Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.747
Filtrar
1.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(1): 233-249, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673754

RESUMO

In Chinese cabbage, hybrid seed production is performed using male sterility lines, an important approach to heterosis utilization. In this study, a stably inherited male sterile mutant msm was obtained from the 'FT'-doubled haploid line of Chinese cabbage using isolated microspore culture combined with 60Co γ-ray mutagenesis. The genetic backgrounds of 'FT' and msm were highly consistent; however, compared with wild-type 'FT', msm exhibited completely degenerated stamens and no pollen phenotype. Other characters showed no significant differences. Cytological observations revealed that stamen abortion in msm begins during the tetrad period and that tapetum cells were abnormally expanded and highly vacuolated, leading to microspore abortion. Genetic analysis indicated that the msm mutant phenotype is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Comparative transcriptome analysis of 'FT' and msm flower buds using RNA-Seq technology revealed 1653 differentially expressed genes, among which, a large number associated with male sterility were detected, including 64 pollen development- and pollen tube growth-related genes, 94 pollen wall development-related genes, 11 phytohormone-related genes, and 16 transcription factor-related genes. An overwhelming majority of these genes were down-regulated in msm compared with 'FT'. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis indicated that a variety of carbohydrate metabolic and lipid metabolic pathways were significantly enriched, which may be related to pollen abortion. The expression patterns of 24 male sterility-related genes were analyzed using qRT-PCR. In addition, 24,476 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 413,073 insertion-deletion events were specifically detected in msm. These results will facilitate elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying male sterility in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(1-2): 171-184, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792713

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Thus study found the temporal and spatial relationship between production of aliphatic glucosinolate compounds and the expression profile of glucosinolate-related genes during growth and development in radish, Chinese cabbage, and their intergeneric hybrid baemoochae plants. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are one of major bioactive compounds in Brassicaceae plants. GSLs play a role in defense against microbes as well as chemo-preventative activity against cancer, which draw attentions from plant scientists. We investigated the temporal relationship between production of aliphatic Glucosinolate (GSLs) compounds and the expression profile of GSL related genes during growth and development in radish, Chinese cabbage, and their intergeneric hybrid, baemoochae. Over the complete life cycle, Glucoraphasatin (GRH) and glucoraphanin (GRE) predominated in radish, whereas gluconapin (GNP), glucobrassicanapin (GBN), and glucoraphanin (GRA) abounded in Chinese cabbage. Baemoochae contained intermediate levels of all GSLs studied, indicating inheritance from both radish and Chinese cabbage. Expression patterns of BCAT4, CYP79F1, CYP83A1, UGT74B1, GRS1, FMOgs-ox1, and AOP2 genes showed a correlation to their corresponding encoded proteins in radish, Chinese cabbage, and baemoochae. Interestingly, there is a sharp change in gene expression pattern involved in side chain modification, particularly GRS1, FMOgs-ox1, and AOP2, among these plants during the vegetative and reproductive stage. For instance, the GRS1 was strongly expressed during leaf development, while both of FMOgs-ox1 and AOP2 was manifested high in floral tissues. Furthermore, expression of GRS1 gene which is responsible for GRH production was predominantly expressed in leaf tissues of radish and baemoochae, whereas it was only slightly detected in Chinese cabbage root tissue, explaining why radish has an abundance of GRH compared to other Brassica plants. Altogether, our comprehensive and comparative data proved that aliphatic GSLs biosynthesis is dynamically and precisely regulated in a tissue- and development-dependent manner in Brassicaceae family members.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
3.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 123-135, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190661

RESUMO

Decreased reliance on pesticides can be achieved through a clever use of eco-evolutionary knowledge via intercropping economically valuable crops with companion plants that can hamper pest outbreaks. We created a greenhouse multi-layered microcosm system to test two potato peach aphid clones, performing alone or in competition, on mixes of genetically variable cultivars of cabbage, with and without onion. The onion acted as a nuisance/disturbance for the pest, which was generally for the benefit of the cabbage albeit both plants sharing space and nutrients. The onion effect was context-specific and differed by aphid genotype. Onion variable nuisance negatively affected the numbers of one aphid genotype (green) across all contexts, while the other genotype (pink) numbers were decreased in two contexts only. However, the green performed better than the pink on all cases of cabbage di-mixes despite its numbers being capped when the onion was present. Further, there was also a general aphid propensity to wander off the plant along with a differential production of winged morphs to escape the onion-affected environments. Moreover, through a comparative increase in dry mass, which was subject to onion and aphid effects, a diversity effect was found where the cabbages of fully genetically variable microcosms sustained similar final dry mass compared with non-infested microcosms. Our findings provide fresh insights into the use of multi-layered contextual designs that not only allow disentangling the relative effects of genetic variation and modes of interaction, but also help integrate their benefits into pest management in view of companion planting.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cebolas , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Animais , Brassica/genética , Variação Genética
4.
Food Chem ; 307: 125562, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648174

RESUMO

The effect of postharvest melatonin treatment on sulforaphane production of fresh-cut broccoli at 4℃ during storage was investigated in this study. Florets treated with 100 µM melatonin exhibited higher contents of total glucosinolates and sulforaphane. Glucoraphanin content was significantly increased after melatonin treatment, and which was explained by gene analysis. Expressions of glucoraphanin biosynthesis genes including Elong, CYP83A1, MYB28, UGT74B1 and FMOGS-OX1 were up-regulated while AOP2 was obviously decreased by melatonin treatment, leading to a higher glucoraphanin accumulation. In addition, application of melatonin enhanced the myrosinase activity and the expression level of MYO, benefiting the formation of sulforaphane. This study demonstrates that melatonin treatment positively affected the glucoraphanin-sulforaphane system in postharvest fresh-cut broccoli.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética
5.
Plant Sci ; 290: 110283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779912

RESUMO

Plant dwarf mutants generally exhibit delayed growth, delayed development, short internodes, and abnormal leaves and flowers and are ideal materials to explore the molecular mechanism of plant growth and development. In the current study, we first discovered a spontaneous cabbage (Brassica oleracea) dwarf mutant 99-198dw, which exhibits a dwarf stature, wrinkled leaves, non-heading, and substantially reduced self-fertility compared with the wild-type 99-198; however, the underlying molecular mechanism of its dwarfism is unknown. Here, we performed comparative phenotype, transcriptome and phytohormone analyses between 99-198 and 99-198dw. Cytological analysis showed that an increase in cell size, a reduction in cell layers, chloroplast degradation and a reduction in mitochondria were observed in 99-198dw. RNA-Seq showed that a total of 3801 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2203 upregulated and 1598 downregulated genes in the dwarf mutant. Key genes in stress-resistant pathways were mostly upregulated, including salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), etc., while the DEGs reported to be related to plant height, such as those involved in the gibberellin (GA), brassinolide (BR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and strigolactone (SL) pathways were mostly downregulated. In addition, the DEGs in the cell division pathway were all downregulated, which is consistent with the cytokinesis defects detected by cytological analysis. The changes in the GA4, JA, ET, SA and ABA contents measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) absolute quantification were consistent with the transcriptome analysis. Further hormone treatment tests showed that the exogenous application of GA, BR, 6BA, paclobutrazol (PC), etc. did not rescue the phenotype, implying that the change in phytohormones is due to but not the cause of the dwarf trait. It was speculated that mutation of certain DEG related to cell division or participating in signalling pathway of phytohormones like GA, BR, IAA, and SL were the cause of dwarf. These results are informative for the elucidation of the underlying regulatory network in 99-198dw and enrich our understanding of plant dwarf traits at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Brassica/anatomia & histologia , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Mutação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109858, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706236

RESUMO

Cultivar-dependent cadmium (Cd) accumulation was principal in developing Cd-pollution safe cultivars (PSCs). Proteins related to different Cd accumulations of the low-Cd-accumulating (SJ19) and high-Cd-accumulating (CX4) cultivars were investigated by iTRAQ analysis. Higher Cd bioaccumulation factors and translocation factor in CX4 than in SJ19 were consistent with the cultivar-dependent Cd accumulations. The Cd uptake was promoted in CX4 due to its higher expression of Cd-binding proteins and the lower expression of Cd-efflux proteins in roots. What's more, significantly elevated thiol groups (PC2 and PC3) in CX4 under Cd stress might contribute to the high Cd accumulation in roots and the root-to-shoot translocation of Cd-PC complex. Up-regulated proteins involved in cellulose biosynthesis and pectin de-esterification in SJ19 enhanced the Cd sequestration of root cell walls, which was considered as the predominant strategy for reducing Cd accumulation in shoots. The present study provided novel insights in the cultivar-dependent Cd accumulation in shoots of B. parachinensis.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Brassica/genética , Celulose/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Reagentes de Sulfidrila/metabolismo
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(6): 537-550, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745746

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: MIR159/319 have conserved evolution and diversified function after WGT in Brassica campestris, both of them can lead pollen vitality and germination abnormality, Bra-MIR319c also can function in flower development. MiR159 and miR319 are extensively studied highly conserved microRNAs which play roles in vegetative development, reproduction, and hormone regulation. In this study, the effects of whole-genome triplication (WGT) on the evolution of the MIR159/319 family and the functional diversification of the genes were comprehensively investigated in Brassica campestris. We identified 11 MIR159/319 genes in B. campestris, which produced five mature sequences. After analyzing the precursor sequences and phylogenetic tree, we found that Bra-MIR159/319 have evolutionary conservatism. Furthermore, Bra-MIR159/319 show functional diversification after WGT, as indicated by their expression patterns and the cis-element in their promoter. GUS signal showed that Bra-MIR159a and Bra-MIR319c can be expressed in anther but in different development stages. In B. campestris, overexpressed MIR159a and MIR319c contribute to late anther development and promote pollen abortion. Moreover, Bra-MIR319c can partially assume the function of MIR319a in flower development.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569708

RESUMO

Male-sterile plants provide an important breeding tool for the heterosis of hybrid crops, such as Brassicaceae. In the last decade, circular RNAs (circRNAs), as a novel class of covalently closed and single-stranded endogenous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), have received much attention because of their functions as "microRNA (miRNA) sponges" and "competing endogenous RNAs" (ceRNAs). However, the information about circRNAs in the regulation of male-sterility and anther development is limited. In this study, we established the Polima cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) line "Bcpol97-05A", and the fertile line, "Bcajh97-01B", in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis, and performed RNA expression profiling comparisons between the flower buds of the sterile line and fertile line by whole-transcriptome sequencing. A total of 31 differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs, 47 DE miRNAs, and 4779 DE mRNAs were identified. By using Cytoscape, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network and ceRNA network were constructed, and the circRNA A02:23507399|23531438 was hypothesized to be an important circRNA regulating anther development at the post-transcriptional level. The gene ontology (GO) analysis demonstrated that miRNAs and circRNAs could regulate the orderly secretion and deposition of cellulose, sporopollenin, pectin, and tryphine; the timely degradation of lipids; and the programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetum cells, which play key roles in anther development. Our study revealed a new circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network, which is involved in the anther development of B. campestris, which enriched the understanding of CMS in flowering plants, and laid a foundation for further study on the functions of circRNAs and miRNAs during anther development.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética
9.
PLoS Genet ; 15(9): e1008395, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527910

RESUMO

Many microbes exhibit quorum sensing (QS) to cooperate, share and perform a social task in unison. Recent studies have shown the emergence of reversible phenotypic heterogeneity in the QS-responding pathogenic microbial population under laboratory conditions as a possible bet-hedging survival strategy. However, very little is known about the dynamics of QS-response and the nature of phenotypic heterogeneity in an actual host-pathogen interaction environment. Here, we investigated the dynamics of QS-response of a Gram-negative phytopathogen Xanthomonas pv. campestris (Xcc) inside its natural host cabbage, that communicate through a fatty acid signal molecule called DSF (diffusible signal factor) for coordination of several social traits including virulence functions. In this study, we engineered a novel DSF responsive whole-cell QS dual-bioreporter to measure the DSF mediated QS-response in Xcc at the single cell level inside its natural host plant in vivo. Employing the dual-bioreporter strain of Xcc, we show that QS non-responsive cells coexist with responsive cells in microcolonies at the early stage of the disease; whereas in the late stages, the QS-response is more homogeneous as the QS non-responders exhibit reduced fitness and are out competed by the wild-type. Furthermore, using the wild-type Xcc and its QS mutants in single and mixed infection studies, we show that QS mutants get benefit to some extend at the early stage of disease and contribute to localized colonization. However, the QS-responding cells contribute to spread along xylem vessel. These results contrast with the earlier studies describing that expected cross-induction and cooperative sharing at high cell density in vivo may lead to synchronize QS-response. Our findings suggest that the transition from heterogeneity to homogeneity in QS-response within a bacterial population contributes to its overall virulence efficiency to cause disease in the host plant under natural environment.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Percepção de Quorum/genética , Xanthomonas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Brassica/genética , Brassica/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Virulência , Xanthomonas/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
10.
Food Chem ; 301: 125289, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387047

RESUMO

Acylated anthocyanins, such as those found in red cabbage, are more heat-, light-, and alkaline pH-stable than non-acylated anthocyanins, making them attractive for a variety of commercial applications. A UPLC-DAD-MSE method with an optimized chromatographic strategy was used to identify 29 red cabbage anthocyanins, predominantly acylated and glucosylated cyanidin derivatives. Anthocyanin profiles of 27 red cabbage genotypes harvested in consecutive growing seasons were measured and assessed for variation. Three unique anthocyanin profile fingerprints were identified through hierarchical clustering analysis. PCA analysis identified anthocyanin accumulation traits and genotypes with high diversity which can be utilized in future investigations into the genetic and molecular basis for anthocyanin production, acylation, and diversity.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Brassica/química , Brassica/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo Genético , Estações do Ano , Acilação , Antocianinas/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Genótipo , Espectrometria de Massas
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387302

RESUMO

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is the second largest oilseed crop worldwide. As an architecture component of B. napus, thickness of pod canopy (TPC) plays an important role in yield formation, especially under high-density cultivation conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of TPC remain unclear. RNA and microRNA (miRNA) profiling of two groups of B. napus lines with significantly different TPC at the bolting with a tiny bud stage revealed differential expressions of numerous genes involved in nitrogen-related pathways. Expression of several nitrogen-related response genes, including ASP5, ASP2, ASN3, ATCYSC1, PAL2, APT2, CRTISO, and COX15, was dramatically changed in the thick TPC lines compared to those in the thin TPC lines. Differentially expressed miRNAs also included many involved in nitrogen-related pathways. Expression of most target genes was negatively associated with corresponding miRNAs, such as miR159, miR6029, and miR827. In addition, 12 (including miR319, miR845, and miR158) differentially expressed miRNAs between two plant tissues sampled (stem apex and flower bud) were identified, implying that they might have roles in determining overall plant architecture. These results suggest that nitrogen signaling may play a pivotal role in regulating TPC in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374822

RESUMO

The genotype WS-1, previously identified from novel wucai germplasm, is tolerant to both low-temperature (LT) and high-temperature (HT) stress. However, it is unclear which signal transduction pathway or acclimation mechanisms are involved in the temperature-stress response. In this study, we used the proteomic method of tandem mass tag (TMT) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify 1022 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) common to WS-1, treated with either LT or HT. Among these 1022 DEPs, 172 were upregulated in response to both LT and HT, 324 were downregulated in response to both LT and HT, and 526 were upregulated in response to one temperature stress and downregulated in response to the other. To illustrate the common regulatory pathway in WS-1, 172 upregulated DEPs were further analyzed. The redox homeostasis, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, heat-shockprotein, and chaperones and signal transduction pathways were identified to be associated with temperature stress tolerance in wucai. In addition, 35S:BcccrGLU1 overexpressed in Arabidopsis, exhibited higher reduced glutathione (GSH) content and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio and less oxidative damage under temperature stress. This result is consistent with the dynamic regulation of the relevant proteins involved in redox homeostasis. These data demonstrate that maintaining redox homeostasis is an important common regulatory pathway for tolerance to temperature stress in novel wucai germplasm.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Brassica/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Homeostase , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416297

RESUMO

The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) has been recognized as an important promoter of leaf senescence in plants. However, upstream transcription factors (TFs) that control JA biosynthesis during JA-promoted leaf senescence remain unknown. In this study, we report the possible involvement of a TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) TF BrTCP7 in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-promoted leaf senescence in Chinese flowering cabbage. Exogenous MeJA treatment reduced maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and total chlorophyll content, accompanied by the increased expression of senescence marker and chlorophyll catabolic genes, and accelerated leaf senescence. To further understand the transcriptional regulation of MeJA-promoted leaf senescence, a class I member of TCP TFs BrTCP7 was examined. BrTCP7 is a nuclear protein and possesses trans-activation ability through subcellular localization and transcriptional activity assays. A higher level of BrTCP7 transcript was detected in senescing leaves, and its expression was up-regulated by MeJA. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient expression assay showed that BrTCP7 binds to the promoter regions of a JA biosynthetic gene BrOPR3 encoding OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) and a chlorophyll catabolic gene BrRCCR encoding red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR), activating their transcriptions. Taken together, these findings reveal that BrTCP7 is associated with MeJA-promoted leaf senescence at least partly by activating JA biosynthesis and chlorophyll catabolism, thus expanding our knowledge of the transcriptional mechanism of JA-mediated leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Brassica/classificação , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109571, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446170

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms of the differences among the Cd tolerance and accumulation of different pak choi cultivars are essential to further breed Cd-safe genotypes pak choi. In our research, via morphological comparison, qRT-PCR and yeast function complementary approaches, we explored the differences of Cd tolerance and capacity for Cd uptake in nine various pak choi varieties. Results showed that higher expressions of BcZIPs involved in Cd uptake in 'Kang Re605' may lead to its higher capacity for Cd accumulation. The lowest expressions of transporter gene in 'Wu Yueman' were consistent with its fewest ability to uptake Cd. Beyond that, the difference of resistance was very great among varieties. Meanwhile, the expressions of the BcGSTUs were differentially induced by Cd exposure in different pak choi varieties, and 'Kang Re605' performed the highest BcGSTUs expression overall. To verify the role of GSTUs played in Cd resistance of pak choi, four BcGSTUs, BcGSTU4, BcGSTU11, BcGSTU12 and BcGSTU22 in a high-Cd accumulation and tolerance variety 'Kang Re605' were cloned, quantitated and transferred to Cd-sensitive yeast mutant strain. And finally found that BcGSTU11 increased the Cd tolerance of yeast, which may associate with a high Cd resistance of 'Kang Re605'. Simultaneously, less BcGSTUs abundance in 'Shang Haiqing' may result in its weak tolerance to Cd. These findings will help us to comprehend the roles of BcZIPs and BcGSTUs in Cd absorption and detoxification as well as promote our understanding of the Cd-resistant and Cd-accumulated mechanisms in pak choi.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição , Zinco/metabolismo
15.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(6): 1031-1038, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267637

RESUMO

Brassica species are widely cultivated and important biennial and annual crops. The transition from vegetative to reproductive development in Brassica species is critical in agriculture and horticulture. Grafting is a useful tool for improving agricultural production and investigating the movement of long-range signals. Here we established a hypocotyl micrografting system in B. rapa crops and successfully grafted the rootstock of turnip onto many different scion genotypes. Grafting with turnip rootstock prolonged vegetative growth, delayed flowering and improved seed yield in rapeseed. The late-flowering turnip rootstock could delay flowering of the scion of the early-flowering turnip accession. The BrrFLC1 (FLOWERING LOCUS C1 in B. rapa) transcript levels and H3K4me3 levels at the BrrFLC1 locus were up-regulated and subsequently suppressed the downstream FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T) signals in leaves of the scion to delay flowering. Vernalization treatment can efficiently promote flowering time in turnip. The non-vernalised turnip flowered early after grafting onto the rootstock of the vernalised turnip, which was accompanied by high levels of FT homologue expression in leaves of the scion. Hypocotyl excision experiments revealed that the process of tuber formation was suppressed by removing the hypocotyl tissue, which in turn repressed the expression of tuberization-related genes. Our findings suggest that the rootstock generates mobile signals that are transported from the rootstock to the scion to fine-tune FT signalling and modulate flowering time.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Brassica/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 564, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins perform diverse biological functions in plants and are beneficial to human health. Leaf color is the most important trait of ornamental kale and the characteristics of changes in leaf color make it an ideal material to elucidate genetic mechanisms of anthocyanins accumulation in Brassica oleracea. To elucidate the anthocyanin distribution, metabolic profiles and differentially expressed anthocyanin biosynthetic genes between different colored accessions can pave the way for understanding the genetic regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in ornamental kale. RESULTS: In this study, anthocyanin distributions in red- and white-leaved ornamental kale accessions were determined. Thirty-four anthocyanins were detected in the red-leaved accession. The complete set of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in the B. oleracea reference genome was identified and differential expression analysis based on RNA-seq was conducted. Eighty-one anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were identified in the B. oleracea reference genome. The expression patterns and differential expressions of these genes in different leaf types indicated that late biosynthetic genes (BoDFR1, BoANS1 and 2, and BoUGT79B1.1), positive regulatory genes (BoTTG1, BoTT8, and Bol012528), a negative regulatory gene (BoMYBL2.1), and transport genes (BoTT19.1 and BoTT19.2) may play roles in anthocyanin accumulation in ornamental kale. A genetic regulatory network of anthocyanin accumulation in ornamental kale was constructed. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of pigments and anthocyanin profiles explained the leaf color phenotypes of ornamental kales. The identification of key genes and construction of genetic regulatory network in anthocyanin accumulation in ornamental kale elucidated the genetic basis of leaf color variants. These findings enhance the understanding of the genetic mechanisms and regulatory network of anthocyanin accumulation in B. oleracea, and provide a theoretical basis for breeding new cultivars of Brassica vegetables with enhanced ornamental and nutritional value.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Genômica
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 288, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae (Phytomyxea, Rhizaria) is one of the economically most important diseases of Brassica crops. The formation of hypertrophied roots accompanied by altered metabolism and hormone homeostasis is typical for infected plants. Not all roots of infected plants show the same phenotypic changes. While some roots remain uninfected, others develop galls of diverse size. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the intra-plant heterogeneity of P. brassicae root galls and symptomless roots of the same host plants (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) collected from a commercial field in Austria using transcriptome analyses. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were markedly different between symptomless roots and gall tissue. Symptomless roots showed transcriptomic traits previously described for resistant plants. Genes involved in host cell wall synthesis and reinforcement were up-regulated in symptomless roots indicating elevated tolerance against P. brassicae. By contrast, genes involved in cell wall degradation and modification processes like expansion were up-regulated in root galls. Hormone metabolism differed between symptomless roots and galls. Brassinosteroid-synthesis was down-regulated in root galls, whereas jasmonic acid synthesis was down-regulated in symptomless roots. Cytokinin metabolism and signalling were up-regulated in symptomless roots with the exception of one CKX6 homolog, which was strongly down-regulated. Salicylic acid (SA) mediated defence response was up-regulated in symptomless roots, compared with root gall tissue. This is probably caused by a secreted benzoic acid/salicylic acid methyl transferase from the pathogen (PbBSMT), which was one of the highest expressed pathogen genes in gall tissue. The PbBSMT derived Methyl-SA potentially leads to increased pathogen tolerance in uninfected roots. CONCLUSIONS: Infected and uninfected roots of clubroot infected plants showed transcriptomic differences similar to those previously described between clubroot resistant and susceptible hosts. The here described intra-plant heterogeneity suggests, that for a better understanding of clubroot disease targeted, spatial analyses of clubroot infected plants will be vital in understanding this economically important disease.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plasmodioforídeos/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Brassica/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 65-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190320

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Overexpression of BoMYB29 gene up-regulates the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway in Brassica oleracea plants increasing the production of the anti-cancer metabolite glucoraphanin, and the toxic and pungent sinigrin. Isothiocyanates, the bio-active hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, naturally produced by several Brassicaceae species, play an important role in human health and agriculture. This study aims at correlating the content of aliphatic glucosinolates to the expression of genes involved in their synthesis in Brassica oleracea, and perform functional analysis of BoMYB29 gene. To this purpose, three genotypes were used: a sprouting broccoli, a cabbage, and a wild genotype (Winspit), a high glucosinolate containing accession. Winspit showed the highest transcript level of BoMYB28, BoMYB29 and BoAOP2 genes, and BoAOP2 expression was positively correlated with that of the two MYB genes. Further analyses of the aliphatic glucosinolates also showed a positive correlation between the expression of BoAOP2 and the production of sinigrin and gluconapin in Winspit. The Winspit BoMYB29 CDS was cloned and overexpressed in Winspit and in the DH AG1012 line. Overexpressing Winspit plants produced higher quantities of alkenyl glucosinolates, such as sinigrin. Conversely, the DH AG1012 transformants showed a higher production of methylsulphinylalkyl glucosinolates, including glucoraphanin, and, despite an up-regulation of the aliphatic glucosinolate genes, no increase in alkenyl glucosinolates. The latter may be explained by the absence of a functional AOP2 gene in DH AG1012. Nevertheless, an extract of DH AG1012 lines overexpressing BoMYB29 provided a chemoprotective effect on human colon cells. This work exemplifies how the genetic diversity of B. oleracea may be used by breeders to select for higher expression of transcription factors for glucosinolate biosynthesis to improve its natural, health-promoting properties.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Células HT29 , Humanos , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185589

RESUMO

Cuticular wax is a mixture of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives, which determines vital roles for plant growth. In cabbage, the cuticular wax content of leaf blades is an important trait influencing morphological features of the head. Understanding the molecular basis of cuticular wax biosynthesis can help breeders develop high quality cabbage varieties. Here, we characterize a cabbage non-wax glossy (nwgl) plant, which exhibits glossy green phenotype. Cryo-scanning electron microscope analysis showed abnormal wax crystals on the leaf surfaces of nwgl plants. Cuticular wax composition analyzed by GC-MS displayed severely decreased in total wax loads, and individual wax components in nwgl leaves. We delimited the NWGL locus into a 99-kb interval between the at004 marker and the end of chromosome C08 through fine mapping. By high-throughput RNA sequencing, we identified 1247 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 148 differentially expressed lncRNAs in nwgl leaves relative to the wild-type. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs and cis-regulated target genes for differentially expressed lncRNAs were significantly enriched in wax and lipid biosynthetic or metabolic processes. Our results provide the novel foundation to explore the complex molecular basis of cuticular wax biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Genes de Plantas , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ceras/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 228, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. italic) accessions have purple sepals and cold weather would deepen the purple color, while the sepals of other broccoli lines are always green even in cold winter. The related locus or gene is still unknown. In this study, a high-density genetic map was constructed based on specific locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing in a doubled-haploid segregation population with 127 individuals. And mapping of the purple sepal trait in flower heads based on phenotypic data collected during three seasons was performed. RESULTS: A genetic map was constructed, which contained 6694 SLAF markers with an average sequencing depth of 81.37-fold in the maternal line, 84-fold in the paternal line, and 15.76-fold in each individual population studied. In all of the annual data recorded, three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified that were all distributed within the linkage group (LG) 1. Among them, a major locus, qPH.C01-2, located at 36.393 cM LG1, was consistently detected in all analysis. Besides this locus, another two minor loci, qPH.C01-4 and qPH.C01-5, were identified near qPH.C01-2, based on the phenotypic data from spring of 2018. CONCLUSION: The purple sepal trait could be controlled by a major single locus and two minor loci. The genetic map and location of the purple sepal trait of flower heads provide an important foundation for mapping other compound traits and the identification of the genes related to purple sepal trait in broccoli.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Inflorescência/fisiologia , Pigmentação/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Brassica/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Inflorescência/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA