences established that almost all of the DNA clones from this library were from S. subterranea rather than the plant host. The Spongospora genome was found to be rich in retrotransposable elements, and Spongospora protein-coding genes were shown to contain introns. The sequence of a near full-length non-LTR retrotransposon was obtained, the first transposable element reported from a cercozoan protist.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/parasitologia , Genômica/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Plasmodioforídeos/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Sequência de Bases , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Íntrons/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Plasmodioforídeos/ultraestrutura , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solanum tuberosum/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
9.
Tsitol Genet ; 43(2): 21-6, 2009.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19938622

RESUMO

Results of comparative studies of the embryos of identical age formed under microgravity and ground laboratory control are presented. Significant similarity of a rate of embryo development and degree of their differentiation in both variants has been shown. The single cases of the disturbances in embryo formation, and also a certain acceleration of endosperm development at the early stages of seed formation in microgravity are revealed.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravitropismo/fisiologia , Sensação Gravitacional/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ausência de Peso , Brassica rapa/embriologia , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Diferenciação Celular , Endosperma/embriologia , Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/fisiologia , Endosperma/ultraestrutura , Germinação/fisiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Sementes/embriologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Voo Espacial
10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 27(8): 1369-76, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18542966

RESUMO

Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis), a kind of Chinese cabbage, is an important vegetable in Asian countries. Agrobacterium mediated in planta vacuum infiltration transformation has been performed in pakchoi since 1998, but a detailed study on this technique was lacking. Pakchoi plants 40-50 days old with inflorescences were vacuum infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 harboring the binary vector pBBBast-gus-intron. The transformation frequency in the harvested seeds mainly varied from 1 x 10(-4) to 3 x 10(-4) over several years, and it was lower than the frequency in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transformants were obtained from both the upper and the lower parts of the infiltrated plants with or without an elongated inflorescence. Stained ovules and pollen grains were found in the unopened flower 13 days post-infiltration, which was about 0.5-1 mm in diameter at infiltration time with an open ovary as revealed by paraffin sections. Histochemical assays revealed that Agrobacteria were more abundant in the flower tissue than in stem and leaf tissues at all times after infiltration despite the sharp decrease of live Agrobacteria in plant 14 days post infiltration as revealed by the colony forming units on the Agrobacteria culture medium. The results of vacuum infiltration transformation of pakchoi and Arabidopsis thaliana were compared and a strategy to optimize the transformation conditions to increase the transformation frequency in pakchoi was discussed.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transformação Genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/ultraestrutura , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Pólen/ultraestrutura , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rhizobium/genética
11.
Chemosphere ; 70(8): 1452-8, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17942138

RESUMO

Oil-bodies are minute plant organelles (0.5-2.0microm diameter) consisting of an oil core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer/proteinaceous membrane. Oil-bodies have been isolated from rapeseed seeds and demonstrated to constitute a novel type of micro-capsule suitable for the extraction of hydrophobic organic compounds from aqueous environments. Three hydrophobic pesticides: atrazine (2-chlor-4-ethyl-amino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) and parathion (O,O-diethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate), as well as naphthalene and 2-phenylethanol were successfully extracted from aqueous solutions, with absorption in the inner oily core of OB as sorption mechanism. The OB membrane does not represent a barrier for the mass transfer of the compound towards the inner oily core of OB. Moreover, due to very high surface area to volume ratio, oil-bodies exhibit very good mass transfer properties compared with larger synthetic microcapsules or two-phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) techniques, which diminishes the need for strong agitation and avoids the formation of difficult to separate stable emulsions.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Absorção , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Corpos de Inclusão/química , Corpos de Inclusão/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Purificação da Água/métodos
12.
Plant Physiol ; 144(1): 72-81, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17337527

RESUMO

The self-incompatibility system of the plant species Brassica is controlled by the S-locus, which contains S-RECEPTOR KINASE (SRK) and S-LOCUS PROTEIN11 (SP11). SP11 binding to SRK induces SRK autophosphorylation and initiates a signaling cascade leading to the rejection of self pollen. However, the mechanism controlling hydration and germination arrest during self-pollination is unclear. In this study, we examined the role of actin, a key cytoskeletal component regulating the transport system for hydration and germination in the papilla cell during pollination. Using rhodamine-phalloidin staining, we showed that cross-pollination induced actin polymerization, whereas self-pollination induced actin reorganization and likely depolymerization. By monitoring transiently expressed green fluorescent protein fused to the actin-binding domain of mouse talin, we observed the concentration of actin bundles at the cross-pollen attachment site and actin reorganization and likely depolymerization at the self-pollen attachment site; the results correspond to those obtained by rhodamine-phalloidin staining. We further showed that the coat of self pollen is sufficient to mediate this response. The actin-depolymerizing drug cytochalasin D significantly inhibited pollen hydration and germination during cross-pollination, further emphasizing a role for actin in these processes. Additionally, three-dimensional electron microscopic tomography revealed the close association of the actin cytoskeleton with an apical vacuole network. Self-pollination disrupted the vacuole network, whereas cross-pollination led to vacuolar rearrangements toward the site of pollen attachment. Taken together, our data suggest that self- and cross-pollination differentially affect the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to changes in vacuolar structure associated with hydration and germination.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/fisiologia , Actinas/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoesqueleto de Actina/ultraestrutura , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Citocalasina D/farmacologia , Germinação , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/análise , Reprodução/fisiologia , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Vacúolos/ultraestrutura
13.
Tsitol Genet ; 40(5): 21-7, 2006.
Artigo em Ucraniano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17385414

RESUMO

Using confocal microscopy the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton including endoplasmic and cortical microtubules (CMTs) has been studied in epidermal and cortical cells of the different growth zones of main root of Brassica rapa L. 6-days-old seedlings in control conditions and under clinorotation. It was shown that changes in CMTs orientation occured only in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). In the control, CMT arrays oriented transversely to the root long axis. Under clinorotation appearance of the shorter randomly organized CMTs was observed. Simultaneously, a significant decrease in the cell length in the central elongation zone (CEZ) under clinorotation was detected. It is suggested that the decline of anisotropic growth typical for CEZ cells is connected with CMTs disorientation under clinorotation.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Gravitação , Gravitropismo , Microscopia Confocal , Epiderme Vegetal/genética , Epiderme Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rotação , Simulação de Ausência de Peso
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 52(26): 7768-70, 2004 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15612752

RESUMO

To evaluate the effectiveness in adsorbing organochlorine compounds such as chloroform, dichloromethane, or benzene by lees materials, the determination of spherosomes from different lees materials was established by using a hemacytometer under an optical microscope. Rice bran, wheat bran, rapeseed, linseed, okara, and sakekasu were used for this investigation, and activated carbon was also used as a standard adsorbent material. The number of spherosomes varied from 1.82 x 10(10) particles/g for sakekasu to 4.95 x 10(10) particles/g for wheat bran. There was a high correlation between the removal efficiency in adsorbing organochlorine compounds such as chloroform, dichloromethane, or benzene by lees materials and the number of spherosomes from different lees materials.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Plantas/ultraestrutura , Adsorção , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Oryza/ultraestrutura , Frações Subcelulares/química , Triticum/ultraestrutura
15.
Virology ; 324(2): 257-62, 2004 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15207613

RESUMO

Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) open reading frame (ORF) IV encodes a coat protein precursor (pre-CP) harboring an N-terminal extension that is cleaved off by the CaMV-encoded protease. In transfected cells, pre-CP is present in the cytoplasm, while the processed form (p44) of CP is targeted to the nucleus, suggesting that the N-terminal extension might be involved in keeping the pre-CP in the cytoplasm for viral assembly. This study reports for the first time the intracellular localization of the N-terminal extension during CaMV infection in Brassica rapa. Immunogold-labeling electron microscopy using polyclonal antibodies directed to the N-terminal extension of the pre-CP revealed that this region is closely associated with viral particles present in small aggregates, which we called small bodies, adjacent to the main inclusion bodies typical of CaMV infection. Based on these results, we propose a model for viral assembly of CaMV.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Caulimovirus/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Citoplasma/virologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Corpos de Inclusão/virologia , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Precursores de Proteínas/análise , Montagem de Vírus
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