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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127600, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736155

RESUMO

Toosendanin (TSN), as an important Chinese traditional insecticide, has been registered and commercialized in China. In this report, the residual analytical methods, residue dynamics and final residues of TSN in tobacco, cabbage and soil under field condition were studied by IC-ELISA and HPLC. The sensitivity, precision and repeatability of IC-ELISA method were more suitable in comparison with HPLC for the demand of TSN residue analysis. Using IC-ELISA, the half-lives (t1/2) of TSN were found to be 1.30 days in cabbage, 1.70 days in tabacco and 0.71 days in soil, respectively. At the recommended dose, the final residues of TSN detection by IC-ELISA was 0.009 mg·kg-1 in cabbage and 0.043 mg·kg-1 in tobacco, as well as was not detected in soil. Therefore, TSN is easily degradable, and IC-ELISA could be a convenient and supplemental analytical tool for monitoring TSN residue in crops and environment.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Meia-Vida , Cinética , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Tabaco
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127519, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721832

RESUMO

We aimed to characterize and quantify glucosinolate compounds and contents in broccoli, and a total of 80 genotypes and eight developmental organs were analyzed with UHPLC-Triple-TOF-MS. The method was validated in terms of performance, and the coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.97 and 0.99 for glucoraphanin and gluconapin, respectively. In 80 genotypes, twelve glucosinolates were found in broccoli florets ranging from 0.467 to 57.156 µmol/g DW, with the highest glucosinolate content being approximately 122-fold higher than the lowest value. The principal component of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and glucoraphanin explained 60.53% of the total variance. There were positive correlations among hydroxyglucobrassicin, methoxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, glucoerucin, gluconasturtiin, glucoraphanin, and glucotropaeolin (P < 0.05). The root contained 43% of total glucosinolates in 80 genotypes, and glucoraphanin represented 29% of the total glucosinolate content in different organs. The mutant broccoli genotypes were found by analysis of gluconapin contents in different organs.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Brassica/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Genótipo , Glucosinolatos/análise , Imidoésteres/análise , Indóis/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 334: 127520, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693332

RESUMO

CaCl2, Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) and Ca2+ channel blocker (verapamil) were used to investigate mechanism of glucoraphanin metabolism in broccoli sprouts under ZnSO4 stress. CaCl2 treatment promoted sprout growth, reduced MDA (malonaldehyde) content and electrolyte leakage in sprouts under ZnSO4 stress. The highest MDA content and electrolyte leakage were obtained in ZnSO4 plus verapamil-treated sprouts. In addition, ZnSO4 plus CaCl2 treatment significantly enhanced glucoraphanin content and sulforaphane formation, while an opposite result was observed after ZnSO4 plus EGTA treatment; which were further supported by expression of glucoraphanin biosynthetic and hydrolytic genes as well as myrosinase (MYR) and epithiospecifier protein (ESP) activities. These results indicated that exogenous and endogenous calcium promoted glucoraphanin biosynthesis and the conversion rate of glucoraphanin into sulforaphane. Verapamil treatment also stimulated glucoraphanin biosynthesis, but exerted an adverse influence on sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin because of much higher ESP expression and ESP activity than ZnSO4 treatment.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/metabolismo , Ácido Egtázico/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3847, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737299

RESUMO

Reporter systems are routinely used in plant genetic engineering and functional genomics research. Most such plant reporter systems cause accumulation of foreign proteins. Here, we demonstrate a protein-independent reporter system, 3WJ-4 × Bro, based on a fluorescent RNA aptamer. Via transient expression assays in both Escherichia coli and Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that 3WJ-4 × Bro is suitable for transgene identification and as an mRNA reporter for expression pattern analysis. Following stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana, 3WJ-4 × Bro co-segregates and co-expresses with target transcripts and is stably inherited through multiple generations. Further, 3WJ-4 × Bro can be used to visualize virus-mediated RNA delivery in plants. This study demonstrates a protein-independent reporter system that can be used for transgene identification and in vivo dynamic analysis of mRNA.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Tabaco/genética , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Compostos de Benzil/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Imidazolinas/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transformação Genética
5.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127585, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739687

RESUMO

The utilization of tungsten in traffic, smelting, mining, and other industrial applications allows its' accumulation in the environmental ecosystems. The present study included using a soluble form of tungsten (tungstate) at different levels (0, 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg L-1) as a water contaminant. The germinating seeds experienced tungstate at 1-50 mg L-1 exhibited stimulation of seedling dry and fresh matter stress tolerance indices, whereas retardation of these traits at the level of 100 mg L-1 was manifested. The stimulation of seedling growth at the levels of 1-50 mg L-1 was associated with the regulation of reactive oxygen status, higher stability of cell membrane, and elevated level of antioxidative responses. Regarding the oxidative stress of the seedlings exposed to tungstate contaminated water, only the concentration of 100 mg L-1 induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical with apparent membrane deteriorations in terms of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, reductions of phytochelatins, reduced glutathione, ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, as well as glutathione-S-transferase were the main symptoms of tungstate phytotoxicity at the same level. The accumulation of lignin, ionic peroxidase, soluble peroxidase, and lignin-related enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase) were the striking reasons for restricting seedlings growth at noxious tungstate level. The results could suggest that the elevated levels of defense systems, at least in part, were accountable for raising broccoli resistance against tungstate stress at low doses. Furthermore, these plants can grow in tungsten-polluted areas by modifying their physiological processes. However, this study shed the light to the eco-toxicity of tungstate and imparts evidence for the need to establishing environmental risk management of tungstate accumulation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/fisiologia , Compostos de Tungstênio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Germinação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731022

RESUMO

Current study was performed to explore the effect of butanolide (KAR1) in mitigation of cadmium (Cd) induced toxicity in Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea L.). Brussels sprout seeds, treated with 10-5 M, 10-7 M and 10-10 M solution of KAR1 were allowed to grow in Cd-contaminated (5 mg L-1) regimes for 25 d. Cadmium toxicity decreased seed germination and growth in B. oleracea seedlings. Elevated intensity of electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were observed in Cd-stressed seedlings. Additionally, reduced level of stomatal conductivity, transpiration rate, photosynthesis rate, intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, and leaf relative water content (LRWC) was also observed in Cd-stressed seedlings. Nevertheless, KAR1 improved seed germination, seedling growth and biomass production in Cd stressed plants. KAR1 application showed elevated LRWC, osmotic potential, and higher membranous stability index (MSI) in seedlings under Cd regime. Furthermore, seedlings developed by KAR1 treatment exhibited higher stomatal conductivity, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration together with improved rate of transpiration and photosynthetic rate in B. oleracea under Cd stress. These findings elucidate that the reduced level of MDA, EL and H2O2, as well as improvement in antioxidative machinery increased growth and alleviated Cd toxicity in KAR1 treated seedlings under Cd stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Furanos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Piranos/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 333: 127481, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663753

RESUMO

In this study, we tested the exogenous application of phytosulfokine α (PSKα) for delaying the yellowing of broccoli florets during cold storage. Our results showed that the lower yellowing in broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα was probably due to the higher endogenous accumulation of PSKα, leading to the endogenous accumulation of guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Besides, broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα exhibited a higher accumulation of phenols and flavonoids by triggering gene expression and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS). Moreover, the higher expression of L-galactotno-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) gene and the lower expression of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) gene in broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα may be the reasons for the higher accumulation of ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the exogenous application of PSKα is a promising strategy in delaying the yellowing and preserving the nutritional quality of broccoli florets during cold storage.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Pigmentação/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Food Chem ; 328: 127102, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512468

RESUMO

Sprouting process enhances plant bioactive compounds. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L) sprouts are well known for their high levels of glucosinolates (GLs), amino acids, and antioxidants, which offer outstanding biological activities with positive impacts on plant metabolism. Elevated CO2 (eCO2, 620 ppm) was applied for 9 days to further improve nutritive and health-promoting values of three cultivars of broccoli sprouts i.e., Southern star, Prominence and Monotop. eCO2 improved sprouts growth and induced GLs accumulation e.g., glucoraphanin, possibly through amino acids production e.g., high methionine and tryptophan. There were increases in myrosinase activity, which stimulated GLs hydrolysis to yield health-promoting sulforaphane. Interestingly, low levels of ineffective sulforaphane nitrile were detected and positively correlated with reduced epithiospecifier protein after eCO2 treatment. High glucoraphanin and sulforaphane levels in eCO2 treated sprouts improved the anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of their extracts. In conclusion, eCO2 treatment enriches broccoli sprouts with health-promoting metabolites and bioactivities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Brassica/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Imidoésteres/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
Food Chem ; 330: 127189, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521396

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of incandescent, fluorescent, and LED (RGB (red, green, blue), white cold, white warm) lighting on characteristics of kale sprouts. The highest concentrations of chlorophylls, ß-carotene, lutein, neoxanthin and violaxanthin were found in cotyledons of sprouts growing in RGB LED light. These had the largest proportion of cotyledons to the mass of plants and the highest content of ascorbic acid. The highest contents of protein and total thiocyanates were observed in sprouts cultivated in incandescent light, followed by plants growing under RGB LED light. The application of a conventional bulb led to the lowest yield as well as the smallest amounts of chlorophylls, ß-carotene, lutein and neoxanthin in fresh mass of cotyledons. Of the light sources used, RGB LED treatment allowed plants with the highest content of most of the examined compounds to be obtained.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Tiocianatos/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Luz , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110760, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454265

RESUMO

An optimal uptake of mineral elements is crucial to ensure both crop yield and quality. The use of biostimulants is taking relevance to improve the nutrition of crops. Sulphur (S) is one of the elements with great potential within biostimulants. Furthermore, soil contamination by heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) has become a serious environmental problem. Different studies have suggested the use of thiosulphate (TS) as a biostimulant and to increase the phytoremediation capacity of plants. Therefore, in the present study, we use a crop plant with high S requirements such as Brassica oleracea, to test whether TS serves as a biostimulant and whether affects Cd accumulation and tolerance. B. oleracea plants were grown with two different TS doses (2 mM and 4 mM), under Cd toxicity, and with the combination of Cd toxicity and both TS doses. Parameters of biomass, mineral elements accumulation, and stress tolerance were analyzed. The results showed that TS reduced biomass of B. oleracea plants. The application of 2 mM TS increased Cd accumulation whereas the 4 mM dose reduced it. On the other hand, TS incremented micronutrient accumulation on plants subjected to Cd toxicity and increased Zn contents. Besides, the application of 2 mM to Cd-stressed plants enhanced photosynthesis performance and reduced oxidative stress. Finally, TS increased the antioxidant capacity of B. oleracea plants. Briefly, although TS can not be used as a biostimulant it could be used for Cd phytoremediation purposes and to enhance Zn accumulation in B. oleracea plants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioacumulação , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tiossulfatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Brassica/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
11.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126640, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443282

RESUMO

This work focuses on the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the leafy vegetable Shanghaiqing (SHQ) (Brassica chinensis L.). The accumulated DEHP amount in the edible part and roots of SHQ increased as the DEHP concentration in the soil increased. DEHP accumulation was higher in the roots than in the edible part of the plant. The root concentration factors and bioaccumulation factors for DEHP in SHQ were 0.13-2.49 and 0.03-2.00, respectively. The DEHP translocation factors were below 1.0, indicating that DEHP preferentially accumulated in plant roots. The DEHP risk index in the edible part of SHQ in relation to the human body and in terms of dietary exposure risk assessment was also below 1.0, indicating a low health risk. High DEHP concentrations caused 1) inhibition of SHQ growth, 2) an increase in SHQ chlorophyll and malondialdehyde contents and 3) a decrease in soluble sugar and vitamin contents. Low DEHP concentrations stimulated total superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities, while high DEHP levels showed an inhibitory effect. DEHP presence in soil affected not only SHQ growth but also quality. Our results provide the data needed for the proper assessment of food safety and the ecological impact of DEHP contamination in agricultural soils.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Agricultura , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Malondialdeído , Ácidos Ftálicos , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Superóxido Dismutase , Verduras/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Food Chem ; 324: 126887, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339788

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation and salt ions play essential roles in senescence control, but the underlying regulatory mechanism of senescence has not been thoroughly revealed in broccoli postharvest buds. Here, we found 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 400 mmol·L-1 KCl, 40 mmol·L-1 CaCl2 and 0.5 µmol·L-1 Trichostatin-A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) delayed the bud senescence. They resulted in significantly inhibiting the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and dramatically promoting the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and Chlorophyll. Furthermore, the expression of PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH) and NONYELLOWING (NYE1), but not SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), were remarkably repressed by salt ions and TSA. Interestingly, HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9) and CATION/Ca2+ EXCHANGER 1 (CCX1) were down-regulated by NaCl, CaCl2 and TSA. Further assays demonstrated that HDA9 could not interact with CCX1 promoter. It suggested that CCX1 along with HDA9 were involved in inhibiting the senescence of broccoli buds, and regulated aging by indirect interaction.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sais/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antiporters/química , Antiporters/genética , Antiporters/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Brassica/classificação , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Íons/química , Filogenia , Sais/química , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110621, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304924

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) excess accumulation in edible parts of crops causes potential risks to human health. However, knowledge about the mechanisms of its accumulation within vegetable plants is still not well known. Here, we investigated the physiological processes of Sb involved in symplastic and apoplastic absorption, compartmentation by roots, and translocation in xylem in Brassica parachinensis L. exposed to antimonate (SbV) and antimonite (SbIII) forms. The results showed that plants treated with SbIII emerged to be more toxic than SbV as proved by the lower biomass and the higher concentrations of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plant tissues, especially at high dosages. The Sb concentration showed more in shoots but less in roots treated with SbV than with SbIII. The total Sb accumulation was higher under the SbV treatment than the SbIII treatment, mainly due to the higher accumulation in shoots. Additionally, the Sb concentration in symplastic flow of roots was higher exposed to SbV than SbIII, while no differences were found for the Sb concentration in apoplastic flow between them. Moreover, the Sb concentration in cell walls of roots was higher exposed to SbIII than SbV, especially at high levels. Furthermore, the Sb concentration in xylem was higher exposed to SbV than SbIII, and a greatly positive correlation was observed between the Sb concentrations in xylem and shoots. Overall, these findings revealed that vegetable plants accumulated more SbV than SbIII in edible parts mainly due to xylem translocation rather than root absorption.


Assuntos
Antimônio/farmacocinética , Brassica/metabolismo , Absorção Fisiológica , Antimônio/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0226471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348333

RESUMO

The chive maggot Bradysia cellarum and the fungus gnat B. impatiens are two primary root pests of plants, which can coexist on the same host plants and are the devastating pests on liliaceous crops and edible fungi. Their growth and development are affected by the nutrient contents of their host plants. In this study, we assessed the effects of different host plant nutrients on the nutrient contents of these two Bradysia species. The nutrients of the chive (Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng.), board bean (Vicia faba L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. ramosa Hort.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata rubra) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) roots were determined, and their effect on nutrient content of the two Bradysia species after feeding on the host plant for three continuous generations were evaluated. The results show that chive and B-bean contained higher levels of protein, free amino acid, soluble sugar and starch than others. As a result, the soluble sugar, fat and protein contents were significantly higher in both Bradysia species reared on chive and B-bean than on cabbage, lettuce, W-cabbage and pepper, suggesting nutritional preference of these insects. Based on our results, we concluded that the two Bradysia species displayed nutrient preference toward chive and B-bean, which provides a reference for understanding their host plant range and for control of the insect species via field crop rotations.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica/parasitologia , Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsicum/parasitologia , Cebolinha-Francesa/metabolismo , Cebolinha-Francesa/parasitologia , Alface/metabolismo , Alface/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Vicia faba/metabolismo , Vicia faba/parasitologia
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1741-1748, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328753

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, and motile strain, TJ48T, was isolated from pakchoi-cultivated soil contaminated with Cd and Pb in Xinxiang (China). Cells of the strain were rod-shaped and colonies on LB agar were faint yellow. Strain TJ48T was positive for catalase and oxidase and the optimal condition for growth was 28 °C, with 1% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TJ48T was closely related to the genus Rhodobacter and the closest relatives were Rhodobacter ovatus JA234T (97.4%, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Rhodobacter azotoformans KA25T (96.5%). The DNA G + C content of strain TJ48T was 64.7 mol%. Genome-to-genome distance calculations (GGDC) and ANIb values from genomic comparison between the genomes of strain TJ48T and the related reference species were less than 70% and 95%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c) and C17:0. The only isoprenoid quinone detected was Ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The polar lipid profile contains diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipids, and three unidentified lipids. Strain TJ48T significantly increased the dry weight of roots (26.2-66.3%) and shoots (16.7-37.8%) of pakchoi and reduced the Cd (50.2-60.1%) and Pb (55.6-60.9%) contents in pakchoi shoots and roots. On the basis of the physiological, genotypic and genomic characteristics, the strain TJ48T represent a novel species of the genus Rhodobacter, and the name Rhodobacter xinxiangensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain TJ48T = CCTCC AB2019120T = KCTC 72510T).


Assuntos
Brassica/microbiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Filogenia , Rhodobacter/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Brassica/metabolismo , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhodobacter/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo
16.
Food Chem ; 321: 126694, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244140

RESUMO

Red cabbage contains glucosinolates, precursors to health-promoting isothiocyanates. However, raw cabbage often releases mainly epithionitriles and nitriles from glucosinolates. To increase isothiocyanate formation, the effect of acid usage in the preparation of red cabbage was evaluated. Moreover, the effects of the chosen boiling method (acidic boiled red cabbage versus neutral boiled blue cabbage) on glucosinolate degradation were investigated using UHPLC-DAD-ToF-MS and GC-MS. The addition of vinegar significantly increased isothiocyanate formation of cabbage salad from 0.09 to 0.21 µmol/g fresh weight, while lemon juice only slightly increased isothiocyanate formation. Acidic boiled red cabbage degraded glucosinolates and increased nitrile formation, while in neutral boiled blue cabbage, glucosinolates were stable. However, shortly boiled blue cabbage (5 min) had the highest isothiocyanate levels (0.08 µmol/g fresh weight). Thus, for a diet rich in isothiocyanates it is recommended to acidify raw cabbage salads and prepare shortly boiled blue cabbage instead of red cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Culinária/métodos , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Saladas , Ácido Acético/química , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Comportamento Alimentar , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hábitos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4295, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152363

RESUMO

Annexins (ANN) are a multigene, evolutionarily conserved family of calcium-dependent and phospholipid-binding proteins that play important roles in plant development and stress resistance. However, a systematic comprehensive analysis of ANN genes of Brassicaceae species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In this study, we identified 13, 12, and 26 ANN genes in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus, respectively. About half of these genes were clustered on various chromosomes. Molecular evolutionary analysis showed that the ANN genes were highly conserved in Brassicaceae species. Transcriptome analysis showed that different group ANN members exhibited varied expression patterns in different tissues and under different (abiotic stress and hormones) treatments. Meanwhile, same group members from Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus demonstrated conserved expression patterns in different tissues. The weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) showed that BnaANN genes were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and played important roles in jasmonate (JA) signaling and multiple stress response in B. napus.


Assuntos
Anexinas/metabolismo , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Anexinas/genética , Brassica/classificação , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1264, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152287

RESUMO

Wildfires can encourage the establishment of invasive plants by releasing potent germination stimulants, such as karrikins. Seed germination of Brassica tournefortii, a noxious weed of Mediterranean climates, is strongly stimulated by KAR1, the archetypal karrikin produced from burning vegetation. In contrast, the closely-related yet non-fire-associated ephemeral Arabidopsis thaliana is unusual because it responds preferentially to KAR2. The α/ß-hydrolase KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) is the putative karrikin receptor identified in Arabidopsis. Here we show that B. tournefortii expresses three KAI2 homologues, and the most highly-expressed homologue is sufficient to confer enhanced responses to KAR1 relative to KAR2 when expressed in Arabidopsis. We identify two amino acid residues near the KAI2 active site that explain the ligand selectivity, and show that this combination has arisen independently multiple times within dicots. Our results suggest that duplication and diversification of KAI2 proteins could confer differential responses to chemical cues produced by environmental disturbance, including fire.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Furanos/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Piranos/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Fogo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/fisiologia , Hidrolases/genética , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida , Proteínas de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Transcriptoma , Incêndios Florestais
19.
Food Chem ; 319: 126498, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169761

RESUMO

Effect of melatonin treatment on visual quality and contents of health-promoting compounds of broccoli florets under room temperature was investigated in the present study. Broccoli florets were treated with 1 µM melatonin and then stored at room temperature. Results showed that melatonin treatment could delay the post-harvest senescence of broccoli, and performed well in maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, such as carotenoids, vitamin C and total phenols, as well as higher antioxidant capacity than the control. Besides, 1 µM melatonin treatment sustained higher content of glucosinolates, and also resulted in increased percentage of the most potent anticarcinogenic profile, glucoraphanin. Further analysis revealed that 1 µM melatonin strongly induced the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes BoMYB28, BoMYB34, BoCYP79F1, and BoCYP79B2, as well as BoTGG1, a gene involved in glucosinolate hydrolysis. In conclusion, post-harvest treatment with 1 µM melatonin is potential in maintaining visual quality and health-promoting properties of broccoli florets.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Temperatura
20.
Food Chem ; 319: 126561, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172047

RESUMO

The effect of simulated transport vibration on the quality of broccoli and the ability of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to ameliorate vibration damage in broccoli were investigated. Results indicated that transport injury, simulated by vibrational stress, promoted the deterioration in broccoli quality during subsequent storage. Treatment of broccoli with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), however, effectively ameliorated the impact of vibrational injury, maintained the appearance quality and delayed the yellowing and senescence of florets after simulated transportation stress. The effect of the MeJA may be related to of its ability to suppress the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, enhance vitamin C content, and induce antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity, as well as suppress chlorophyll-degrading enzyme activity and gene expression. Overall, the MeJA treatment inhibited the adverse physiological changes that occur in broccoli as a result of vibrational and mechanical injury. Thus, MeJA has the potential to be used to decrease stress-induced reductions in the postharvest quality of horticultural crops that occur during transport and storage, thus, prolonging their shelf life.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Viscosidade
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