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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110990, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888601

RESUMO

The presence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in croplands has become an international concern. The environmental behavior and fate of SMX in agricultural soils are not well understood, especially when the adsorption behavior is disturbed by the dissolved organic matter (DOM) released by crop straw. As canola straw is one of the biomasses widely returned to farmlands, we characterized DOM derived from pristine and decomposed canola straw, and explored the effects and mechanisms of the DOMs on regulating SMX adsorption to purple paddy soils. The spectral analysis showed that the molecular weight, aromaticity, and hydrophobicity of canola straw-derived DOM increased as decomposition proceeded. These physicochemical properties collectively determined the effects of the DOM on SMX adsorption. The DOM derived from pristine canola straw increased SMX maximum adsorption capacity of the soils by approximately 2.6 times, but this positive effect gradually decreased to a steady state by day 90 in the straw decomposition period. Nevertheless, the SMX adsorption behavior in the soils was invariably determined by the DOM extracts. These adsorption processes of SMX were well fitted by the double-chamber kinetics model and the Langmuir and Freundlich thermodynamic models. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that SMX adsorption onto the soils was spontaneous and endothermic, and this adsorption characteristics was not significantly (p > 0.05) changed by the DOM extracts. However, the adsorption kinetics were altered by those DOMs, i.e., the fast and slow adsorption processes were both diminished. Correspondingly, co-adsorption and cumulative adsorption were identified as the main mechanisms determining SMX adsorption to the purple paddy soils in the presence of the straw-derived DOMs. These results collectively indicated that the DOMs released by straw in croplands may decrease the ecological risks of organic pollutants by inhibiting their migration processes.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Sulfametoxazol/química , Adsorção , Agricultura , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silagem
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 595-601, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862252

RESUMO

The residual characteristics and risk assessment with respect to cyazofamid and its metabolite 4-chloro-5-p-tolylimidazole-2-carbonitrile were monitored in case of Korean cabbage at different preharvest intervals during a greenhouse trial. The 0.02 kg a.i/ha of cyazofamid was sprayed twice on seven-day intervals (i.e., on day 0, 7, 14, and 21 before harvest). The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to monitor the residual amount of fungicide. The matrix-matched calibration curves with respect to the cyazofamid in Korean cabbage exhibited good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999) and acceptable recoveries of 84.1%-114.9%. The biological half-life of cyazofamid in Korean cabbage was 3.18 days. During the treatment, the preharvest residue of cyazofamid in Korean cabbage 14 days before harvest (0.80 mg/kg) was lower than that specified by the MFDS-MRL (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety-Maximum Residue Limit, 2.0 mg/kg) and should be recommended as the safe preharvest-interval application limit. The hazard quotient showed low toxicity (70.58%) during the risk assessment study of cyazofamid.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 328: 127102, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512468

RESUMO

Sprouting process enhances plant bioactive compounds. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L) sprouts are well known for their high levels of glucosinolates (GLs), amino acids, and antioxidants, which offer outstanding biological activities with positive impacts on plant metabolism. Elevated CO2 (eCO2, 620 ppm) was applied for 9 days to further improve nutritive and health-promoting values of three cultivars of broccoli sprouts i.e., Southern star, Prominence and Monotop. eCO2 improved sprouts growth and induced GLs accumulation e.g., glucoraphanin, possibly through amino acids production e.g., high methionine and tryptophan. There were increases in myrosinase activity, which stimulated GLs hydrolysis to yield health-promoting sulforaphane. Interestingly, low levels of ineffective sulforaphane nitrile were detected and positively correlated with reduced epithiospecifier protein after eCO2 treatment. High glucoraphanin and sulforaphane levels in eCO2 treated sprouts improved the anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of their extracts. In conclusion, eCO2 treatment enriches broccoli sprouts with health-promoting metabolites and bioactivities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Brassica/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Imidoésteres/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Food Chem ; 326: 127017, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434111

RESUMO

Active use-by date (AUBD) or freshness indicators hold great potential to reduce food waste. Herein, we develop an anthocyanin AUBD indicator that is capable of discriminating between fresh, spoiling, and spoiled milk. The sensor undergoes a visible blue to purple to pink color change in response to lactic acid, which is an indicator of microbial spoilage in milk. Anthocyanin is cast into a range of materials and the composite's suitability to monitor pH changes (pH 6.8 fresh milk vs pH 4.0 spoiled milk) is assessed. Of the materials studied, an anthocyanin-agarose film is nominated as the optimum materials with the best colorimetric performance. We introduce a new method to quantify anthocyanin color change by measuring red chromatic shift by digital analysis. The anthocyanin sensors will provide a real-time indication of actual milk quality, surpassing the function of traditional date marking tools that provide an indication of the expected shelf life.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Brassica/química , Leite/química , Animais , Cor , Colorimetria , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267305

RESUMO

Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC.) extract has been demonstrated hypolipidemic and antioxidant capacity. Herein, we investigated the effect of red cabbage aqueous extract (RC) or fenofibrate (FF) in oxidative stress induced by Triton WR-1339 in rats. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated through the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and, thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels in erythrocytes, liver, kidneys, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of male rats. The alterations promoted by Triton WR-1339 in enzymatic antioxidant defense in the liver, kidneys and hippocampus were reversed by RC or FF treatments. The TBARS and PC levels increased in the liver, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of hyperlipidemic rats were decreased by the treatments with RC or FF. These findings demonstrated that RC is a potential therapy to treat diseases not only involving dyslipidemic condition but also oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassica/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
6.
Food Chem ; 321: 126694, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244140

RESUMO

Red cabbage contains glucosinolates, precursors to health-promoting isothiocyanates. However, raw cabbage often releases mainly epithionitriles and nitriles from glucosinolates. To increase isothiocyanate formation, the effect of acid usage in the preparation of red cabbage was evaluated. Moreover, the effects of the chosen boiling method (acidic boiled red cabbage versus neutral boiled blue cabbage) on glucosinolate degradation were investigated using UHPLC-DAD-ToF-MS and GC-MS. The addition of vinegar significantly increased isothiocyanate formation of cabbage salad from 0.09 to 0.21 µmol/g fresh weight, while lemon juice only slightly increased isothiocyanate formation. Acidic boiled red cabbage degraded glucosinolates and increased nitrile formation, while in neutral boiled blue cabbage, glucosinolates were stable. However, shortly boiled blue cabbage (5 min) had the highest isothiocyanate levels (0.08 µmol/g fresh weight). Thus, for a diet rich in isothiocyanates it is recommended to acidify raw cabbage salads and prepare shortly boiled blue cabbage instead of red cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Culinária/métodos , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Saladas , Ácido Acético/química , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Comportamento Alimentar , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hábitos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 324: 126887, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339788

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation and salt ions play essential roles in senescence control, but the underlying regulatory mechanism of senescence has not been thoroughly revealed in broccoli postharvest buds. Here, we found 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 400 mmol·L-1 KCl, 40 mmol·L-1 CaCl2 and 0.5 µmol·L-1 Trichostatin-A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) delayed the bud senescence. They resulted in significantly inhibiting the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and dramatically promoting the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and Chlorophyll. Furthermore, the expression of PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH) and NONYELLOWING (NYE1), but not SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), were remarkably repressed by salt ions and TSA. Interestingly, HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9) and CATION/Ca2+ EXCHANGER 1 (CCX1) were down-regulated by NaCl, CaCl2 and TSA. Further assays demonstrated that HDA9 could not interact with CCX1 promoter. It suggested that CCX1 along with HDA9 were involved in inhibiting the senescence of broccoli buds, and regulated aging by indirect interaction.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sais/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antiporters/química , Antiporters/genética , Antiporters/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Brassica/classificação , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Íons/química , Filogenia , Sais/química , Alinhamento de Sequência
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1248-1255, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144763

RESUMO

Nondairy fermented products, such as fruit and vegetable juices, are gaining popularity among consumers worldwide for health-related and economic reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in microbiological quality; antimicrobial and antioxidant activity; and phenolic, vitamin C, minerals, and cadmium content occurring during spontaneous fermentation of curly kale juice. The fermentation process contributed to a significant growth of lactic acid bacteria, enterococci, and yeasts, while no pathogens of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were observed. The antimicrobial properties of the obtained juice improved during fermentation for all indicator microorganisms. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity increased from 48 to 116 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 mL and from 4.5 to 6.8 mM Trolox/100 mL, respectively, while the content of vitamin C decreased. The results indicated that 100 mL of juice provided a significant contribution to the recommended mineral intake. Moreover, the content of heavy metal Cd was within acceptable limit (6 µg/kg). Overall, our findings indicate that fermented curly kale juice may become popular in the functional food sector, especially among vegetarians and consumers with lactose intolerance or allergy to milk proteins. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: As the market for fermented fruit and vegetable products grows, new plant materials rich in biologically active compounds are being sought. Considering the high demand for sauerkraut, the fermentation of other cruciferous vegetables seems interesting. One example is curly kale, which has been classified as "superfood" due to its numerous beneficial health properties, such as strong antioxidant activity, high vitamins, and minerals content. In addition, a market niche exists due to a lack of fermented green curly kale products on the market, making our study particularly relevant.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Nutritivo , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Brassica/microbiologia , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Vitaminas
9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111800, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028188

RESUMO

Herein, we have reported the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of highly stable gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using red cabbage extract (RCE) under UV irradiation. The anthocyanin groups predominantly existing in RCE play an essential role for biosynthesis of stable Au NPs. The reasons for using anthocyanins: 1) they act as chelating agents for preferentially reacting with gold ions (Au3+) to form Au3+- anthocyanin complexes, 2) as light-active reductants for reduction of Au3+ to zero valent Au0 under UV irradiation and 3) as stabilizing agent for preventing Au NPs from aggregation in high salt concentration owing to their unique salt tolerance property. We also demonstrate that how reaction time, concentration of RCE, pH value of reaction solutions and using one more reducing agent affected formation of the Au NPs. The stability of RCE Au NPs was comparatively studied with commercial (citrate stabilized) Au NPs against 100 mM salt (NaCl) solution. The RCE-Au NP showed reduction ability for conversion of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP). UV-vis spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential (ZT) methods were utilized to characterize the Au NPs. We demonstrated that how whole RCE (anthocyanins molecules are major component) can be used as photo-active reducing and stabilizing agents to form Au NPs in a short time under UV irradiation and strong reducing agent without additional agents.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Antocianinas/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Catálise , Química Verde , Nitrofenóis/química , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sais/química
10.
Food Chem ; 315: 126275, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004982

RESUMO

The effects of individual epi-brassinolide (eBL) and NaCl, as well as their combination on contents of main phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated. Our results showed that the application of 100 nM eBL decreased the contents of individual and total glucosinolates, while treatments of 160 mM NaCl both alone and combined with 100 nM eBL enhanced the glucosinolates accumulation by promoting the expression of genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis in Chinese kale sprouts and the combined treatment led to significantly higher content of most glucosinolate profiles. Moreover, it also elevated the contents of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids, whereas did not influence the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity. These findings indicated that the combined treatment of 100 nM eBL plus 160 mM NaCl could provide a new strategy to improve the main health promoting compounds in Chinese kale sprouts.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Brassinosteroides/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Plântula/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Carotenoides/química , Glucosinolatos/química , Fenóis/química , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 30, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025825

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether seeds of Brassica oleracea var. italica (i.e. broccoli, an edible plant) produce defensins that inhibit phytopathogenic fungi and pathogenic bacteria of clinical significance. Crude extracts obtained from broccoli seeds were fractioned by molecular exclusion techniques and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Two peptides were identified, BraDef1 (10.68 kDa) and BraDef2 (9.9 kDa), which were categorized as Class I defensins based on (a) their primary structure, (b) the presence of four putative cysteine disulfide bridges, and (c) molecular modeling predictions. BraDef1 and BraDef2 show identities of, respectively, 98 and 71%, and 67 and 85%, with defensins from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. BraDef (BraDef1 + BraDef2) disrupted membranes of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria alternata and also reduced hyphal growth of C. gloeosporioides by ~ 56% after 120 h of incubation. Pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus 183, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio parahaemolitycus) were susceptible to BraDef, but probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium animalis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei were not inhibited. To our knowledge, this is the first report of defensins present in seeds of B. oleracea var. italica (i.e. edible broccoli). Our findings suggest an applied value for BraDef1/BraDef2 in controlling phytopathogenic fungi and pathogenic bacteria of clinical significance.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Brassica/química , Defensinas/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Defensinas/química , Defensinas/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
12.
Food Chem ; 316: 126216, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044707

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to clearly understand the health-promoting potentials of broccoli seeds and sprouts according to identify their representative bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in six varieties. Sulforaphane (SF) extraction was firstly optimized from seeds and sprouts. Then SF extracted under optimized conditions from seeds and sprouts were compared. Most varieties obtained the maximum SF, total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents in sprouts on day 3. SF contents in sprouts were 46%-97% of seeds, whereas TP and TF contents in sprouts were 1.12-3.58 times higher than seeds among varieties. After in vitro digestion, broccoli sprouts from MNL variety kept considerable SF, TF, and TP contents, as well as antioxidant capacities, with all values higher than seeds. Compared with seeds, sprouts after 3 days germination were also recommended as raw materials of functional foods that possess high health-promoting potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Brassica/química , Isotiocianatos/química , Flavonoides/química , Germinação , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Sementes/química
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 856-868, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891502

RESUMO

Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight organic bases. BAs occurring naturally in living organisms are responsible for a number of vital functions, including (in humans) secretion of gastric acids, controlling body temperature, differentiation and growth of cells, immune reactions, and brain activity. However, if oversupplied with food, BAs may cause food poisoning and produce undesirable effects. Nine BAs and eight free amino acids (FAAs) were determined in 85 samples of 19 different varieties of fermented vegetables available on the Polish retail market. Both BA and FAA levels differed significantly among various varieties of the studied fermented vegetables. Averages for the sum of all tested BAs ranged from 30.29 ± 16.43 mg·kg-1 in fermented olives to 612.1 ± 359.33 mg·kg-1 in fermented Brussels sprout. BA profiles were dominated by putrescine (42%), tyramine (20%), cadaverine (18%), and histamine (8%); jointly, the four amines amounted to 88% of all nine studied BAs. The combined level of the latter four BAs was calculated for each vegetable variety as the so-called BA index (BAI). On that basis, the risk of BA-related adverse health effects has been assessed as high/medium/low in 6/3/10 of all 19 studied varieties of fermented vegetables. Brussels sprout and broccoli turned out to be the most risky vegetables from that point of view (BAI above 400 mg·kg-1). FAA levels ranged from 54.8 ± 12.76 (fermented olives) to 3917.42 ± 1528.73 mg·kg-1 (fermented garlic). The high content of FAAs may increase the risk of forming toxic amounts of BAs, depending on characteristics of the current and added microflora as well as on environmental and technological conditions the product is subjected to.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Verduras/química , Aminas Biogênicas/toxicidade , Brassica/química , Fermentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fatores de Risco
14.
Food Chem ; 313: 126065, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935663

RESUMO

Brassica spp. are excellent sources of bioactive compounds. These vegetables are usually processed in the home, or by catering and food service industries, on the basis of convenience and taste preference. Shelf-life of these seasonal, perishable vegetables can be extended by preservation methods (e.g. freezing and canning), which usually involve blanching. Cooking, blanching, freezing and canning alter the physical and chemical characteristics of Brassica, and only some of the changes are desirable. We have reviewed the results of a large number of studies that assessed the effects of different treatments and storage conditions on various quality parameters in Brassica. These effects are important in relation to nutritional value, health benefits and attractiveness of the vegetables. The findings vary considerably for each bioactive component, depending on the treatments, conditions and matrices. Optimization of processing and storage conditions is, therefore, important to maximize the intake of beneficial compounds contained in Brassica spp.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Culinária/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Congelamento , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/química , Paladar
15.
Phytother Res ; 34(4): 721-728, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972874

RESUMO

Effective management and treatment of cancer depend on developing novel antitumor drugs with the capability of targeting various molecular pathways. Identification and subsequent targeting of these pathways are of importance in cancer therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules responsible for post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Notably, miRNAs participate in a number of biological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and cell cycle regulation. So, any impairment in the expression and function of miRNAs is associated with development of disorders, particularly cancer. Naturally occurring nutraceutical compounds have attracted much attention due to their great antitumor activity. Among them, sulforaphane isolated from Brassica oleracea (broccoli) is of interest due to its therapeutic and biological activities such as antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotection, and cardiprotection. Sulforaphane has demonstrated great antitumor activity and is able to significantly inhibit proliferation, viability, migration, malignancy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. These antitumor effects have widely been investigated, and it appears that there is a need for a precise review to demonstrate the molecular pathway that sulforaphane follows to exert its antitumor activity. At the present review, we focus on the modulatory impact of sulforaphane on miRNAs and exhibit that how various miRNAs in different cancers are regulated by sulforaphane.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Brassica/química , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/isolamento & purificação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
16.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 211-220, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915766

RESUMO

Evolution of important glucosinolates (GLSs), namely, sinigrin, glucoraphanin, glucoerucin and glucobrassicin, in three commonly consumed Brassica vegetables viz. white cabbage, Chinese cabbage and bok choy during their processing into vegetable powder was investigated. Drying was noted to be a major processing step causing significant losses of GLSs. Interestingly, different GLSs and even the same GLSs in different vegetables showed different thermal stabilities during drying. The stability of GLSs in vegetable powder during in vitro gastric digestion was also studied. Glucoraphanin exhibited the highest stability while glucobrassicin was the most vulnerable GLS under in vitro gastric conditions. White cabbage is found to be a promising material for the production of vegetable powder as it contains high contents of GLSs, especially glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, which are important precursors of anticarcinogenic compounds, namely sulforaphane and erucin. These two GLSs were also noted to be stable during in vitro gastric digestion.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Imidoésteres , Indóis , Valor Nutritivo , Pós/análise , Verduras
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981876

RESUMO

The formation of allopolyploid crops basically depends on the successful interspecific hybridization and polyploidization, which generally involves in a combination of distinct but related genomes from independent species. But cytological analysis of these initially synthesized allohaploids immediately after genome merging is poorly explored in regards to anther and pollen development to date. In this study, Brassica trigenomic allohaploids (ABC) were produced to investigate the immediate effects of the genome combinations on pollen fertility during anther development via crosses between natural allotetraploid B. carinata (BBCC) and diploid B. rapa (AA). The results showed that in the synthetic Brassica allotriploids (ABC), the anther development was completely disrupted, and the pollen grains were mostly inviable with varied genetic complements. In addition, the meiosis course was aberrantly altered and eccentric chromosomal configurations including multivalent, bridges and lags occurred frequently during metaphase I to anaphase II. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) further revealed that B genome of homoeology was frequently apt to interact with A and C genomes, and cytoskeletal organizations was improperly distributed during meiosis in these synthetic Brassica allotriploids. Furthermore, we also confirmed that the expression of typical meiosis-related genes was obviously repressed during anther development in these Brassica allotriploids. Taken together, our results provide a detailed cytology for insights into pollen development in the synthetic allotriploid hybrids, which are conventionally considered as a useful genetic resource for polyploid Brassica breeding.


Assuntos
Brassica , Meiose , Pólen , Brassica/química , Brassica/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Diploide , Fertilidade/genética , Genoma de Planta , Humanos , Hibridização Genética , Pólen/genética , Poliploidia
18.
Food Chem ; 311: 125880, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771913

RESUMO

Although flavonoid sophorosides are common glycosides in brassica vegetables, red raspberries and other food plants, there is a lack of studies of absorption and metabolism of any sophoroside. The aim of this study was to characterize the absorption, phase II metabolism and microbial catabolism of quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, compared to that of quercetin aglycone. Quercetin-3-O-sophoroside was purified from Apocynum venetum and characterized by MS2, 1H and 13C NMR. Using an in situ rat gut model, we found intact, methylated, sulfated and both methylated and sulfated quercetin sophoroside in the plasma following jejunal introduction of the sophoroside; we found derivatives of benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, and phenyl propionic acid in the cecal contents following cecal introduction. This novel finding, that quercetin sophoroside was absorbed intact, without deglycosylation, points to a possible role for the terminal sugar and/or the type of linkage among glycosidic moieties in the mechanism of absorption of flavonoid glycosides.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/metabolismo , Animais , Brassica/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/sangue , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Microbiota , Quercetina/sangue , Quercetina/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1616-1624, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (Chinese kale) is an important vegetable grown in southern China. This study was aimed at searching for environmentally friendly and affordable approaches to increase the production of medicinally relevant glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in Chinese kale plants. For this purpose, the foliar application of liquiritin at 0 (control), 250, 500 and 750 ppm was tested starting from the four-leaf stage and repeated every two weeks until plants were two months old. RESULTS: Foliar application of liquiritin in Chinese kale plants significantly increased glucosinolates and total phenolic content, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with control plants, 2.3- and 1.9-fold increases in yields of glucosinolates and total phenolic content, respectively, were corroborated in Chinese kale plants treated with 750 ppm of liquiritin. Along with rises in the content of eight different glucosinolates, liquiritin elicitation effectively increased the concentration of glycosilated and acylated flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. The expression of genes involved in glucosinolate and phenolic biosynthesis was significantly higher in liquiritin-treated plants as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Liquiritin elicitation is a feasible and environmentally friendly practice for increasing the production of medicinally important glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in Chinese kale, which may improve this plant's value as a nutraceutical food. This study also contributes to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying liquiritin elicitation. This is the first report documenting the use of liquiritin for an elicitation purpose in plants. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Brassica/química , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Verduras/química , Verduras/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/metabolismo
20.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(2): 125-137, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697563

RESUMO

The high frequency and incidence of foodborne outbreaks related to fresh vegetables consumption is a major public health concern and an economic burden worldwide. This study evaluated the effect of individual and combined application of ultrasound (40 kHz, 100 W) and ozone on the inactivation of foodborne Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as well as their impact on cabbage color and vitamin C content. Plate count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and flow cytometry (FCM) following single or double staining with carboxyfluorescein diacetate and (or) propidium iodide were used to determine bacterial inactivation parameters, such as cell culturability, membrane integrity, intracellular enzyme activity, and injured and dead cells. The results of FCM and SEM showed that ultrasound treatment affected bacteria mainly by acting on the cell membrane and inactivating intracellular esterase, which resulted in bacterial death. Furthermore, when combined with ozone at 1.5 mg/L, the maximum reduction of bacterial populations was observed at 8 min with no damage on the surface of treated leaves. Therefore, fresh products sanitization using a combination of ultrasound and ozone has the potential to be an alternative for maintaining the color and vitamin C content of green cabbage.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Brassica/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ozônio/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Cor , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterases/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterases/metabolismo , Fluoresceínas , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Propídio , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ondas Ultrassônicas
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