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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9782-9788, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390859

RESUMO

Sulforaphane, a potent antioxidant compound, is unstable at ambient temperature, whereas its precursor glucoraphanin is stable and metabolized to sulforaphane. Thus, we hypothesized that glucoraphanin-rich diet could effectively induce antioxidant enzyme activities and investigated the protective effects of long-term intake of a glucoraphanin-enriched kale (GEK) diet on skin aging in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 (SAMP1) mice. The senescence grading score was significantly lower after treatment with GEK for 39 weeks than that of the control mice. GEK also suppressed the thinning of the dorsal skin layer. Moreover, the GEK treatment enhanced the collagen production and increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression level in the skin tissue. TßRII and Smad3 expressions were clearly higher in the GEK-treated group than in the control group. Thus, GEK suppressed senescence in SAMP1 mice by enhancing the antioxidant activity and collagen production via the TßRII/Smad3 pathway, suggesting its practical applications for protection against skin aging.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Envelhecimento da Pele/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Environ Res ; 177: 108642, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430668

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient but toxic when taken in excessive amounts. Therefore, understanding the metabolic processes related to selenium uptake and bacteria-plant interactions coupled with selenium metabolism are of high importance. We cultivated Brassica oleracea with the previously isolated heterotrophic aerobic Se(IV)-reducing Pseudomonas sp. T5-6-I strain to better understand the phenomena of bacteria-mediated Se(IV) reduction on selenium availability to the plants. B. oleracea grown on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS-salt agar) with and without of Pseudomonas sp. were amended with Se(IV)/75Se(IV), and selenium transfer into plants was studied using autoradiography and gamma spectroscopy. XANES was in addition used to study the speciation of selenium in the B. oleracea plants. In addition, the effects of Se(IV) on the protein expression in B. oleracea was studied using HPLC-SEC. TEM and confocal microscopy were used to follow the bacterial/Se-aggregate accumulation in plants and the effects of bacterial inoculation on root-hair growth. In the tests using 75Se(IV) on average 130% more selenium was translocated to the B. oleracea plants grown with Pseudomonas sp. compared to the plants grown with selenium, but without Pseudomonas sp.. In addition, these bacteria notably increased root hair density. Changes in the protein expression of B. oleracea were observed on the ∼30-58 kDa regions in the Se(IV) treated samples, probably connected e.g. to the oxidative stress induced by Se(IV) or expression of proteins connected to the Se(IV) metabolism. Based on the XANES measurements, selenium appears to accumulate in B. oleracea mainly in organic C-Se-H and C-Se-C bonds with and without bacteria inoculation. We conclude that the Pseudomonas sp. T5-6-I strain seems to contribute positively to the selenium accumulation in plants, establishing the high potential of Se0-producing bacteria in the use of phytoremediation and biofortification of selenium.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9492-9500, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374175

RESUMO

Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products were characterized in fresh and in in vitro gastric and intestinal digesta of Dinosaur kale (Brassica oleracea L var. palmifolia DC). In fresh kale, glucoraphanin, sinigrin, gluconapin, gluconasturtiin, glucoerucin, glucobrasscin, and 4-methoxylglucobrassicin were identified. After 120 min of gastric digestion, the levels of glucoraphanin, sinigrin, and gluconapin decreased, and no glucoerucin or glucobrasscin was detected. However, a concomitant increase in the glucosinolate hydrolysis products allyl nitrile, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, phenylacetonitrile, and sulforaphane was observed. This trend continued through intestinal digestion. After 120 min, the levels of allyl nitrile, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, phenylacetonitrile, and sulforaphane were 88.19 ± 5.85, 222.15 ± 30.26, 129.17 ± 17.57, and 13.71 ± 0.62 pmol/g fresh weight, respectively. Intestinal digesta were then applied to Caco-2 cell monolayers to assess the bioavailability. After 6 h of incubation, no glucosinolates were detected and the percentage of total cellular uptake of the glucosinolate hydrolysis products ranged from 29.35% (sulforaphane) to 46.60% (allyl nitrile).


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10185-10194, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423782

RESUMO

This research aimed to measure the impact of novel food processing techniques, i.e., pulsed electric field (PEF) and ohmic heating (OH), on carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 cell uptake from tomato juice and high-pressure processing (HPP) and PEF on the same attributes from kale-based juices, as compared with raw (nonprocessed) and conventional thermally treated (TT) juices. Lycopene, ß-carotene, and lutein were quantitated in juices and the micelle fraction using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection and in Caco-2 cells using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Tomato juice results were as follows: PEF increased lycopene bioaccessibility (1.5 ± 0.39%) by 150% (P = 0.01) but reduced ß-carotene bioaccessibility (28 ± 6.2%) by 44% (P = 0.02), relative to raw juice. All processing methods increased lutein uptake. Kale-based juice results were as follows: TT and PEF degraded ß-carotene and lutein in the juice. No difference in bioaccessibility or cell uptake was observed. Total delivery, i.e., the summation of bioaccessibility and cell uptake, of lycopene, ß-carotene, and lutein was independent of type of processing. Taken together, PEF and OH enhanced total lycopene and lutein delivery from tomato juice to Caco-2 cells as well as TT, and may produce a more desirable product due to other factors (i.e., conservation of heat-labile micronutrients, fresher organoleptic profile). HPP best conserved the carotenoid content and color of kale-based juice and merits further consideration.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Brassica/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Preparações de Plantas/química
5.
Food Chem ; 299: 125099, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299513

RESUMO

Applying methyl jasmonate can mimic the defense response to insect damage in broccoli and enhances the production of glucosinolates, especially inducible indolyl GS-neoglucobrassicin. Previous studies have suggested that glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are anti-carcinogenic. Therefore, MeJA treatment may increase the nutritional quality of broccoli. However, there are few reports on the sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of MeJA-treated broccoli. In this study, an untrained consumer panel could not detect any taste differences between steamed MeJA-treated and untreated broccoli, even though the steamed MeJA-treated broccoli contained 50% more glucosinolates than untreated broccoli. The partial least square-regression model suggested that neoglucobrassicin-derived hydrolysis compounds were the major metabolites that determined overall preference for raw MeJA-treated broccoli potentially due to their potential negative sensory qualities. The results imply that MeJA treatment can increase the nutritional quality of broccoli without sacrificing taste in precooked meals or frozen vegetables.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Glucosinolatos/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Indóis/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Vapor , Paladar
6.
Food Chem ; 298: 125040, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261008

RESUMO

The effects of co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot, baby spinach and/or cherry tomato on the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins and carotenoids such as α-carotene, ß-carotene, lutein and lycopene were examined using a simulated in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion model. The individual vegetables and their mixtures were digested with and without added a standardised salad dressing. Bioaccessibility of total anthocyanins was enhanced by 10-15% (p < 0.05) when red cabbage was co-digested with the carotenoid-rich vegetables, except with carrot. In contrast, the co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot decreased bioaccessibility of total carotenoids by 21-33% (p < 0.05), and with cherry tomato by 42-56% (p < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of a given carotenoid varied depending on the vegetable matrix. Among the tested vegetable mixtures, red cabbage and baby spinach when co-digested demonstrated that anthocyanins and carotenoids were equally bioaccessible (total anthocyanin bioaccessibility of 62-66% and total carotenoid bioaccessibility of 66%).


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Brassica/química , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Verduras/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Digestão , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Saliva , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/metabolismo
7.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 312-321, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323614

RESUMO

Tetracycline (TC) can enter the human body via the soil-vegetable-human food chain; therefore, it is necessary to understand the toxicity of TC to humans through vegetables grown on contaminated soils. The present study combined an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an HL-7702 cell model and assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of TC from pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) grown on TC-contaminated soils. The results showed that the degradation rate of TC in black soil was significantly higher than that in purplish clay, while the results for TC uptake in pak choi were opposite. The bioaccessibility of TC was found to be higher in pak choi grown on purplish clay (5.67-7.59%) than in that grown on black soil (5.22-6.77%). It is suggested that soil properties contribute to the uptake of TC by pak choi. More fertile soil contained lower TC concentrations and thus mediated lower TC toxicity to humans. It may seem comforting that TC concentrations in the edible parts of pak choi are often found to be below safe limits. However, the TC diagnosis method showed that even moderate increases in TC concentrations in pak choi may induce oxidative stress, liver injury, mitochondrial cristae and rough endoplasmic reticulum swelling, and early apoptosis in liver cells HL-7702. The pak choi grown in purplish clay showed higher TC cytotoxicity than that grown in black soil. The TC cytotoxicity of raw pak choi was found to be higher than that of cooked pak choi. These results provide direct evidence of effective ways to prevent TC toxicity in humans.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tetraciclina/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tetraciclina/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Verduras/metabolismo
8.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1593-1598, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279977

RESUMO

Exploring traditional neonicotinoid pesticides substitutes has become one of the global scientific attentions because of their hazardous environmental impacts. Cycloxaprid (CYC) is considered to be a promising candidate alternative. But the environmental behaviors and fate of CYC in different planting system remain poorly understood. The accumulation of 14C-labeled CYC stereoisomers within different parts of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was investigated, with a particular focus on the foliar absorption, translocation and stereoselectivity of CYC, during a laboratory trial. In general, the stereoisomers 14C-5R,8S-CYC and 14C-5S,8R-CYC, their metabolites, as well as the breakdown and reaction products can be transferred in both acropetal and basipetal directions. Most of the two stereoisomers absorbed by plants remained in the treated leaves, whereas a small amount was distributed to the roots. The amount of 14C in the stalks varied among the experimental time points. At 192 h after treatment (HAT), the detected radioactivity of both 14C-5R,8S-CYC and 14C-5S,8R-CYC in the leaves above the treated leaf (LATL) was higher than that in the leaves below the treated leaf (LBTL). However, the stereoisomers of CYC underwent nonstereoselective absorption and translocation in this trial. This information implies that racemic CYC and its metabolites should be a main research focus. Thus, the obtained results provide implications for a more accurate prediction about the risk assessment of CYC, which will be helpful for guiding its rational use as well as securing the ecological environment safety and human health.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Piridinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Inseticidas/química , Modelos Teóricos , Neonicotinoides/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Piridinas/química , Estereoisomerismo
9.
Food Chem ; 295: 412-422, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174776

RESUMO

Consumption of Brassica vegetables is linked to health benefits, as they contain high concentrations of the following secondary plant metabolites (SPMs): glucosinolate breakdown products, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds. Especially Brassica vegetables are consumed as microgreens (developed cotyledons). It was investigated how different ontogenetic stages (microgreens or leaves) of pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) differ in their SPM concentration. The impact of breadmaking on SPMs in microgreens (7 days) and leaves (14 days) in pak choi and kale as a supplement in mixed wheat bread was assessed. In leaves, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were higher compared to those of microgreens. Breadmaking caused a decrease of SPMs. Chlorophyll degradation was observed, leading to pheophytin and pyropheophytin formation. In kale, sinapoylgentiobiose, a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, concentration increased. Thus, leaves of Brassica species are suitable as natural ingredients for enhancing bioactive SPM concentrations in bread.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Pão , Alimentos Fortificados , Triticum , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Nitrilos , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
10.
Food Chem ; 297: 124934, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253300

RESUMO

The intensive use of pesticides has led to the need to optimize analytical methodologies for the control of residues in food. The present study aims to compare the efficiency of different ion sources (Eletrospray Ionization-ESI and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization - APCI) in LC-MS/MS systems, when analysing 22 pesticides in a cabbage matrix. The method performance was evaluated during a validation study. Organophosphates, triazoles, pyrethroids and triazines compounds showed good linearity in the range 0.5-200 µg.Kg-1. Statistical tests were used to evaluate linearity. LOQm values varied from 0.50 to 1.0 µg.Kg-1 to the ESI source, and 1.0-2.0 µg.Kg-1 for the APCI source. Matrix effect was more intense when using the APCI source. Accuracy and precision were evaluated at three levels of concentration (2; 20 and 100 µg Kg-1). Most of the compounds presented recovery between 70 and 120%. ESI-LC-MS/MS system showed greater efficiency in multiresidue analysis in the cabbage matrix.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Organofosfatos/química , Piretrinas/química , Triazóis/química
11.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 65-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190320

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Overexpression of BoMYB29 gene up-regulates the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway in Brassica oleracea plants increasing the production of the anti-cancer metabolite glucoraphanin, and the toxic and pungent sinigrin. Isothiocyanates, the bio-active hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, naturally produced by several Brassicaceae species, play an important role in human health and agriculture. This study aims at correlating the content of aliphatic glucosinolates to the expression of genes involved in their synthesis in Brassica oleracea, and perform functional analysis of BoMYB29 gene. To this purpose, three genotypes were used: a sprouting broccoli, a cabbage, and a wild genotype (Winspit), a high glucosinolate containing accession. Winspit showed the highest transcript level of BoMYB28, BoMYB29 and BoAOP2 genes, and BoAOP2 expression was positively correlated with that of the two MYB genes. Further analyses of the aliphatic glucosinolates also showed a positive correlation between the expression of BoAOP2 and the production of sinigrin and gluconapin in Winspit. The Winspit BoMYB29 CDS was cloned and overexpressed in Winspit and in the DH AG1012 line. Overexpressing Winspit plants produced higher quantities of alkenyl glucosinolates, such as sinigrin. Conversely, the DH AG1012 transformants showed a higher production of methylsulphinylalkyl glucosinolates, including glucoraphanin, and, despite an up-regulation of the aliphatic glucosinolate genes, no increase in alkenyl glucosinolates. The latter may be explained by the absence of a functional AOP2 gene in DH AG1012. Nevertheless, an extract of DH AG1012 lines overexpressing BoMYB29 provided a chemoprotective effect on human colon cells. This work exemplifies how the genetic diversity of B. oleracea may be used by breeders to select for higher expression of transcription factors for glucosinolate biosynthesis to improve its natural, health-promoting properties.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Células HT29 , Humanos , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24532-24541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236863

RESUMO

Se can regulate Cd accumulation and translocation in plants; however, such effects can be controversial because of the differences in plant species and Se species. In this study, pak choi was cultured under hydroponic conditions, and the effects of selenite and selenate on Cd accumulation were investigated in the edible parts of this vegetable. The results showed gradual improvements in the effects of the two Se species on the Cd content in pak choi shoots at the four assessed growing stages. Selenite did not lead to significant changes in Cd accumulation in the shoots until day 40, when it significantly reduced the accumulation by 34%. Selenate was always found to increase the Cd content in the shoots, and the differences on days 19 and 40 were 16% and 45%, respectively, compared with those of the Cd (only) treatment. Accordingly, selenate invariably enhanced Cd translocation from the roots to the shoots, whereas selenite insignificantly reduced the translocation only on day 40. Generally, selenomethionine (SeMet) accounted for much larger proportions in selenite-treated plants, while SeO42- was the dominant Se species in selenate-treated plants. However, under both Se treatments, the SeMet proportion increased substantially from day 19 to day 40 when that of SeO42- exhibited a drastic decrease; therefore, the relative proportion of seleno-amino acids to SeO42- may be the key factor for the regulation of Cd accumulation in pak choi via treatment with selenite and selenate at the different growing stages.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Raízes de Plantas , Selênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Selênio , Selenito de Sódio
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 43-52, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075602

RESUMO

Soil co-contamination of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and phthalate esters has become prominent due to its potential adverse effect on human food supply. There is limited information on using wood- and animal-derived biochars for the remediation of co-contaminated soils. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted using Brassica chinensis L. as a bio-indicator plant to investigate the effect of P. orientalis biochar and pig biochar application on the bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and on plant physiological parameters (malondialdehyde, proline and soluble sugars). Biochar materials were applied to two soils containing low (LOC) and high (HOC) organic carbon content at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%. To better understand the influence of biochar, physicochemical properties and X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were characterized. Biochar application increased soil pH, organic carbon content, and available phosphorus content. Increasing biochar application rates decreased DTPA-extractable Cd and extractable DEHP concentrations in both soils. Biochar application reduced the plant uptake of both Cd and DEHP from co-contaminated soils; the maximum reduction of Cd (92.7%) and DEHP (52.0%) was observed in 2% pig biochar-treated LOC soil. The responses of plant physiological parameters to increased biochar applications indicated that less Cd and DEHP were taken up by plants. Pig biochar was more effective (P < 0.05) at reducing the bioavailability of Cd and DEHP in both soils than P. orientalis biochar; therefore, pig biochar had greater potential for improving the quality of the crop. However, the highest application rate (4%) of pig biochar restricted plant seed germination. Key factors influencing the bioavailability of Cd and DEHP in soils were soil organic carbon content, biochar properties (such as surface alkalinity, available phosphorus content and ash content) and biochar application rates.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Cádmio/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Dietilexilftalato/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
14.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(6): 1197-1204, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076774

RESUMO

The seed oil quality of Brassica oilseed species has been improved in the last few decades, using conventional breeding approaches. Modern biotechnology has enabled the significant development of new seed lipid traits in many oil crops. Alternation of seed lipid component with gene knockout by RNAi gene silencing, artificial microRNA or gene editing within the crop is relative straightforward. Introducing a new pathway from an exogenous source via biotechnology enables the creation of a new trait, where the biosynthetic pathway for such a new trait is not available in the host crop. This review updates the recent development of new seed lipid traits in six major Brassica species and highlights the capability of biotechnology to improve the composition of important fatty acids for both industrial and nutritional purposes.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Engenharia Genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Óleo de Brassica napus/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Engenharia Genética/métodos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 179-184, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082582

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are necessary mineral nutrients for human body but millions of people have an inadequate intake of them, and eat food enriched with Se and Zn may minimize these problems. Chinese cabbage is an important food in people's daily life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of single Se, Zn and their combination treatment in soil on their accumulation, antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves of Chinese cabbage using soil pot culture experiment. When 0.5 mg kg-1 Se +30 mg kg-1 Zn and 1.0 mg kg-1 Se +30 mg kg-1 Zn were spiked in soils, Zn concentrations in roots and leaves of Chinese cabbage were significantly increased (p < 0.05) by 20.2%, 37.8% and 17.9%, 34.1% respectively compared to the treatment of 30 mg kg-1 Zn added, and the latter was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of former, indicating Se significantly promoted Zn accumulation. Almost all physiological indexes including POD, SOD, CAT, APX, GR, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Carotenoids, MDA and Free proline in the treatments of Se or Zn spiked were significantly improved (p < 0.05) or basically unaffected compared to the control without Se or Zn added. The biomass change trends were similar with these indexes either. These results showed that the addition in soil of Se and Zn significantly increased their accumulation in Chinese cabbage without affected its formal growth. Particularly, the addition of Se promoted Zn accumulation. The conclusions were more important reference for the production practice of cash crop enriched of Se and Zn either.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Solo , Zinco/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/enzimologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5533-5540, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumer preference today is for the consumption of functional food and the reduction of chemical preservatives. Moreover, the antimicrobial properties and health-promoting qualities of plant secondary metabolites are well known. Due to forecasted climate changes and increasing human population, agricultural practices for saving water have become a concern. In the present study, the physiological responses of curly kale Brassica oleracea L. convar. Acephala (DC) var. sabellica to drought stress and the impact of water limitation on the concentration of selected secondary metabolites were investigated under laboratory-controlled conditions. RESULTS: Results indicated that drought stress increased the content of trans-2-hexenal, phytol and δ-tocopherol, and decreased chlorophyll content. Moreover, drought stress increased antioxidant capacity and the expression of AOP2, a gene associated with the biosynthesis of aliphatic alkenyl glucosinolates, and of three genes - TGG1, TGGE and PEN2 - encoding for myrosinases, the enzymes involved in glucosinolate breakdown. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that water limitation during the growing phase might be exploited as a sustainable practice for producing curly kale with a high concentration of nutritionally important health-promoting bioactive metabolites. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Secas , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21704-21716, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129904

RESUMO

A hydroponic experiment was conducted to explore the interactive effects of selenium (Se) supplementation (0, 5, and 10 µM) and arsenic (As) toxicity (0, 200, and 400 µM) on the growth, accumulation, and oxidative damage along with defense mechanisms of metallicolous (MP) and non-metallicolous population (NMP) of Isatis cappadocica, an As-hyperaccumulator, and Brassica oleracea as reference brassica. The results revealed that As stress significantly hampered plant growth particularly in B. oleracea. It reduced plant growth due to enhanced oxidative load of As-stressed plants. Between the two Isatis populations, metallicolous plants accumulated significantly higher As, however with considerably low growth defects. Furthermore, Se supplementation counteracted the adverse effects of stress on growth and physiological performance of all studied plants. Addition of Se, particularly at higher dose (10 µM), significantly suppressed root As uptake and slightly its accumulation in shoots of B. oleracea plants treated with 400 µM As, and thus improved growth characteristics of stressed plants. Under As stress, Se supplementation increased the activities of enzymatic (peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR)) and non-enzymatic (anthocyanins and total flavonoids) antioxidants, thereby suggesting relieved As stress by reduced oxidative damage. Taken together, these results support the beneficial role of Se in the regulation of As stress by improving growth, physiology, and antioxidant capacity, and highlight its significance for plants grown on such metal-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Brassica/fisiologia , Isatis/fisiologia , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Peroxidase
18.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 49(8): 775-782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124740

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are sulfur- and nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites that function in plant defense and provide benefits to human health. In this study, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000, green and red kale hairy roots were established. The expression levels of GSLs biosynthesis genes and their accumulation in both kale hairy roots were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and HPLC. The results showed that the expression of most indolic GSLs biosynthesis genes was higher in the hairy roots of green kale than in that of red kale. In contrast, the expression of BoCYP83A1 and BoSUR1 encoding key enzymes aromatic GSL biosynthesis was significantly higher in red kale hairy root. The HPLC analysis identified six GSLs. The levels of 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin were 6.21, 5.98, and 2 times higher, respectively, in green kale than in red kale, whereas the levels of neoglucobrassicin and gluconasturtiin were 16.2 and 3.48 times higher, respectively, in red kale than in green kale. Our study provides insights into the underlying mechanisms of GSLs biosynthesis in kale hairy roots and can be potentially used as "biological factories" for producing bioactive substances such as GSLs.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Agrobacterium/genética , Brassica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
19.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 45-55, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071632

RESUMO

Hydrogen gas (H2) has been shown as an important factor in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of H2 and its interaction with nitric oxide (NO) on alleviating cadmium (Cd) stress in Brassica campestris seedlings were investigated. NO donor (SNP) or hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment showed a significant improvement in growth of Cd-stressed seedlings. Cd treatment upregulated both endogenous NO and H2 (36% and 66%, respectively), and the increase of H2 was prior to NO increase. When treated with NO scavenger (PTIO) or NO biosynthesis enzyme inhibitors (L-NAME and Gln), HRW-induced alleviation under Cd stress was prevented. Under Cd stress, HRW pretreatment significantly enhanced the NO accumulation, and together up-regulated the activity of NR (nitrate reductase) and expression of NR. HRW induced lower reactive oxygen species (ROS), higher AsA content, enhanced activity of POD (peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) in seedling roots were inhibited by PTIO, L-NAME and Gln. Through proteomic analysis, the level of 29 proteins were changed in response to H2 and NO-induced amelioration of Cd stress. Nearly half of them were involved in oxidation-reduction processes (about 20%) or antioxidant enzymes (approximately 20%). These results strongly indicate that in Cd-stressed seedlings, pretreatment with HRW induces the accumulation of H2 (biosynthesized or permeated), which further stimulates the biosynthesis of NO through the NR pathway. Finally, H2 and NO together enhance the antioxidant capabilities of seedlings in response to Cd toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Brassica/enzimologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Proteômica , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 377, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane is a natural isothiocyanate available from cruciferous vegetables with multiple characteristics including antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effect. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has been used for long-read de novo assembly of plant genome. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism related to glucosinolates biosynthesis in Chinese kale using combined NGS and SMRT sequencing. RESULTS: SMRT sequencing produced 185,134 unigenes, higher than 129,325 in next-generation sequencing (NGS). NaCl (75 mM), methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 40 µM), selenate (Se, sodium selenite 100 µM), and brassinolide (BR, 1.5 µM) treatment induced 6893, 13,287, 13,659 and 11,041 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Chinese kale seedlings comparing with control. These genes were associated with pathways of glucosinolates biosynthesis, including phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism, and glucosinolate biosynthesis. We found NaCl decreased sulforaphane and glucosinolates (indolic and aliphatic) contents and downregulated expression of cytochrome P45083b1 (CYP83b1), S-alkyl-thiohydroximatelyase or carbon-sulfur lyase (SUR1) and UDP-glycosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74b1). MeJA increased sulforaphane and glucosinolates contents and upregulated the expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1; Se increased sulforaphane; BR increased expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1, and increased glucosinolates contents. The desulfoglucosinolate sulfotransferases ST5a_b_c were decreased by all treatments. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that NaCl inhibited the biosynthesis of both indolic and aliphatic glucosinolates, while MeJA and BR increased them. MeJA and BR treatments, conferred the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, and Se and MeJA contributed to sulforaphane in Chinese kale via regulating the expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Brassica/genética , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ácido Selênico/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
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